3.i
OBJECTIVES
(31)
The standard unit for pressure in SI units is the .pascal (Pa) or N/m z.
Whereas the standard unit for pressure in the V.S. Customary System is
lb/ftz, the unit lb/inz (psi) i: more convenient and is used most often.
This chapter will foc s on the measurement of fluid pressure. After
completing this chapter, y< u should be able to:
3.2 When making calculations involving pressure in a fluid, you must make the
ABSOLUTE AND
GAGE PRESSIJRE
+ Patm
(32)
43
where
P abs
Pgage
P alm
= absolute pressure
= gage pressure
= atmospheric pressure
300
~
::>
250
40
35
0
,.......
,.......
'"~
'"
.0
'"
Cl..
;>
0
.Cl
::>
Cl)
Cl)
150
~
Cl..
'2
.;;;
5
~
......
V)
'"0
'"
25
0
Cl)
>.
100
'c::>
.;;;
Cl..
::>
,!!!)
Cl..
'"
C
'"'"
~
20
Cl..
...'"0v
v
15
...'"
;>
'0
.;;;
0
10
Cl..
'">.
V)
'c
'"E
. ::>
::>
Cl)
bQ
50
U)
'"::>
'"::>
15
10
50
5
,.......
,.......
v
"CD
.;;;
;>
'0
100
bQ
.0
'"~
!O
V)
'"E
B
::>
'"'"~
;>
'c::>
'8
.c
30
v....
~
::>
'r::
v
0
Cl)
ISO
0
..c
!5
::>
'"
'"f:!
0
]0
'"'"v
....
cv
200
200
45
o
(a) Absolute pressure
0
Range .of normal
variation in atmospheric pressure:
95105 kPa (abs)
13.815.3 psia
5
50
10
Perfect vacuum
(b) Gagepressul<e
Local
atmospheric
45
Express a pressure of 155 kPa(ga.ge)1as ail abs01ute pessure. Tlie local atmospheric
pressure is 98 kPa(abs).
Solution
Pabs = Pgage
Pabs
= 155
+ Palm
~Pa(gage)
+ 98 kPa(abs)
= 253 kPa(abs)
Notice that the units in this calculation are kilopascals (kPa) for each term and are
consistent. The indication er gage or absolute is for convenience and clarity.
Express a pressure of 225 kPa(abs) as a gage pressure. The local atmospheric pressure is 101 kPa(abs).
Soluti!Jn
= Pgage + Palm
Pabs
EXAMPLE P _
EM 3.3
= Pabs  Palm
= 225tl>a(abs)
Express a pressure of 10.9 )sia as a gage pressure. The local atmospheric pressure is
15.0 psia.
olution
+ Palm
Pabs = Pgage
Pgage
=Pabs 
Pgage
Palm
= 4.1
psig
Notice that the result is negative. This can also be read "4.1 psi below atmospheric
pressure" or "4.1 psi vacJUm."
Solution
Pabs
= Pgage
+ Palm
Since no value was given for the atmospheric pressure, we will use Palm = 14.7
psia:
Pab!
= 6.2 psig +
46
3.3
RELATIONSIDP
BETWEEN PRESSURE
AND ELEVATION
You are probably familiar with the fact that as you go deeper in a fluid, such
as in a swimming pool, the pressure increases. There are many situations in
which it is important to know just how pressure varies with a change in
depth or elevation.
In this book the term elevation means the vertical distance from some
reference level to a point of interest and is called z. A change in elevation
between two points is called h. Elevation will always be measured positively
in the upward direction. In other words, a higher point has a larger elevation
than a lower point.
The reference level can be taken at any level as illustrated in Fig. 3.2,
which shows a submarine under water. In part (a) of the figure the sea
bottom is taken as reference, while in (b) the position of the submarine is the
reference level. Since fluid mechanics calculations usually consider differences in elevation, it is advisable to choose the lowest point of interest in a
problem as the reference level to eliminate the use of neg2tive values for z.
This will be especially important in later work.
Water surface
(a)
(b)
PRESSUREELEVATION
RELATIONSHIP
where
t1p
y
= yh
(33) .
= change in pressure
= specific weight of liquid
h = change in elevation
Some gerieral ~onclusions from Eq. (33) will help you to apply it properly:
\
3.3
47
Equation (33) d~es not apply to gases because the specific weight of a
gas changes with a cht..:.nge in pressure. However, it requires a large change
in elevation to produce a significant change in pressure in a gas. For example, an increase in ele vation of 300 m (about 1000 ft) in the atmosphere
causes a decrease in pressure of only 3.4 kPa {about 0.5 psi). In this book we
assume that the preSS:.Lre in a gas is uniform unless otherwise specified.
