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FIGURE OUT YOUR THOUGHTS

A. Construct your own concept of definition for emergent literacy. Give as many
relevant ideas as possible in terms of the characteristics of a child,
knowledge or skill developed, and factors to literacy development.

Emergent
Literacy
Child

Emergent
Literacy

Emergent
Literacy

Emergent
Literacy

Knowledge

Practice

Experien
ce

Literacy Environment

Informatio
n

Embrace
d

Attained

Obtained

B. Synthesize the concepts of Clay, Teale and Sulzsby about emergent literacy.
Determine the similarities of their views on childs literacy development.

Teale

Mary Clay asserted


that literacy
development begins
early in life and is

Clay

Sulzby

Teale described emergent literacy


as the early signs of reading and
writing demonstrated by young
children, even before they begin
to take formal instruction to
reading and writing and such
early signs and ways are
recognized by most adults.

Sulzby defines literacy


as the reading and
writing behaviors off
young children that
precede and develop
into conventional
literacy.

FIGURE OUT YOUR THOUGHTS

Working in groups, choose one theorist and discuss the implications of this theory
on child development to early literacy teaching and to the learning process.
Summarize your ideas through a chart.

Theorist/Theory

Implications to Early
Literacy Teaching

Implication to the learning


Process

Piaget (1969)

The theories focused


attention on the idea of
developmentally
appropriate education-an
education with
environments, curriculum,
materials, and instruction
that are suitable for
students in terms of their
physical and cognitive
abilities and their social
and emotional needs.

Piagets theory of learning


is based on discovery. He
stated, To understand is to
discover, or reconstruct by
rediscovery, and such
conditions must be
complied with if in the
future individuals are to be
formed who are capable of
production and creativity
and not simply repetition.

Children at certain stages


are capable of only certain
types of intellectual
endeavors; acquire
knowledge by interacting
with the world; active
participants in their own
learning.
According to Piaget,
children are born with a
very basic mental structure
(genetically inherited and
evolved) on which all
subsequent learning and
knowledge is based.

Focus on the process of


children's thinking, not just
its products.
Recognition of the crucial
role of children's selfinitiated, active
involvement in learning
activities.
A de-emphasis on practices
aimed at making children
adult like in their thinking.

FIGURE OUT YOUR THOUGHTS


Give the principle of the Constructive Model as conceived by the three authorities.
Constructivist Model

Dewey

Vygotsky

Au

Teaching and learning as


a conscious process of
reconstruction of
experience.

Knowledge is socially
constructed by
interacting with the
others in a variety of
experiences.

Learning is basically
social process that takes
place through the
interaction between
children and others in
their environment.

A strict criterion for


determining educative
experience which must
lead to positive growth.

Emergent learner need to


interact which would
positively make them
interested and be
involved in meaningful
activities.

Recognizes the
collaboration of parents
and teachers as well as
the literate members of
the community and
active involvement of the
young learners in their
literacy.

Educative experiences must


be continues, provoke
change, and emphasize the
importance of the
participation of the learner
in formation of purposes
which direct his activities in
the learning process

Emphasizes that young


learners must be
provided with adult
support to successfully
acquire knowledge about
literacy skills.

Discussed the four


distinct advantage of
constructivist mode

Identify the constructing views in reading. Complete the chart with significant
information.
Reading is
viewed as

Goodman
Reading as a
psycholingui
stic guessing
game

Chomsky
Aid to
literacy
skills

Holdaway
Stimulate
reading
model set

Vygosky
Internalized
social
relationship

Teale
Social
functions
and
conventions
of reading
are
acquired

Increase
interest in
books and
in learning
to read

Learn to
learn
naturally in
the home
environmen
t and
interactions
with the
parents

Increase
their
dependent
engagemen
t in reading
activities.

Acquired
through
socially
interactive
and
emulative
behavior

Reading as
an active
process
The reader
is
described
as..

Attempts to
reconstruct
his own
knowledge
Capitalizes
on childrens
prior
strengths,
past
experiences
and
knowledge

Enhances
background
information
Familiarizati
on with the
language of
books

FIGURE OUT YOUR THOUGHTS


Classifying the writing attempts of children. Give the specific activities which they
commonly demonstrate.
Writing through play

Writing through social


interaction

Writing through
experimentation

Play to boost fine


motor skills
Writing words and shapes
on a board using chalk.
Form shapes in the school
playground or areas in the
garden will also help to
build the foundation for
childrens writing skills.

Increased social
interaction can boost
writing
Children learning, retelling
and creating new stories
orally is the most effective
way to know a dramatic
impact on their writing
and reading.

Literacy begins with


play
Play with the blocks (find
and stack the letters) .This
is the perfect setting to
introduce the child to
written language. Pick-abox, draw-a-sentence is
also the best way.

Observe, Write and Speak Your Mind


Observation 1
Theoretical Foundation of Emergent Literacy

Directions: Observe a preschool class to find out the strategies employed by


the teacher, the activities done by the pupils and the skills being developed.
Check those that are explicitly employed. Then, point out the emphasis and
identify the theory applied. Report other observations not included not included in
the list.
Part I
A. Strategies Employed

Manipulative experiences
Guided play
Social interaction
Outdoor play
Systematic training
Active participation
Functional experiences
Exploring

Sensory techniques
Circle time
Free play
Dramatic play
Work
Rea-life experiences
Sensitive period
Problem solving

Have you observed other significant strategies employed by the teacher, but are
not indicated in the list? If yes, please indicate.
B. Students Activities

Manipulating objects
Smelling objects

Dancing
Singing

Guided-playing
Identifying shapes/size
Free play
Exploring
Dramatic play

Reciting a poem/rhyme
Informal writing
Informal reading
Story reading
artwork

What are your other observations as the students performed their activities
individually or by group?
C. Skills Developed

Sensory skills
Social skills
Reading
Art skills
Independent reading
Inquisitiveness
Communications skills
Exploration
Listening

Psychomotor skills
Physical development
Writing
Concept mastery
Problem solving
Spontaneity
Speaking
Experimentation
Language

What other skills were being developed in the students based on the activities given
to them?
Part II
1. Base on the information gathered, what do you think is the emphasis of the
preschool class which you observed?
Preschool is an early childhood program in which children combine learning with
play in a program run by professionally trained adults. The preschool emphasize the
learning and development of a child while playful and interesting learning process
which really fits to the students.
2. Having pointed out the emphasis of that preschool class, what do you think is
the theory guiding its early literacy instruction?
I think the theory of Vygosky is present, as it said that learning takes place when a
child interacts with each others. Children learn by internalizing activities conducted
in the world surround them.

