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HISTOIRE DE LA MEDECINE

USS-PP
2009-10
Deontologie medicale
Dr. Dyrada CHEA

matika

(Sommaire)

evCsaRsbuBVkal (Les mdicines de lantiquit)


II.
CMenoW
nig
evCsaRsnamFmsmy (Spiritualit et mdecine
I.

du moyen age)

evCsaRssmykalfI brs;eLIgvij

III.
mdecine de la renaissance)

bdivtnCIvsaRsnastvtSTI

IV.
rvolution biologique du XVII siccle)

evCsaRsnastvtSTI18

V.
siccle)

evCsaRsnastvtSTI19

VI.
siccle)

evCsaRsnastvtSTI20

VII.
siccle)

17

(La
(La

(La mdecine du XVIII

(La mdecine du XIX

(La mdecine du XX

esckIepIm
edaymanPaBCitsiTrvagvb,Fm
eTAnwgkarGPivDnsgm
sil,nkareFVIeGayCas es,Iy (Lart de gurir)
)anRtUvPnRcLMGs;rab;stvtS
eTAnwgPaBdGsar
eTAnwgCMenOEdl hYsBIPaBCaFmCati
eTAnwgmnGaKmviCakar
eTAnwgsasna
nigkarRbtibtieTAtamCMenO
sasna
epSg
.
Rbvtirbs;vCsaRsenH
vakmanTMnak;TMngeTAnwgkarrIkral
dalnCMgW
(pidmies)
sMPareraKvinicy
suxPaBsaFarNpgEdr
edayKitBicarNatamEbbviTasaRs
nigedaykar Ba)al .
evCsaRsTMenIb)anrIklUtlas;eLIg
cab;taMgBIBak;kNalstvtSTI19
edaysarmUldanRKwHn
viTasaRs
EdlBwgEpkTaMgRsugeTAelIkarRsavRC
2

av cMeBaHsarBagkayrbs;mnusSpal;
Etmg .
I. Les mdecines de lantiquit

evCsaRsbuBVkal

eyIgEckecjCa 3tMNak;kalxusKa

A.

A.

tMNak;kaldMbUg

B.

smyGIub:URkat

C.

smykaeLnic

(Les mdecines dite primitives)


(Lre Hippocrate)

(Lre Galnique )

tMNak;kaldMbUg

(Les mdecines dite primitives)

kgtMNak;kaldMbUgenH
eyIgEckecjCa
4tMNak;kaltUcteTAeTotrYmman
A.1.

evCsaRscin

A.2.

evCsaRs\Na

(La mdecine Chinoise)


(La mdecine Indienne)

evsaRstMbn;emsUb:UtamI

A.3.
mdecine Msopotamienne)
A.4.
A.1.

evCsaRseGhSIb

evCsaRscin

(La

(La mdecine Egyptienne)

(La mdecine Chinoise)

manRbvti2700qaMmun
K>s
EdlmanrhsSnamfa GFiraCelOg Lempereur
Jaune .
evCsaRsrbs;cinsmyenaH
3

BwgEpkeTAelIkareRbIR)as;
lviTasaRs

nig eTAelIrukCati
lviTasaRsrbs;cin
cab;manskmPaBeLIgvij
enAkgstvtSTI20 .

Acupunctune

A.2.

evCsaRs\Na

(La mdecine Indienne)

evC
saRs\NamanRbvtiekgCagcin
edaymanRKUeBTBIrnak;
1.

Charaka (1er sicle apr J.C)

2.

Suruta (4 sicle apr J.C)

evC
saRsburaNrbs;\NasmyenaHeQ
aHfa
Samshita
edayEpkkarviPaKeTAelIcRkvaL
( Macrosome lunivers )
lhomme )

nigeTAelImnusS

( Microsome

evsaRstMbn;emsUb:UtamI

A.3.
mdecine Msopotamienne)

(La

eKEpkxaMgeTAelIkaresBmnv
iCakar
nigedaykarcab;bgMeRcIn
(Empreinte
dempirisme)
evC
4

saRsenaHeKeGayeQaHfa
Le
code
dHammourabi EdlekItenAstvtSTI18mun K>s
vaEpkeTAelIkarGnuvt
RkitRkmnBikarPaB
Baremme
dinvalidit

nigenAelIeBlevla
.
eKrkeXIjfaMRKab;eFVIGMBIdI\d enA
Nanive,
enA
Babylone,
enA
Asour
EdlbBaak;BIkarGnuvtn
evC
saRsrbs;BYk Akkadiens .
cMeBaHkarBa)alvij
eK)anrYmpSMeTAelIkaMrsIRBHGaTit
Offrances karbUCa Sacrifices karesBmnsnM
Incantation

edayELkcMeBaHevC
saRsFmCati
Mdecine
naturelle

manCaGaT
rebobrMurbYs
karBa)alkar)ak;qwg
kareRbIR)as;sfeday pSMecjBIFmCati
nigGgFatuepSg .

A.4.

evCsaRseGhSIb

(La mdecine Egyptienne)

vamanrykalRbmaN
3000qaM
karsikSaelI Papyrus mdicaux nigelI Momies
GacbBaak;eGaydwg)an
GMBIkarGnuvtevC
5

saRsrbs;eGhSIbburaN
RBmTaMgbBaak;GMBICMgWepSg
Edl)anyaryIBYkeGhSIsmyenaH
dUcCa Bilharziose, Pathologie Cardio-vasculaire, Maladie rhumatologiques
et Endocrinienne . edaysarkarecHTsSTay dUcCa
Imhotep,
EdlCaGaTieTBxagkarBa)alenaH
BYkeGhSIb
)anBnl;ehtupl
ehIy)anEbgEck keTs epSg dUcCa Papyrus
de
laboun
(
2000qaMmun
K>s
)
EdlmankeTseraKRsI nigbsueBT Papyrus
Ebers ( XVII dynastie ) Edlmanrab;ryCMBYkCMgW
nigkarBa)al Papyrus Edwin-Smith ( XVIII dynastie )
buBVbursnkarBa)alEpk
Traumato
EdlmankayviTa
(Anatomie)
nigslviTa

(Chirurgie),

Papyrus

Chester

Beatty

N o6

(Epopre

ramessise)

Tak;eTAnwg
Proctologie
rnKUT
.
edaysarkarecHrkSaTuknUvsaksB
nig)anykeRKOgkgecj
BIsaksBenaH
(Ambaumement et de lviscration) eFVIeGayBYkeGhSIb
manKMniteRcInBI
kayviTa
(Anatomie)
RBmTaMgrn
b
RbehagFmCatiTaMgLay (Conduits creux) .
elIsBIenH
eTAeTot
eKmanCMnajEpkckeraK
eKGaceFVIkarvHkat;
CMgW)ayEPk
(Cataractes)
RBmTaMgGac
Ba)alEPk
6

EdlrgeRKaHedaysarBHxSac;
nigedaysarstVlit .
B.

smyGIub:URkat

(Lre Hippocrate)

cab;BIstvtSTI5 munK>s BYkRnik (Grecs)


)anbegItnUv TsSnviCaEbkCaeRcIn
EdlBnl;
BIehtupl EdlbNaleGaymanCMgW .
rhUtdl;stvtSTI19
eTIbmanRbBn
Hllnique (Grecs) Edl)anCMrujeGaymanKMnit
nigkarGnuvtnCaevC
saRsenAbswmRbeTseLIg La pansse et la
pratique mdicale en occident .
B.1. Hippocrate de Cos

karGnuvtnevC
saRsrbs;BYkRkik
smyenaHeFVIeLIgtamEbbCasntivgS
tMNvgSRtkUl BYk Asclpiades
EdlCaExSRsLayrbs; Asclpios CakUnrbs;
Apollon GFiraCnevCsaRs
Edl)anbdisnienA Thbsalic TIenaHehIy
Edl)anEfrkSaeday Centaure Chinon .
B.2. Lcole de Cos (Kos)

KWCasalaevCsaRsenAelIekaH Cos
enHehIy EdlExSRsLayrbs; Hippocrate )aneFVI
kar
nigebIkCasalaeLIg
ehIy)ansikSaGMBI
Corpus
Hippocraticum
mhasadrbs;elakman
72k,al
EdlsresrCaPasa Ionienne .
kaledImeLIy
cMeBaHevC
saRsmanEtGkecHmnGaKmKafa
nigGkkan;sasnaeT
Edlman
\TiBleTAelITsSnviCanCMgW
.
enAeBlEdlBYkRKUeBTnsala
Cos
)
anyl;dwgGMBIeraKsBaa
enaH
eKBMuTan;GacbBaak;)anfa
CaGtsBaaNKInIkNamYyeT
.
]
TahrN
dUcCaRKunekA
eKyl;fa
CaCMgWmYyeTAehIy
BMuEmnCaeraKsBaaeT
BYkeKykRTwsI Humeur (liquide du lorganisme humaine)
sMrab;vaytMleTAelI Pronostic, Conduite Thrapeutique
erakvinicy
nigeTAelI
sBaaNkayviTa
smyenaHeKyl;RcLMrvagssRbsaT
nwg Tendon (Nerfs et tendons) . smyenaHedr
elakHippocrate yl;fa PaBminRbRkt_rbs; Humeur )
anbNaleGaymanCMgW.
8

dUcenHsarBagkayey_g
RtUveFVIkarTb;Tl;nwgCMgW
ehIyeyIgcaM)ac;RtUvEfrkSaGkCMgW
edaymankar
BinitKInIk
eTAtamlMdab;nkarvivtnrbs;CMgW
.
CabBab;elak
Hippocrate
)
aneroberogCaRkm
sIlFmevCsaRs
TukpgEdr .
B.3. Lcole mdicale de Cnide

RsbeBlCamYyKaenaH
sala
Cnise
Edl)anebIkRBmKaCamyysala
Cos
EdlenaH maneromc,geQaH Chrysippe ( IV sicle
av.J.c) epImecjBIsalaenH GkR)aC Galien )
an
EbgEckCMBUkCMgWeTAtamsrIragEdlr
geRKaH . enAsala Cnide mUlbTnTsSnviC
aRbtkSniym
(Pragmatisme)
)
anRKbdNb;CaerOy eTAelIRTwsIevC
saRsTsSnviCarbs;sala Cos .