Calculate the change in vater pressure from the surface to a depth of 5 rn.
Using Eq. (33), 6.p = 'Y.::z, let'Y = 9.81 kN/rn3 for water and h = 5 ffi . Then we have
6.p = (9.8 _ kN/rn 3)(5.0 rn) = 49.05 kN/m2 = 49.05 kPa
If the surface of the
w~er
62.4 lb
ft3
I ft 2
tb
x 15 ft x 144 m
. 2 = 6. S, =i
111
If the surface of the water is exposed to the atmosplilere, the pFessure "rere is 0 p:sig.
Solution
Figure 3.3 shows a tank of oil with one side open to the atmosphere and the other side
sealed with air above ths oiL The oil has a specific gravity of 0.90. Calculate the gage
pressure at points A, B. e, D. E, and F and the air pressure in the right side of the
tank.:
At point A the oil is exp osed to the atmosphere, and therefore
PA
= 0 Pa(gage)
Point B: The change : n elevation between point A and point B is 3.0 rn, with B
lower than A. To use Lq. (33) we need the specific weight of the oil:
roil
Then, we have
IlPAB = 'Yh = (8.83 kN/rn3)(3.0 m) = 26.5 kN/m 2 = 26.5 kPa
:18
Ps
= PA +
6.PA S
= 0 Pa(gage) + 26 .5 kPa
26.5 k?a(gage)
Point C: The change in elevation from point A to point C is 6.0 m, with C lower
than A. Then, the pressure at point C is
6.PA C = yh
Pc = PA
= (8.83
53 .0 kPa(gage)
Point D: Since point D is at the same level as point B, the pressure is the same .
That is, we have
Po
= Ps = 26.5 kPa(gage)
Point E: Since point E is at the same level as point A, the pressure is the same. That
is , we have
PE
= PA
0 Pa(gage)
Point F : 'FM
in elev!!!iofl between point A and point F is 1.5 m, with F
higher than A. Then , the pressure at F is
6.PA F
Air pressure: Since toe air in the right side of the tank is expmed to the surface of
the oil where PF =  131 kPa , the air pressure is also  13 .2 kPa, or 13.2 kPa below
atmospheric pressUre.
3.3.1 The results from Problem 3.7 illustrate the general conclusions listed below
Summary of Observations Eq. (33) on pages 4647.
from Example Problem 3.7 3. The pressure increases as the depth in the fluid increases. This result can
be seen from Pc> PB > PA.
.
b. Pressure varies linearly with a change in elevation;thal is, Pc is two times
greater than PB, and C is at twice the depth of B.
c. Pressure on the same horizontal level is the same. Note that PE = PA and
Po
= PB
pressure, Ap, is
Ap
= yh
(33)
where y is the specific weight of the liquid. This section presents the basis for
this equation.
49
Fluid surface
Figure 3.4 shows a body of static fluid with a specific weight 'Y. Consider a small volume of the fluid somewhere below the surface. In Fig. 3.4,
th small volume is illustrated as a cylinder, but the actual shape is arbitrary.
Because the entire body of fluid is stationary and in equilibrium, the
small cylinder of the fluid is also in equilibrium. From physics, we know that
for a body in static equilibrium, the sum of the forces acting on it in all
directions must sum to zero.
First consider the forces acting in the horizontal direction. A thin ring
around the cylinder is shown at some arbitrary elevation in Fig. 3.5. The
vectors acting on the ring represent the forces exerted on it by the fluid
pressure. Recall from previous work that the pressure at any horizontal level
FIGURE 3.5 Pressure forces
acting in a horizontal plane on a
thin ring.
Fluid surface
50
in a static fluid is the same. Also recall that the pressure at a boundary, and
therefore the force due to the pressure, acts perpendicular to the boundary.
Therefore, the forces are completely balanced around the sides of the cylinder.
Now consider Fig. 3.6. The forces acting on the cylinder in the venical
direction are shown. The following concepts are illustrated.in the figure:
1. The fluid pressure at the level of the bottom of the cylinder is called PI .
2. The fluid pressure at the level of the top of the cylinder is called P2.
3. The elevation difference between the top and the bottom of the cylinder is
called dz, where dz = Z2  Zl
4. The pressure change that occurs in the fluid between th level of the
bottom and the top of the cylinder is called dp . Therefore, P2 = PI + dp.
