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RADAD ENGINEERING

M.VAMSHI KRISHNA
ASST PROF
DEPT OF ECE

RADAR
ENGINEERING

Radar is an electromagnetic device and it


is a powerful electronic eye.
RADAR
represents
means
Detection And Ranging.

RAdio,

Radar can see the objects in

day or night
rain or shine
land or air
cloud or clutter
fog or frost
earth or planets
stationary or moving and
good or bad weather.

In brief, Radar can see the objects hidden any


where in the globe or planets except hidden
behind good conductors.

INFORMATION GIVEN BY THE


RADAR
Radar gives the following information :

The position of the object


The distance of objects from the location of radar
The size of the object
Whether the object is stationary or moving
Velocity of the object
Distinguish friendly and enemy aircrafts
The images of scenes at long range in good and
adverse weather conditions
Target recognition
Weather target is moving towards the radar or moving
away
The direction of movement of targets
Classification of materials

APPLICATIONS OF RADARS
Radars have a number of applications for domestic, civilian
and military purposes. In particular, radar is used
To indicate speed of the automobiles, cricket and
tennis balls etc.
To control guided missiles and weapons
To provide early warning of enemy
To aircrafts, ships, submarines and spacecrafts for
defence purposes
For weather forecast
For remote sensing
For ground mapping
For airport control
For airport surveillance

For precise measurement of distances for land surveying


To detect and measure objects under the earth
For navigating aircrafts and ships and submarines in all
the weather conditions and night.
To detect and locate ships, land features and sea
conditions to avoid collision
To map the land and sea from aircrafts and spacecrafts
To study the nature of stars and planets
To measure altitude from the earth for aircrafts and
missile navigation etc.
For searching of submarines, land masses etc.
For bombing aircrafts, ships and cities in all weather
conditions
To aim at enemy air crafts, ships and locations.

NATURE AND TYPES OF RADARS

RADAR FREQUENCY BANDS


The IEEE standard radar frequency bands are given in table
Band Name

Frequency Range
(GHz)

Wavelength

Applications
Radar experiments

mm

40 300

7.5 1 mm

ka

27 40

1.11 7.5 mm

18 27

1.67 1.11 cm

ku

12 18

2.5 1.67 cm

8 12

3.75 2.5 cm

48

7.5 3.75 cm

24

15 7.5 cm

12

30 15 cm

UHF

0.3 1

1 30 cm

VHF

0.03 0.3

10 1 m

HF

0.003 0.03

100 10 m

Satellite communication, radars


microwave labs etc

Television, satellite, navigation


aids
Television, satellite
communication, FM
broadcast police radio
telephone

LIMITATIONS
Radar can not recognize the color of the
targets.
It can not resolve the targets at short
distances like human eye.
It can not see targets placed behind the
conducting sheets.
It can not see targets hidden in water at
long ranges.
It is difficult to identify short range objects.

The duplexer in radar provide switching between


the transmitter and receiver alternatively when a
common antenna is used for transmission and
reception.
The switching time of duplexer is critical in the
operation of radar and it affects the minimum
range. A reflected pulse is not received during
the transmit pulse
subsequent receiver recovery time
The reflected pulses from close targets are not
detected as they return before the receiver is
connected to the antenna by the duplexer.

RANGE EQUATION OF BASIC RADAR


Radar range equation gives a relation for
the maximum radar range in terms of
transmitter power, effective area of the
antenna, radar cross-section, wavelength,
minimum detectable signal, and gain of
the antenna.
Radar range equation is
R max

ptA

2
4

s
min

2
e

ptG

3 2

s
min

R max

In the above equations,

p t= transmitter power (watts)


G = maximum gain of the antenna (no units)
A e = effective area of the receiving antenna m 2
= Radar cross-section of the target = Maximum m 2
range of the radar (m)
R max = Minimum detectable signal
s min = Minimum detectable signal

TYPES OF BASIC RADARS

Monostatic and Bistatic


CW
FM-CW
Pulsed radar

MONOSTATIC RADARS
Monostatic radar uses the antenna for transmit and
receive.
Its typical geometry is shown in the below fig.
Target

Antenna
Fig. Monostatic radar

Monostatic Radar Equation


The monostatic radar equation is given by
pR

pR

p t G 2 2 M

4 3 d 4 L t L r L m
p t G t 2 M

4 3 d 4

If L t represents transmitter losses


L r represents receiver losses

L m represents medium losses

BISTATIC RADAR
Bistatic radars use transmitting and
receiving antennas placed in different
locations.
CW radars in which the two antennas are
used, are not considered to be bistatic
radars as the distance between the
antennas is not considerable.
The bistatic radar geometry is shown in
below fig.