B.4. Lcole mdicale Alexandrie

cab;BIstvtSTI4mun K>s salaenA


Alexandrie
)ankayeTACamUldanR)aCa
rbs;BYk
Grce,
Ptolemc
1
Ster
)
aneFVIkarsMeyaKrvag cMeNHdwgRkik
nigelakxagekIt
.
eK)an
er

GnuBaateGaymankarvHkat;
(Dissection)
RBmTaMg)anbegItnUvbNalymYyy:
agFMpg . Gk R)aCsalaenHehIy
Edl)aneEbgEckBI Artres nig Veines )anrkeXIj
Nerfs
sensitifs
nig
Moteurs
sresrGMBIclnassQamxYrk,al
nigRbBnssTwkrg
(Systme
lymphatique).
EtkarrkeXIjEpkkayviTa
nigsrIrviTaenH
min)anCadMukMPYndl;karGnuvtnev
CsaRseT
eRBaHva
CarNbeTAnwgRTwsIrbs;
Aristote
RKUnkayviTaeRbobeFob Maitre de lanatomie
compare

ehIyKMnitenHmanrhUtdl;stvtSTI17
.
cMeBaH Aristote Kat;yl;fa ebHdUg KWCa
srIragmUldanrbs;clnaQamrt;
EdlCamNlpl;kMedAdl;stV
CakEngpknUvRBlwg
nigKMnit
cMENksYt nigxYrk,alCakEngEtmYyKt;
Edlpl;nUvPaBRtCak; .
B.5. Les coles mdicales de Rome

edIm,IRbNaMgRbECgCamYyRkik
BYk
Romain
)anTTYlyknUvevC
saRsrbs;BYkRkik
.
cab;
BIstvtSTI1mun
K>s
10

RKUeBTEdlecjBIsala
Alexandrie
)
aneTAenATIRkug Rome enATIenaH ehIy
EdlBYkeKbegIteGaymanCa
salakeTsepSg (Secte) b menaKm .
BYkeCOeTAelI Atomes dwknaMedayelak
Asclpiades de Bithynie 120 - 40 EdlpyBIKMnitrbs;
Hippocrate
(Humeur)
.
BYkeKyl;fa
xnmnusSpMecjBI
Atome
ehIyTak;TgKaedayrntUc ehAfa Pores
enAeBlEdlTMnak;TMngrbs;
Atomes
enHmin)anl
va)anbNaleGayeTACaRKun
rlak
bkarQWcab; (Fivre, linflammation, ou douleurs) .
enAmankeTsCaeRcIneTot
EdleFVIkarsikSaeTAelI sYt sf citviTa
smB
eraKRsI
nigCMgWkumar
nigCacugbBab;
BYkeK)an
erobcMeGaymanCaRkumeraKsBaa
edIm,IkMNt;c,as;las;nUvCMgW
ehIyEbgEckCMgWTUeTAeGayecjBI
CMgWEdlb:HBal; eTAtamsrIragNamYy
.
kgenaHEdr
GkR)aC
Cnise
)
anKitdUcelak
Galien
Edr
edayeFVIkarRcanecalnUvlkxN
nigKMnitminsmRsbecj
11

ehIyeCOCak;EtelIbTBieasFnEt
b:ueNaH .
C. smykalkaeLnic (Lre Galnique)
bnb;BI
Hippocrate
elak
Claude
Galien
CakMBUlmnusSTI2 nasmyevCsaRs
buBVkal.
sadrbs;elak)anRKbdNb;Gs;ryeBl
15stvtS
BiessKWeBjmFmsmy
Etmg.
kgcMeNam
500sad
rbs;elak manEt 83sad Etb:ueNaH
EdlTak;TgeTAnwg kayviTa srIrviTa
nigeraKviTa
Kat;CaCnCatiRkik
)
aneFVIkarenATIRkug
Rome
elak)anbegItnUv
RbBnfMImYy
EdlrYmbBalnUvRTwsI
Humeur
rbs;
Hippocrate (Anatomie) kayviTa nig srIrviTa .
elakkCaGkvHkat;eGayBYkGkeFVIs
eRgam
(Gladiateurs)
vHkat;elIstV
ehIyeFVIkarepr
karGegt
kayviTaelImnusS
.
eTaHbICaelak)anrkeXIj
nUvsrIrviTarbs;snHRTUg
(Diaphragme)
xYrk,al
nigxYrqwgxgkeday
kelakenAmankarPnRcLMxH
dUcCa
cMnYnxYrqwgxg
12

karbegItRKab;QamenAkgefIm
clnaxl;kgssQamRkhm
nigkarEdlvamankar
Tak;TgKarvagfteRkamnebHdUg
(Communication inter ventriculaire) .

(Artre)

Galien

kCaGkBa)aldsat;CMnajEdr
ehIy)anbnSl;TuknUvCMBUksfEdleKehA
fa Galnique .
II.
CMenoW
nig
evCsaRsnamFmsmy (Spiritualit et
mdecine du moyen age)

bnab;BImankarRsutcuHnGaNacRkr:
UmauMgmk (lEmpire Romain dOccident) karGb;rM
EpkevCsaRs
kBMusUvmankarrIklUtlas;eT
sMeNrrbs;buBVCnRtUv)at;bg;xat;x
ayGs;
ehIykar
GnuvtnevC
saRsRtUv)anrkSaTuk
edayGkkan;sasnaEtb:ueNaH
.
eKGnuvtnevCsaRsxHenAtam
TIGaram
minGnuBaateGayvHkat;CaTUlayeT
dak;eQaHCMgWeTAtamsasna
ykqwgburaNeTAeFVIkar
Ba)al
minGnuBaateGaymankarRsavRCavelI
13

ragkaymnusS
eday)armeTAelI]bRTBrbs;RBay
bIsaceTAvij .
enAstvtSTI5 nigTI6 salaenA Constantinople )
anmkpas;CMnYnsala Alexandrie elak Onibase
sresr)an 70sad elak Alexandre de tralles
sresrGMBIslsaRs
nig)an
7k,al
KWedaysarGkR)aCTaMgbIrUbenHehI
y
Edl)anksagsadTukeGaynisSitCMnan;
eRkay
enA
mhaviTalyevC
saRsTIRkug
Paris
)
aneronsURtrhUtdl;stvtSTI18 .
enAcugbBab;nmFmsmy
eKsegteXIjmankarrIklUtlas; EpkevC
saRsCafIeLIgvij
karbegItsaklviTaly
Mdivale
karbkERbBIPasaGara:b;mkLataMg (Latin)
edaysarBYk RKUeBTCnCati Juifs (Israel)
nigGkkan;sasnaRKwsenAsIunI
karbegItGaKarmnIreBTTTYlGkCMg
W Xg; (Hensen) CMgWEb:s (Peste)
CMgWssRbsaT
nigCacugeRkaykarpusecjnUvRKUeBTC
nCati
Gar:ab;
14

EdlCamUldanRKwHEtmYyKt; rbs;evC
saRsnamFmsmy .
A. salaGar:ab; (Les coles arabes)
cab;BIstvtSTI9n
K>s
mkmankarrIkraldalnsalaGar:ab;enA
Andabusie,
Perse,
Care
nigenA
Bagdad
edayyklMnaMtamevCsaRs
GIub:URkat
nig
kaeLnic
.
BYkGar:ab;)ansresr
GMBIslsaRs
ckeraK sf nigsrIrsaRs . enA Bagdad
vijRKUeBTvHkat;eQaH
Rhafes
nigCaCncMNanxagKInikpgenaH
)
ansresrCaelIkdMbUgGMBI
CMgWknlelIEs,k dUcCa Gut nig kRBa
il.
cMENkelak
Avicenne
vij
ksagsad)ancMnYn
150k,al
elIEpkevCsaRsenH elak Grand de Cremone )
anbkERbBIGara:b;mkLataMg
ehIyRtUv)aneKeRbIR)as;rhUtdl;stvtS
TI17
.
enA
Cardou
elak
Abucasis
k)anENnaMGMBIslsaRs
KYreGaykt;sMKal;Edrna
mFmsmyenaH . elak Moise Maimonide
EdlCaRKUeBT
Juif
ehIy)anePosxnenATIRkug
Caire
enaH)anl,Il,ajedaysarkarBa)alCMgWh
15