5. The area of the top and bottom of the cylinder is called A .
6. The volume of the cylinder is the product of the area, A f and tRe height of
the cylinder, dz. That is, V = A(dz).
7. The weight of the fluid within the cylinder is the prQ<:luct of the specific
weight of the fluid, ", and the volume of the cylinder. lhat is, W = 'Y V =
"A(dz). The weight is a force acting on the cylinder in the downward
direction through the centroid of the cylindrical vowme.
8. The force acting on the bottom of the cylinder due to the fluid pressure PI
is the product of the pressure and the area, A . That is, FI = PIA. This
force acts vertically upward, perpendicular to the bottom of the cylinder.
9. The force acting on the top of the cylinder due to the fluid pressure P2 is
the product of the pressure and the area, A . That is , F2 = P2A. This force
acts vertically downward, perpendicular to the top of the cylinder. Because P2 = PI + dp, another expression for the force F2 is
F2
FIGURE 3.6 Forces acting in
the vertical direction.
= (PI + dp)A
(34)
Fluid surface
51
Now we can appl~ the principle of static equilibrium, which states that
the sum of the forces ID the vertical direction must be zero. Using upward
forces as positive, we get
L Fv = 0 = FI
Substituting from
Ste~
 F2 
(35)
7, 8, and 9 gives
A 
(PI
+ dp)A
(36)
 y(dz)A = 0
Notice that the area, A , appears in all terms on the left side of Eq. (36). It
can be eliminated by cividing all terms by A. The resulting equation .is
PI  PI  dp  y(dz) = 0
(37)
Now the PI term can t.e cancelled out. Solving for dp gives
dp = y(dz)
(38)
Equation (38) is the controlling relationship between a change in elevation and a change in pressure. The use.of Eq. (38), however, depends on
the kind of fluid. Remember that the equation was developed for a very small
element of the fluid. The process of integration extends Eq. (38) to large
changes in elevation, as indicated below:
Pl
dp =
PI
III
y(dz)
(39)
II
To complete the analY3is, we must define how the specific weight of the fluid
varies with a change in pressure. Eq. (39) is developed differently for
liquids and for gases.
constant. This allows y to be taken outside the integral sign in Eq. (39).
Then!
Pl
PI
dp = y
JZl (dz)
'
(310)
ZI
P2  PI
and h
= Zl  Z2.
(311)
Equation (311),
/lp = yh
which is identical to eq. (33). The signs for 6.p and h can be a signed at tlte
time of use of the formula by recalling that pressure increases as deptlil in the
fluid increases and vi ce versa.
3.4.2
Gases
3.5
PASCAL'S PARADOX
.: "'.l
<
 ~
pro.d~
3.6 Manometers
53
Water tower
or standpipe
s:1's t~m
3.6 This and following sectioms describe several types of pressure measurement
MANOMETERS
devices. The first is the manometer, which uses the relationship between a
change in pressure and a change in elevation in a static fluid, IIp = yh (see
Sections 3.3 and 3.4). Pilotographs of commercially available manometers
are shown in Figs. 3.9, 1.12, and 3.13.
The simplest kind cf manometer is the Utube (Fig. 3.9). One end of the
. Utube is connected to Dle pressure that is to be measured, while the other
end is left open to the atmosphere. The tube contains a liquid called the gage
fluid, which does not ImX with the fluid whose pressure is to be measured.
Typical gag~ fluids are water; mercury, and colored light oils.
Under the action of the pressure to be measured, the gage fluid is
displaced frQm i!s nor~l position. Since the fluids in the manometer are at
rest, the equation IIp = yh can be used to write expressions for the changes
. .in presstir~ that occur !throughout the manometer. These expressions can
.then be combined and sulved algebraieally for the desired pressure. Because
manometers are used ilI many real situations such as those described in this
book, you should leafll the following stepbystep procedure:
PROCEDURE FOR WRITING ,..,E EQUATION FOR A MANOMETER
1. Start from a conve nient point, usually where the pressure is known,
and write this preSs.Ire in symbol form (e.g., PA refers to the pressure at
point A).
Water
Airat
atmospheric
pressure
Gage fluid
Mercury
(sg = 13.54)
(a) Photograph of
commercially
available model
typical application
2. Using /1p .= yh, write expressions for the changes in pressure that occur
ft:om the starting point to the point at which the preSSllre is to be measured, being careful to include the correct algebraic sign for each term.
