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Andrews six keys of occlusion

Key 1 : Molar relation

Mesiobuccal cusp of upper 1st molar rests in the mesiobuccal groove of
lower 1st molar.
Distal surface of the distobuccal cusp of upper 1st molar should occlude with
mesial surface of the mesiobuccal cusp of lower 2nd molar
Mesiolingual cusp of the upper 1st molar should occlude in the central fossa
2 :Crown
of lower

The gingival portion of the long axis of each crown should be distal
to the incisal portion.
Measured by the inclination of long axis of the crown to a line
perpendicular to the occlusal plane.
Key 3 :Crown inclinations (Torque)
Determined by the resulting angle between a line perpendicular to
the occlusal plane and one tangent to the middle of the labial or
buccal clinical crown.
Maxillary and mandibular anteriors :+ve inclination(labial)
Maxillary and mandibular posteriors : -ve inclination(lingual)
Key 4:Rotation
Absence of rotation( arch should be devoid of any rotated tooth)
A rotated incisor occupies less space.
A rotated molar occupies more mesiodistal space.
Key 5 :Interproximal contact
Proximal contacts should be tight.
Absence of spacing.
Key 6:Curve of Spee
Flat curve of spee is most receptive for normal occlusion.
Deep curve results in more crowding.
Reverse curve results in spacing.

Key 7: Boltons discrepancy

The sum of the mesio-distal dimension of the lower teeth must be
equal to 91% of the sum of the mesio-distal dimension of the upper
The presence of a tooth size discrepancy between the maxillary and
mandibular dental arches would otherwise result in either crowding
or spacing, or compensatory angulations or inclination of the