Wt
(Asthme)
enA
Sville
k)anrkeXIjCMgWGutFM
minlab;mkmgeToteT .

elak

Avenzoar

B. Les universits Mdivales

karbegItsaklviTalyenAeBjBiPBRKws
sasna
enAbswmRbeTsenaH
)
aneFVIeGayman
karpas;brelIBiPBGara:b;
nigCMrujeGaymannUvrlkKMnitfI
.
nastvtSTI10
enATIRkug
Salerne
)
ankayCasalaevCsaRs
.
PaBxrxaynsaklviTalyevC
saRsdMbUgenH
Tak;TajeGay
RKUeBT
Juifs
CaeRcIncUleron
EdlBYkenHecjBIBiPBGara:b;
ehIy)anbegItCarbbmYyeQaH
Salernitain
karGb;rMenHCakarRbesIr
edayyktamlMnaMRkik
nig
Latin
ehIyRKUeBTBencr
(Mdecine
voyageurs)
dUcCaelak
Constantin
dAfricain
)
anbkERbPasaGara:b;mk
Latin
nUvGtbTrbs;
Galien
nig
Hippocrate
.
cMENkesrGara:b;vijenaH
)
an)at;bg;y:agxaMg
eK)an
erobcMeGaymanqb (Sage femme) ehIy Trotula
16

enAstvtSTI11 rbkKMehIj EpksmB


eraKRsI
mun
kgeBl
nigeRkayeBlsMralkUn (Infection puerprale) .
cab;BIstvtSTI11mk BYkRKU Salernitain )
anbegItsaklviTalymYy enA Bologne
Bak;kNalTI2nstvtSTI12 enA Monpellier
Edlcab;epImbgat;enAqaM1220
nigenABaseBjTVIbGWur:ub
Padoue,
Paris,
Lalamangne,

Oxford,

Cambridge

ou

Valladolid

RkumRKUeBTFMenAstvtSTI12-13
suT
Etqgkat;sala
Salerne
ehIyGb;rMtamlMnaM Galnique elakArnaud de
Villeneuve
RKUeBT vHka\; Henry de Mondeville
nigelak
Guyde
Chauliac
suTEtCaesrl,IEdlkan;RKwH sasna .
enAeBjmYymFmsmy
cMeNHdwgEpkevC
saRsBMumankarrIklUtlas;eT
eKeXIjman
karrkSaTuknUvsadrbs;
Hippocrate,
Galien,
Aristote
nig
Avicenne
sMrab;eFVICamUldanRKwH
evC
saRs EdlsitenAkgPaBRseBcRsBil
nigenAeRkamKMnabrbs;sasnaenAeLIy
.
III.
evCsaRssmykalfI
brs;eLIgvij (La mdecine de la renaissance)
17

manehtukarNFMBIrKYreGaykt;sMKal
;kgsmykalenaH
1>karrkeXIjkare)aHBum<
2>karrkeXIjEdndIfI1492
mUldanRKwHnkarrs;eLIgvijenHrY
mman
esrIPaBnkarKit
kraCPaBnbBaajaN
sucritPaBbuKlkgkarfwgEfg
karrs;eLIgvijnvb,Fm
nigkarRcanecalnUvRbBncas;KMril
rbs;mFmsmy .
edaysarkarecHqRbDitelIelah
elak
Gutenberg
naqaM
1455
)
anbegIteGaymanCa
esovePABum<
kare)aHBum<pSaynUvcMeNHdwgCa
skl
.
RBMEdnncMeNHdwg
EdlBImunmkmanEtkg
bNaly
nigBYkGPirkSenaH
\Lv)anRtUveKeFVIkarpas;br (volu).
cMeNHdwgEpkevCsaRs kRtUv )
anTMlayecj
.
esovePAevC
saRsdMbUgeK
RtUv)ane)aHBum<enAqaM
1457
naTIRkug Mayen cab;BI stvtSTI15mk
18

esovePAeBTrbs;elak Celse, Rhafes, Avicenne, Avenzoar


RtUv)an
e)aHBum<pSayCaTUlayeBjTVIbGWr:ub
.
TnwmnwgenaH
sadFMEpkkayviTa
srIrviTa
rbs;esrna
mFmsmy
kRtUv)ane)aHBum<pSaypgEdr .
karrkeXIjTVIbGaemrik
)
aneFVIeGaymankarpas;brnUvemer
aK
Edl)anpac;CIvitRbCaCncas;
nigGkcMNUlfI
EdlsitenAdac;qayBIKaGs;rab;stvtS
mkehIy
edaysarmankarrIkraldalnUv
CMgWsVay (Syphilis) .
enAqaM 1546 elak Fracastor (Jrome) )
anbegItnUvRTwsIGtisuxumR)aN (Microorganisme) nigkarcMlgeraK . Kti b bBaajaN
(Esprit
de
la
renaissence)
nasmyrs;eLIg vij
k)anrkeXIjnUvKMeragpMkayviTa
(Organisation
anatomique)
pgEdr
RKUeBTsmyenaH
eKeGaytMleTAelIsuxPaBfa
CaRTBdBisid
ehIyEdlCasMbknRBlwg (me) . elak Paraceles
CaGkbnevnBImFmsmy
mksmykalrs;eLIgvij
.
19

Kat;)anksagsadCaPasa
GaLWm:g;
minsresrCaGkSrLataMgeTnUvesovePAe
vCsaRsenH
elakCaRKUeBTnaykenATIRkug
Ble
.
naqaM
1527
enA
Saint
Jean
eK)anecjpSayCasaFarN
nUvsadrbs;elak Hippocrate, Galien, Aristote nig
Avicenne .
kayviTa
nigslsaRsnastvtSTI15
karvHkat;elIsaksB)anGnuBaatCasaFar
N enA qaM 1478 naTIRkug Paris
cMENkmhasalkayviTa (Amphithtre dAnatomique)
rbs;mhaviTalyevCsaRs
Padoue
Edl)anbegItnaqaM
1228
RtUv)anebIksemaFCapvkar
enAqaM 1490 . elak Lonard de Vinci )
aneFVIkarvHkat;elIsaksB
RbmaNCa30)ay ehIy )anKUrCaKMnUr
RBmTaMgecjpSaynastvtSTI17
.
nasmyenaH
eK)antaMgbgajnUvrUbPaBmnusS
CaBIrsNanhak;bIdUcCakEgbBnat;
(Grenouille
clate)
rYmmansnak; sac;dMu
ssBYr Edl bBaak;BIsNanepSg
TMhM sanPaB (Rapport anatomique) elak Andr vesale )
anbegIt
vcnanuRkmkayviTa
20

EdlniyayGMBI qwg sac;dMu ssQam


enATIRkug Ble naqaM 1543 ehIy
eRkaymkmansadCaeRcIn
Edl)anBeRgIkcMeNHdwgEpkkayviTa
enHbEnmeTot elak Charle Etienne sresrGMBI
ssQamexA (Veines) nigRbBnssRbsaT
(Systme
nerveux)
elak
Michel
Sevret
)
ansresrGMBIclnaQamrt;kgsYt
)
anRcanecalGMBITMnak;TMng
rvagft
eRkamnebHdUg (Communication entre les ventricules du
cur) elak Gabriel de Fallope rkeXIj Corde du Tympan
eBaHevontUc ssEPk ssQamxYrk,al
elak Bartolomeo Eustachi rkeXIj Trompe dEustache )
ansikSaGMBItMrgenam
RbBnss
Twkrg (Systme lymphatique) sikSaGMBIeFj
RkeBjelItMrgenam (Surrnale) cMENkelak Andr
Csalpin
)anbgajGMBIclnaQamrt;
EtminTan;c,as;las;enAeLIyeT .
slsaRs)anCMrujeRcIndl;kayviTa
tamrykarGPivDnEpkGavuFyuTP
N EdlCMruj
begIteGaymanGkrgrbYsy:ageRcIn
elak Ambroise Par EdlCaRKUeBTvkat;kg
4rCkal esc)araMg )
aneFVIkarpas;brBIkardutEdkeGayR
khmeraleTAelIsamrbYs
21

edaycgssQam Rkhmvij (Artres)


edIm,IXat;Qam . enARbeTsGalWm:g;
elak Fabrice de Hilden )ansMrYl
beckeTskgkarvHkat;kn (Hernie)
vHkat;RKab;RKYsBIe)akenam
nigkarvHkat;EPkeLIg)ay Edl
RtUv)aneFVIeLIgedayelak Pierre France .
IV. bdivtnCIvsaRsnastvtSTI 17 (La
rvolution biologique du XVII siccle)

BYkGkkayviTa)ansresry:agek,aHk,ay
GMBIxnmnusS
cMENkxagCIvsaRsvij
kmankar
rIklUtlas;xaMgNas;Edr
rYmmankarrkeXIjGtisuxumTsSn(Microscope
)clnaQamrt; nigKMNr kMeNItkUn (Processus de
fcondation)
elak Sanotorius santorio (1561-1636) )anrk
eXIjmuneK
GMBIkarGnuvtnevC
saRs
edayBwgEpkeTAelIcMeNHdwgEpkrU
bsaRs
(Physique)
man
karbegItnUv
sItuNmaRt
(thermomtre)
CBawg
nigRbdab;vas;Qam
Edl]bkrNTaMgenHRtUv)an
eKykmkeRbIR)as;CaTUeTAenAcugstvtS
TI19 .
22

manRKUeBTCaeRcIn)anyl;RBmtamRT
wsIemkanic
rbs;elak
Descartes
Edl)aneRbobRbdUc
xnmnusSeTAnwgeRKOgm:asIuin
(Iatrophysiciens

ou

Iatromcanistes)