Target

Antenna

Antenna

Fig. Bistatic radar geometry

Bistatic Radar Equation


pR

p t G t G r 2 B

43 d 2t d r2 L t L r L m

If L t represents L r transmitter L m losses,


represents receiver losses and represents
medium losses.

THE PULSED RADAR


A simple pulsed radar is shown in below
fig.

RF Pulse

Fig. Simple pulsed radar

Pulsed Radar Equation


R max

Here,

C Bf

Tn

p t G t G r 2 C 4

2
4 k Tn Vo C Bf L

1
4

= bandwidth correction factor.


= noise temperature

The Block Diagram of Pulsed


Radar
The diagram of pulsed radar is shown in
below fig.
Synchronizer

Modulator

Duplexer

Local
Oscillator

Display
Unit
Video
Amplifier

High
Frequency
Oscillator

Detector

IF
Amplifier

Mixer

Local Noise
RF Amplifier

Fig. Block diagram of pulsed radar

MEASUREMENT OF RANGE
WITH PULSED RADAR
The measurement of range on the CRT by pulsed radar
is made from the leading edge of the transmitted pulse to
the leading edge of the received echo. (below Fig.).

Range

Fig. Measurement of range

The Measurement of range by pulsed radar involves the


measurement of time taken for an electromagnetic wave
to travel towards a target and back to the radar.
Velocity of electromagnetic wave = 3 108 m /s
or velocity of electromagnetic wave = 300 m /s
Velocity of electromagnetic wave = 0.3 km/s
It is obvious from the above data, there exists a time
interval of 2 3.333 = 6.666 s between the pulse
leaving the transmitter towards a target and echo arriving
back to the radar for every kilometer.
The range is therefore given by

Range (in km) = (0.15) time interval between the


transmission and return of echo in
microseconds

APPLICATION OF PULSED
RADAR
The pulsed radar is used to find the targets
range
bearing and elevation angle
height

CONTINUOUS WAVE (CW)


RADAR
CW radar detects objects and measures
velocity from Doppler shift.

It can not measure range.


It can be monostatic or bistatic.

The Doppler Effect


The Doppler Effect was discovered by
Doppler.
Doppler is Austrian mathematician.

Principle of Doppler Effect


The radars radiate electromagnetic waves towards the
targets for detection and also to obtain details of the
target.
When the target is stationary, the frequency of the
received echoes is constant.
However, when the target is moving, the frequency of
the received echoes are found to be different from
transmitted frequency.
If the target approaches the radar, the frequency is
increased and if the target moves away from the radar,
the frequency is decreased.
That is, in the moving targets, there exists a frequency
shift in the received echo signals.

The presence of frequency shift in the received echo


signals in the radar due to moving targets is known as
Doppler effect.
The frequency shift is known as Doppler frequency shift
and it is given by

2 t
fd
fo
o

Here,

fd = Doppler shift frequency, Hz


fo = transmitter frequency, Hz
t = velocity of the target, m/s
o = velocity of electromagnetic waves in free
space

The Doppler Effect is shown in below fig.


fo
fr fo fd

CW Radar

Aircraft moving
towards the radar
radar

fo
fr fo fd

CW Radar

Aircraft moving
away from the
radar

Fig. Doppler Effect


If t is expressed in knots, the Doppler shift frequency is given by
fd Hz

1.03 t kts t kts

m
m

A simple CW radar is shown in below fig.


CW Radar
Transmitter

Mixer

Accurate
Frequency
Measuring Device
Display
Unit

Fig. CW radar using Doppler Effect


The CW radar consists of a transmitter, mixer,
accurate frequency measuring device and
display unit.