JOURNAL WRITING 1
Directions: Express freely your personal views and insights gained about early
literacy.
1. What are the common practices in preschool setting?
The common practices in preschool setting I have seen is usually the involvement
and unity of the parent in the school, they are supportive. Its a good things that
they have a strategy that there is a notebook fixed for the parents to check how
their child in school or what are things or reminders from the school or from the
teacher. I also like the teaching process here.
2. Among these practices, which do you consider as strengths that any
preschool should possess?
For me, I will consider the unity of the parent school. Every preschool must be like
this also for the more improvement of knowledge of their children.
3. Which practices do you think need to be improve successfully early literacy
instruction?
Just a thought, they should improve more in children should have access to early
childhood programs with strong literacy components that include clear adaptations
for children with special needs.

FIGURE OUT YOUR THOUGHTS


Based on the principles of early literacy behavior posed by the following authorities,
analyze whether they indicate similar or contrasting views on emergent kids skills.
Put a (+) if similar, while a (-) if not.

Physical
abilities
Language
Skills
Reading Skills
Writing Skills

Goodman

Vygotsky

+
+
-

+
+

Scarborough &
Dobrich
+
+
-

Holdway
+
+
+
+

OBSERVE, WRITE AND SPEAK YOUR MIND


Observation 2
Early Literacy Behavior
Directions: Observe your family or relatives having 1 or 2 kids only who are 2-3
years old. Observe the kids behavior and the family members interaction.
Determine the early literacy behavior of the kids by checking the most observable
traits only.
A. Physical Abilities

Playing toys
Humming
Imitating familiar sounds
Singing
Counting
Reciting
Chanting similar to reading
Producing pleasant sound to imitate reading voice
Using incomprehensible language but perceived as reading
Using oral language
Processing oral vocabulary
Reading aloud
Narrating familiar stories
Inquiring
Commenting
Using language for communication

B. Oral Language

Attempting puzzle work


Manipulating clay, blocks, legos
Putting together toy parts
Dismantling toy parts
Holding and using pencil
Holding and using crayon
Finger painting
Holding books
Turning pages of books
Attempting to use paper and pencil
Drawing
Tracing
Scribbling
Discriminating pictures
Discriminating colors
Recognizing shapes and sizes
Identifying texture
Discriminating sounds
Imitating movements

C. Reading Skills

Browsing books and other colorful reading materials


Looking at pictures and print materials
Eyes focused intently on books
Recognizing letters, numbers
Recognizing pictures
Observing adult reading
Emulating adult reading
Enjoying story telling
Interested in reading aloud
Retelling
Half narrating
Half reading
Possessing reading vocabulary
Naming objects and characters
Reading on his own

D. Writing Skills

Scribbling
Squiggling
Tracing
Drawing
Coloring
Interested in pencil and paper activities

Attempting to make marks on paper


Recognizing lines and shapes
Invented spelling
Observing adult writing
Imitating adult writing
Practicing writing stokes
Copying letters and numbers
Starting to write in his name and names of family members
Copying environmental print
Writing with adult supervision
Making notes as if writing for communication
Writing independently
Indentifying environmental print
Being familiar with signs and logos

Did you notice other behaviors manifested by the child but are not indicated
in the list? If yes, please relate your observations.
Yes, example of being closes and attached to a certain person in the
family or neighbors. They more feel ease and secure with when they
are in the family members.
How do parents influence their childs behavior?
From the moment children are born, their life is being shaped by those
around them. The most impact is, of course, given by the parents who
shape the person a child may become, teach them relationship skills
and form the child's mental process to a great extent.

JOURNAL WRITING 2
Insights Gained About Early Literacy Behavior
Directions: Share your significant learning experience gained from your
observation with young kids, their family and their home environment.
1. What do you think is the role of the parents in the early literacy of their
kids?
Parents, as the childs first teacher, establish the roots of a childs
literacy. When parents have knowledge about early literacy
development they may provide a home environment that is more
conducive to early literacy development. The parents understanding
of childrens literacy development and of home literacy practices
2. What kind of home environment will positively influence the learning
potential of young kids?
Young children strive to make sense of the world in which they live.
Children who live in this classroom will have many opportunities for
expanding their knowledge by actively participating in a world that is
appropriate for their level of development. It will include spaces for
active play
FOCUS GROUP DISCUSSION 2
Early Literacy Behavior
Instructions for Focus Group Discussion
1. Working with the dame group, each member will share information obtained
about the behavior of kids manifesting their early literacy.
Early literacy behavior is manifested through the young learners
physical abilities skills (playing and dismantling toys, attempting and
imitating movements) reading skills (they start to be observant,
browsing, emulating, and recognizing) writing skills includes
(interested in pencil and paper thingy and writing and drawing
deliberately and for language skills (they start to hum, imitate and
identifying sounds).
2. Determine the most common early literacy behavior of 2-3 years old kids.
Early literacy development is a continuous develop-mental process
that begins in the first years of life. Language, reading, and writing
skills develop at the same time and are intimately linked.
3. Discuss the important role of the parents literacy practices and its influence
to kids literacy.
The evidence about the benefits of parents being involved in their
childrens education in general, and their childrens literacy activities in
particular, is overwhelming. Parental involvement in their childrens

learning positively affects the childs performance at school in both


primary and secondary schools leading to higher academic
achievement, greater cognitive competence, greater problem-solving
skills, greater school enjoyment, better school attendance and fewer
behavioral problems at school.
FIGURE OUT YOUR THOUGHTS
Working in groups, discuss the characteristics of emergent kids. Give the most
dominant traits for each of the stages of early literacy in terms of oral language,
reading and writing skills.