EdlpyeTAnwgKMnitEdlmanrhUtdl;sBV
fenH faxnmnusSsuTEtCaRbtikm
KImI (Iatrochimistes des ferments dans le corps humain) .
BiPBelakEdltUcbMput (Le monde de
linfiniment petit)

GtisuxumTsSn
(Microscope)
RtUv)anbegIteLIgedayelak
Jansen
nacugstvtSTI16
EdlCaRkumRKYsarmIRkUTsSnCnCatih
ULg; (Hollandais) enAqaM 1609 elak Galile )
anEk
sMrYlnUvbeckeTs
nigkBak;tarasaRseGay)anc,as;
ehIyknHstvtSeRkaymkeTot eTIbeKGac
begItmIRkUTsSn)anl . elak Robert Hooke )
anpl;KMnitGMBIekasika
(Cellule)
dMbUgeKbMput
naqaM
1665
kgEpkmIRkUTsSnenH (Micrographie) elak
Antoine van loenwenhoek plit mIRkUTsSn)ancMnYn
250eRKOg
sMrab;bMeBjeskIRtUvkarkgEpken
H 1693-1717 nacenaHqaM enaH
23

elak)anrkeXIjRKab;QamRkhm (Globules rouges)


stVlit (Protozoaires ou infusoires) sslitqar
rbs;sac;dMu (Des fibres musculaires) nig Bactriose
enAstvtSTI
18
edaysarmIRkUTsSnenH
eK)aneFVIkarsikSaRsavRCavsIuCMerAe
TAelIkayviTa
nig)anBnl;
GMBIclnasrIrsaRs
(Mcanismes
physiologiques)
CaeRcIn
rYmmankarbgrkMeNIt
(Reproduction) .
sadFMenH)aneFVIeGays,Gnkal
EdlRKbdNb;mkelIBiPBelakeyIg
Gs;rab;stvtS
mkehIyenaH
RtUv)anRcanecaledaysarEtkarRsemIRs
mKitfa
mnusSelakeyIgekItmkeday
kgrbs;elak Francesco Redi Gnration spontane
EdleK)anyl;fa kUnrbs;mnusS Petits hommes
RtUv)anerobcMnYnCaeRscenAkgem
CIviteQal Spermes elak Reinier de Graf )
anrkeXIjmuxgarrbs;rslMEBg (Suc pancratique)
briyayCadMbUgeKbMputGMBI
GUvul
(Follicules
ovariens)
naqaM
1672
.
5qaMeRkaymk elak Louis de Hamm )
ansresrGMBI Spermatozodes rIelak William Harvey )
ansresrGMBI kMNrkMeNItBg Formation de luf
enAkgesovePACMnan;stV Gnration animale
24

Edl)anecjpSay naqaM 1651 enATI


Rkug Londres nigb:unanqaMeRkaymk
kmanelcecjGMBImuxgarrbs;suk (Placenta)
.
-karCECkKaGMBIclnaQamrt;
(Controverse autour de la circulation sanguine)

elak

EdlCaRKUeBTrbs;esc Jacques
1
,
Charles
1
)anrkeXIjenAqaM 1616
GMBImUldannkarQamrt;
edayeFVIkarsikSaBiesaFneTAelIstVk
an; Daim nig)anecj pSaynaqaM 1628
GMBIlTplnkarsikSaenH Exercice anatomique sur les
mouvement du cur et du sang chef les animaux EdlkgenaH
elak)anbgajGMBIclnaQamrt;
karkRnak; nebHdUg nig Rkhm
exA
.
enHCamUlbTnkarCECkBiPakSaKamY
yenAeBjTVIbGWur:ub
BiessenA
mhaviTalyeBTnaTIRkug)a:rIs
.
manGkRbkan;ykKMnittamelak
Molire
2rUbKW elak Jeau Riolan nig Gui-Patin (Maladie imaginaire)
EdlRbqaMgCamYynwgRTwsIrbs;elak
Harvey
Edl)anyl;eXIjfa
ssQamRkhmmansuTEtxl;
minEmnCaQamrav (Artres contiennent de lair et non du
sang)
enAqaM 1672 esc Louis XIV )
er

Harvey

er

25

anbeRgonGMBIkay viTa cMENkelak


Pierre
Dianois
bgat;GMBIclnaQamrt; elak
Mascello Malpighi )anrk eXIjssQamlit rbs;sYt
(Capillaires pulmonaires) naqaM1661 elak Richard Lower
ecjpSayBIclnaQamrt;
nigmuxgarrbs;ebHdUg
.
karrkeXIjrbs;elak
Harvey
BIclnaQamrt;)anBnl;bkRsayGMBIRTws
Irbs; Hippocrate (Systme humoral de lHippocrate)
nig)anRKbdNb;TUTaMgvisyevC
saRsnasmyenaH nigbnab;mkelak
Jean pecflut )anBnl;bgajGMBI Systme lymphatique .
edImdMbUgnkarEbgEckEpkev
CsaRs (Le dbut des grandes classifications mdicales)
enAcugstvtSTI17 elak Thomas Sydenham
EdlmanrhsSnamfa Hippocrate Anglais enaH
elak)ansresrGMBIPaBCak;Esg
neraKsBaarbs;CMgW
eTAtamdMNak;kalrbs;va
nImYy
edayyktamlMnaMrbs;
Hippocrate
elak)ansresrGMBICMgW Goutte, rysiple, dysenterie,
Scarlatine, rougeole nigsNanepSgrbs;GutFM .
sadKInikrbs;elakllH
Nas;
EtvamantMltictYcenAeLIy
cMeBaHkarBa)alnaeBlbcb,nenH .
ehIykarbgrQam
Saigne
eTACasf
26

bCameFa)ayEdleKeRbIR)as;Caskl
nasmyenaH .
sfeBjniymnasmyenaHman
Ipca
Vomitif Th, Caf (deux nouveaux psychotoniques) nig Quinquina
(fbrilfugues rapporte du Prou) EdlmanenA Paris 1638 (Le deux
mdicamenteux Parisiens) enAkgstvtSTI17enaHEdr
eK)aneFVI
Trachotomies
elIGkCMgWekItxan;sak;
Diphtriekarcak;faMtamss
(IV)
karbBalQam
BIstVmkmnusS
.
karratt,atnCMgW)anpas;brBiPBela
keyIg edaymankarfycuHnUvCMgWsVay
(Syphilis) mnIreBTXg;RtUvbiTTVar (lproserie)
edayeKeXIjekItmanrIkraldalnCMgW
Eb:s
(Pestes)
enATIRkug
Londres
1665
karrIkcMerInEpknavacrN
)
aneFVIeGaymankarrIkraldalnUv
CMgWRKuncaj; (Paludisme) RKunelOg (Fivre jaune)
CMgWxVHCIvCatixHdUcCa
CMgWRkiH (Rachitisme) CMgWs<wk (Bribri)
nigCMgWxVHCIvCati
C
(Scorbut)
EdlRtUv)anbriyayy:agCak; lak; .
V. evCsaRsnastvtSTI18 (La mdecine du XVIII

siccle)

eKdak;eQaHfaCasmyevC
saRsdPWEcgcaMgmYy (Sicle des lumires)
27

eRBaHva)anQan eTArkkarTMenIbkm
(Modernit)
srIrsaRs nig Anatomie pathologique
RtUv)ansikSay:ag
c,as;las;
edayEpkeTAelIkarBiesaFn
nigvivtnEpkviTasaRsmUldan
(Progres des scienes fondamentales) edayELkEpkKInik
(Cliniques) enAEtedIrtamKngcas;buraNdEdl
. elak Voltaire dUcelak Molire kalBIstvtSmun )
anKas;rMelIgKMnitRKUeBTlMnaM
Hippocrate
nig
GalienEdlhak;dUcCaKansmtPaBenaH
edayeFVIkarEckeGaydac;fa
etIRtUvbgrQamBIxagGkQW
bxagGkCa
.
kgenaHEdr
enAcugstvtSTI18 eK)anrkeXIj Vaccination .
- Le Vitalisme et lanimisme
manRTwsI
2
)anelcrUbrageLIg
RTwsITImYy ekItenA Monpellier edayelak
Thophite
de
Borden
nigelak Paul Joseph Barthez
EdlsnidanfaxnmnusS
manskmPaBedaysar }CMhrCIvit} lan
vital
EdlmingaynwgCYsCul
bpas;br)aneLIy
ehIyenAeBlEdlxUcxat
vabg
eGaymanCMgWeLIg
.
RkumenHeKehAfa Vitalisme .
28