Transmitter
The
transmitter
emits
continuous
electromagnetic waves towards the targets.
A single antenna is used for transmission and
reception. The duplexer is used to isolate the
receiver from high transmitter power.
For radar approaching targets, the reflected
signal frequency is high than the transmitter
frequency. for moving away targets from radar,
the reflected signal frequency is lower than the
transmitter frequency.

That is,
fr ft fd for incoming targets
fr ft fd for moving away targets

Here,

fr = frequency of reflected signal


f t = frequency of transmitted signal
fd = Doppler shift frequency

Mixer
The transmitted signal of frequency and
reflected echo signal of frequency are
given as input to the mixer.
The output of the mixer is Doppler
frequency signal.

Accurate Frequency Measuring


Device
The output of the mixer is given to an
accurate frequency measuring device to
find out the radial velocity of the target.

Display Unit
The output of the mixer is given to the display
unit.
This indicates the presence of moving target.
In the case of stationary target, the Doppler shift
frequency is zero.
That is, the transmitted frequency and reflected
echo signal frequency are the same.
In the case of moving targets, the Doppler shift
frequency is very small compared to transmitter
frequency.
Sometimes, it is difficult to recognize this
frequency. however, such as small frequency is
measured using superhetrodyne principle.

BLOCK DIAGRAM OF CW DOPPLER


RADAR
The detailed block diagram of CW Doppler Radar is
shown in below fig.
Transmitting
Antenna

Receiving
Antenna

Transmitter

Mixer 1

Local
Oscillator

Mixer 2

IF Amplifier

Mixer 3

IF Amplifier 2

Frequency
Discriminator

Display

Fig. Detailed block diagram of CW Doppler radar

MEASUREMENT OF VELOCITY
OF TARGET
The velocity of the moving
by
fd o
t
ft 2

Here,

t
f
ft
o
d

object is determined

= velocity of the target


= Doppler shift frequency
= transmitter frequency
= free space velocity of EM wave

MEASUREMENT OF BEARING AND


ELEVATION ANGLES OF THE TARGET
The transmitting antenna focuses the radar waves and
radiates them in the shape of the beam.
The beam is pointed directly at the target in free space.
The receiver antenna picks up the maximum signal when
it is pointed directly at the reflecting target.
The received echo signal is maximum when both the
transmitting and receiving antennas are pointed directly
at the target.
The position of the radar antenna corresponding to the
maximum received echo signal represent bearing and
elevation angles of the target which is in the path of the
beam.

A typical example is shown in below fig.


Range

N
Azimuth Angle,
W

Elevation Angle,

Fig. Measurement of bearing and elevation of a target

APPLICATIONS OF CW RADAR
The CW radar is used to find the targets

bearing angle
elevation angle
velocity and
to indicate the presence of moving targets
radial velocity of moving targets
whether an object is approaching or moving
away

DISADVANTAGES OF CW
RADAR
The CW radar does not give range
information

CW RADAR EQUATION
The range equation of CW radar is given by
SNR

Here,

p CW Td G 2 2

43 R 4 k Te F L L W

p av = CW average transmitted power over the


dwell interval
= p CW (say)
Ti = Target illumination time
G = antenna gain
R = Range of target from radar
k = Boltzman constant = 1.38 10 23 J / k
Te = Effective noise temperature
F = Noise figure
L = Radar losses

FMCW RADAR
FMCW radar detects, measures range and
radial velocity of objects.
An FM CW Radar is a Frequency
Modulated Continuous Wave radar in
which the frequency of continuously
transmitted wave is varied at a known rate
and the frequency of reflected signals is
compared with the frequency of the
transmitted signal.

A simple FMCW radar is shown in below


fig.

Fig. Frequency modulated CW radar

BLOCK DIAGRAM OF FMCW


RADAR
The block diagram of FMCW radar is
shown in below fig.
Frequency
Generator

Frequency
Modulator

FM Transmitter

Limiter

Amplifier

Mixer

Frequency
Clutter

Display

Fig. Block diagram of FMCW radar

APPLICATIONS
FMCW radar is used to measure
Slant range of the target
Bearing and elevation angles of target
Height of the target

PULSED DOPPLER RADAR


Radar with high PRFs is called pulsed
Doppler radar.
It contains pulse and CW radars.
It operates at high PRF to avoid the
problems of blind speeds.

