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PORTFOLIO

Emily Reese

Curriculum and Instruction


English as a Second Language
November 17th, 2011

BRIEF BACKGROUND
I currently live in Norfolk, Nebraska and am in
my fourth year teaching at Norfolk Senior High
School.
I currently teach Spanish I, Science Fiction and
Mythology, Shakespeare and English 10. I also
coach Speech.
I graduated in December 2007 from Wayne State
College with a degree in Secondary Education
and endorsements in English and Spanish.

MY PHILOSOPHY

I believe:
All

students are capable of learning


In providing opportunities for all students to excel
In providing differentiating instruction to reach all
learners

The teachers role is to:


guide

students in their education


provide opportunities for students to grow and learn
in a safe environment
make learning accessible to all students

INFLUENTIAL
RESEARCHERS AND
APPLICATIONS FOR
TEACHING

Lev Vygotsky
Stephen Krashen
Jim Cummins
Lily Wong Fillmore
Deborah Short
J. Michael OMalley & Jane Chamot
Jane Hill

LEV VYGOTSKY

The Zone of Proximal


Development
The

area of development
between the actual
developmental level and
potential developmental
level
Through interaction with
others, the student proceeds
from an actual
developmental level to
potential developmental

APPLICATIONS FOR TEACHING


Learning requires active participation from both the
teacher and student
Interact with learners in challenging activities that
focus on emerging skills
Observe what the student can do independently what
they need help with
Give them help and guidance to move through the Zone
of Development to the Potential Developmental Level
Learning is a cooperative process between teacher and
student

Through others we become ourselves.


-Lev Vygotsky

STEPHEN KRASHEN

Learning vs. Acquisition


Acquisition

is a subconscious process
Acquisition reflects natural human language learning
Learning is a conscious process
Learning allows for the construction of a monitor

Affective Filter
Inhibitions,

motivation, personality or other factors that can


impede language learning

Monitor Hypothesis
The

ability of the language learner to monitor the language


output.
The monitor is constructed through use of prescribed
grammar rules
The monitor is the editor and corrector of outgoing language

KRASHENS FIVE HYPOTHESES


CONT.

Input Hypothesis
Input

must be comprehensible
Language learners learn language in a natural order
i +1

Natural Order Hypothesis


All

language learning follows a natural order


Grammatical structures are acquired in a similar
order for all learners

"Acquisition requires meaningful interaction in the target language - natural communication in which speakers are concerned not with the form of their utterances but with the messages
they are conveying and understanding."
-Stephen Krashen

STAGES OF LANGUAGE
ACQUISITION

Stage

Characteristics

Time

Teacher Prompts

Frame
Pre-production

The student:
Has minimal comprehension
Does not verbalize
Nods Yes and No
Draws and points

0-6 months

Show me...
Circle the...
Where is...?
Who has...?

Early Production

The student :
Has limited comprehension
Produces one- or two-word responses
Participates using key words and familiar

6 months1 year

Yes/no questions
Either/or questions
One- or two-word answers
Lists
Labels

1-3 years

Why...?
How...?
Explain...
Phrase or short-sentence

phrases
Uses present-tense verbs

Speech
Emergence

Intermediate
Fluency

The student
Has good comprehension
Can produce simple sentences
Makes grammar and pronunciation errors
Frequently misunderstands jokes

answers

What would happen if...?


The student
3-5 years
Why do you think...?
Has excellent comprehension
Makes few grammatical errors
Source: Adapted from Krashen and Terrell, The Natural Approach (1983).

FREE VOLUNTARY READING


Krashen believes that free voluntary reading
is the best way to improve student literacy,
including reading comprehension skills as
well as improving writing and spelling
SSR Programs
Silent Sustained Reading
Allows students to choose reading
materials
Provides a set amount of time to read
silently each day
Promotes reading practice

It's about helping students develop richer vocabularies,


understand complex oral and written language, and become
proficient writers and reasonably accurate spellers, in other
words, it's about moving children to higher levels of literacy.
-Stephen Krashen

FREE VOLUNTARY READING FOR


ELL STUDENTS

Warwick Elley and Francis Mangubhai: The Fiji


Study
ELL

Student were divided students into three group, a


group taught English using traditional methods, a
group that used free reading and the big book
method where a teacher would read a book to the
class and students would participate in extension
activities
After two years, the groups using free reading and
shared reading or the big book method outperformed
the traditional group on tests of reading
comprehension, grammar and writing