Oral Skills

Early
emergent

Reading skills

Emergent
learner

Beginning
reader/writ
er

Writing skills

Almost
fluent
reader/writ

Fluent
reader/writ
er

Read aloud,
storytelling,
verbal
requests, oral
directions,
inquiries &
word-play

Growing oral
language
facility, oral
language of
the story read ,
pleasure in oral
language

Self-corrected
speech,
increased oral
language
vocabulary,
pleasure in
words

Moving
towards
language
fluency,
increased
pleasure in
language use

Increased
vocabulary,
appreciation
to importance
of speech

Beginning
concept of
print, labeling,
naming,
picture
reading,
literature
enjoyment

Acquired
concept of
print,
recognition of
environmental
print, letter
sound
recognition

Additional
recognition
skills and
strategies,
meaning
construction

Regular use of
word
recognition
skills and
strategies,
growing
meaning
construction,

Capable
decoder with
comprehension
skills, critical
reading,
competent
reader

Beginning
concept of
print, labeling,
naming,
picture
reading,
literature
enjoyment

Spelling and
writing
conventions,
familiarity with
writing
process,
meaning
construction

Varied writing
behavior,
growing use of
mechanism
and
convention,
employed
writing process

Varied writing
purposes,
pleasure in
writing

Purposeful
writing,
pleasurable
writing,
persuasive
writing, self
editing, peer
editing

OBSERVE, WRITE AND SPEAK YOUR MIND


Observation 3
Emergent Reader
Directions: Observe again, your family of your relatives whose kids are 2-4 years
old, but is not yet sent to any preschool or day care center. Observe his/her
behavior as an emergent reader. Determine also the influence of parents and the
home environment.
1. What were the signs manifested by the child to show his/her interest in
reading?
The child read loud the words or pictures he/she see in the surrounding or in
television that familiar to him/her. Talking and humming the words that I
cant understand.
2. What were the print materials that the child likes to read?
The child likes to read an old newspaper that has pictures, and colorful books.
3. How did the child demonstrate his/her reading behavior?
By reading it in the front of the member of the family or reading it loud.
4. In what manner, did the family support the childs interest in reading?
By monitoring the childs behavior in reading problem, they surround their
children reading materials. Also they set aside time to read with their child.

Observation 4
Emergent Writer
Directions: observe again your family or your relatives whose kid is 2-4 years old
and is not sent yet to any preschool. Observe his/her behavior as an emergent
writer. Determine also the influence of the parents and the home environment.
1. How did the child show his/her early attempts to write?
The child shows his/her interest in write by attempting to make marks on the
paper, draw and trace anything he/she like using colorful pencils, and also by
showing interest in papers and pencil.
2. What are the writing materials provided for the child to develop his/her early
writing skills?
Pencils, papers, colorful materials, crayons, colorful images and scribble
things that are not toxic.
3. What would the child usually want and try to write?
Drawing lines and different, sketches, coloring everywhere in the paper, and
imitating adult writing.

4. How did the family support the childs writing attempts?


Scribbling, and drawing lines, shapes, and pictures are the first steps towards
writing, by providing time and material and give children ample opportunity
to scribble (pretend writing). This helps them develop an appreciation for
writing
JOURNAL WRITING 3
Emergent Reader and Writer
Directions: Discuss your insights about emergent reading and writing. Share your
views on how you can use the information obtained from the observation in helping
the emergent learners in your family.
1. Based on your personal impression, how would you describe an emergent
reader? An emergent writer?
My personal impression on emergent readers demonstrate alphabet
knowledge, a concept of what a word is, a sense of story (beginning, middle,
end), listening and retelling skills, phonemic awareness, and verbal
expression. Texts that use rhyme, rhythm, repetition, natural language, and
illustrations are useful in developing reading skills in emergent readers. While
emergent writing is an essential part of how children learn to write, and will
naturally appear when the child is ready. At the emergent writing stage many
children will become interested in writing their own name. This can provide a
welcome opportunity to help a child to begin forming letters correctly.
2. In what simple way you can help kids to love reading and to enjoy writing?
Figuring out how to motivate young children to read and write is a very
important and sometimes daunting task. Talk to your kids, conversation to
the child is a big help for them. Be a parent-friend to the child, play games
with storytelling, allow the child to play and praise child for working hard in
reading and writing.

FIGURE OUT YOUR THOUGHTS


Explain the relationship of the home and school to the childs oral language, reading
and writing development. Discuss their implications to early literacy development.

Home

Child

Children develop early


reading skills through read
and recognize the
circumstances.

Children develop early oral


language skills through
observation and interact.
Provides opportunities to the
development of childs
abilities and desire to read
naturally.

School

Provide and recognize

Children develop early reading


meaningful literacy events
writing skills through assisting
for emerging learners
their skills.
To become literate, children
must learn about the functions
and uses of literacy

OBSERVE, WRITE AND SPEAK YOUR MIND

Observation 5
Promoting Early Literacy in the Home
Directions: Observe how early literacy is promoted in your own homes or your
relatives;. Focus on active family involvement in terms of language use, reading and
writing activities, and literacy material available. Check only those that highly
evident and regularly practiced in your family.
1. In what specific ways is language use exemplified among family members to
help an emergent learner?

Language is frequently used meaningfully.


Language is regularly used in social context.
Language is used to comprehend print materials and audio-visual
materials.
Language is used to promote oral communication, encourage correct
pronunciation and develop vocabulary.
Language is used to explore reading materials and to process writing
activities. Provide opportunities for play to use language.
Language is associated with the pleasure and enjoyment.

2. What reading activities are highly participates and enjoyed by the family
members to encourage an emergent reader?

Recreational Reading(Nursery rhymes, fairytales, fables & folktales,


poetry, jokes &riddles)
Concept Reading (Alphabets & numbers, animals & plants, planets,
shapes & sizes, colors)
Story Reading (Reading aloud, bedtime stories, storytelling, retelling,
shared book experiences, repeated story readings)
Reading Magazines and Newspapers
Identifying Environmental Print

3. What writing activities are frequently demonstrated by the adult family


members to increase early writing attempts and develop practice writing of
kids?
Recognize environmental print

Food labels usually found in the home and in the supermarket


Food chains, amusement centers, parks and malls where they love to
go

Logos of their favorite cartoon characters and mascots


Sign of schools, hospitals and churches
Road signs, stations, directions, means of transportation

Nurture emergent writing through the whole family participation in writing


activities
First marking attempts on papers, or even on walls.
Scribbling, squiggling