cMENkRkum
Animiste
EdlbegItedayelak Geong Erut Stahl )anKitfa
enAkgxn
mnusSkarpas;br
RtUv)ansMrYleday}RBlwgrs;revIk} Ame
sensible
EdlRbqaMgeTAnwgesckI sab;
edaysarRTwsIminc,as;las;enH
eTIbeKGacTajecj)annUvRbBnEbgEck
CMgWCaeRcInsNan eTAtam Espces, Classes,
Sous

espces,

Categories

sMrab;eRbIR)as;eTAkgrukviTa
bsusaRs
(Zoologie)
.
kgKImIviTa
GkeraKviTa
(Nosologies)
Edll,Il,ajnasmyenaH rYmman Franois
Boissier de sauvages, de william culleu nig de Philippe Pinel .
Le
gout
de
lexprimentation
rsCatinkarBiesaFn
Anatomie

pathologique

nigsrIrviTabegIt)anedaysarkarGPivD
nnUvbnb;BiesaFn Cabinet dexprience
nigeRkaymkkayCamnIrBiesaFn
Laboratoires
bnab;BI)an
vHkat;
nigGFib,ayeTAelICalikaEdlminl (Tissus lss)
elak
Jean
Baptiste
Morgagni
)
anecjpSaynUvsadmYy
sresrGMBIkarvHkat;elIsaksBcMnYn 600
enAqaM
1761
cMeBaHkar
29

vHkat;saksBnimYy
elak)aneFVIkarepogpat;rvagsBaaK
Inik eTAnwg Anapath cMENksrIr saRsvij
elak
Albrecht
Von
Haller
)
aneFVIkarsikSaeTAelIkarkRnak;nsac;
dMu nigeTAelIjaN nssRbsaT (Sensibilit
nerveux)
elak
Raumun
sikSaGMBIrsRkBH
EdlpMBIFatuKImI
nig
muxgarnimYyrbs;va . elak Jeau Astrue
sikSaeTAelIlMejac (Reflex) nigrsrMlayGahar
elak
Lazzano
Spallanzani
)
ansikSaGMBIkMNrkMeNItkUn
(Reproduction)
sMNakQamrt;
(Hmodynamique)
nigkarrMlayGahar (Digestion) elak Stephen Haler
niyayGMBIsMBaF
ssQamRkhm
nigQamexAelIkUnePaH elak Luigu Galvani
nig
Allessendro
Volta
sikSa
GMBIsrIrviTanssRbsaTsac;dMu
(Physiologie
neuromusculaire)
cMENkelak
Lavoisier
sikSaGMBIkardkdegIm
karrkeXIjGMBIsrIrsaRsenH
BMu)aneFVIeGaymankarpas;brCaF
MdMueTdl;kar
GnuvtnevCsaRs
KWeKcaM)ac;RtUvEteFVIkarBinitKIni
k (Examen clinique) eTAelIGkCMgWedayxan
BMu)an
.
30

pyeTAvijBYkRKUeBTEpkCMgWTUe
TA
RKUeBTvHkat;)anrkeXIjviFI
beckeTsepSgdUcCa
karlUkBinitrnKUT TVarmas mat; (TR, TV,
Buccale) EdlbgajBIsadFM EpkslsaRs
nastvtSTI18
ebIeTaHbICaeKBMuTan;)anrkeXIj
viFIdak;faMsnMkeday (Anesthsie) .
- Hygine publique GnasmysaFarN
karrIkraldalnCMgWepSgdUcCa
xan;sak; kkman; CMgWknlelIEs,k
RsLETn
Eb:s
GutFM
)
anRblyCIvitRbCaCnenAGWur:ub
bNaGnamysaFarN
)an
bgMeGayrdaPi)alcat;viFankar
dUcCakarBinitGegt nigsikSasitieLIg
.
karcat;viFankarbgaCMgW
RtUv)ancat;TukCakkacMbg
ehIy)anecjpSaynaqaM
1762
edaysarelak
S.A.
Tissot
Avis
edayELk
karbegItmnIreBTeTAtamesckIRtUv
kar
karRKb;RKgRbyuTlUTwk
karcat;viFankar
cMeBaHeragcRkKImI
karRKb;RKgstVXat
RBmTaMgkarbeBajkEngbBaHsB
eGayeTAenAeRkARkug .
31

karcak;faMbgar
karrkeXIjkarcak;faMbgar
EdlRbEhlCaFMbMputenaHKW
Tl;nwgGutFM
edayelak
Edward
Jenner
eK)ankt;sMKal;eXIjfa BYkksidan (Fermiers)
BMuEdlekItGutFMeT enHRbEhlCamkBI
drbs;BYkeKCab;b:HBal;pal;eTAnwgd
Me)Arbs;eCIgeKaEdlQW
enAeBlEdlBYkeKBa)al
eKaGs;TaMgenaH
.
enAeBlenaHeKsnidanfa (Cow pox ou vaccine)
CaedImcmnPaBsaMu
eTAnwgCMgWGutFM (Immunisation contre la variole)
qgkat;karBiesaFndeRcInsnwksn
ab;enH elak Jenner k)ansegteXIjfa
karykxHeTAbNHelIxnmnusS
GackarBarTl;nwgGutFM)an
.
b:uEnehtuplenH
)
aneFVIeGaymankarRsBicRsBilcMeBaH
RKUeBT
ehIykarcak;faMkarBar
RtUv)aneFVIeLIgnaedIm stvtSTI 19
nig)anGnuvtnCaTUlayeBjTVIbGWur:
ub .
VI. evCsaRsnastvtSTI19 (La mdecine du XIX
- Vaccination

siccle)

32

enHCapvbMEbkEdlEjkTsSnviC
a[XatecjBIevCsas
ehIyQaneTArksmykalTMenIbmYy.
sadevCsasnacenaHqaM1800
dl;
1895
maneRcInsnwksnab;CagkalBIb:una
nstvtSr_
kngmkeTot.
EpkkInIkslsas srIrsas
)
anrIklUtlas;y:agsMebImelIkElgEt
xagkeTskgkarBa)alEdlRtUvenArg;c
aMrhUtdl;stvtSr_
TI
20
kgryHeBlmindl; 1 stvtSr_pg eTaH
karBinitKInIk
kardak;faMsnM
karsMlab;
rW
rMgab;emeraK
emeraKsas (bactriologie) nig CacugeRkay
EpkviTsas
(radiologie))aneFVi[mankarpas;brdl;
buervinicy(pronostic mdical) ya:gxaMg nig
)aneFVI[Gayukalrbs;mnusSEvgCag
mun.
La Mthode anatomo-clinique

edaysarbdivtn_)araMgnigGFiraC
Napolon
)an
eFVI[visyevC
sasmankarrIklUtlas;

33

EdlepImecjBIBYkGkGnuvtn_evC
sas)araMg (Cliniciens Franais) .
karGb;rMEpkevC
sasRtUv)anbegIteLIgeBjRsuk)ara
MgsaFarNrd. muxviCaRTwsIGrUb
vinyepSgenAeRkamrbbcas;RtUv)anl
ubbM)at;ehIydak;CMnYsedayPasa)ara
Mgvij.
mnIreBTEdlBImunmkminsUvCamanR
KUeBT RtUv)anRKb;RKgedayevC
saskMritx<s;.
cMENkGgPaBenARKb;RKgtamEbBbur
aNdEdl
EtkarRblgRbECgRKUeBTkeTsRtUv)an
erobcM
eFVIeLIg(comme linternat, en 1802).
RKUeBT)aneFVIkarBinitsikSapal;elI
GkCMgW
ehIy)aneFVIkareRbobeFobrvag
clinique
enAnwg anapath (la mdecine du systme) evC
sasEbbCaRbBnRtUv)anbBab;
ehIyCMnYseday anatomo-clinique EtmYyKt;.
EdlkMNt;niymnyedaysarelak Xavier Bichat.
elak)anBnl;GMBICalikarbs;mnusS (Tissu
humaine)
enAtamTMrg;anatomo-fonctionnelle
nigtYnaTIsrIrsas.
34

