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This was a very difficult topic to research, because there does not appear to be many case studies

conducted on the effectiveness of teaching with comics in specific subject areas.


My topic is Teachers using Comics within the Classroom, or Does using comics within the
classroom increase performance.
Title: Your Credibility Could Be Shot: Pre-service Teachers Thinking about Nonfiction
Graphic Novels, Curriculum Decision Making, and Professional Acceptance. Include author(s):
J. Spencer Clark
Summary of the review of literature: This article looks at using historical nonfiction graphic
novel in the social studies curriculum. This is to identify if the students use of graphic novels will
increase their understanding.
Analysis of methodology: The case study use a qualitative method, in gathering data.
How they collected data? Each student had to read two graphic novels over a two week period.
All the participants read the same graphic novel assigned at first. The second novel was chosen
from twelve novels based on their interest. The novels where discussed in small and whole
group. Data was collected using six online discussion post the first week, post it notes with
students thought when reading the novel in the second week, and a written analysis of the
graphic novel the third week and interviews during the initial three weeks following the spring
semester.
Who were their participants? Twenty four pre-service undergraduate teachers in an
undergraduate secondary social studies methods course at Midwestern State University. These
students were preparing for student teaching.

Where did they conduct the study? The study was conducted at Midwestern State University,
in an undergraduate course.
Summary of results (What did they encountered? Initially most of the pre-service teachers did
not see any value in reading graphic novels. After reading the two text nearly all the students
changed their point of view. They noted that the graphic novels greatest value was the
presentation of multiple perspectives. The novels are valuable in engaging unmotivated readers.
All the teachers saw graphic novels as being valuable in engaging readers in thinking about
historical empathy, because were able to see the characters in a context. The pre-service teachers
were worried about community and school perception preventing them from utilizing graphic
novels in the classroom.
Your opinion about the research (what was done right, what can be improved In the
research I liked the fact that the researcher collected the teachers opinions or data before
discussion in class. That ensured that the opinion used belonged to them and not influenced by
the discussion.
What did you learn from the study I learned that even though a concept proves to be great,
does not mean that someone will use it. The teachers felt that using graphic novels would be a
great asset in helping their students identify with historical figures or concept. However, they
were not willing to take that risk in teaching and was more concerned about how they would be
viewed by the community and the school.

Title: Teaching history with Comic Books: A Case Study of Violence, War, and the Graphic
Novel.
Include author(s) Alicia C. Decker and Mauricio Castro
Summary of the review of literature: This journal article use the Unknown Soldier comic to
teach history in the classroom. This was taught to an undergraduate group, most of whom have
never read a comic before. The students at the end preferred the readability and enjoyed using
comics in the class.
Analysis of methodology: Pedagogical approach in which different discussions was a main
factor. There was no quantitative method used, the researcher relied mainly on observations.
How they collected data? Observation, students read the first three issues of Unknown Soldiers
before coming to class, this was the first time most of the participants had read a comic book
(especially women). They discussed their overall impression of the novel in class.
Who were their participants? Undergraduate students in a womens studies course at Perdue
University.
Where did they conduct the study? Perdue University
Summary of results (What did they encountered?) There was a comparison made between
the graphic novel, the film and historical lecture about the same topic. Every one stated they
enjoyed learning from the novels readability. The researcher found that students who are not as
likely to read during the course did read this book. The book made it easier to think more
critically about the content.

Your opinion about the research (what was done right, what can be improved) I think the
research needed to be more detailed. It did not mention any specifics of the participants. Also,
the method of collecting data was not sufficient.
What did you learn from the study: I learned that you do not have to just use the graphic
novels, comparing them with film and previous lectures really provides different modes of
understanding.
Title: Connecting Through Comics: Expanding Opportunities for Teaching and Learning.
Include author(s): Cynthia Bolton-Gary
Summary of the review of literature: This article concentrates on how comics can aide in
students learning process. It shows that if concepts are linked with pictures etc. then knowledge
is more easily constructed. Overall in the end the study showed that the use of comics created a
positive impact.
-Analysis of methodology: The study uses both a quantitative and qualitative approach in
conducting its study.
How they collected data? Open ended written qualitative responses of the course evaluations.
The responses was categorized and coded.
Who were their participants? The study included 92 pre-professional students majoring in
early childhood education. The traditional students younger than 25 and non-traditional degreed
or career changers, early childhood majors. The majority of the students are white females, 15%
males and 15% African Americans.