Copying, imitating adult writing, tracing

Drawing, finger painting


Invented writing, producing letters in long strings

Letter like forms, writing like sounds

Invented spelling writing

Writing his name


Drawing as if telling a story

Drawing images of family members, playmates and cartoon


characters

Drawing plant like and animal like image

Producing lines, shapes


Communicating to family members through writing notes or letters
Sending greeting cards and texting
Establishes pleasurable and
enjoyable

Assistance to childs writings attempts

Encouragement to identify what he writes

Interaction with child about what us being written


Invitation to observe adult writing and to try make one for himself

Display of early writings to be enjoyed

Response to his queries with information and explanation


4. What are the frequently subscribed, read, bought, and collected print
materials to promote the early literacy of the young members of the
family?
Reading Materials
Picture books
_______ picture concept books (alphabets, numbers, and animals)
_______ cardboard concept books (alphabets, numbers, and animal)
______ picture storybooks
Traditional literature books
_______nursery rhymes

_______fairy tales
_______fables and myths
Participation books
______ touch and feel books
TV program-related book/movie-related books
______Sesame Street
________Nickelodeon
______ Disney
________Popular Cartoons / Animated Films

Magazines, Newspaper, Comics


Children Dictionaries
________Childrens First Dictionaries
______Childrens Picture Dictionaries
Writing materials
Writings pads

Coupon bond

Tracing pads
Oslo paper
Sketch pads
Newsprint
Drawing pads

Recyclable papers
Workbook for beginning readers and writers
Coloring books
Activity books for alphabet, numbers, shapes and sizes
Big pencils
Non-toxic crayons
Colored pencils
Markers

Whiteboards/blackboards
Clay
Manipulative toys
blocks

Observation 6
Promoting Early Literacy in the School
Directions :
As an observer, examine how early literacy is supported and
extended in the school in terms of language use, reading and writing activities and
literacy materials. Check only those that are highly evident in that preschool where
you are assigned.
1. What specific programs are explicitly implemented by the preschool to
develop the early literacy of its students?
A. Language Use

Language is frequently used meaningfully


Language is regularly used in social context
Language is used to comprehend print materials and audio-visual
materials.
Language is used to promote oral communication, encourage correct
pronunciation and develop vocabulary
Language is used to explore reading materials ant to process writing
activities
Providing opportunities for play to use language
Language is associated with pleasure and enjoyment

B. Reading Activities

Recreational Reading(Nursery rhymes, fairytales, fables & folktales, poetry,


jokes &riddles)

Concept Reading (Alphabets & numbers, animals & plants, planets, shapes
& sizes, colors)

Story Reading (Reading aloud, bedtime stories, storytelling, retelling,


shared book experiences, repeated story readings)
Reading Magazines and Newspapers

Identifying Environmental Print


C. Writing Activities
Recognize environmental print

Food labels usually found in the home and in the supermarket


Food chains, amusement centers, parks and malls where they love to
go
Logos of their favorite cartoon characters and mascots
Sign of schools, hospitals and churches
Road signs, stations, directions, means of transportation

Nurture emergent writing through the whole family participation in writing activities

First marking attempts on papers, or even on walls.


Scribbling, squiggling
Copying, imitating adult writing, tracing
Drawing, finger painting
Invented writing, producing letters in long strings
Letter like forms, writing like sounds
Invented spelling writing
Writing his name
Drawing as if telling a story
Drawing images of family members, playmates and cartoon characters
Drawing plant like and animal like image
Producing lines, shapes
Communicating to family members through writing notes or letters
Sending greeting cards and texting
Establishes pleasurable and enjoyable
Assistance to childs writings attempts
Encouragement to identify what he writes
Interaction with child about what us being written
Invitation to observe adult writing and to try make one for himself
Display of early writings to be enjoyed
Response to his queries with information and explanation

What literacy materials are highly provided by the preschool to support and
increase the early literacy information of its students?
Reading Materials
Picture books
_____ picture concept books (alphabets, numbers, and animals)
_____cardboard concept books (alphabets, numbers, and animal)
_____ picture storybooks
Traditional literature books
______nursery rhymes
______fairy tales
______fables and myths
Participation books
____ touch and feel books

TV program-related book/movie-related books


______Sesame Street
________Nickelodeon
______ Disney
________Popular Cartoons / Animated Films

Magazines, Newspaper, Comics


Children Dictionaries
_____Childrens First Dictionaries
_____Childrens Picture Dictionaries

Writing materials

Writing pads

Coupon bond
Tracing pads

Oslo paper
Sketch pads

Newsprint
Drawing pads

Recyclable papers

Workbook for beginning readers and writers


Coloring books
Activity books for alphabet, numbers, shapes and sizes
Big pencils

Whiteboards/blackboards
Non-toxic crayons

Clay
Colored pencils

Manipulative toys
Markers

blocks

JOURNAL WRITING 4
Promoting Early Literacy
Directions: Compare your observations in the home and school. Determine the
common aspects which these two environment share to promote early literacy.
1. Which of the family activities are extended in the school to develop the
literacy of preschool kids?
Activities include games, tasks and daily routines that parents can
incorporate into child's life. Activities on the early literacy of children involve
and develop reading, writing and listening skills. Promoting early literacy in
children will make reading an enjoyable pastime for them and prepare them
for school. Effective literacy activities teach children to manipulate and break
apart the sounds in words, and to blend those sounds to recognize how words
are constructed.
2. How does the school use home literacy in further supporting early literacy
kids?
Home involvement is linked to children's school promptness. Greater parent
involvement in children's learning positively affects the child's school
performance, including higher academic achievement and greater social and
emotional development. Simple interactions, such as reading to young
children, may lead to greater reading knowledge and skills. And, children with
richer home literacy environments demonstrate higher levels of reading
knowledge and skills at kindergarten entry.
3. In what aspects do the literacy practices in the home contradict with the
early literacy programs of the school?
To facilitate literacy expectations beyond those set forth for schools,
educational programs need a strong emphasis on including parents in the
process of developing literacy and technology skills. While the role of parents
in fostering emergent literacy skills is recognized as being extremely
important, there appears to be great variation in parental perceptions held
about literacy and the knowledge of how to best encourage literacy
development.