TYPES OF PULSED DOPPLER


RADAR
They are
MTI with many Doppler ambiguities and
without no range ambiguities.
The pulsed Doppler radar with high PRF,
many range ambiguities and without
Doppler ambiguities.
The pulsed Doppler radar with some range
ambiguities and Doppler ambiguities.

BLOCK DIAGRAM OF PULSED


DOPPLER RADAR
It is shown in below fig.
Locking Mixer

Transmitter

Doppler

COHO

STALO

Receiver Mixer

Processor

Phase Detector

IF Amplifier

Display

Fig. Block diagram of pulsed Doppler radar

APPLICATIONS
Weather warning
Detection of the target and estimation of
target motion.

ADVANTAGES OF PULSED
DOPPLER RADAR
These are
It is able to reject unwanted echoes with
the help of Doppler filters.
It is able to measure the range and
velocity even in the presence of multiple
targets.
Signal-to-noise ratio is high.

NAVIGATION RADARS
Navigation radars are also in the category
of surface search radars.
Helps pilots in the navigation of aircrafts
and ships.
Its operating range is small
It has high resolution than surface search
radars.

SURVEILLANCE (SEARCH)
RADAR
The search radars scan the radiation
beam continuously over a specified
volume in space for searching the targets.
The search radars determines range,
angular position and target velocity.

SEARCH RADAR EQUATION


The search radar equation is given by

SNR

p av A e Ts
4 R 4 k Te LF

Here, p av = Average power


= pt PW PRF
= pt d c
dc = Duty cycle
PW = Pulse width
PRF = Pulse repetition frequency
A = Aperture area
= D4
4

D = Aperture diameter
= Radar cross-section
= Scan time
= Search volume
k = Boltz man constant = = Effective noise temperature, Kelvin
F = Noise figure
L = Radar losses

MTI RADAR
Meaning of MTI Radar
MTI radar means Moving Target Indication radar.
This is one form of pulsed radar.
MTI radar is characterized by its very low pulse repetition frequency
and hence there is no range ambiguity in MTI radar.
The unambiguous range is given by

R un o
fp
Here, fp= pulse repetition frequency
o = velocity of electromagnetic wave in free space
At the same time, MTI radar has many ambiguities in the Doppler
domain.
It determines target velocity and distinguishes moving targets from
stationary targets.

BLOCK DIAGRAM OF MTI RADAR


The block diagram of MTI radar is shown in below fig.
Modulator

f fc
Mixer

Microwave Signal
Amplifier

STALO

COHO

fc

Amplifier 1

Subtractor

MTI Output

Amplifier 2

f fc

Duplexer

f fc fd
Mixer 2

fc fd
IF Amplifier

Phase Detection

fd
Delay Line
Cancellation

T 1/f p

Display Unit

Fig. Block diagram of MTI radar

BLIND SPEEDS
Definitions
Definition 1 : Blind speed is defined as the radial
velocity of the target at which the MTI response is zero.
Definition 2 : It is also defined as the radial velocity of
the target which results in a phase difference of exactly
2 radians between successive pulses.
Definition 3 : Blind speed is defined as the radial
velocity of the target at which no shift appears making
the target appears stationary and echoes from the target
are cancelled.

Definition 4 : The blind speed of the target is defined as


b fp

n
n

2
2Tp

Here, b = blind speed


fp = pulse repetition frequency
n = any integer = 0, 1, 2, 3, . . .
= wavelength
Tp= pulse repetition interval

The first blind speed in knots is given by


b1 knots 0.97m fp Hz
m fp Hz

The other blind speeds are integer multiples of . The blind


speeds are serious limitation in MTI radar.