Lauscultation

naissante

karsab;RtUv)ancab;kMeNIteLIg
karGnuvtn_evCsaRs
)
anrIklUtlas;EfmeTot
edaysarkarrkeXIjmeFa)ayBIrEbb KW
kareKaH nig karsab; (percussion et auscultation)
elak Jean Nicolas Corvisat Edl)anbkERbenAqaM
1808 nUvsadrbs;elak Johann Lopold/Ancien Brugger
Vienne enaHhak;BMTan;RKb;RKan;enAeLIy.
edayELk
RbehagsYt
rW
TwkkgeRsamsYt
RtUv)andwgenAqaM 1807 elak Laennec )
anrkeXIjmeFa)aynkarsab;edayeRbI
bMBg;eQImYy EdleRkaymkkayeTACa
Stthoscope.
12
qaMeRkaymkelak)anecjpSaynUvsa
d1 sIGMBIkarsab;elIsYt nig ebHdUg
(Auscultation
mdiat).
elak
Joseph
Recanier
)
anrkeXIjGMBIkarGnuvtn_
enAelIeraKsIedayeRbI Spculum Vaginal (1812).
elak Pierre Charles Louis )ankt;RtaCatYelx (Mthode
numrique)

edIm,Itamdankarvivtn_nCMgWrebg
nig
RKuneBaHevon
edaysarmeFa)ayenHehIy
EdlGac[eKeFVICasitienAelICMgW
35

kMNt;c,as;las;BI
pronostic
rbs;CMgW
karvivtn_KInIk
nigRbsiTiPaB
nkarBa)al. EpktammeFa)ayxagelI
Gac[eKkMnt;)anc,as;las;nUvniymnyr
bs;CMgWepSg
EdlenARseBcRsBil
kalBIstvtSr_TI 18. elak Gaspard Laurent Bayle
sresrGMBI rebg elak Jean Baptiste Bouillaud
sresrGMBICMgWrlaksnak; (RAA) elak Orfila
sresrGMBI toxicologie nig
Mdecine
lgale.
cMENkelak
Bretonneau
sresrGMBICMgWFM 2 nastvtSr_ TI 19
KW fivre typhode nig diphtrie. elak Jean Cruveilli
ecjpSayBIqaM 1830 1848 nUv anapath
gnerale EdlmanniyayGMBI multiples lithographies, ulcre
simple
de
lestomac,
salaevC
sas)araMg)anl,Il,ajeBjTVIbGWr:ub
ehIybnab;mk
salaepSgeTot
Edl)anebIkbeRgontamEbb
anatomo-clinique
enH)ancab;epImebIkTVarenARbeTs
Autriche Gg;eKs nig GalWm:g;.
De Magendie Claude Bernard

ebItamelakFrano Magendie yl;eXIjfa viFI anatomoclinique BMuTan;RKb;RKan;sMrab;Bnl; nig


tamdanGMBIkarvivtn_rbs;CMgWeT
(volution

du

processus

pathologique)
36

rIkarvHkat;saksBvijenaHGacBnl;)anE
tenAelIsrIrviTa
kgCIvPaBCak;EsgEtb:ueNaH
(in-vivo)
.
Gs;ryHeBlknHstvtSr_
eK)aneFVIkarBiesaFn_CaeRcInenAelIst
V
edayrYmpSMc,ab;rUbviTaeTAnwg
KImIviTa.
sadniBnrbs;elaksIGMBIsrIrsas
RtUv)ane)aHBum<pSayCaeRcInelIk.
elak Magendie k)ansikSaGMBI sf GMBI
Cathetrisme
Cardiaque
CaelIktMbUgEdr
sikSaGMBIsrIrsasenAelIRbBnck
RbsaT (Formation de limage rtinienne) et role sensitif des racines
postrieurs de la moelle. elak Claude Bernard CasisSrbs;
Magendie
sikSaenAsala)araMg
elak)anecjpSaynUvsadniBnsIGMBI
medecine experimentale
enAqaM 1865. elak )
ansikSaRsavRCavGMBICIvsas
nigbeckeTsvHkat;
BiesaFenAelIstV
(Technique
opratoire
de
lexprimentation
animale).
elak)aneFVIkarsikSay:agsVitsVajbMput
enAelImuxgarsr
enAkgefIm (formation glycognique du foie)
rbs;lMEBg nerfs vasomoteurs, endocrines (glandes scrtion internes)
et
exocrines.
elak)an[dwgfa
37

CalikanimYymanmuxgar
nig
TTYl\TiBlBIkarERbRbYln
milieu
intrieur
EdleFVI[mankarTTYlrgBIcMgayeTAdl;srI
rag.
viFIsasrbs;elak
Claude
Bernard
)
anRtUvTTYlykedayGkRsavRCav)araM
g
nig
GWr:ub
Edlyl;famanlkNviTasasCag.
Dfinition de nouveaux domaines mdicaux

elakGrgor

)anrkeXIjRTwsI gntique. elak


Etienne
Jules
Marey
CaGksrIrsassMNg;
(physiologiste
gnie)
)anrkeXIjclnasac;dMu/
kMlaMgQam/ nig)ancUlrYmCamYyelak
Auguste

Mendel

Chauveau

begItCaKMnUsGKisnIrbs;ebHdUg (Trac
lectrique
du
cur)
elak Emile du Bois Reymond )
ansikSaGMBIGKisnIsrIrsas
(lectrophysiologie).
elak
Cal
Ludwig
sikSaGMBIsrIrviTa nclnarbs;ebHdUg
(physiologie de la mcanique cardiaque). elak Rudol Virchow
sikSaGMBI
anapath
nekasika
ehIy)anecjpSaysadrbs;elaknaqaM
1858 sIGMBICMgWrbs;ekasika (pathologie
cellulaire)/
mUldanRKwHnsrirsasrbs;ekasik
38

a nig CMgWrbs;va
physiologique

(Thorie fondamentale, en histologie


et
pathologique)

EdlGac[eKbgaj)antammIRkUTsSn_
(micoscope)
GMBICMgWepSg.
edaybnkarsikSaBIelak Bichat nig elak
Virchow
elak)anbBa
ak;BIlkNrbs;ekasikaEdlEbkKaenA
tamCalika
elak)anbBa
ak;pgEdrnUvRbePT
CMgWRKab;QamsxH
(Leucmies)
nig
RbePTdMuxH (Varits de Tumeurs).
PaBkan;EtRbesIrelIgn microscope/
karrkeXIjkarbMBak;BNenAelIekasikaed
aysarsarCatiKImI)aneFVI[elak Emest Besnier
GaceFVIkarRcwbsac;
(Biopsie)
mkeFVIeraKvinicy
)
anedayEpkenAelI
histopathologie.
karrkeXIjmUldanRKwHEpksrIrsas

nig
CalikaviTa
(histologie)
)
aneFVI[karGFib,ayGMBIKInIkkan;Etc,a
s;ehIy
eKGackMNt;)annUvCMgWdeRcIn.
enAeBlenaH
RKUeBTGacEbgEckkeTsepSgenAk
gmnIreBTdUcCa
keTsebHdUg/
ssRbsaT/ esIEs,k/ CMgWsgm (vnrologie)/
39

CMgWkumar/
citsas
EdlecjmkBIEmkFagevCsasEtmYy.
Lanesthsie et antisepsie

kalBIqaM
1830
RKUeBTvHkat;eFVIkarvHkat;edayes
kBak;exaGavFmta KaneRsamd
eKeFVIkarvHkat;bnBI
1
eTA
1
edayBMu)anlagsMGatd. manBak; Blouse
tictYcEdr minEdllagsMGatdMe)A rW
Es,kGkCMgWeT
nig
CaBiess
KweFVIkarvHkat;edayKandak;faMsn
M.
GaRtasab;kgnigeRkayeBlvHkat;ma
neRcInsnwksnab;Nas;edayKanxVl;x
VayBIPaBQWcab;
exacpSa
rbs;GkCMgW.
EtCasMNagl
Edl)anRKUeBTvHkat;dUcCa Jean Dominique
Larrey,
Guillaume
Dupuytren
Gacpac;snak;sa
nigGackat;sac;dMu)an
(dsarticuler)
edaysMGageTAelIKMnitnkarvHkat;eda
yKankarQWcab;
EdleK)aneFVIedayBYk
Egyptes
edayeRbIfa Mcuphis rW edayeRbI ponges
somnifres
kgmFmsmy
(Moyen
Age)
EttamkarBitkareRbIfaMsnM)aneFVIn
40

aqaM
1846
enA
USA
ehIy
rIksuHsaymkGWur:ub1qaMeRkay
edaysarmankarCECkBiPakSaKaya:gtw
gssk.
enAeBlenaH
eKeRbI
masques
ehIykarsakl,geRbI Chloroforme
RtUv)anTTYleCaKCy.
cMENkkareRbIfaMsnMtamssRtUv)a
neFVIeLIgedayelak
Gabriel
Phava
7
edaysarkareRbIR)as;sWuraMugBIsg
(seringue

Piston)
karsMlab;
rW
rMgab;emeraKeFVIelIgedayelak Joseph Lister
edayeRbIRbdab;)aj;Cati
Phrnique
enAkgbnb;vHkat;
kardak;RtaM]bkrN_eTAkgCati
phnol
RtUv)aneFVIeLIg.
karrMurbYsedays,EdlmanCati
Phnol
kareRbIExSeCs Edlrlay (fil de suture rsorbable)
nigkarsMGatrMgab;emeraKenAdnig
blouses
karsikSarbs;elak
Pasteur
sIGMBIkarbgarCMgWrbs;emeraK)an
CMrujy:ageRcIndl;karRsavRCavenH.
BYksmB
(obsttriciens)
CaGkGnuvtn_muneKnUveKalkarN_e
nHedayeKsegteXIjfa
mankarfycuHKYr[kt;sMKal;nUv
41

GRtamrNeRkayeBlsMralkUn.
RBmCamYyenaHEdr
eragcRkplit]bkrN_eBT
k)ancab;dMeNIrkar
ehIysMParHfI
dUcCa pince hmostatique de Jule Pean, Thodor Kocher
eBlenaHRKUeBTvHkat;)ankayCaCnd
mhima.
Bactriologie

enAqaM 1877 elak Louis Pasteur )


ansikSaGMBImuxgarrbs;emeraK
kgkarbgrCMgWqg
(maladie
infectieuse)
elak)ansikSabEnmeTotEdrGMBIemdM
Ebr
Rsa
Rsaebor
TwkexH
karsMlab;emeraK
(pasteurisation)nigCMgWrbs;kUnnagkgkareF
VIsssURt
EdlsmedAeq<aHeTArkCIvPaBRbcaMf
rbs;RbCaCn)araMg.
elak
Pasteur
)
anTat;ecalTaMgRsugnUvKMnit
gnration
spontane