FIGURE OUT YOUR THOUGHTS


Working in groups, examine two English textbooks used in grades school. Focus on
the approach used and lesson /activities contained. Construct your analysis in the
chart.
Approach

Lessons

Activities

OBSERVE, WRITE AND SPEAK YPUR MIND


Interview 2
Four pronged Approach
Directions. Interview a senior-elementary reading teacher about his/her comments
on the implementation of the four-pronged approach. Use the following items as
your guide.
1. What is the profile of the interviewee in terms of:
- Name : Mrs. Toni Liza Zaragoza Jemino
- Designation / position: K1 Red&Blue Adviser
- Subject taught: Kindergarten subject
- Year in the teaching service:
- Teaching experiences
- Scholastic background
- Achievements while in the teaching profession

2. Compare and contrast the past curricula with the Basic Education Curriculum. This is the
same question as how does one compare the written curriculum to the taught curriculum
to the tested curriculum.
First, to compare the written (intended) curriculum to the taught (implemented)
curriculum, curriculum mapping is a technique that is very useful. Essentially, a
curriculum map is created by the teacher of the subject by recording what s/he is actually
doing in the classroom at various points throughout the day. Fenwick English offers a
method and background on doing this. This map is then compared to what is actually
written in the school district's curriculum guide. A second analysis is backward mapping.
That is, analyzing items on a culminating test (perhaps an achievement test or final exam)

to determine the actual achieved curriculum. These test items are then compared to the
written curriculum and the mapped taught curriculum to find gaps and overlaps.
3. In terms of developing reading skills with the grade scholars, what are the
differences of the past and the present curricula?
4. As teacher use the present curriculum, can they still us the traditional
teaching strategies? In what way?

Interview Sheet
FOUR-PRONGED APPROACH
Name: ________________________________________________________
Position: ______________________________________________________

__________________________________________
Signature over Printed name of the interviewee

JOURANL WRITING 5
Four-Pronged Approach
Directions: Based on the results of your interview, record your learnings on the
four-pronged approach base in the following issues/concerns in language learning.

1. What theory of language teaching from the past curricula remained?


What proves you this claim?
I think theory is very important because it is always present. Every teacher,
when they step in front of a class, is acting on their theory of education. And
what that leads to, in general, is unconscious repetition, for better or worse of
their own learning experiences. The Communicative language teaching
increased demand put pressure on educators to change their teaching
methods. Traditional methods such as grammar translation assumed that
students were aiming for mastery of the target language, and that students
were willing to study for years before expecting to use the language in real
life. However, these assumptions were challenged by adult learners who were
busy with work, and by schoolchildren who were less academically able.
Educators realized that to motivate these students an approach with a more
immediate payoff was necessary.
2. Aside from the ones mentioned by the interviewee, what other strategies
can be used?

For me, Answering Questions strategies is still useful and used until now. Questions can
be effective because they give students a purpose for reading, focus students' attention on
what they are to learn, help students to think actively as they read, encourage students to
monitor their comprehension, help students to review content and relate what they have
learned to what they already know.
3. How does teachers knowledge of the language acquisition theory help in the
teaching process?
The teacher knowledge in the acquisition of language theory has provided writing
teachers with an abundance of information and techniques for teaching most parts of the
writing process.

Individual Task
Develop a full-blown annotated lesson plan based on the given selection. Annotate
theory to be applied in each activity.
Lesson Plan for The Missing C.O.D.E
I.

OBJECTIVES
1. To know what is the missing C.O.D.E.
2. Value the importance of this C.O.D.E.
3. Indentifying the meaning of the C.O.D.E.

II.

SUBJECT MATTER
The importance of C.O.D.E. nowadays
References: The Missing C.O.D.E. by Josiah Patrick P. Bayagas
Concepts:
Is the C.O.D.E. is still important nowadays

III.

MATERIALS
Visual Aids Pictures of different kinds of C.O.D.E.s

IV.

LEARNING EXPERIENCES

Motivation: Let the students identify the different kinds of Pictures of the
C.O.D.E.s
Question:

1. what have you observe in this picture?


2. Can you relate in this pictures in your real life?

LESSON PROPER:
-

Telling the importance of C.O.D.E.s nowadays


Introducing the lesson about the missing C.O.D.E.
Talking and enumerating meaning of C.O.D.E.
Showing and naming the different kinds C.O.D.E.s practices

Application:
-Role play about the different C.O.D.E.s

V.
VI.

EVALUATION
Write an essay about What do you think is the missing C.O.D.E.
ASSIGNMENT
Give example of different C.O.D.E.s.

Questionnaire for Developmental Reading


5. Profile of the interviewee in terms of:
Name :
Designation / position:
Subject taught:
Year in the teaching service:
Teaching experiences:
Scholastic background:
Achievements while in the teaching profession:
6. Compare and contrast the past curricula with the Basic Education Curriculum.

7. In terms of developing reading skills with the grade scholars, what are the
differences of the past and the present curricula?
8. As teacher use the present curriculum, can they still us the traditional teaching
strategies? In what way?
9.

What is your view on the implementation of basic education curriculum with the
emphasis in the teaching of reading?

10.How grammar is integrated?


11.Present to class reading selections that may be used in teaching three (3)
different grammar skills. Choose any grammar skills which you intend to
develop.

12.Construct a full-blown lesson plan using reading selection that follow. Make sure
that GOLD (Grammar and Oral Language Development) will be a part of the
lesson plan

Interview Sheet
FOUR-PRONGED APPROACH
Name: ________________________________________________________
Position: ______________________________________________________

__________________________________________
Signature over Printed name of the interviewee
FIGURE OUT YOUR THOUGHTS
Activity 1
Differentiate picture analysis and contextual analysis by filling out the chart.
Analysis Type

Concept
Examples
Contextual Analysis
A strategy which readers use to infer or predict a word from the context in which it
appears.
Teaching vocabulary. This is done by deriving the meaning of the word.
Example Love for the nation is the legacy of Jose Rizal to us.
Morphemic Analysis
A strategy in which the meanings of the words can be determined or inferred by
examining their meaning parts.

prefix
Activity 2

im

Research on various

root
word

suffix

possible

ible
motivation strategies.