METHODS OF REDUCTION OF EFFECT


OF BLIND SPEEDS
There are four methods to reduce the effect
of blind speeds by operating the radar at

long wavelengths
high pulse repetition frequency
more than one pulse repetition frequency
more than one wavelength

MST RADAR
Meaning of MST Radar
MST radar represents Mesosphere, Stratosphere and
Troposphere radar.
The MST radar is one type of wind profiler designed to
measure winds and other atmospheric parameters up to
altitudes of 100 km or more.
Mesosphere is the atmospheric region between 50 100
km above the earth.
Stratosphere is the atmospheric region between 10 50
km above the earth.
Troposphere is the atmospheric region between 0 10
km above the earth.

SYNTHETIC APERTURE RADAR (SAR)


SAR is a radar which moves the antenna beam across
an area to synthesize a very large aperture.
It provides excellent angle and cross range resolution.
SAR uses a technique which synthesizes a large
antenna with a small antenna by examining the volume
of interest sequentially.
The length of the synthetic antenna aperture is given by
R
L off
D
Here, D is horizontal dimension of physical antenna
R is maximum length of synthetic aperture
is the operating wavelength

Salient Features of Synthetic Aperture Radars


It synthesizes very large apertures.
It provides excellent angle and cross range resolutions.
In these systems, radars moves rapidly and the targets
are stationary.
It is also useful where the radar is stationary and the
targets move rapidly.
It synthesizes a large antenna with a small real antenna
systematically examining a large volume.
If the radar is stationary and the targets move rapidly,
the above system is known as inverse Synthetic
Aperture Radar (SAR).
ISAR is used to analyze formatting of aircraft from
ground base or shipborn radars.
ISAR is used to find how many aircrafts are in the
formation.
ISAR is also diagnostic radar which analyzes the
scattering of targets to reduce their radar reflectivity.

SAR is used in remote sensing and mapping.


SAR is also used to obtain a map like display from the
image of earths surface.
The imaging map by SAR is useful for military
reconnaissance.
It is used for weapon targeting.
SAR is also used for geological and mineral explorations.
SAR was first used by NASA, USA.
SAR mapping is similar to that the Doppler Beam
Sharpening (DBS).
SAR provides two-dimensional image of a target in range
and cross range.
SAR produces images scenes at a ling range and in
adverse weather.
SAR has a theoretical cross range equal to , being the
horizontal dimension of the antenna.
SAR does not provide images of moving targets accurately.
SAR images of moving targets are distorted and displaced
from the pitch.

The concept of synthetic aperture radar is


shown in below fig.
Target x
Effective length
of real antenna n

Target y
Target z

Target x

Effective length
of SAR antenna

Target y
Target z

Fig. Concept of SAR

The design of SAR waveforms is made by


satisfying the following inequality.
o
2
PRF
d
2R

Here, is velocity of the source


R is the range of the target
PRF is pulse repetition frequency
d is the aperture of the incremental radiator
o is free space velocity of electromagnetic
wave
This condition avoids range and velocity ambiguity.

SYNTHETIC APERTURE RADAR EQUATION


The single pulsed radar equation is given by
p t G 2 2
SNR
43 R i4 k Te B L

p
Here, t= Peak transmitter power
G = Antenna gain
= Wavelength
= Radar cross-section
Ri= Slant range of ith bin
k = Boltzmans constant = 1.38 10 23 J /k
B = Receiver bandwidth
L = Radar losses
Te = Effective noise temperature

APPLICATIONS OF SAR
SAR is used for remote sensing and ground mapping
purposes.
It is used for military reconnaissance.
It is used for determining sea state and ocean wave
conditions.
It is used for geological and mineral explorations.
It is used to obtain two dimensional image of targets.
It is used to produce images of scenes at ling ranges
and in adverse weather.
It is used to obtain excellent angle and cross range
resolutions.
SAR images provide information about ice, floods, earth
contents, resource prospects, land use, crop quality,
snow fields, inventory, industrial distributions, forestry,
deserts, buildings and hills etc.

DISADVANTAGES OF SAR
It does not provide the images of moving
targets.

SAR images of moving targets are


distorted and displaced from the pitch.

MONOPULSE TRACKING
RADAR
Monopulse tracking radar is a radar in
which the information about angle error is
obtained on a single pulse.
This is also called as simultaneous lobing.
The monopulse angle measurement is
done by several methods.
The amplitude comparison monopulse
method is most popular.

