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Running Head: MINI-PROJECT - ICT INTEGRATION

Mini-Project
ICT Integration at the Pares Secondary School

by
Shantel Victor-Cole
314500054

A Paper Presented in Partial Fulfillment


Of the Requirements of
EDID 6505: Systems Approach to Designing Instructional Materials
Trimester II, 2015-2016

Email:
University:
eTutor:
Course Coordinator

shantelvictor.cole@open.uwi.edu
University of the West Indies Open Campus
LeRoy Hill
LeRoy Hill

MINI-PROJECT - ICT INTEGRATION

Table of Contents
Introduction.................................................................................................................... 3
Needs Assessment............................................................................................................ 4
Task Analysis & Performances Objectives..............................................................................6
Task Analysis.............................................................................................................. 6
Performance Objectives.................................................................................................. 7
Assessments................................................................................................................... 7
Performance Rubric....................................................................................................... 7
Application Assessment Items.......................................................................................... 8
Learner and Contextual Analysis.......................................................................................... 8
Instructional Strategy and Lesson......................................................................................... 8
Reflective Writing............................................................................................................ 9
References................................................................................................................... 11
Appendices.................................................................................................................. 12
Appendix A............................................................................................................... 13
Appendix B............................................................................................................... 14
Appendix C............................................................................................................... 21
Appendix D.............................................................................................................. 22
Appendix E............................................................................................................... 23
Appendix F............................................................................................................... 24
Appendix G.............................................................................................................. 27

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Introduction
Information and Communications Technology (ICT) has become a customary entity in
every aspect of our daily lives. It has had such an impact that even the way our students learn
has changed. In different parts of the world, integrating ICT into curricula is becoming more and
more popular. Educational consultant Maria Carolina De Ocampo notes that Kids learn very,
very differently now. You dont have to sit down and memorize because memory is the lowest
form of learning. Critical thinking, problem solving, creative thinking are the highest and we
dont encourage that in schools.... We encourage them to be all the same, because if youre not
the same, theres something wrong with you (Garcia, 2010). So what is 21st century
education? It is bold. It breaks the mold. It is flexible, creative, challenging, and complex. It
addresses a rapidly changing world filled with fantastic new problems as well as exciting new
possibilities (Shaw, 2008). Punie, Zinnbauer and Cabrera, 2006, stated that When looking at
the current widespread diffusion and use of ICT in modern societies, especially by the young
the so-called digital generation then it should be clear that ICT will affect the complete
learning process today and in the future.
With that being said, the ICT committee at the Pares Secondary School, has realized the
importance on getting the ball rolling on integrating ICT into the curriculum now rather than
later. However, in our effort to do such, we were met with blank stares and rejections as the
administration and staff didnt see the need of such an endeavour. In an effort to press for the
need of ICT integration into curricula, we have proposed a two-day workshop for the Heads of
Departments to educate them on the importance of ICT in education and to prepare them for
taking the reign in leading their team of teachers to realizing the urgency of the matter.

MINI-PROJECT - ICT INTEGRATION

Needs Assessment
In preparing the needs assessments the following were identified:
Who is your target audience?
Target audience will comprise Heads of Departments at the Pares Secondary School
(HoDs). The qualifications of teachers at the Pares Secondary School range from
undergraduate degrees to graduate degrees and are either trained or untrained in
education. Their ages range from early 20s to early 50s. The subjects taught vary from
Social Sciences, Natural Sciences, Foreign Languages, Business Studies,
Telecommunications and Vocational Studies, so the skills vary from teacher to teacher.
Management of the school is comprised of the principal, deputy principal, five year
heads, and ten heads of departments. These individuals control the day to day functions
of the school.
What you need to know?
Optimals What knowledge is needed?

Knowledge of the benefits of ICT to improve the quality of education;


Basic knowledge educational ICT tools; and
Aware of suitable devices for ICT integration in education;

Actuals the way things are at present.