Many children today are so engrossed in the latest technology that they barely have time to open
a book and read. As teacher we have to help them develop a genuine love for reading at an early
age. These motivation strategies can help on how teacher can make their pupils love reading
include "honoring" books for self-selection, sharing the excitement of read-aloud,
building a balanced book collection, making your passions public, and providing
rewards that demonstrate the value of reading. The art of Story Telling, storytelling

should be taken with much care. In making predictions while reading is also applicable to
reading.

FIGURE OUT YOUR THOUGHTS


Based on the sample plants analyzed, express the value of Genuine Love for
Reading in the classroom. Suggest other activities which can promote GLR.

Many children today are so engrossed in the latest technology that they
barely have time to open a book and read. As teacher we have to help them
develop a genuine love for reading at an early age. Be a role model, children

learn best through modeling. If you want your children to love reading you have to show

them that you also love it, and use varied reading materials.
OBSERVE, WRITE AND SPEAK YOUR MIND
Observation 7
Developing Genuine Love for Reading
Directions: Observe how Genuine Love for Reading is developed in elementary
reading classroom. Briefly answer the following questions based on your
observation.
1. What motivation techniques were used by the teacher?
The teachers used motivation techniques like use varied reading materials like

fairytales, legends, and so much more and also by providing wholesome reading
activities. As a teacher, they are resourceful enough to come up with some wholesome
activities in line with reading. For instance, if the children read a fairytale, the teacher can
ask them to act out or draw their favorite parts.
2. How were the vocabulary items unlocked?
The students applied and used what they have learned in their vocabulary
class.
3. What other pre-reading activities were done by the teacher?
The teacher allows them to read even if it's not their English class. Example they let them

read the procedure in their experiments in Science or the instructions in their arts and
crafts activities.
4. What during reading techniques were employed? How did the teacher and/or
the students discuss the selection?

Children learn best through modeling. Ive noticed that how children would often emulate
the way the teacher act or talk. In fact, there are times they even play teachers like and
copy the way the teacher move and talk to them in class. I can just you can just imagine
the extent of the influence of teacher among young learners.
5. How effective were these motivation techniques in setting the reading
activity?

It wont be long before the children widen and develop more a genuine love for reading
by doing this motivation in reading activity.

JOURNAL WRITING 6
Developing Genuine Love for Reading
Directions: Based on your observation, share your insights about the following
concerns in GLR.
1. Aside from the techniques implemented by the teacher, what do you think
are the other techniques which can be used?
For me I think, make reading passions publicly. Reading passions should be
made public. Young children want to read and are curious about books with
which they are somewhat familiar. Example, When children talk about books
they most enjoyed reading, they frequently mentioned that they got
interested in a book because they had heard about it from a friend, read
other books about the character, knew the author, or had read other books in
the series.
2. How can Genuine Love for Reading be developed in early literacy learners?
Genuine Love for Reading developed in early literacy learners, by focusing on
the idea of letting students appreciate the story selection. Generate the
schema of the learner. This sets the mood of the entire reading lesson
3. What are the literacy practices of developing love for reading which are done
at home that can be also used in schools and classroom?
To develop a genuine love for reading, a child or adult must select reading
material that is enticing to them. Forcing someone to read literature that
doesn't speak to their interests is pointless. Try looking for reading material
that has information which couldn't be acquired in any other format.

FOCUS GROUP DISCUSSION 6


Developing Genuine Love for Reading
Instructions for Focus Group Discussion
Part I
1. Working by groups, discuss
a. What is Genuine Love for Reading as a part of a reading lesson plan
b. How to develop learners genuine love for reading
To develop a genuine love for reading, a child or adult must select reading
material that is enticing to them
c. Practical ways of motivating learners to read a selection

d. Good during reading strategies


2. Share your insights to the class.
3. Get one reading selection and brainstorm what good strategies can be used.
Share this to class.
4. Research on other reading skills to be developed and discuss them in class.
5. Present t class other pre-reading and during activities which may seem
helpful to you as future teachers.
6. Construct five (5) good questions that may raised when you will be teaching a
reading selection entitled: John 3:16, The Heart of Gods Word.

FIGURE OUT YOUR THOUGHTS


Working in groups, identify specific barrier to childrens critical and creative
thinking. Indicate home and classroom situations that may impede their
development. Give concrete solutions.

Action
Afraid of
Failure

Proble
m

Solution
s

Allow a person to bring out the


unconventional methods and
plans

One should understand that


failure is a part of progress and
must be embraced in a healthy
way.

OBSERVE, WRITE AND SPEAK


JOURNAL WRITING 7
Developing Critical and Creative Thinking Skills
Individual Work Writing
Each student is provided a picture of a boy and a mermaid. Describe the picture on
each character. At the back of the picture, the student writes a description about
them.

Directions: Based on your observations, share your insights about students critical
and creative thinking skills.
1. Aside from the techniques implemented by the teacher, what do you think
are the other techniques which can be used to develop creative and thinking
skills of children?
To develop creative and thinking skills of children, think, we must get rid of
methods that hinder the process and start using techniques that will push
creativity forward. Imagination, observation and brainstorming can help.
2. What specific ways or practices should be provided to children to develop
their critical and creative thinking?
Sharing the process of thinking with a child in meaningful and playful
situations supports the development of thinking skills.

3. In what way can family members help in developing their childs critical and
creative thinking skills?
Family members can help developing the childs critical and creative thinking
by being aware of childrens understanding and knowledge of the world, how
they make sense of what is happening around them, how they communicate
their thoughts and what they can do with the ideas in their minds.
FOCUS GROUP DISCUSSION 7
Developing Critical and Creative Thinking
Instructions for Focus Group Discussion
1. Reexamine the lesson plan on The boy and the Mermaid in terms of the
following:
a. Pre reading activities
b. Jigsaw reading approach
c. Post reading activities
Pre-reading activities - Asking students what they know about the topic and
from where that information came.
Jigsaw reading approach - develop teamwork and cooperative learning skills
within all students. In addition it helps develop a depth of knowledge not
possible if the students were to try and learn all of the material on their own.
Post Reading Activities - The activities in post-reading can extend students
reading experiences, comprehension, appreciation and social interaction
develop loves for reading
2. Identify the strong points of the lesson plan in developing critical and creative
thinking. Focus on the pre reading and jigsaw reading approach.
Each student receives a portion of the materials to be introduced;
Analyzing who wrote the text and the audience for whom it was originally
written.
3. Determine also the weak points of the lesson plan.
Looking at the subtitles and asking students to consider anything they know