Amplitude Comparison Monopulse


Tracking Radar
The block diagram of amplitude comparison monopulse
tracking radar is shown in below fig.
This is used for the measurement of single angular
coordinate of the target.
Sum Channel
Transmitter

TR

Mixer 1

IF Amplifier

Amplitude
Detector

Hybrid
Junction

LO

Difference
Channel

Mixer 2

Phase
Detector
IF Amplifier
2

Range
Signal
Display

Angle Error
Signal

Fig. Block diagram of amplitude comparison monopulse


tracking radar for a single angle coordinate
measurement

PHASE COMPARISON
MONOPULSE RADAR SYSTEM
The phase comparison monopulse radar is also called
Interferometer radar. In this method, two antenna beams
looking in the same direction are used.
Here, the amplitudes of the signals are the same with
different phases. The phase difference in the two signals
received by the two antennas is given by 2 d sin .

Here, is wavelength, d is the spacing between the two


antennas, is the direction of arrival of signal with
respect to normal to the baseline. The pulse comparison
method used in one angle coordinate is shown in below
fig. It consists of two antennas producing identical
beams.

Bore site

1
d

Fig. Phase comparison method

ADVANTAGES OF PHASE COMPARISON


MONOPULSE RADAR

The scanning of radiation beams and


beam shaping are very fast.

DISADVANTAGES
It is less efficient than the amplitude comparison
method.
It has the effect of grating lobes due to spacing
of the two antennas.
It is less popular method.
Only one-fourth of the available antenna area is
used for transmitting and only one-half the area
is used while receiving, to obtain each angle
coordinate.
When the spacing between the antennas is
greater than the antenna diameter, the sidelobes
in the radiation patterns are high and EMI is
produced.

SEQUENTIAL LOBING RADAR


In sequential lobing, only one beam is switched
between two squinted sequential angular
positions for target-angle measurement.
This method is called sequential lobing.
It is also called sequential switching or lobe
switching.
Here, time sharing is done in using single
antenna beam.
The method is simple and requires less
equipment and cost effective.
But it is not very accurate.

An antenna and its lobe which is switched


sequentially between X and Y directions is
shown in below fig..
Target
X

Fig. Sequential lobing in polar coordinates

ADVANTAGES OF SEQUENTIAL
LOBING

It requires only one antenna


Operation is simple
It requires less equipment
It is cost affective.

DISADVANTAGES
It is not very accurate.

CONICAL SCAN TRACKING


RADAR
The conical scan tracking radar is a radar
in which the squinted beam is continuously
rotated to obtain angle measurements in
two coordinates for tracking the target.
The conical scan is also simply called
con-scan.

MAIN FACTORS AFFECTING RADAR


OPERATION

The radar operation is affected by several factors.


These are
the external man-made EMI
the electromagnetic interference coming from other
transmitters
EMI generated within the receiver
signals reflected by natural phenomenon like rain,
fog, and cloud etc.
the electromagnetic interference due to natural
sources like lightening, solar and cosmic radiations.
signals reflected by clutter land masses, buildings and
hills.
the curvature of the earth
noise produced within the receiver
the peak transmitter power
average power

sensitivity of the receiver


antenna efficiency
antenna beam shape
sidelobes of radiation pattern
beamwidth of antenna pattern
radar cross-section of the target
ambient temperature
radar location
type of earth at the location of the radar
size of the target
shape of the target
polarization of the radar antenna
the medium between the radar and the target
radar pulse width
pulse rest time
the time interval between pulses
frequency of operation
signal to noise ratio

NOISE GENERATED WITHIN THE RECEIVER


When the noise in the radar receiver is high, the echo
signal will be masked.
The noise can be made minimum by reducing the
beamwidth.
Typical low noise receiver and its output are shown in
below fig.
Amplified Echo Signal
Amplified Internal
Noise

Receiver

External Amplified
Noise
External Noise

Echo Signal

Fig. Receiver output with low noise

At the same time, high noise receiver and


its output are shown in below fig.
Amplified Echo Signal
Amplified Internal
Noise

Receiver

External Amplified
Noise
External Noise

Masked Echo
Signal

Fig. High noise receiver and its output

EXTERNAL EMI DUE TO NATURAL


PHENOMENA
The electromagnetic interference caused
by natural phenomena is seasonal
dependent and effects the radar operation.
However, the effect is minimum in modern
radars operating between 3 and 30 GHz.

