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North American University

Education Department
M.Ed. in Educational Leadership and M.Ed. in Curriculum and Instruction
EDUC 5324
Name: Kubra Akbay

Date: 7/4/15

Cite the reviewed article in APA format:

Waxman, H., Boriack, A., Yuan-Hsuan, L., & MacNeil, A. (2013). Principals' Perceptions
of the Importance of Technology in Schools. Contemporary Educational
Technology, 4(3), 187-196.
Research Questions (if research questions are not specifically mentioned, what is
the theoretical background or overarching theme):

The study specifically mentioned the following two research questions:

(a) What are principals perceptions of the importance of technology?
(b) Do principals perceptions of technology differ by years of experience and
Purpose of the research:

This research examines principals perspectives and orientations toward technology and it
also focuses on how different characteristics of principals (gender, experience) play a role
in their technology perspectives.
What is the methodology for the research or approach used to understand the
issue? Provide information regarding the following:

310 Principals. (126 males, 184 females) 104 participants having 0-3 years of experience,
82 participants having 4-7 years, 55 participants having 8-11 years, 32 participants
having 12-15 years, and 31 participants having greater than 15 years of experience.
A cognitive interview questionnaire including both qualitative and quantitative questions
were administered by graduate students in EdD program. As part of their principal
certification course requirements, they were trained on how to administer the instrument.
Data Collection Methods/Data Source: Interview Questionnaire.

Data Analysis:
A data reduction process was first applied. Then the data was coded into several
categories. After categories were established, another independent researcher took 10% of
sample responses and coded them to determine coding consistency.
Findings or Results (or main points of the article):

The Principals response categorized in six groups. 35% principals states that technology
was used as a primary communication tool. 28% principals indicates that technology was
integrated in teachers classroom instruction. 14% principals are using technology for
data sharing and management. 15% are using the technology as a resource to find
information. 10% principals also indicates that Technology is used for administrative
tasks, such as taking attendance. Last 10% principals mentioned that technology is used
for student learning.
Principals also used technology at varying levels and purposes based on their gender and
years of experience.
Conclusions/Implications (for your profession):

Technology can be a great catalyst to improve instruction and student learning when
used wisely. Principals have a strong influence on their schools learning culture. If they
choose to become a technology leader, this would help teachers and students integrate
technology into teaching and learning a lot easier. However, many principals are not
technology experts and they lack adequate technology training to become technology
leaders (Ertmer, Bai, Dong, Khalil, Park, & Wang, 2002). Even without technology
expertise, principals can still foster a technology driven vision to improve teaching and
learning (Paben, 2002). This study reveals that principals are in general proponents of
technology and they mainly focus on using technology to improve communication and
instruction. They also see technology as an important tool for data sharing and
management, as a resource, for administrative tasks, and for student learning. The study
also shows that principals perceptions towards technology use can be varied by gender
and by their years of experience as a principal.
Students Reflections (changes to your understanding; implications for your

I think this study reveals meaningful functions of technology that can help not only
principals, but also teachers, students, and even parents. Using technology for
communication is a must. However, I think this serves school leaders as an operational
tool rather than instructional. I am very excited about technology integration specifically
for instruction, data sharing and management, and student learning. As a teacher, these
three components stood out to me. While teachers appreciate having a visionary principal

who can support them for their professional growth, I believe data sharing and
management is a key function they can use technology for. In regards to technology
perceptions based on gender and years of experience, I think these characteristics are not
healthy indicators to make generalizations about educators and their technology
orientations. This is evident from the findings as the percentages fluctuate among both
gender divide and experience divide.