3. Equate the expression from Step 2 to the pressure at the desired point.
4. Substitute known values and solve for the desired pressure.
Working several practice problems will help you to apply this procedure correctly. The following problems are written in the programmed instruction format. To work through the program, cover the material below the
heading "Programmed Example Problems" and then uncover one panel at a
time.
Using Fig. 3.9, calculate the pressure at point A. Perform Step 1 of the procedure
before going to the next panel.
. Figure 3.10 is identical to Fig. 3.9(b) except that' certain k~y points have been
numbered for use in the problem solution . .
The only point for which the pressure is known is the surface of the mercury in
the right leg of the manometer,point 1. Now, how can an expression be written for
the pressure that exists within the mercury, 0.25 m below this surface at point 2?
The expression is
PI
+ 'Ym(0.25
m~
3.6 Manometers
Air at atmospheric
pressure
55
The term Ym(O.25 m) is the chlOge in pressure between points I and 2 due to a change
in elevation, where Ym is the ~pecific weight of mercury, the gage fluid. This pressure
change is added to PI because there is an increase in pressure as we descend in a
fluid.
So far we have an expJession for the pressure at point 2 in the right leg of the
manometer. Now write the expression for the pressure at point 3 in the left leg.
This is the expression:
Mercury
(sg = 13.54)
PI
Utube ma
m)
Because points 2 and 3 are 011 the same level in the same fluid at rest, their pressures
are equal.
Continue and write the expression for the pressure at point 4.
[jl
FIGURE 3.10
nometer.
+ Ym(O.25
+ Ym(O.25
m)  Yw(OAO m)
+ Ym(O.25
m)  Yw(OAO m)
= PA
or
PA = PI
+ Ym(O.25
m)  Yw(OAO m)
This is the ~ompleted equltion for the pressure a! point A. Now do Step 4.
Several calculations are required here:
PI = Patm = 0 Pa(gage)
Ym = (sg)m(9.81 kN/m3 )
),,,, =
= (13.54)(9.81 iN/m3 )
= 132.8 kN/m 3
Then, we have
PA = PI + "Ym(0.25 m)  "yw(OAO m)
= 0 Pa(gage) + (132.8 kN/m3)(O.25 m)  (9.81 kN/m 3 )(OAO m)
= 0 Pa(gage) + 33.20 kl
PA
= 29.28 kNh1l.2
1m2
3.92 kN/m 2
= 29.28 kPa(gage)
ar~
56
Chapter 3
Pressure Measurement
Remember to include the units in your calculations. Review this problem to be sure
you understand every step before going to the next panel for arother problem.
Calculate the pressure at point B in Fig. 3.11 if the pressure at J... is 22.40 psig. This
type of manometer is called a differential manometer because itindicates the difference between the pressure at points A and B but not the actual value of either one.
Do Step 1 of the procedure to find PB'
We know the pressure at A, so we start there and call i: PA' Now write an
expression for the pressure at point I .
You should have
Water
PA + 1'0(33.75 in)
29.50
in
FIGURE 3.11
nometer . .
Diff~rential
ma
This is also the expression for the pressure at B since points 4 am B are on the same
level. Now do Steps 3 and 4 of the procedure.
Our final expression should be
PA
+ 1'0(33.75 in)
or .
PB =PA
+ 1'0(33.75 in)
= 22.40 psig
1'0 = (sg>a(62.4 Ib/ft 3) = (O.86)(62.4lb/ft 3 ) = 53.71b/ft3
PA
I'w
= 62.4 Ib/ft3
3.6 Manometers
57
In this case it may help to sinplify the expression for Ps before substituting known
values . Since two terms are multiplied by Yo they can be combined as follows:
Ps = PA
= PA + (29 .5 in)(yo 
Y ... )
This looks simpler than the original equation. The difference between PA and Ps is a
function of the difference between the specific weights of the two fluids.
The pressure at B, thm, is
Ps
=
Ps
p.lg
 62.4)
!~
1 ft 3
1728 in 3
= 22.25 psig
Notice tha us' ng a gage fluid with a specific weight very close to that of the fluid
being measlJI'ed mak~s the lIlanometer very sensitive. Note that PA  Ps "" 0.15 psi.
This concludes the progranmed instruction.
Fig~re 3.1 2 hows another type of manometer called the well~ type .
When a pressure is appled to a welltype manometer, the fluid level in the
well drops a small amamt, while the level in the right leg rises a larger
Measured
pressure
Original
level
0
(a)
(b)
Scale
58
amount in proportion to the ratio of the areas of the wet and the tube. A
scale is placed alongside the tube so that the deflection call be read d ~rectly .