EdlditCab;mkCaeRcInstvtSr_munenH.
elak)anBnl;GMBICMgWGsneraKrbs;
man;EdlbgredayemeraKnaqaM
1878.
RTwsIGMBIemeraK
(germes)
42

nigkarGnuvtn_enAkgvisyevC
sas
nig
slsas
)
anRtUvbBaleTAkg Academie de Mdecine de
Paris enAqaM 1875 enHEdr. elak Pasteur
k)anrkeXIjemeraK staphylocoque, streptocoque (1879)
nig)anbegIt Vaccin humain virulence attnue contre la rage
(1885).
kickarrbs;elak)aneFVI[mankarERbRb
Yldl;eraKvinicy
nig
pronostic
rbs;CMgWqgnana
RBmTaMg)andwgBImUlehtuya:gc,as;la
s;.
cMEnkRKUeBTvHkat;
k)anRbkan;ykviFIrMgab;
sMlab;emeraKpgEdr edayeRbIR)as;nUv
autoclave.
rIeRsamdekAsUvij
)
ancab;epImeRbIR)as;enA USA naqaM
1885 nig)aneRbIenAGWur:ubnaqaM
1889.
Les pasteuriens
bnab;mkeK)anbnsadrbs;elak Pasteur
EdlCaRKUeBT
elak
Alexandre
Yersin
Edl)anrkeXIj emeraK Bacille Pesteux (1894). Emile Roux
rkeXIj toxine diphtrique (1888) cMENkenA Allemagne vij
elak Robert Koch rkeXIjemeraKrebg (1882) (BK) nig
Vibrion

Cholrique

(1883)

edaysarbMBak;BNelIemeraK Kwelak
43

Hans

Gram

GacEbgEcknUvemeraK)anya:gc,as;nig
CabBab;
Srodiagnostic
Typhode
Edl)anrkeXIjedayelak
Fernand
Widal
CaelIktMbUg nig edayelak Almroth Edward Wright
sIGMBI
Brucellose.
PakeRcInnemeraKbgrCMgWRtUv)anr
keXIjnacugstvtSr_TI
19
cMEnkkarsikSaBI
Virus
vij)ancab;epImenAqaM1930.
Les dbuts de la technique mdicale

edaysarmankarGpivDn_beckeTsk
gkarRsavRCavenAelIxnmnusSenaH
RKUeBTGaceFVIeraKvinicy
)anc,as;las;CagmuneRcIn.
Les rayons X et les Radiographie

f 8 Ex vicika 1895 rUbviTU Allemand


eQaHWithelm Rentgn )anrkeXIj
Rayon
X.
bIExeRkaymk
karftkgvisyevC
sasRtUv)aneRbIR)as;enAGg;eKs
Autriche,
)araMg
USA.
karGb;rMEpkenHcab;epImenAqaM

44

1897
ehIyPaKeRcInenAbswmRbeTs
eKeRbIsMrab;rkrebgsYt.
CakarcMElkGsarkgRbvtievC
sas
EdlkgryHeBl
2
qaMb:ueNaH
karftenHRtUv)anpSayeBj
BiPBelak.
edayELk
Rayon
Rontgn
minEmnpl;RbeyaCn_EtRtwmkareFVIer
aKvinicyeT
EteKGacykvaeTAeRbiR)as;sMrab;karB
a)alpgEdr
BiesssMrab;CMgWesIEs,k
edayelak Leopold Freud.
CatMbUgGkviTsas
(Radiologue)
min)ankarBareT
BiesskarrlakEs,k
(Radiodermite)
cMENkGkCMgWvij
RtUvTTYlrgnUvkaMrsIkgryHeBl 20
naTI enHedaysarGMBUlEdlplit
tMbUgmanzamBlexSay. enAqaM1895
elakHenri Becquerel )anrkeXIjviTskm
(radioactivit)

ehIyryHeBleRkaymkeTIbeKGacykmkGn
uvtn_CaRbeyaCn_kgvisy
evCsas)an. cMENk Pierre et Marie Curie
rkeXIj Radium.
Les premiers mthodes dinvestigations
45

beckeTstMbUgsMrab;karRsavRCav
Lendoscopie

Gac[eKBinitpal;dl;srIragxagkg
nigrnFmCatinana EdlbegItedayelak
Max
Nitze.
KwelakenHehIyEdl)anEklMG]bkrN_cas;
EdlmankalBIqaM
1807
enaH.
eK)anbBalTwkRtCak;eTAkg]bkrN_
enaH
bu:EnGMBUlePIg
enAmankMedAxaMg
(eTon)
BuMGacGnuBaat[eKeFVIkarBinit)an
yUreLIy.
karEksMrYlGMBUl
nigkareRbIR)as;bMBg;ekAsU )aneFVI[
endoscopie manRbCaRbiyPaBsMebIm.
La Ponction Lombaire

Gac[eKdwgBIsmasFatuKImI
cMnYnekasika
nig
emeraK
enAkgeRsamxYr
Edl)aneFVIeLIgedayelak
Heinrich
Quincke
naqaM 1890. elak Seipiom Riva Racci
rkeXIjRbdab;vas;Qam
eKeRbICBa
IgfwgGkCMgW
nwg
Thermometre
sMrab;vas;kMedA.
RKUeBTcab;epImravrkvas;smasFatu
46

KImIkgxnmnusS
edIm,IeFVIeraKvinicy[)anc,as;las;.
mnIrBiesaFn_evC
sastMbUgRtUv)ancab;epImebIkT
VareFVIkarCamYymnIreBT
edaysarelakWidal eKGacvas;rkkMrit Ure
(1822), Catisr kgTwkenam nig Qam (1848),
Catisac;kgTwkenam (1874).
Les grandes dcouvertes thrapeutiques

karBa)al)ane)aHCMhaneTAmuxy :agx
aMgedaysarmanmUldanRKwHnKI
mIviPaK
(chimie
analytique)
karTajcMraj;ecjnUvsarCatiKImI
(procds
dextraction
chimique)
nigkarbegIteragcRksf.
eKrkeXIjfaM capsule enAqaM 1834
cMENk
Comprims
enAqaM
1843
faMcak;eRkamEs,k (sous-cutane) enAqaM
1845. Rbdab;dkdegImsib,nimit (respiration
artificielle) rkeXIjenAqaM 1858 edayelak
Silvester
cMENkelak
Auguste
Nlaton
rkeXIjbMBg;enamekAsU (sonde urinaire flexible en
caoutchoue)
enAqaM
1860.
eKenAeRbIsfcMraj;ecjBIrukCati
Edl)anbnSl;TukBIstvtSr_munmk
edayRKan;EtEksMrYlkgkar
47

eRbIR)as;Ba)al[)ansuRkitCagmun
nigcab;epImeRbIR)as;CatiKImIsMeyaK
(chimie synthse). eKGacbnStCatiGaePon (isole la
Morphine) 1817 CatiKInIn (Quinine) nig Cafne 1820
chloroforme 1831 Aspirine 1856 Digitaline 1871 Bleu de
mthylne 1876 Tinitrine (pour langine de poitrine) 1879.
dMenIrvivtn_rbs;visyevC
sasnastvtSr_TI
19
)
ane)aHCMhany:agxaMg
BiesssrIrviTa
nig
KInIk.
kgGMLgEt
1
stvtSr_b:ueNaH
ral;CMgWEdlminc,as;las;
nig
RbBnepSg
(systme)
)
anRtUvlubM)at;edaysarRKUeBTBUEk
EtGVIEdlenAxVHcenaHenaH
KW
eCaKCykgkarBa)al BiesseraKrebg
RKuneBaHevon pasay GsneraK peste
EdlenAtamyaryIBiPBelakenAeLIy.
RbCaCnGWur:ub)andwknaMeFVIkarRsa
vRCavevCsas
EdlkayCaParkicdcMbgnwgrYmshk
arCamYy USA.
VII. La mdecine du xx sicle