The existing level of integration among curricula in the school is minimal to none;
Knowledge about the use and manipulation of ICTs (hardware and software are

limited to none;
The present nature of teaching methodologies utilized are traditional;
Current level, availability and accessibility of the use of ICT is limited to none;

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Feelings

Determine teachers attitude towards ICT integration;


Determine teachers attitude to subject integration;
Determine teachers willingness to participate in the initiative;
Gain an understanding of teachers views about the existing situation

Causes

Teachers level of understanding of ICTs are limited to none and as a result and

unwilling or afraid to attempt to use ICTs;


Opportunities/time allotted for the use of ICTs in the classroom is non-existent or are

just available to a selected few;


ICT tools and equipment are outdated and therefore they are not appealing to either

teachers or students;
Class sizes are too large for the volume of tools and equipment available;
ICTs are not always available to students during school hours; and
School teaching culture is traditional and as a result teachers are limited in what they
can use in the classroom causing a great divide between the teachers and the students
as well causing students to become disinterested in learning.

Solutions

Opportunities for training and practice in ICT for teachers; Many teachers, though
they may have the basic knowledge and skills to operate a normal computing device,

may not necessary have the required knowledge and skills to go beyond that.
Modification of curriculum by curriculum development officers/Modification of
timetables; modifying the curricula and timetables to suit the initiative is one of the

most important task.


Access devices through collaboration with Board of Education (BoE); the BoE is
responsible for the acquisition and delivery of supplies to all public school.

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Utilize teaching strategies such as grouping, flipped classrooms and peer tutoring;
one of the issues that the public school classrooms face is overcrowding so in order to

address that issue some of the suggested teaching strategies can be utilized.
Ensure student access to necessary equipment for students; ICT devices are not
always available to students, so initiatives for supplying students with the necessary

devices are necessary.


Assist teachers in accepting and practicing new ideas; demonstrating to the teachers,
the benefits of ICT in the classroom may help change the culture of the school.

Why you need to know it?


The method of instruction delivery at the Pares Secondary School limits the quality of education
obtained by the students. An analysis of the existing methods of instruction and the eventual
output (internal exam results and CSEC results) will help to determine the level of effectiveness,
weaknesses and strengths of the existing methods of instruction and aid in the development of
instruction geared towards teaching methods.
Who knows that?
How will you get that information?
Technique
Principal/Deputy Principal;
o Personal Interview;
Heads of Departments;
o Survey Questionnaire;
Teachers;
o Work Samples;
o Participatory Observation
Task Analysis & Performances Objectives
Task Analysis
In the tasks analysis a variety of tasks was identified and prioritized using a Task
Selection Worksheet (See Appendix A). A procedural analysis (See Appendix B) was then
conducted for each task identified, for determining the necessary activities required to complete
each task. Also, a prerequisites analysis (See Appendix C) was performed on the task with the
highest priority to determine the skills necessary to complete that task.

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Performance Objectives
Terminal Objective
After actively participating in the workshop, Heads of Departments should be able to
demonstrate ability to train teachers in their department to effectively modify their learning
outcome to include ICT tools and equipment.
Enabling Objectives
By the end of the workshop, Heads of departments should be able to:

Employ effective ICT methodologies to achieve teaching objectives independently;

(Psychomotor, Doing)
Organize classroom ICT resources effectively to meet learning objectives for each

learning outcome with available ICT resources; (Application, Organizing)


Exhibit competence in those areas of ICT that support pedagogy in each learning

outcome with little or no redirection; and (Application, Responding)


Use the most suitable ICT to meet teaching objectives, by critically reviewing a range of
generic and subject-specific software without assistance. (Cognitive, Psychomotor,
Evaluation)
Assessments

Performance Rubric
For the terminal objective, after actively participating in the workshop, Heads of
Departments should be able to demonstrate ability to train teachers in their department to
effectively modify their learning outcome to include ICT tools and equipment, a performance
rubric was created (See Appendix D). This performance rubric is to be used to assess whether the

MINI-PROJECT - ICT INTEGRATION

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learners were able to create instructions that would incorporate appropriate ICTs (hardware and
software) to promote critical and creative thinking skills for a particular learning outcome.
Application Assessment Items
For the enabling objective that lead to the terminal objective, four (4) multiple choice
questions (See Appendix E) were developed. Each would assess the learners ability to
effectively apply their knowledge.
Learner and Contextual Analysis
In developing the learner and contextual analysis (See Appendix F) an understanding of
the target learners was established. This was done so that the instruction being developed will
suit the target audience. It was also necessary to understand the context in which the instruction
will be taking place as well as the context in which the learners will ultimately use their skills.
The learner and contextual analysis is a necessary activity when designing any
instructional material and therefore was very beneficial to the success of the workshop.
Instructional Strategy and Lesson
The instructional strategy developed was based on David Merrills First Principles. This
was an integral part of the process as it was essential for the instruction to appeal to all learning
types. As described in the needs assessment, the teachers at the Pares Secondary School, who are
the participants in this workshop, has various levels of qualifications, are at different ages, teach
different subjects and possess a variety of skills. As a result, the lesson (See Appendix G) was
designed and developed based on the result of the data collected in the learner and contextual
analysis.