The scale is calibrated to account for the small drop in He well level.
The inclined welltype manometer, shown in Fig. 3 L3, has the same
features as the welltype but offers a greater sensitivity b~ placing the scale
along the inclined tube. The scale length is increased as a function of the
angle of inclination of the tube, (). For example, if the ang'E 8 in Fig. 3. 13(b)
is 15, the ratio of scale length L to manometer deflection h is
L =
SIn ()
or
L
h = sin () =
1
sin 15
 ~URE
(a)
Original
level
Measured
(b)
\.
= 0.259 = 3.86
59
3.7 Barometers
o + 'Ymh = Palm
or
Palm =
'Ymh
(312)
= Ym h
= 0.772 m
Then we have
Palm = (l32.8 .N/m3)(O.772 m) = 102.5 kN/m 2 = 102.5 kPa(abs)
The standard atmospbeic pressure is 101.3 kPa. Calculate the height of a mercury
.column equivalent to ~lis pressure.
60
In Eq. (312),
P alm
Solution
= Ym h
= Palm =
Ym
101.3
m2
10 N
132.8
07
103 N = ' 63
press~~
ID
= 763 mm
is 30.40 in of mercury .
In Eq. (312),
= Ym h
Ym = 844.9 ~b!~V
Palm
J:r
= 30.401 ~n
Then we have
 844.9 Ib
ft 3
Palm Palm
Solution
0 40 .
3. ID
I ft}1  14 9 lb ' 2
1728 in3 lID
.
= 14.9 psia
The standard atmospheric tw"essure is 14.7 psia. Calculate the height of a mercury
column equivalent to this press,l!lre.
In Eq. (312),
= Ym h
h = Palm = 14.71b
Palm
Ym
3.8
PRESSURE GAGES
AND TRANSDUCERS
in 2
ft
844.91b
1728 in
. ft3
3006 .
In
Not~
that two spellings, gage and gauge, are often used interchangeably.
t Magnehelic is a registered trade name of Dwyer Instrumellts, Inc., Michigan
City, Indiana.

61
(a)
(b)
(c)
62
3.9
PRESSURE
TRANSDUCERS
3.9.1
Strain .Gage Pressure
Transducer
FIGURE 3.17 Strain gage pressure transducer and indicator.
(Source of photos: Sensotec, Inc.
Columbus, OH)
Internal
electronic
amplifier
r   ..... Pressure
port
. Electrical
connector_ _~
(a)
~train
63
3.9.2
L VDTType Pressure
Transducer
3.9.3
Piezoelectric Pressure
Transducers
A linear variable differUltial transformer (LVDT) is composed of a cylindrical electric coil with a llovable rodshaped core. As the core moves along
the axis of the coil, a v( ltage change occurs in relation to the pos1tion of the
core. This type of trans::lucer is applied to pressure measurement by attaching the core rod to a fle:xible diaphragm (Fig .. 3.18). For gage pressur~ measurements, one side of the diaphragm is exposed to atmospheric pressure,
while the other side is exposed to the pressure to be measured. Changes in
pressure cause the diarftragm to move, thus moving the ore of the LVDT.
The resulting voltage et ange is recorded or indicated on a meter calibrated in
pressure units. Differe:l.tial pressure measurements can be made by introducing the two preSSUFS to the opposite sides of the diaphragm.
Certain crystals, such <lS quartz and barium ti'tana.te , exhibit the piezoelectric
effect, in which the ele=:trical charge across th~ <;rystal varies with stress in
the crystaL The piezoeectric pressure transducer uses this characteristic of
the crystal by causing (he pressure to exert a fQr~e, either directly or indi
LVDT coil
LVDT core
Operating
pressure port
Pressure
sensing capsule
'(diaphragm)
Chapter 3
64
Pressure Measurement
3.9.4
Quartz Resonator Pressure
Tr~nsducers
6S
3.9.5
Solid State Pressure
Sensors
3.1Q
E~ URE EXP ESSED
sTiI HJGH OFA
COLUMN OF LIQUID
Solid state technology permits very small pressure sensors to be made from
silicon . Thin film silicJn resistors can qe used instead of foil strain gages for a
Wheatstone bridgelype system. Another type uses two parallel plates
whose surfaces are mmposed of an etched pattern of silicon. Pressure applied to one plate causes it to deflect, changing the air gap betw~en the
plates. The resulting change in capacitance can be detected with an oscillator
circuit.
