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Chapter 10.

1: Mendel’s Laws of Heredity

Heredity
• ___________________________________________________

Traits
• ___________________________________________________

Genetics
• ___________________________________________________

Gregor Mendel
• Austrian monk that first developed the study of genetics
• Experimented with _________ _______ to discover the general laws of
genetics
• A pea plant produces gametes in their ______________________
___________________________________________________
o Gametes: ____________________________
o Pollination: ________________________________________
________________________________________________
 Mendel allowed pollination to occur within the same flower (_____

_________) or between different flowers (________


________________ ) for his experiments
• Fertilization: the male gamete unites with the female gamete to form a
______________________ (a fertilized cell)
o In the case of pea plants, the zygote becomes a ____________
• Conducted monohybrid crosses between pea plants
o Monohybrid crosses: ________________________________
________________________________________________
o The plants he used were __________ ______________ which means
that when plants self pollinate, all offspring are identical to their
parents.
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P1 = _________________

F1 = ________________

F2 = ________________

The rule of unit factors


• Each organism has two factors, or _______, that control each trait
o One gene comes from _________, one gene comes from ______
• A single gene can exist in different forms called ____________
o Example: Blue, brown, and green are alleles for the eye color gene
The rule of dominance
• Dominant trait: ___________________________________
_______________________________________________
o Represented by a capital letter; B (brown eyes), T (tall)
• Recessive trait: ___________________________________
________________________________________________
o Represented by a lowercase letter; b (blue eyes), t(short)

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Mendel’s law of segregation
• Every organism has ______ alleles of each ______________
• When gametes are made, each gamete receives only ______ of these
alleles
• During fertilization, the ____________ will receive ______ allele for
each gene from ___________ _______________

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Phenotypes and genotypes
• Phenotype: _______________________________________
o Examples _______________________________________
• Genotype: ________________________________________
o Examples _______________________________________
• Homozygous: _______________________________________
o Homozygous dominant ______________________________
o Homozygous recessive ______________________________
• Heterozygous: ______________________________________
o _______________________________________________

Dihybrid cross
• _________________________________________________
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Mendel’s law of independent assortment
• Genes for different traits are inherited ___________________ of
each other as long as they are on different _______________
• Example: You have brown hair (Bb) and freckles (Ff)
o The gametes you produce and can pass on to your children can have the
following combinations: ____, ____, ____, ____

Punnett Squares
• Shorthand way of determining the ________________ of having a
certain type of offspring if you know the parents’ _____________
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T: tall
pea plant
t: short pea plant

Possible phenotypes
_____% tall
_____% short

Possible genotypes
_____% TT
_____% Tt
_____% tt
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R: round pea
r: wrinkled pea

Possible phenotypes
_____% round
_____% wrinkled

Possible genotypes
_____% RR
_____% Rr
_____% rr