Also supports Krashens emphasis on acquisition


over learning

SCAFFOLDING
This instructional technique is based
on Vygotskys Zone of Proximal
Development theory and Krashens
Input Hypothesis.
Providing help to students to achieve
what they cannot do independently
Requires a framework or structure that
students can use
Scaffolding should be used until
students can show apply new skills and
strategies independently

SCAFFOLDING WITH ESL STUDENTS

Visual Scaffolding
The

use of visual aids can be much more helpful to ESL


students
Reduces the reliance on words and can increase
comprehension
Smart Boards

Scaffolding Dialogue
Comprehensible

Input
Providing input or using language that is near the
students level of learning is a way to scaffold dialogue
Acquiring correct forms indirectly and modeling

Scaffolding Written Material


Using

graphic organizers as a visual structure


Supporting written material by having student
elaborate or explain verbally on ideas in written work

JIM CUMMINS
BICS AND CALP

Basic Interpersonal
Communication Skills (BICS)
Day

to day social language


Playground langauge
Develop from 6 months-2 years
Not Cognitively demanding

Cognitive Academic Language


Proficiency (CALP)
Formal

academic learning
Listening, Speaking, Writing and
Reading in target language
Proficient in 5-7 years
Cognitively demanding

BICS AND CALP


APPLICATIONS FOR TEACHING
Teachers should not assume students are
proficient in the second language because they
are proficient BICS speakers.
Students will need extra support in the
classroom when learning new concepts. Learning
the language and new concepts at the same time
can we overwhelming for ESL students.
New concepts can be introduced in both
languages. It reduces the cognitive load.
Cummins believes skills, ideas and concepts can
be transferred between languages.

LILY WONG FILLMORE


What teachers need to know about
Language
Article co-written with Patricia Amato
Snow

The

Role of teachers

Teacher as communicator
Teacher as educator
Teacher as evaluator
Teacher as educated human being
Teacher as agent of socialization

Dialects

vs. Bad English

Teaching Academic English to Improve Test


Scores and Student Achievement

"When parents are unable to talk to their children, they


cannot easily convey to them their values, beliefs,
understandings, or wisdom about how to cope with their
experiences. They cannot teach them about the meaning
of work, or about personal responsibility, or what it
means to be a moral or ethical person in a world with
too many choices and too few guideposts to follow. What
is lost are the bits of advice, the consejos parents should
be able to offer children in their everyday interactions
with them. Talk is a crucial link between parents and
children: It is how parents impart their cultures to their
children and enable them to become the kind of men
and women they want them to be. When parents lose
the means for socializing and influencing their children,
rifts develop and families lose the intimacy that comes
from shared beliefs and understandings.
-Lily Wong Fillmore

APPLICATIONS FOR TEACHING


Make sure students are explicitly taught words
that are common in testing and in academics
they might not be familiar with
Provide students who speak dialects of English
the support to learn and use Standard American
English for success beyond school
Teachers should have a firm understanding of
linguistics
Provide feedback and explicit instruction in oral
and written language

DEBORAH SHORT & JANET ECHEVARRIA

SHELTERED INSTRUCTION OBSERVATION PROTOCOL (SIOP)


The Eight Components of SIOP
Preparation

Clearly defined objectives


Clearly defined language objectives
Use of supplementary materials (graphs, models)
Adaption of content to all student proficiency levels
Meaningful activities that integrate lesson content
(surveys, letter writing, constructing models)

Building

Background

Concepts are linked to students background


Links made between new and old concepts
Key Vocabulary emphasized

Comprehensible

Input

Speech appropriate for students proficiency level


Clear explanation of academic tasks
Usage of a variety of techniques to clarify concepts (visuals,
modeling, demonstrations)

SIOP CONT.
Strategies

Provide opportunities for students to practice strategies


Consistent Use of Scaffolding
Usage of a variety of question types (literal, analytical, interpretive)

Interaction

Frequent interactions between teacher, students and peers


Grouping supports language and content goals
Provide wait time for student response
Provide opportunities for calcification in L1

Practice/Application

Use hand-on strategies for students to practice new concepts


Create activities that apply newly learned concepts
Activities should include all areas of language skills (reading,
writing, speaking and listening)