48

kngrab;stvtSr_mkehIy
EdlcMeNHdwgEpkevCsas
)
aneFVIkarGPivDn_BIRTg;RTayFM rW
cRkvaL
(Macrosome)
QaneTArkkarRsavRCav[kan;Etlitln;b
Mput
QanBIRTwsITsSnviTa
BismyburaN mkCakarbriyaykayviTa
kgsmykalrs;eLIgvij
(Renaissance)
nigBIkarsikSasrIrag
(organes)
nig
muxgarbs;va
rhUtdl;karsikSasrIrevC
sas (physiopath) rbs;Calika nig ekasika
ehIyevC
sas)anQaneq<aHeTArkkarERbRbYl
EpkCIvsaRs kgkMritmUelKul.
enAstvtSr_TI
20
kmritnkarRsavRCavelImnusSRtUv)anE
ksMrYl
edaymeFa)ayTMenIb
nigeRcInesksH
edIm,IbBa
ak;BICMgWepSg
EdlQaneTAdl;kMritmUldannekasika
(cellule, organites, noyaux, membrane).
karBa)alKWCaEppanlTplviTasaR
s
edayBwgEpkeTAelImeFa)ayevC
saRs
slsaRs
EdleKviPaKrhUtdl;kMritm:UelKul gne nig
ekasika
49

ebIeTaHbICaRBHEdnrvagsrIrsas nig
CMgW
(physiologie
et
pathologie)
enAmankarlM)akkgkarEck[dac;ecjBI
Kakeday.
\LvenH kareqIytmCaviCman (efficace)
eTanwgkarQWcab;
(souffrance)
nigesckIRtUvkarrbs;GkCMgW
RtUvBwgEpk
eTaelIkarRsavRCav
CalkNviTasaRs
EtmaneBlxH
vaRtUvkarsgt;Fn;
eTAelITMnak;TMngrvagRKUeBT
nig
GkCMgWpgEdr.
Lre des examens paraclinique
karRsavRCavgmKInIkenHmankarrIklUt
las;bnab;BIsgamelakelIkTI1
EdlGnuBaat[RKUeBT
eFVIeraKvinicy
nig
damdanCMgWepSg.
Lapport de limagerie mdicale

viTsasmin)anbBab;nUvkarEklM
GrbeckeTsrbs;xneT
eK)anpas;brBIkareRbIbnHkBak;
(plaques de verre) mkCa film vij. kareRbIR)as; produits
50

sMrab;ftsrIrag rW cavit epSg


kareRbIR)as;nUv sonde dexploration CaedIm.
cab;BIqaM
1970
mk
eKcab;epImeRbIR)as;nUv
Scanner
(Tomodensitomtrie) nig IRM (Imagerie rsonnance magntique Nuclaire).
eKGaceRbI
Topographie
tridimensionnelle
(3D)
EdlGacbgajy:agc,as;nUvdMu
dMe)A
(lsion
pathologique)
EdltUcCag 1mm de diamtre
eFVI[manPaBgayRsYldl;GkvHkat;.
cMENk
Mdecine
Nuclaire
vij
)
an)at;bg;nUvlTPaBkgkarBa)al
ehIysitenARtwm
kritbeckeTs
kgkarRsavRCavb:ueNaH.
cab;BIqaM 1950 edaysarbeckeTs
de

contrastes

Scintigraphie

(or

gammagraphic)

edayeRbIR)as;nUvekasikasMKal;eday
Isotope enaH GaceFVI[eKsikSaGMBI Mtabolisme
des
organes.
Endoscopie
k)anEklMG
eRcInNas;Edr edaymanbEnmnUv pince
EdlGac[eKRcwbsac;)aneTotpg
(biopsie).
\LvenH
eKGaceRbIR)as;
endoscopie
EdlmanlTPaBGacRsavRCavrhUtdl;cen
aHsnak;qwgRmamd
(articulation
interphalangienne).
srIragTaMgGs;Gac[eKeFVIkarRcwbsac;
51

)an (esIrEtTaMgGs;). CagenHeTAeTot


karRsavRCavrkCMgWrbs;kUnEdlenAk
gpmayenAeLIyGaceFVIeTA)an
(Deceler in-utro les grandes maladies gntiques du ftus) . sadFM
2 enAstvtSr_TI 20 KW Echographie (ultrasonographie)
RtUv)aneKeRbIR)as;kgvisyevC
sasnaqaM
1960
eKGacemIleXIjRKab;RKYs
kardk;Twk
(Collection liquidien) PaBminFmtanssQam nig
ECG (1903) EEG (1921).
Les acquis bio-chimique (CyCMnCIvKimI)
EpkenHkmankarrIklUtlas;xaMgNas
;Edr
Ultra centrifugation 1926 Electrophorse 1937 Immunolectrophorse
1948
nigCagenHeTAeTot
edayEpkeTAelI Electronique eKeRbIR)as; autoanalyseurs. RbtikrCIvsas (ractif, biologique purifis)
nigkBab;Rbtikr
Gac[eKeFVIkarbBa
ak;eraKvinicy)anCalkNRTg;RTayF
M
nigCaTUlay
(en
masse).
IDR
RtUv)aneKeRbInaqaM
1907
edIm,IRsavRCavrkrebg etsemIlKP (test de
grossesse)
1928
EtQamenAEtCasMNakcaM)ac;
1
sMrab;eFVIkarBiesaFn_
bnab;Bielak
52

Karl

Landsteiner

(groupe Sanguine)
(Hmostase
et

)anrkeXIjRkumQamkeday
1900. karsikSaBIkarkkQam
de

limmunologie

de

Coagulation)

cab;epImedayelak R. Coombs : 1945.


karbBaak;[)anc,as;nigkarsMeyaKnUv
Vitamine
CaBiess 1920 nig Grm:Uun
1940.
cMENk gntique cab;sikSaenAqaM 1950
edaymankarRtYtBinitditdl;BimUldan
n
RkmsIlFmevCsas. enAqaM1951
TMrg; DNA RtUv)anrkeXIjedayelak Watson et
Crick EdlmanTMrg;CakgrmYlePaH (double hilice
de lADN). \LvenH gnome humaine nig organismes vivants,
pathognes

(bactries

et

Virus)

RtUv)aneKsal;y:agc,as;.
RbsiTiPaBBa)al
eRkaysRgamelakelIkTI
2
eragcRkplitsfCaeRcIn)anekIteLIg
TnwmKaenaHEdr
karRsavRCavkgryHeBlEvg
nig
man\TiBlx<s;
kRtUv)aneFVIenAelIsarFatuFmCati
nig sMeyaK. shRKasplitsf Pnicilline )
aneFVIeLIgenAqaM
1943
Lefficacit thrapeutique

53

edIm,IeqIytbeTAnwgtmrUvkarkgeBl
sgam
EdlCakasmYyfIsMrab;karBa)al.
cMENkfaMpSHepSgeTot (antibiotique) man
dUcCa
(Streptomycine)1943
(Isoniazide)1951
man
RbsiTiPaBRbqaMgTl;nwg
BK
(Tuberculose)
enHKWCalTpldFMeFgmYy
kgkarRbqaMgnwgCMgWEdlbgreday
emeraK
(Infection
bactrienne)
EdleyIgGacniyayCabeNaHGasnfa (un
terme
provisoire) :
kalBIstvtSr_mun
mnusShak;dUcCaBMuGacTb;Tl;GVI)anT
al;EtesaHcMeBaHkarraldalenH.
EteTaHCay:agNakeday
kBYkemeraKGacERbRbYl (Modification leur
matriel gntique, mutation) ehIymanPaBsaMuCamYy
antibiotique

(rsistant)

EdlCaehtubgM[RkumGkRsavRCavEs
Vgrk
antibiotique
fIeTot.
CamYyKaenaHEdr
karbgreraKfIkekItmaneLIgEdr.
cMeBaHkarBa)alTb;Tl;nwg
virus
minTan;)anlTplBitR)akdenAeLIyeT.
ehIyrhUtmkTl;nwgqaM
1980
eTIbeKGacrkfaMTb;Tl;nwg virus spcifique )
an. karBa)alCMgWelIsQam ebHdUg
54

nigssQam)anCMruj[eKrksffIeTot
CaBiessfaMTb;kMu[Qamkk
(anticoagulant)
Hparine
1937/
faMbBaHTwkenam
(diurtiques)
1950. CaTUeTA ral;keTsevC
sas
RtUv)ankekIteLIg
ehIypas;brBICMgWEdlminGacBa)
al)an
(incurable)
[kayeTACaCMgWEdlGacCasHes,Iy)an
(remissible).

Epkxag
Psychiatrie
vij
RtUv)ankt;sMKal;edaysarkarrkeXIjfaM
neuroleptique enAqaM 1950. Endocrinologie eKrkeXIj
Insuline
naqam 1940/ Cortisone 1948.
EpkmharIk
eKrkeXIjkarBa)aledayGrm:Un
(Hormonothrapie)
enAelImharIk Prostate : 1940/
antimitotique

EdlCaRbePTfaMTb;sat;kMu[ekasikarI
klUtlas;)an (empche la multiplication cellulaire) 1970.
nigCafIbMput
KWeKGaceFVItMrgenamsib,nimit)an
(Kolff et Merill : 1944). Strotaxie enAkg neuro-chirurgie
intracranienne (Spiegel 1947). Exsanguinotransfusion (Tzanek et Bersis : 1948).
Prothse de la hanche en acrylique : Judet 1950, respiration artificielle : Infareom :
1952, Vaccination antipoliomylitique (Salk Puin Sabin : 1954) CEC (Lille hin
1953).

La mdecine du III millnaire


55

GayukalmnusSmanRtwm
25
qaM
namFmsmy.
cMENkbcb,nvij
manrhUtdl
80
qaM
sMrab;BYkbswmRbeTs
kMnt;sMKal;enH)aneFVI[rlub)at;nUvPa
BPyxacdl;mhaCnTUTaMg
sklelak.
ehIy)anrYmKabegItGgkarsuxPaBBiP
BelakeLIgnaqaM
1948
(OMS :
WHO).
eTaHbICaeyIg)anykCyCMnHelICMgW
GutFMkedayEtpyeTAvij
vamanelcecjnUvCMgWfIeTot
mkCMnYsvijKW
SIDA
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57