Storm Centre

Plane Echo
Obscured

PPI Screen

Fig. Effect of clutter

EMI FROM LAND MASSES


Land masses screen an echo in the receiver
display.
The reflected signals from land masses are
useful in navigation and mapping radars.
But in radars used for detection, the reflected
signals from land masses mask the required
echo signals.
A typical situation in which the land masses
create an EMI in the radar display is shown in
below fig.

Aircraft No. 1

Aircraft No. 2
Aircraft No. 2
Echo
Aircraft No. 1
Echo

Fig. Effect of land masses

EFFECT OF EARTH CURVATURE ON


RADAR OPERATION
The curvature of earth creates shadow zones.
It prevents the detection of targets at faraway
distances.
The radar horizon reduces the maximum range
of the radar.
A typical situation in which the curvature of the
earth is affecting the radar operation in the
detection of objectives is shown in below fig.

Fig. Effect of Earths Curvature

EFFECT OF SIZE, SHAPE OF THE


OBJECT AND MATERIAL
The radar electromagnetic waves are
reflected from all objects in their path.
But the strength of the reflected wave
depends on size, shape of the object and
the material with which it is made.

The reflected wave is strong from metal,


large and close and flat objects.

Echoes from different objects are shown in


below fig.
Metal Object

Strong Echo

Large Object

Strong Echo

Close Object

Strong Echo

Flat Object

Strong Echo

Irregular
Object

Weak Echo

Small Object

Weak Echo

Distant Object

Weak Echo

Wood Object

Weak Echo

Display

Receiver

Fig. Echoes from different objects

EFFECT OF TRANSMITTER POWER ON


RADAR OPERATION

The radar with high transmitter power has


long range of detection.
The low power radar transmitter prevent
the detection of objects.

A typical situation in which the effect of transmitter power


effects echoes is shown in below figs.

High Power
Transmitter

High
Resolution

Fig. Effect of high power transmitter

Low Power
Transmitter

Low
Resolution

Fig. Effect of low power transmitter

EFFECT OF RECEIVER SENSITIVITY


The sensitivity of the receiver depends on the
level of noise generated by it.
The quality of the receiver is usually described
by noise figure.
Ideally noise figure is unity.
The noise generated in the receiver is amplified
and affects the detection of the objects.
A typical situation in which the effect of
sensitivity on the radar detection is shown in
below fig.

Amplified Echo Signal


Amplified Internal
Noise

Echo

Receiver
Total Noise
External Amplified Masked Echo
External Noise
Noise
Signal

Fig. Effect of receiver sensitivity

EFFECT OF BROAD BEAM


The
broad
beam
makes
discrimination to be poor.

target

A typical situation in which two aircrafts in


a broad beam of the radar antenna create
a single echo pulse in the radar display is
shown in below fig.

Broad Beam

Fig. Effect of broad beam : Poor discrimination of targets

The improved discrimination of the targets


with a narrow beam is shown in fig.
1

Narrow Beam

Fig. Effect of narrow beam : Good


discrimination of targets

EFFECT OF THE FAN BEAMS


The fan beam form radar antennas are
useful for search the targets with less
number of scans of the beam.

EFFECT OF NARROW
SEARCHLIGHT BEAMS
The narrow searchlight beam provides
accurate determination of range, bearing
and elevation angles of the targets.

EFFECT OF TIME INTERVAL


BETWEEN PULSES
The time interval between pulses should
be sufficiently long to receive the echo
signals before the next pulse is
transmitted.
The short intervals create confusion in the
radar display.

EFFECT OF PULSE DURATION


Narrow pulse width provides good target discrimination.
The rage is obtained from CRT by measuring distance
between the leading edge of the transmitter pulse and
leading edge of receiving pulse. (below fig.).
Transmitted pulse

Received pulse

Range

Fig. Range measurement

The effect of transmitted pulse width is shown in below figs.