SIOP CONT.
Lesson

Delivery

Content and language objectives clearly covered


Student engagement 90%-100%
Pacing is appropriate to student ability level

Review

Assessment

Review key concepts and vocabulary


Regular feedback on student output
Assessment of student learning and comprehension
throughout lesson (spot checking, group response)

DEBORAH SHORT: INTEGRATED LANGUAGE AND CONTENT INSTRUCTION


APPLICATIONS FOR TEACHING

Advocates the use of graphic organizers as a


reading strategy.
Difficult content is framed with a known
structure like Venn Diagrams. This tells
students they will be comparing and
contrasting information.
Activate background knowledge!
Shorten reading passages or be creative and
dramatize long or difficult sections.
Whole Class Reading
Incorporate Creative Writing tasks to ease the
stress of studying content through the second
Foreigners arrived
language
The Japanes were angery
Structured Poetry Assignments to
They feared to much trade
By Oscar
show content knowledge
Ex: Haiku

J. MICHAEL OMALLEY & ANNA CHAMOT

COGNITIVE ACADEMIC LANGUAGE LEARNING APPROACH


(CALLA)

Three components
A

standards-based
curriculum with grade
level appropriate content
material
Academic language which
focuses on literacy
Instruction on how to use
learning strategies

CALLA "is an instructional model that integrates


current educational trends in standards, contentbased language instruction, learning strategies, and
portfolio assessment" (Chamot, Barnhardt, El-Dinary
& Robbins, 1999, p. 7).

APPLICATIONS FOR TEACHING

The CALLA Model: Strategies

CALLA INSTRUCTIONAL SEQUENCE GUIDELINES

Theme/Topic_____________________ Grade/Language Level ___________


Standards:___________________________________________________

1. Content Objectives:__________________________________________
How assessed? _____________________________________________
2. Language Objectives:_________________________________________
How assessed?______________________________________________
3. Learning Strategies Objectives: (to be added later in workshop)
Materials: __________________________________________________

PROCEDURES

Preparation: How will I find out what my students already know about this content topic and what
related prior experiences they have had? How will I find out what language skills they already know for this
type of task? What vocabulary needs to be taught?
Presentation: What is the best way to present this content so that students understand the concepts?
What language skills will they use?
Practice: What kinds of activities will help my students apply the new information? What language
skills will they be practicing?
Self-evaluation: What is the best way for my students to assess their own learning of language and
content?
Expansion: How can I connect the topic of this lesson to students own lives, culture, and language?
How does this topic connect to other content areas? How can parents become involved? How can I help students
transfer what they have learned to new situations?

TEACHER'S ASSESSMENT OF STUDENT LEARNING


How will I find out what students know and are able to do as a result of this instruction? How will I know if
students have met the objectives of this lesson or unit?

JANE HILL
Lead consultant for McREL
Specializes in bilingual education
Co-authored the book Classroom
Instruction that Works with English
Language Learners
Identified nine categories of strategies
that have a high probability of
enhancing student achievement
Works with the state departments of
education to offer the English Language
Learner Leadership Academy

NINE CATEGORIES OF INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES


WITH STRONG EFFECTS OF STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT
Category

Average Effect

Average

Number of

Size

% Gain

Studies

Similarities & Differences

1.61

45

31

Summarizing & Note Taking

1.00

34

179

Reinforcing Effort &


Providing Recognition

.90

29

21

Practice & Homework

.77

28

134

Nonlinguistic Representation .75

27

246

Cooperative Learning

.73

27

122

Setting Objectives &


Providing Feedback

.61

23

408

Generating & Testing


Hypothesis

.61

23

63

ASSESSMENTS

INFORMAL ASSESSMENTS
Checking for Understanding
Rubrics
Presentations
Think-Pair-Share
Checklists
Response Journals
Visual Representations
Retelling Stories
Dramatization/Role Playing
Portfolios

Page
#

From the
text

My thoughts

EXAMPLES OF FORMAL
ASSESSMENTS

Measures of Academic Progress (MAP)


Language,

Reading and Math

NeSA Reading and Writing Tests


Idea Proficiency Test (IPT)
The English Language Developmental
Assessment (ELDA)