4. Revise the lesson plan to suit the critical and creative thinking skills of your
students.

I. Objective
1. Predict the outcome of the character's behavior

II. Subject Matter


Story Telling/reading "The Boy and the Mermaid" By Masimo Ramos
Content focus: Characters Behavior and Attitude

III. Procedure
A. Activities
1. Motivation (GLR)

Working on groups, members will share their opinion about


question asigned to them

2. Presentation

Pictures Showing - Teacher presents picture of a boy and a


mermaid
Vocabulary Building Pictures analysis

B. During Reading - Reading and Listening


The teacher provides a printed copy of the story for silent reading while
listening to the audio-in play
The Boy and the Mermaid by Maximo Ramos
It happened once that a boy, while playing on a riverbank, saw a beautiful woman
bathing in the water. She smiled sweetly at him and said: Come here, son. I shall
tell you a wonderful story.
The boy was attracted by her long curls and her charming smile and he walked to
her. No sooner had his feet touched the water and then the river rose and the
woman caught him in her arms.

Let me go! Let me go!, screamed the boy. But the woman held him firmly and said,
Be quiet son, and I shall take you to my home. My father and mother will be
looking for me! said the boy. The woman replied, You will forget them when you
see my wonderful home. Please let me go!
After they reached the sea, they came to a beautiful house with a golden door and a
gorgeous hall. They sat down and the woman asks the following questions: Tell me
what vegetables you love to eat? Do you eat fish? The boy replied, We never eat
those things at home. I never eat fish. We eat nothing but rice and tomatoes.
Suddenly, while hearing those questions, the boy remembered that the woman
asked those questions to test people. Thats alright! said the woman with a smile.
He who eats fish is my enemy. The woman showed him rooms with silver and gold
furniture. All rooms contained treasures. Left alone the boy tried to enjoy himself,
but he kept yearning for his parents, friends, his real home. He pretended to enjoy
all the luxuries and wealth, but his heart was not there.
This went on day after day, but the longer he stayed in this house, the more he
longed for his parents. Please tell me how soon I can get back home, the boy said.
She replied. Forget about home. This is your home now. Call me mother. Every
day, the woman would leave the house and returned home at the end of the day.
But the boy began to wonder why the woman always went to the back part of the
house before leaving As he was looking this way one day, he suspected that there
might be some passage that she kept from him, till he found out that it was a secret
door, a door well hidden.
The following morning, as soon as the woman was gone, the boy opened and
entered the secret door. There he found a large jar of shining gold, with golden
liquid. Then the boy remembered that since he came into womans house, he had
not taken a bath yet, so he poured the golden liquid into his body.
Then a strap door opened beneath his feet. He ran down and followed a sandy path
with bright sunlight. Soon he found himself back to the river where the woman had
caught him. The whole village rejoiced, specially his parents for his return. Everyone
was overjoyed and amazed at his story. For many nights after that, the villagers
heard the voice of the woman crying in the river.

C. Post Reading
1. Comprehensions Questions

What can you say about the behavior and attitudes of the
characters in the story?
Will you able to predict the outcome of the characters behavior?
What are your conclusions?

2. Enrichment Activity and Skills Development

Group work - Show and Tell

Working on group, present a role play about the story of what you have
read and listened to a group may express their creativity

Individual Work - Writing

Each student is provided with a pictures of a boy and a mermaid.


Describe the picture focusing on each character. At the back of the pictures, the
student writes a description about them.

IV. Evaluation
1. Writing Skill

Compare in the contrast the characters in the story


Make a graphic organizer, list the events in the story then
determine the order
Indentify one interesting important character in the story

V. Assignment
A. Preliminary Activities

Motivation
Presentation

B. Developing Activities

Pre reading
Reading Proper
Post Reading

FIGURE OUT YOUR THOUGHTS


Working in groups, brainstorm on other meaningful activities for students
worthwhile reading experience. Summarize your ideas through extended web.
May used as engaging activities
include listening to songs, CD/DVD
material for rhymes, riddles.
Poems, phonemes, pronunciation,
spelling,
listening
to
recorded
conversation,
narration
and
description.

Listeni
ng

Speaki
ng

Taken as an extended experiences


includes reading a similar story or
theme, reading a story characters

Sharing reading, silent reading,


arranging events through picture
cues and prop stories.

Post Reading
Activities

May used as extension activity and


social interaction include circle time,
group singing, poem reciting,
dramatizing
role playing, narrating, describing,
retelling, shared reading, imitating
sounds of animas characteristic and
other prominent object

Writin
g

Readin
g

Considered as post reading activity


includes leisure writing such as
greeting cards, letter writing, simple
note.
Spelling games, word games,
emulating adult writing, writing-like
activities such as letter strings,
letter-like forms

OBSERVE, WRITE AND SPEAK YOUR MIND


Observation
Post Reading
Directions: Observe an English class in the preschool or grade school level. Focus
your observation on the teachers specific post reading activities which aim t
develop students critical and creative thinking. Described the most evident
behavior of the students.
1. How did the teacher sustain the students interest in the reading activity?
The teacher sustains the reading interest of the student by generally
being nice and looking students in the eye while teaching, to make them
feel included. Also sometimes talking about things other than English, like
news story, or our own lives. I think, by this way it can help to makes
every single class interesting and fun.
2. What were the specific engaging activities employed by the teacher to
maximize the students reading experience?
Create extensive reading opportunities for your students through
interactive activities around childrens literature, use reading and writing

tasks to help the students review literary and non-literary texts the
teacher in used with.
3. How did the extended activities develop students critical and creative
thinking?
The extended activities help students to develop their critical and creative
thinking by working as individuals, in pairs or in small groups, and to
interact at various levels to accomplish tasks in and outside the
classroom.

FIGURE OUT YOUR THOUGHTS


Working in a group, examine two English textbooks for grade school. Examine the
content in terms of grammar lessons and activities presented . Summarize your
ideas through GOLD chart.
Grammar Lessons

Activities

OBSERVE, WRITE AND SPEAK YOUR MIND


Observation 10
Grammar and Oral Language Development
Directions: Observe the reading grammar/oral language connection of certain
class. Use the checklist as you observe by checking the items implemented in the
classroom.
Characteristic
Teacher used the reading selection as a take-off point
Teacher used sentences from the selection as sample
sentences in discussing grammar points.
Teacher used the reading selection as a take-off point
Teacher used the reading selection as a take-off point
Teacher used sentences from the selection as sample

Yes

No

sentences in discussing grammar points.


