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Carlos Hernandez

Asha Pulliam
Daisy Ramirez
Sharon Rivas
Jocelyn Sandoval
Food and Digestion Lab Answer Sheet

Key Organs and Enzymes of the Digestive System


1) The salivary glands produce salivary amylase to digest
actions into collecting ducts .
2) The stomach produces pepsin, which is a protease to digest _
the chief cells in the stomach that functions to degrade food proteins
into peptides.
3) The pancreas produces:
Proteases, to digest __enzymes and hormones_ within the small
intestine
Pancreatic amylase to digest _carbohydrate __within the small intestine
Pancreatic lipase to digest ___dietary fats____ the small intestine
Part 1: Testing for Macromolecules
Hypotheses

Food 1 (Junk):Spaghetti might contain starch and protein because of the meat and
pasta.

Food 2 (Junk): White Bread might have starch .

Food 3 (Junk): Luna Bar will probably contain sugar and protein.

Food 4 (Healthy): Eggs will most likely contain protein.

Food 5 (Healthy): Carrots might have some sugar.

Food 6 (Healthy): Ketchup might contain sugar.

Directions for Testing


1) Why is it important to use a negative and positive control?

To fully understand the concept if it has effects that mean that it is


positive control and if you think that it should it would not ger effect
than that mean then it will appear to be a negative control. By this
its also letting you know it you are doing thing correctly or if you are
doing thing wrong as if the experiment took a wrong turn.
2) Use the following table to record your results for all 4 tests.
Record both the color of the resulting solution and whether the test
is + or - for the molecule being tested.
Food

Benedicts

Iodine

Biuret

Sudan IV

(simple sugar)

(starch)

(proteins)

(lipids)

Color
Positiv
eContr
ol

--

orange/ta
n

+ or
+

Color
Dark
brown

+
or +

Color
Dark purple

+ or
+

Color
Dark pink
at top /
light pink
bottom

+ or
+

Negati
ve
Control

--

Blue

Dark
Orange

Light blue

light pink
tint

Food 1

Spaghetti

Orange/T
an

Dark
Dark
Orange/
green

red

red

Food 2

White
Bread

orange/ta
n

Dark
brown

light blue

Dark pink
top/ light

Food 3

Luna Bar

Brown

Purpleish

Brown

brownish
reddish
color at
top. light
brown
bottom

Food 4

Carrots

orange/ta
n

Light
brown

light light
brown

orange

Food 5

Ketchup

Brown

Dark Red

red

red

Food 6

Eggs

white w.
blue

Dark
Brown

purple

light pink

3) What conclusions can you draw about the nutrients found


in the foods you tested?

One of the conclusion we drew was that majority of our food had
sugar expect the egg. As for the starch we had about half positive
and have negative. So we concluded that a lot of the food that we
consider healthy were no very healthy since it contain a lot of
simple sugar

Part 2: Digestion of Food


1) Fill in the following tables based on your results in lab

S1
Natural Color of test
tube

Iodines Reaction
color
Is there presence of
starch? Y/N

Clear

yello
w
no

G1
Natural Color of test
tube

clear

Benedict's Reaction
color

blue

Is there presence of
glucose? Y/N

no

S2

S3

Clear

Cloud
y

dark
yellow

gradi
e
orang
e

yes

G2
clear

blue
no

some

G3

G4

cloud
y

clear

yello
w and
blue

orang
e

yes

yes

2) Which tubes successfully digested starch?


I feel that s2 was able to digested starch because since s3 it dissolve with
saliva and s2 it dissolve with water it was easier for the starch to dissolve in
water than saliva . It was also easier and more successful than with saliva
because the saliva had a lot of the other chemicals/ germs.

Part 3: Post-Lab thought experiment

1) Billy was super hungry after class, so he stopped at In-n-Out and


ordered a #3 (Double-double, fries, and a strawberry shake). As he is
eating he wonders how his tasty meal is being digested. Using the
word bank below, create a diagram showing Billy how his meal moves
through his digestive tract (from mouth to anus) and how his body
works to digest it.

Mouth

Salvia

Amylase

Esophagus

HCl

Pepsin

Stomach

bile

Large intestine

Pancreas

Small intestine

Gastric juices

Gall bladder

Rectum

Anus

Lipase

Duodenum

Pancreatin

trypinsin

Salivary glands

Small intestine epithelium

Mouth (food enters and is chewed) the salivary glands then releases saliva
which starts chemical digestion and contains an enzyme called amylase which
breaks down starches into simple sugars Food moves down the esophagus
through peristalsis the stomach is where the food then goes to be digested with
a powerful acid called HCl (hydrochloric acid) that breaks down the food the acid
released is called gastric juice which contains enzymes called pepsin that break
down proteins and molecules the small intestine is where all the useful
nutrients are taken to be absorbed. An enzyme called trypsin helps to break down
proteins. The small intestine epithelium is epithelium cells that cover the
intestine that recognizes pathogens the food is taken to the duodenum which is
where it will be taken to be mixed with fluid made by the pancreas. The pancreas
releases a fluid that neutralizes the stomach acid and bile from the liver breaks
down the fat into smaller portions. The pancreas also releases lipase which is an
enzyme that helps break down fat. All these enzymes such as lipase and amylase
are a mixture known as pancreatin. Bile is stored in the gallbladder (and can also
released into the small intestine) Wastes and other dead cells are taken to the
large intestine where the water is extracted from the waste this waste is then
formed into feces which is kept in the rectum waste is then released out of the
body through the anus

2) Challenge question, if Billy ate a bunch of Tums (antacids)


BEFORE eating at In-n-Out would his digestion be affected? If so, how?
Be sure to describe how the enzymes would/could be affected and why.
Tums are used to help relieve heartburn and upset stomach because it
neutralizes the acidity produced by the stomach (which is why it is an
antacid). If Billy were to eat these Tums before actually consuming food, his
digestion would be affected because the stabilizing of the acid would be
thrown off balance and will neutralize the stomach acid and bile will be able
to break down the fat into smaller portions without causing any heartburns
that could affect Billy.