CURRICULUM ADAPTION
FOR ESL STUDENTS

CURRICULUM ADAPTION FOR ESL


STUDENTS
Materials in multiple languages
Adapted reading assignments
More time for assignment completion
Use of graphic organizers and other learning aids
Listening to stories or group reading
Using visuals frequently
Using cloze notes
Clarification of key concepts, vocabulary and
objectives in L1
Alternative assessment of student performance
including presentations, artwork, verbal response,
dramatization and other hands on activities

CURRICULUM ADAPTION
FOR ESL STUDENTS IN MY
CLASSROOM

SAMPLES OF ESL CURRICULUM


METHODS IVE USED
Modified Reading Strategies for
various reading/language levels
Differentiated Instruction
Materials in multiple languages
Modeling Reading Skills
Reading Different Passages Aloud
Providing Structure with Graphic
Organizers
Encouraging Literacy through
Literature Choice

IMPROVING LITERACY THROUGH


CHOICE
NOVEL UNIT
Provide High Interest Reading Material
Find books that reflect their personal
experiences
Assign Students Lists by Reading Level
Let students choose from a collection of
modern authors
Promote a love of reading
Practice Reading and Literature Skills
Creative Writing and Response Journals
Authors & Books for
ELL Students
ala.org
Gary Soto
Julia Alvarez
Sandra Cisneros
Rudolfo Anaya
Victor Martinez

CELEBRATING DIVERSITY
Julia Alvarez Author Study
Writes

about the struggles being


bi-lingual and bi-cultural
Students study poems, short
stories, an essay and a movie
based on her work and how her
life and experiences has
influenced her writing.

All-American Girl

I wanted stockings, makeup, store-bought clothes;


I wanted to look like an American girl;
to speak my English so you couldn't tell
I'd come from somewhere else. I locked myself
in the bathroom, trying to match my face
with words in my new language: grimace, leer,
disgust, disdain-feelings I had yet to feel
in English. (And would tristeza even feel
the same as sadness with its Saxon sound?
Would pity look as soulful as piedad?)

I didn't know if I could ever show


genuine feeling in a borrowed tongue.
If cortesa would be misunderstood
as brown-nosing or cries of alegra
translate as terror. So, mirror in hand,
I practiced foreign faces, Anglo grins,
repressing a native Latin fluency
for the cooler mask of English ironies.
I wanted the world and words to match again
as when I had lived solely in Spanish.

But my face wouldn't obey-like a tide


it was pulled back by my lunatic heart
to its old habits of showing feelings.
Long after I'd lost my heavy accent,
my face showed I had come from somewhere else.
I couldn't keep the southern continent
out of the northern vista of my eyes,
or cut my cara off to spite my face.
I couldn't look like anybody else
but who I was: an all-American girl.

ADVOCATING FOR ESL


STUDENTS AND THEIR
FAMILIES

ADVOCATING FOR ENGLISH


LANGUAGE LEARNERS AND
FAMILIES
Teaching and celebrating holidays from diverse
countries
Teaching texts written by authors from multiple
backgrounds
Validating other cultural experiences through writing
and discussion
Encouraging students to share from their diverse
experiences
Making sure any materials sent home are sent in
corresponding languages
Accepting the use of other language in the classroom
especially for expression and/or clarification

MY ESL ENDORSEMENT
EXPERIENCE

CURRICULUM AND INSTRUCTION


COURSES
Understand the process of language acquisition
Gain a better understanding of the difficulties
that ESL newcomer students must face and cope
with
Opportunity to work one-on-one with ESL
students
Opportunity to evaluate ESL student work
Plan and develop lessons using instructional
strategies like SIOP and CALLA

CURRICULUM AND INSTRUCTION


COURSES
Opportunity to work with ESL educators that are
currently working with ESL students
Practice using assessments to evaluate a
students English language level
Learn about hands on strategies that have
worked well with ESL students

Games

and songs
Readers theater
Group work strategies (numbered heads together)

Overall, provided excellent opportunities to put


ESL theories into practical application with
students

ESL
PRACTICUM

Opportunity to work one on


one with newcomer
summer school students in
Madison during ESL
practicum in Summer 2010
Developed and
presented lessons on
weather and weather
safety

ESL ENDORSEMENT EXPERIENCE


IN MY CLASSROOM
Better understanding of students in my
classroom
Better able to reach and motivate ELL students
Able to improve student learning and
performance
Able to improve students confidence
Better prepared to work with students from
diverse backgrounds
Knowledge of useful strategies and models to
help all learners succeed