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JOURNAL ARTICLE REVIEW TEMPLATE

North American University


Education Department
M.Ed. in Educational Leadership and M.Ed. in Curriculum and Instruction
EDUC 5324
Name: KAMER KILIC

Date:07/12/2015

Cite the reviewed article in APA format:


Dogan,B., Almus,K. (2014). School Administrators Use of iPads: Impact of Training and
Attitudes Toward School Use. Computers in the Schools, 31(3) 233250.doi:10.1080/07380569.2014.932660

INTRODUCTION
Research Questions (if research questions are not specifically mentioned, what is
the theoretical background or overarching theme):
1. What is the impact of the training process on school administrators use of iPads for
administrative tasks and personal organization in their professional duties?
2. What is the impact of the training process on school administrators beliefs regarding how
teachers should use iPads in the classroom?
3. Are there any differences in school administrators survey responses based on gender, age,
years of experience in school administration and education, highest degree attained, school
classification, or school size?

Purpose of the research:


This study intend to answer questions of what the impact of the training process on
school administrators use of iPads for administrative tasks and personal organization in
their personal organization in their professional duties, what the impact of the training
process on school administrators beliefs regarding how teachers should use iPads in the
classroom, and What differences in school administration and education, highest degree
attained, school classification, or school size are.

METHODOLOGY
What is the methodology for the research or approach used to understand the
issue? Provide information regarding the following:

Participants: Fifty one participants who owned iPads volunteered to complete the presurvey out of approximately 120 school administrators in the school system. While 58.8%
(n = 30) of the pre-survey participants were male, 41.2% (n = 21) of the participants were
female. Additionally, 37 of pre-survey respondents completed the post-survey, yielding a
response rate of 72.55%. Twenty-one (56.76%) respondents in post-survey were male, and

16 (43.24%) were female.


Procedures:
Two survey instruments were used as a mechanism to collect data, which
were administered online through the survey submission system hosted at
the universitys server.
The pre-survey was administered at the beginning of the spring 2013
semester and the post survey was given at the end of the four-month study
period.
Both instruments were reviewed for face validity by two education faculty
members and then were piloted using a group of school administrators in a
local school district.
The pre-survey included age, years of experience as a school administrator,
years of experience in education, highest degree earned, school
classification, and school size.
The pre-survey also included questions measuring if and how school
administrators were currently using their iPads for their daily school-related
tasks, their beliefs about the effectiveness of iPads for administrative tasks,
and if and how school teachers should be using iPads in the classroom
Data Collection Methods/Data Source: The pre-survey and post survey which
includes multiple choice and Likert-type scale items were used to collect the data.
Data Analysis: Survey instruments included multiple choice and Likert-type scale items.
The survey responses were reported as frequencies. In addition, paired sample t-test data
analysis was conducted to understand the differences in the responses between the preand post-surveys. A one-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) test was conducted to see
whether there were any differences in school administrators responses by gender, age,
years of experience in school administration and education, highest degree attained, school
classification, and school size. Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software
was used to conduct the data analysis.

RESULTS
Findings or Results (or main points of the article):

The data analysis of this study is categorized into five main groups:

Analysis of demographic and contextual data;


Impacts of the training process on school administrators use of iPad and
iPad applications;
Impacts of the training process on school administrators beliefs regarding
how teachers should use iPads in the classroom;
Differences in participants responses by their demographic and contextual
data (gender, age, years of experience in school administration and
education, highest degree attained, school classification, and school size)
Evaluation of training process.
DISCUSSIONS

Conclusions/Implications (for your profession):


School administrators in K5 reported their level of iPad skills and knowledge

higher than administrators of K8 and K12 schools.


Administrators in K-12 schools reported significantly lower level of iPad skills and
knowledge than administrators of K-5 and K-8 schools.
o Almost half reported using the iPhone iOS (an operating system that also runs
iPads), while almost 40% of participants used Android as their mobile platform
Eduphoriaan iPad application used for the Eduphoria CMS with modules
designed for storing student data, district curriculum, resources, lesson planners,
and teacher appraisalswas the most commonly used iPad application as reported
by school administrators. Apparently, this CMS was commonly implemented on all
campuses of the school system under study.
According to the results of the post-survey, nearly 80% of school administrators
considered their iPad skills and knowledge at the level of intermediate to
advanced.
That applications in the educational category were the most used types of iPad
applications, followed by communication and books and reference prior to the
training.
A majority of school administrators found the training process useful (92% with
combined categories of very useful and useful). Administrators Use of iPads
also they desired ongoing training and resources on using iPads for administrative
tasks and teaching.
Participants in this study were relatively young administrators (average age of
34.16) with fewer number of years of experience in education (averaged 8.45 total
years of experience in education, and only 2.04 years of experience as a school
administrator) compared with other public schools in the state where the study was
conducted (U.S. Department of Education, 2003). Furthermore, the relatively
young age of participants may be a factor in the positive reception of the training
activities in this study, as it has been previously shown that younger school
administrators use more technology compared with older school administrators
(Afshari et al., 2010; Schiller, 2003).

REFLECTIONS

Students Reflections (changes to your understanding; implications for your


school/work):
Based on results of this study, I suggest that there should be more training of how to use
iPad in education. This training should include all principals but especially older principals
to conduct more technology uses in schools. Government should provide more
technologic material to obtain up to dated principals.

References:
Dogan,B., Almus,K. (2014). School Administrators Use of iPads: Impact of Training and
Attitudes Toward School Use. Computers in the Schools, 31(3) 233250.doi:10.1080/07380569.2014.932660
Afshari, M.,Bakar, K. A., Luan, W. S.,& Afshari, M.(2010, May). Prrincipals and technology use. In
A. Kallel, A. H. Hassairi, C. Ai. Bulucea,& N. Mastorakis(Eds. ), Proceedings of 6th International
Conference on Educational Technologies,2010 (pp.13-18) Sousse, Tunisia: WSEAS. Retrrieved
from http://www.wseas.us/elibrary/conferences/2010/Tunisia /EDUTE/EDUTE-01.pdf