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Mekanika Struktur Komposit

06. Teori Lamina

Dwi Hartini, S.T., M.T.

PENDAHULUAN
Lamina diartikan sebagai lapisan komposit tunggal yang hanya
mempunyai satu arah serat.
Lamina merupakan elemen pembangun struktur komposit,
karena itu pengetahuan mengenai sifat-sifat mekanika lamina
ini sangat penting untuk mengetahui lebih lanjut mengenai
struktur komposit.

PLATE UNDER MULTI-AXIAL LOADINGS


2
1

1
E

1
2 . 1
E
12 0

(Isotropic)

2
12
1

12

1
E
E

2 E 1 E


0
12
0

0 1

0 2
1 12
G

Constitutive Equations for Isotropic

Or:

1
1

2 E 1 2

12
0

1
E
1
2

0 2

G 12

Stiffness Matrices for Isotropic Materials


Where:

E
G
21

PLATE UNDER MULTI-AXIAL LOADINGS


2
1

1
E1

2 12 . 1
1

12 1
E1

(Orthotropic)

12 0

12
1

12

E1

1
21

2 E
2

12
0

12
1

E1

E2
0

0 2

1 12
G12

Constitutive Equations for Orthotropic

Or:

E1

1 12 . 21

1
12 E2

1 12 . 21

0
12

21.E1
E2

1 12 . 21

1 12 . 21
0

Stiffness Matrices for Orthotropic Materials


Where:

E2
21 .12
E1

0 2

G12 12

COMPLIANCE MATRIX FOR ORTHOTROPIC

1 S11


2 S12
0
12
Where:

1
S11
E1

S12
S 22
0

0
S 66

2

12

12 21
; S12

E1
E2

1
1
S 22
; S 66
E2
G12

STIFFNESS MATRIX FOR ORTHOTROPIC

1 Q11


2 Q12
0
12

Q12
Q22
0

0
Q66

2

12

Where:

E1
Q11
1 12 21

12 E2
21 E1
; Q12

1 12 21 1 12 21

E2
Q22
; Q66 G12
1 12 21

EXAMPLE
Carbon-epoxy T300/5208 has properties as follows: E1 = 19.2 Msi ; E2 =
1.56 Msi ; v12 = 0.24 ; G12 = 0.82 Msi
Therefore, the compliance coefficients are (in 1/Msi):

1
S11
0.05208
E1
1
S 22
0.641
E2

12
S12
0.0125
E1
1
S 66
1.2195
G12

S16 S 26 0
And the stiffness coefficients are (in Msi)

Q11 19.29 Q12 0.376


Q22 1.567
Q16 Q26 0

Q66 0.820

TRANSFORMED STIFFNESS MATRICES


y

Transformation of stress and strains in arbitrary direction:

x
1

2
1
y


12
xy

x
1

2
2
y


12
xy

and

m2
n2
2mn
T1 n 2 m 2 2mn
mn mn m 2 n 2

T2

m2
n2
mn

n2
m2
mn ; m cos n sin
2mn 2mn m 2 n 2

From the stiffness matrix equation:

1 Q 1
Therefore, we find:

x T1 1 Q T2 x
or

y

xy

Q11
1
T1 Q12
0

Q12
Q22
0

x
0

0 T2 y

Q66
xy

Now we define:

Q T
1

and
or

QT2

x Q x
Q11
x

y
Q12

Q
xy
16

Q12
Q 22
Q 26

Q16

Q 26
Q 66

y

xy

The individual

Q ij

terms are given below:

Q11 Q11m 2(Q12 2Q66 )m n Q22 n


4

Q 22 Q11n 4 2(Q12 2Q66 )m 2 n 2 Q22 m 4


Q12 (Q11 Q22 4Q66 )m 2 n 2 Q12 (n 4 m 4 )
Q16 (Q11 Q12 2Q66 )m n (Q12 Q22 2Q66 )n m
3

Q 26 (Q11 Q12 2Q66 )mn 3 (Q12 Q22 2Q66 )nm 3


Q 66 (Q11 Q22 2Q12 2Q66 )m n Q66 (n m )
2

DISPLACEMENT CHARACTERISTICS

Isotropic

Orthotropic

Off-axis Lamina
(Anisotropic)

EXAMPLE (2)
Carbon-epoxy T300/5208 has properties as follows: E1 = 19.2 Msi ; E2 = 1.56
Msi ; v12 = 0.24 ; G12 = 0.82 Msi and fiber angle 30o to the global axis

Therefore, the compliance coefficients are (in 1/Msi):

S 11 0.2933

S 12 0.1065

S 22 0.5878 S 66 0.8434
S 16 0.3636;

S 26 1.465

And the stiffness coefficients are (in Msi)

Q11 11.75 Q12 3.531


Q 22 2.843

Q 66 3.975

Q16 5.658

Q 26 2.017

OFF-AXIS ENGINEERING CONSTANTS


y
1

1 212 2 2 1 4
1
1
n m
m 4

n
E x E1
E1
E2
G12
12 4
1
1
1 2 2
4

m n
xy E x
n m

E1 E2 G12
E1

1 212 2 2 1 4
1
1
n m
n 4

m
E y E1
G
E
E
1
2
12
2
1
2 412
1 2 2 1
m n
2

m4 n4
Gxy
E1 G12
G12
E1 E2

Pengaruh sudut orientasi serat terhadap


kekuatan bahan komposit.