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Reflective Writing
This projects intention was to build a workshop for the Heads of Departments HoDs),
sometimes referred to as the learners in this document, at the Pares Secondary School. These
HoDs are from different backgrounds and are all degreed teachers; some of whom are also
teacher trained.
Initially, I had the perception that these individuals would jump at the opportunity to be
engaged in such a workshop, especially since integrating ICT into education is one of the
initiatives that has been taken on by the Government of Antigua and Barbuda. However, there
was some resistance, especially by the more seasoned teachers, as they didnt see the need for
such an endeavor. Their rationale was that they have been getting by all these years without
integrating technology, so there is no need for it at this point. It was then a task for me to show
them its no longer about getting by, but exposing and teaching our students the necessary skills
required to succeed in the 21st century. After meeting with each HoD individually and then as a
collaborative group, it was decided that the workshop will not only benefit them and their skills,
but it will also be beneficial to our student body as well as society.
In developing a lesson for this workshop, which was held for a period of two (2) days,
advanced organizers (graphic and narrative) as well as analogies (scenario and comparison) were
used. The analogies were used in the activation stage to give the learners a chance to understand
the importance in choosing the right type of ICT tools/equipment for their lessons. The scenario
analogy depicted an octopus using her tentacles to gain different levels of human intellect while
using various types of ICT tools & equipment. The comparison analogy showed the importance
of choosing the right ICT tools to create a lesson that will stand out to their students. The

MINI-PROJECT - ICT INTEGRATION

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advanced organizers were used in the application phase. The graphic organizer showed the
learners which ICT tools/equipment can be used to achieve a certain type of outcome. The
narrative is a written description of what the graphic organizer was depicting. The graphic
organizer was the most effective in helping the learners in understanding the different types of
tools and equipment that can be used to reach teaching objectives. The time allotted for the
workshop was the major shortfall and hence made it difficult to achieve all learning outcomes. A
smaller area should have been targeted e.g., an introductory workshop for ICT integration, which
will cover fewer objectives, can be considered.
Valuable feedback was provided in the group forum and the constructive criticism of my
work helped me to develop a better workshop. I appreciated all the help and enjoyed working
with my peers.
Overall, the putting together of this project gave me a deeper insight of developing
instructional material using various techniques. I am now better able to apply my knowledge,
especially in writing objectives, which I realize is an integral part of lesson planning.

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References
Alazam, A., Bakar, A., Hamzah, R., & Asmiran, S. (2012). Teachers ICT Skills and ICT
Integration in the Classroom: The Case of
Vocational and Technical Teachers in Malaysia (1st ed., p. 70).
Clifford, M. (2012). Facilitating Collaborative Learning: 20 Things You
Need to Know From the Pros - InformED. InformED. Retrieved 27 June 2015, from
http://www.opencolleges.edu.au/informed/features/facilitating-collaborative-learning-20things-you-need-to-know-from-the-pros/
Davis, V. (2015). 50+ Ways to Use Technology in the
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Yj7QQM-

Classroom.

Retrieved from

ZMWc

Garcia, A. (2010). Raising the 21st Century Child.


http://www.mb.com.ph/articles/276651/raising-21st-century-child
Integrating Technology into classrooms. (2009).

Retrieved

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9cxyH1qg

from

KZQ

Itma.vt.edu,. (2015). Lesson 4 - Learner and Context Analysis. Retrieved 29 July 2015, from
http://www.itma.vt.edu/modules/spring03/multimed/lesson4.htm
Jonassen, D. H., Tessmer, M., & Hannum, W. H. (1998). Task analysis methods for instructional
design. Routledge.
Lawrence, A., & Veena, K. (2015). ICT AND TEACHER COMPETENCIES. Academia.edu.
Retrieved 27 June 2015, from
http://www.academia.edu/1462066/ICT_AND_TEACHER_COMPETENCIES