Transmitted pulse
Ambiguous echo
pulse

Fig. Effect of broad pulse

Transmitted pulse
Unambiguous echo
pulse

Fig. Effect of narrow pulse

The time interval between pulses should be long to


receive all echoes with clarity before the next pulse is
transmitted.

SUMMARY OF EFFECT OF DIFFERENT FACTORS ON


RADAR OPERATION
S. No.

Parameter

Advantage

Disadvantage

1.

External EMI

nil

searching and position finding


becomes different

2.

Internal EMI

nil

searching and position finding


becomes different

3.

Land masses

the reflected signals from land


masses are useful in navigation and
mapping radars

detection become different as echo


signals from land masses mask the
required signals.

4.

curvature of earth

nil

reduce the radar range

5.

size of the object

beam can be narrow for detection

echo becomes weak

6.

irregular object

nil

echo becomes weak

7.

metal object

echo becomes strong

detected by enemy easily

8.

Insulator object

not detected by enemy

echo becomes negligible

S. No.

Parameter

Advantage

Disadvantage

9.

high transmitted power

radar range becomes high

not economical

10.

low transmitted power

radar range becomes small

economical

11.

low frequency

loss of power in atmosphere is


small

angle discrimination is poor

12.

High frequency

angle discrimination is better

loss of power in atmosphere is high

13.

large pulse width

searching is good

range discrimination is poor

14.

small pulse width

range discrimination is good

searching is poor

15.

high receiver sensitivity

easy to detect weak echos

nil

16.

low receiver sensitivity

nil

not easy to detect weak echos

17.

low PRF

nil

flow of information is not smooth

18.

high PRF

flow of information is smooth

nil

19.

high radar cross-section of


the target

easy detection of target

helps enemy to detect the targets

20.

low radar cross-section

enemy cannot detect the target

not easy to detect target

SIGNAL TO NOISE RATIO (SNR)


The noise is either internal or external.
It disturbs the ability of the receiver to
detect the required signal.
The noise is internally generated within the
receiver.
It also may come from external man-made
and natural sources.
Ideally, SNR is infinite.

INTERNAL NOISE OR EMI


One such noise is thermal noise. This is also called Johnson noise.
This is generated by the thermal motion of the conducted electrons
in receiver.
The thermal noise depends on
bandwidth, B n
absolute temperature, T
Boltzman constant, Joules/degree Kelvin.
In fact, its magnitude of thermal noise power proportional to B n and
T. That is,

p n TB n
p n kTB n

Here,

23
J /o K
k = Boltzman constant, = 1.38 10
T = temperature,

B n= receiver bandwidth or noise bandwidth

RADAR CROSSSECTION OF
TARGETS (RCS),
The radar cross-section is the targets
relative reflecting/scattering size.
It represents the magnitude of the echo
signal returned to the radar by the target.
It is defined as the ratio of power reflected
towards the radar receiver per unit solid
angle to the incident power density per 4.

That is,

Power reflected towards the radar receiver / unit solid angle


incident power density 4

4R 2

Er

Ei

Here, = radar cross-section,


R = the range of the target from the
radar, m
E i = incident electronic field on the target, V/m
E r = reflected electronic field strength, V/m

From the above definition, the radar crosssection is obtained by measuring the
received echo amplitude, incident signal
amplitude and the target range.
It is a part of target radar signature.
The signature depends on radar crosssection and the Doppler spectrum of a
target.

RCS has 3 components.


Area of the target
The reflectivity of the target
The antenna-like gain of the target

The radar cross-section of different targets are shown in the following table
S. No.

Target

RCS m2

1.

Bird

0.01

2.

Small open boot

0.02

3.

Conventional missile

0.5

4.

Man or Women

1.0

5.

Small single engine aircraft

1.0

6.

Small pleasure boat

2.0

7.

Bicycle

2.0

8.

Small fighter plane

2.0

9.

Large fighter aircraft

6.0

10.

Cabin Cruisers

10.0

11.

Insect

10.5

12.

Medium Bomber

20.0

13.

Large Bomber

40.0

14.

Jumbo Jet

100

15.

Automobile

100

16.

Pickup Truck

17.

Small Insect

200
104

18.

Large Insect

19.

Helicopter

105

3.0