Where did they conduct the study? The study occur as part of a large project, in a small
southeastern university.
Summary of results (What did they encountered?) 12 categories were created out of 92% of
the responses. They are then grouped into three common themes. Ninety-seven percent of the
responses included three themes. A review of the lesson plans and notes showed that a general
approach was used to comics. Results from the evaluations showed that the comics made an
impact on how students saw the course. 3.87 out of 4.0 perceived overall enjoyment and
motivation in the course. 24% had a sense of enjoyment in learning the course. There was a rise
in student participation from 35% in Fall 2008 to 67% in the spring 2009. There was a decrease
after 2009 due to lack of comics sections,
Your opinion about the research (what was done right, what can be improved) The study
had a mixed demographics that accounted for reliable results. They converted open ended
questions into quantitative results. Open ended questions can be subjective and so the results can
be skewed.
What did you learn from the study: I learned that use of comics will increase motivation and
learning. However, the lack of comics in particular subject areas may make it difficult to teach
using comics, due to inaccessibility.
Title: Using Historical Graphic Novels in High School History Classes: Potential for
Contextualization, Sourcing, and Corroborating
Include author(s) William Boerman-Cornell
Summary of the review of literature: The article looks at the use of graphic novels vs
traditional text. Comics allow students to pay attention to both and the picture and the text

simultaneously, unlike text, where the eye looks at words then pictures. The study looks at
graphic novels has to offer high school teachers and students in social studies. It found that
graphic novels does not offer equal opportunity for collaboration, contextualizing and sourcing.
Analysis of methodology: The methodology was to clarify what types of scaffolding graphic
novels provides.
How they collected data? This study looked at the graphic novels that could be found with the
information that supported the curriculum. There were certain criteria set forth that influenced
whether or not a graphic novel was considered such as the format, content etc.
Who were their participants? This study did not have people as participants, but graphic
novels. There were 20 nonfiction history or social studies graphic novel reviewed.
Where did they conduct the study? The study took place at Trinity Christian College.Summary of results (What did they encountered?) The study found that High School
Graphic Novels offers opportunities for high school teachers to include contextualization,
collaboration, and sourcing, it did not provide equal opportunities for all three elements at the
same degree each time.
Your opinion about the research (what was done right, what can be improved) The
researcher had a wide variety of books that met the criteria. Due to limited number of graphic
novels, especially on certain subject matters, I am sure the researcher was limited to the novels
he/she should have chosen for the research.
What did you learn from the study: I learned that even though graphic novels are an excellent
idea for the classroom, it might not provide all the areas that I need to cover. So I would have to
supplement with other resources, such as film etc.

Title: Are Comic Books an Effective Way to Engage Non majors Learning and Appreciating
Science?
Include author(s) Hosler and K.B. Boomer
Summary of the review of literature: The article looks at how Science comic book can affect
learning and attitude about biology, comics and content knowledge about evolution before and
after using the science comic book Optical Allusions in their classes.
Analysis of methodology: The study is to assess whether there is a significant increase in the
average knowledge gained and positive attitude towards biology and comics at the end of the
course. There was a combination of qualitative and quantitative data used.
How they collected data? Data was collected from quizzes and problems, that involved students
working with the person beside them to figure out problems, how to interpret a graph or design
experiments. Students were assigned specific topics to read and discuss I the Optical Allusions
text (comic text).
Who were their participants? The students in four biology courses at Juaniata College in
Central Pennsylvania. The student body consisted of 57% female, 7% international, and 7%
domestic minority. Thirty percent of the students were first generation in their family to attend
college. The students in each of the courses had different demographics.
Where did they conduct the study? Juaniata College in Central Pennsylvania.
Summary of results: There was a significant improvement in median knowledge score in all
groups. The lowest score was in the sensory biology class that has non-science majors fulfilling a
requirement. The post-instructional score on the content assessment was significantly higher than

on the pretest for each course. The results of the scores proved that when images are combined
with words, reading performance and retention improves, compared to when non-illustrated text
are used. A significant increase in median content knowledge scores observed in each of the four
courses, showing that comic book was as effective at conveying information in the three classes
in which it was used as the more traditional used Biology 11 book.
Your opinion about the research (what was done right, what can be improved) The
researcher had a wide demographics, which allowed them to have a lot information and very
detailed study. There was a lot of participants which made the data more reliable because it was
on a large percentage of the overall population in the school.
What did you learn from the study: I learned that the use of comic, instead of the traditional
text in a class can increase learning. This increases reading and retention in content knowledge.
The study shows that using comics in the classroom also increases individual student interest.
Reference
Baker, A. (2011). Using Comics To Improve Literacy In English Langauge Learners.
Boerman-Cornell, W. (2015). Using Historical Graphic Novels in High School History Classes:
Potential for Contextualization, Sourcing and Corroboration. The History Teacher, 48(2).
Decker, A., & Castro, M. (2012). Teaching History with Comic Books: A Case Study of
Violence, War and the Graphic Novel. The History Teacher, 45(2).
Hosler, J., & Boomer, K. (2011). Are Comic Books an Effective Way to Engage Nonmajors in
Learning and Appreciating Science?1. Cell Biology Education, 309-317.
Clark, J. (2013). "Your Credibility Could Be Shot": Prevervice Teachers' Thinking about
Nonfiction Graphic Novels, Curriculum Decision Making, and Professional Acceptance. The
Social Studies, 104, 38-45.
Bolton-Gary, C. (2012). Connecting Through Comics: Expanding Opportunities for Teaching
and Learning. doi:University of South Carolina Beauforth, Bluffton SC, USA