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Merrill, M. D. (2002). First principles of instruction. Educational technology research and
development, 50(3), 43-59.
Morrison, G. R., Ross, S. M., Kemp, J. E., & Kalman, H. (2010). Designing effective instruction.
John Wiley & Sons.
Oldknow, A., Taylor, R., & Tetlow, L. (2010). Teaching Mathematics Using ICT (3rd ed., pp.
109-110). London: Continuum International Publishing Group. Retrieved from
https://books.google.tt/books?isbn=1441156887
Punie, Y., Zinnbauer, D., & Cabrera, M. (2006). A Review of the Impact of ICT on
Learning. Retrieved from http://ftp.jrc.es/EURdoc/JRC47246.TN.pdf
Tessmer, M., & Richey, R. C. (1997). The role of context in learning and instructional
design. Educational technology research and development, 45(2), 85-115.

MINI-PROJECT - ICT INTEGRATION


CriteriaforTaskSelectionWorksheet

Criticality

13
Universality

Frequency

Standardization

Difficulty

Total

No

13
40pts

10pts

10pts

10pts

30pts

100pts

TASKS
Explorationofpreviousexperience

#1
30

#2
4

#3
2

#4
5

#5
10

#6
51

IntroductiontoICT

30

15

56

InteractwithICTtoolsandequipment
(software&hardware)

40

10

20

87

PracticeusingICTmaterial

40

20

83

Identifyskillsrequired

40

10

18

81

Reviewcontentoftheirrespective
syllabi

40

10

15

75

Modifyexistingcurriculumtoreflect
ICTintegration

40

10

30

92

Developpolicytogoverntheuseof
ICTontheschoolcompound

40

10

20

82

Appendices
Appendix A
Task Selection Worksheet

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Appendix B
Procedural Analysis
Assumptions

All Heads of Departments (HoDs) have some ICT skills that can be utilized during the

professional development workshop;


There are some semblance of a working policy regarding the use if ICT in schools;
Teachers use ICT equipment for some lessons be it correctly or incorrectly;
Tools/equipment (hardware and software) are readily available when requisitioned;
Infrastructure is in place to assist teachers in ICT integration;
School administrators and Ministry of Education officials are on-board with the ICT

integration initiative;
Training material is readily available for the workshop;
ICT standards are in place (International Society for Technology in Education (ISTE)).

Level 1
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Exploration of previous experience;


Introduce HoDs to ICT;
Interact with ICT tools and equipment (software and hardware);
Practice using ICT material;
Review content of their respective syllabi ;
Modify Curriculum to Integrate ICT;
Identify the skills required by future trainees to complete specific learning outcomes;
Develop policy to govern the use of ICT on the school compound;

Level 2
1. Exploration of previous experience
1.1. HoDs will identify areas in which their department may have used ICT tools/equipment
and demonstrate how it was used;
1.1.1. Develop a simple lesson plan and execute to demonstrate
1.2. Discuss and note the effects it may have had on the participants;
1.3. Discuss the effects it may have had on the delivery of the lesson;
1.4. Identify any HoD that may have had previous ICT training.
2. Introduce HoDs to ICT
2.1. By use of presentation, demonstrate what is ICT?;

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2.1.1. Select a lesson plan and show the effects of ICT vs non ICT to highlight benefits
of ICT integration
2.1.2. By use of videos (youtube) share the views of individuals in different societies,
with regards to ICT integration in education
2.1.3. Show how ICT tools/equipment can be used to enhance the learning experience
2.2. Identify outlooks of each individual toward the use of ICT;
2.2.1. Participants will express their thoughts and feelings about ICT use in education
2.2.1.1.
A selected few with then share their thoughts and feelings and identify
ways in which negative thoughts/feelings can be overcome
2.3. Discuss the proper and improper use of ICT;
2.3.1. Demonstrate when and how ICT can be used as tool for enhancing learning
2.3.1.1.
Select some topics from a curriculum (those that will and will not allow
ICT integration) and demonstrate the effects of ICT
2.3.2. Not every lesson will be enhanced using ICT;
2.3.2.1.
Based on the results of 2.3.1.1, state why ICT would have no effect on
some topics
2.3.3. Discuss why ICT cannot replace teachers in the classroom and help participants to
understand why their role is important in the learning experience;
2.4. Review standards for using ICT in education (ISTE document);
2.5. Discuss policies to be implemented to govern the use of ICT in school;
2.5.1. Determine if a there is a school policy regarding ICT use in schools? (Yes go to
2.6, No go to 2.4);
2.6. Recommend programmes that can be used to enhance knowledge and skills in using ICT
in the classroom;
2.7. Identify skills/knowledge of each individual by use of a self-evaluation worksheet (See
5.1).
3. Interact with ICT tools and equipment (software and hardware)
3.1. Allow participants to take part in different activities ;
3.1.1. Using prepared materials for the professional development session, participants
will interact with tools and software
3.1.2. Participants will document their progress, their strengths and weaknesses
3.2. Participants will record their skills and how it was utilized;