Teacher reviewed the reading selection before going to
the grammar lesson for the day.
Teacher was effective in connecting the reading lesson
with the grammar lesson.
Teacher used sentences from the selection as he/she
evaluates the learning of his learners.
Teacher considered the communicative competence as
the main goal of teaching grammar instead of plainly
linguistic competence.
Teacher used more of descriptive grammar than the
other grammar instruction theories.

Follow-up:
A. How did the teacher use sentences as take-off point in the days grammar
lesson? Narrate.
B. If the teacher reviewed the reading selection, how did/she review the reading
selection?
C. What evident gestures were used by the teacher in developing
communicative competence instead of the plain linguistic competence of the
learner only?
JOURNAL WRITING 9
Grammar and Oral Language Development
Directions: based on your observation, express your own views about GOLD.
1. How important is reading grammar connection in language learning? Why?
2. In what aspect is developing reading connected to the language
communicative usage of a language?
3. How can the home help in learning of grammar and language use?
FOCUS GROUP DISCUSSION 9
Grammar and Oral Language Development
Instruction for Focus Groups Discussion
1. In your respective groups, answer the following items:
How does GOLD become a part of a reading lesson?
How can each dimension of grammar be useful in the classroom? At
home?
2. As a class, design a full-blown lesson guided by any of the grammar
instruction theories.
3. Working in groups, get one reading selection and brainstorm on the grammar
points that can be incorporated.
OBSERVE, WRITE AND SEAK YOUR MIND
Interview 3
1. Interview two teachers who used reading selections in teaching grammar
points. Ask how grammar is integrated.
2. Present to class reading selections that may be used in teaching three (3)
different grammar skills. Choose any grammar skills which you intend to
develop.
3. Construct a full-blown lesson plan using reading selection that follow. Make
sure that GOLD will be a part of the lesson plan.

FIGURE OUT YOUR THOUGHTS


Get a sample lesson plan in Reading from any teachers journal. Examine its
potential for transferring information read to any writing or speaking activity.
OBSERVE, WRITE AND SPEAK YOUR MIND
Observation 11
Transfer Stage
Directions: Study the lesson plan carefully and implement it to the class assigned
to you. Observe hot the activities lead students to transfer their previous skills to
other reading tasks.
OBSERVE, WRITE AND SPEAK YOUR MIND
Observation 12
Transfer stage
Directions: Observe the same preschool or grade school but focus on explicit
transfer stage. Determine the specific literacy experiences provided by the teacher
and the students performance or response to those activities.
1. What re the required language information/skills to perform the tasks
assigned to students?
2. What reading activities were performed to allow transfer?
3. How did these reading activities develop vocabulary, comprehension, and
writing skills of students?
4. How did the teacher promote phonemic awareness? Sight-word vocabulary?
JOURNAL WRITING 10
Critical and Creative Thinking Transfer Stage
Directions: Express your insights about critical and creative thinking, and transfer
stage.
1. What is the significant role of the teacher in developing the critical and
creative thinking of students?
2. How can the teacher help students to successfully transfer their learning to
meaningful literacy settings?

3. What specific literacy experience can you suggest and apply to your class
which will promote critical and creative thinking of your students and which
will allow successful transfer of their learning?

FOCUS GROUP DISCUSSION 10


Critical and Creative Thinking Transfer Stage
Instructions for Focus Group Discussion
1. Each group identifies the language, reading and writing skills of students that
they observed.
2. Match these skills with specific literacy activities to develop students critical
and creative thinking.
3. Design a lesson plan which allows for students critical and creative thinking,
and for transfer of their learning.

FIGURE OUT YOUR THOUGHTS


Interview 1
Directions. Conduct an interview with a reading teacher or reading specialist.
Select one from any of the important concerns in reading.
1. Views on the implementation of basic education curriculum with emphasis in
the teaching of reading
2. Researchers conducted about the implementation of all or one of the theories
mentioned in classroom teaching
3. Reading practices in the classroom

OBSERVE, WRITE AND SPEAK YOUR MIND


Observation 6
The Basic Education Curriculum: A Philippine Perspective
Directions. As an observer, examine how the basic education curriculum is
implemented in the school in terms of explicit language and reading instruction by
completing the checklist.
Observation
Language teaching is
focused on the
instruction for
communication purposes

Observed

Not Observed
Observed

Remarks

Reading teachers are


directed to maximize
pupils ability to
comprehend text by
indentifying relevant and
irrelevant information
found on reading texts.
School programs include
development of pupils
awareness of their
reading progress
Pupils practice reading
strategies in and out of
the classroom
Teachers raise pupils
awareness of their
reading skill by explicitly
teaching reading
strategies to pupils
Teachers build
comprehension checks
into-class and out-ofclass reading
assignments
Other observations:

FIGURE OUT YOUR THOUGHTS


Interview
Directions. Conduct an interview with a reading teacher or reading specialist.
Selct one from any of the important concerns in reading.
1. Views on the implementation of basic education curriculum wth emphasis in
the teaching of reading
2. Researches conducted about the implementation of all or one of the theories
mentioned in classroom teaching
3. Reading practices in the classroom

OBSERVE, WRITE AND SPEAK YOUR MIND


Observation 6
The Basic Education Curriculum: A Philippine Perspective

Directions. As an observer, examine how the basic education curriculum is


implemented in the school in terms of explicit language and reading instruction by
completing the checklist.
Observation
Language teaching is
focused on the
instruction for
communication purposes
Reading teachers are
directed to maximize
pupils ability to
comprehend text by
indentifying relevant and
irrelevant information
found on reading texts.
School programs include
development of pupils
awareness of their
reading progress
Pupils practice reading
strategies in and out of
the classroom
Teachers raise pupils
awareness of their
reading skill by explicitly
teaching reading
strategies to pupils
Teachers build
comprehension checks
into-class and out-ofclass reading
assignments
Other observations:

Observed

Not Observed
Observed

Remarks