When measuring pre<isures in some fluid flow systems, such as air flow in
heating ducts, the actual magnitude of the pressure reading is often small.
Manometers are sorretimes used to measure these pressures and their readings are given in unts such as "inches of water" rather than the conventional units of psi or Pa.
To convert fron such units to those needed in calculations, the pressureelevation relati(lnship must be used. For example, a pressure of 1.0 in
of water (1.0 in H 2O) expressed in psi units is,
p = yh
3
 62.4
lb (10
H 20) 1728
1 ft in
P ft3
. In
3
0 036 1 lb/In2
0.0361
pSI
= 0.0361
psi
= 249.0 Pa
REFERENCES
1. Avalione, Eugene A.; and Thebdore Baumeister nIf
eds. 1987. Marks' Standard Handbook for Mechanical
Engineers. 9th ed. New York: McGrawHill.
66
PRACTICE PROBLEMS
Absolute and Gage Pressure
3.1 Write the expression for computing the pressure in
a fluid.
Given
Pressure
Problem
PoJm
3.18M
101
kPa(abs)
104
kPa(abs.
Gage pressure
3. 19M
284
128
kPa(gage)
100
kPa(abs.
Absolute pressure
3.20M
3.26E
4.3 psia
14.6 psia
3.27E
10.8 psia
14.0 psia
3.28E
14.7 psia
15.1 psia
3.29E
41.2 psig
14.5 psia
3.30E
18.5 psig
14.2 psi a
kPa(gage)
98.0 kPa(abs,
Absolute pressure
3.21M
4.1 kPa(gage)
101.3 kPa(abs.
Absolute pressure
3.22M
29.6 kPa(gage)
101.3 kPa(abs.
Absolute pressure
3.23M
86.0 kPa(gage)
99.0 kPa(abs,
Absolute pressure
3.24E
84.5 psia
14.9 psia
3.25E
22.8 psia
14.7 psia
Gage pressure
Gage press1!fe
Gage pressure
Gag~ J>te5sure
Gage pressure
Absolute pressure
Absolute pressure
Absolute pressure
Absolute pressure
Absolute pressure
3.31E
0.6 psig
14.7 psia
3.32E
4. 3 psig
14.7 psia
3.33E
 12.5 psig
14.4 psia
PressureElevation Relationship
Problem
3.14M
3.15M
',M
_. 7M
Given
Pressure
583 kPa(abs)
157 kPa(abs)
30
74
Express Result
P~
A~
103
kPa(abs)
101
kPa(abs)
100
kPa(abs)
. 97
Gage pressure
Express Result
As:
67
Lift
cylinder
Oil
sg = 0.90
32 in
in
in
00
Pump
68
Chapter 3
Pressure Measurement
.,.,' oP '<'h
(sg =10, 6) ..
:.:.,
'.
,,1
,','"
., .
3.49M For the tank in Fig. 3.23, compute the depth of the
water if the depth of the oil is 6.90 m and the gage
at the bottom of the tank reads 125.3 kPa(gage).
Practice Problems
69
Ai r
~~~
1.2 m long
1.5 m
t
2.6m
~2m~
Manometers
3.57 Describe a simple Vtube manometer.
3.58 Describe a differential Vtube manometer.
3.59 Describe a welltype manometer.
3.60 Describe an inclined welltype manometer.
FIGURE 3.25 Problem 3.55.
0.25 m
0.50 m
T
0.75 m
Oil
Pipe
Water
(sg =0.85)
8 in
Water
Mercury
(sg = 13.54)
33 in
l50mm
10 in
Water
Mercury
(sg =13.54)
32in
500
Practice Problems
71
3.~8E
Water
,I.,
'.
:~ ; tmm
...~.:
415
.:,'
250
72
Water
'" 600
6.8 in
2 15 mm
Mercury
(: g = 13.54)
Barometers
3.73 What is the function of a barCIlleter?
3.74 Describe the construction of a barometer.
3.75 Why is mercury a convenient fluid to use in a barometer?
3.76 If water were to be used insead of mercury in a '
barometer, how high would tile water column be?
3.77E What is the barometric pressl re reading in inches
of mercury corresponding to 14.7 psia?
3.78M What is the barometric preS$u/.e reading in millimeters of mercury eOf'fesponding to IOJ.3 kPa(abs)?
. 3.79 Why must a barometric pres.ur~ . reading be cor,.
rected for temperature?
Practice Problems
73
3.80E By how much would the barometric pressure read ing decrease from its sealevel value at an elevation
of 1250 ft?
transdu~er
that
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