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3.2.1. Based on the results from 3.1.1, participants document their prior skills and any
new skills that were learned in a journal
3.3. Trainers will evaluate the skills and group participants accordingly;
3.4. Identify tools/equipment that are readily available;
3.4.1. Participants will be asked to identify tools and equipment that are readily
available at their school
3.5. Create tools/equipment list that need to be requisitioned.
4. Practice using ICT material
4.1. Participants will congregate in their groups according to skills identified;
4.1.1. Participants will engage activities to enhance skills. E.g. Downloading and
installing and activating software
4.2. Trainers will assign learning material according to skill;
4.2.1. Participants complete the required tasks assigned and will record their strengths
and weaknesses in a journal
4.3. Participants will develop learning material for a simple learning objective to demonstrate
understanding of task 4.2.1
4.4. Participants will record their opinion, in their journals, about using ICT to develop
learning materials;
4.5. Trainers will evaluate the learning materials developed as well as individual opinions;
4.5.1. Trainers will determine if learning materials are according to standards? (Yes go
to 4.6, No revert to 2.4);
5. Identify the skills required
5.1. Administer a self-evaluation to determine the skills required by teachers;
5.1.1. Participants will state, according to their subject area, the skills that will be
necessary by their teachers. E.g. A math teacher may need to know how to
manipulate an online graphing calculator while and English teach may need to
manipulate a document in word using formatting options etc.
5.2. Determine if there is need for an ICT skills development workshop.
Level 3
6. Review content of their respective syllabi
6.1. Participants will regroup according to similarity in subject areas;
6.2. Content of syllabi will be reviewed;

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6.2.1. Identify topic areas that can use ICT to enhance learning experience
6.2.1.1.
Determine the type of ICT recommended
6.2.2. Identify topic areas that can be integrated with other subjects and taught alongside
each other;
6.2.2.1.
Determine the type of ICT recommended
6.2.3. Identify strategies/techniques ;
6.2.3.1.
Investigate and apply different strategies and techniques to determine the
ones suitable for specific instruction in subject area
6.2.4. Determine if strategies/techniques cater for all learning styles? (Yes go to 6.2.5.,
No revert to 6.2.3);
6.2.5. Identify possible ICT tools/equipment that can be utilized;
6.2.5.1.
Apply learning techniques/strategies to various ICT/tools and equipment
to identify the best suited ones
6.2.6. Can learning outcome be met using tools/equipment identified? (Yes go to 7, No
go to 6.2.4).
7. Modify Curriculum to Integrate ICT
7.1. Identify/Modify learning outcomes that can be enhanced by ICT;
7.2. Identify strategies that can be incorporated to enhance the learning experience using
ICT;
7.2.1. Refer to the outcomes of 6.2.5.1. to identify techniques/strategies
7.3. Develop draft unit plan;
7.4. Verify that unit plan incorporates technological, pedagogical and content knowledge
(TPC);
7.4.1. Review unit plan against TPACK framework
7.4.2. Check if the plan incorporates technological, pedagogical and content knowledge.
(Yes go to 7.5, No revert to 2.4);
7.5. Identify the tools/equipment necessary to carry out learning outcomes according to the
strategies identified;
7.5.1. Tools/equipment available at school? (Yes go to 7.6, No go to 3.5);
7.6. Design and develop suitable evaluations and assessment exercises.
8. Develop policy to govern the use of ICT on the school compound
8.1. Create/Modify ICT policy.

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Procedural Analysis Graphical Representation

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Appendix C
Prerequisites Analysis

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Appendix D
PERFORMANCE RUBRIC
Terminal Objective; after actively participating in the workshop, Heads of Departments should be able to demonstrate ability to train
teachers in their department to effectively modify their learning outcome to include ICT tools and equipment.

MINI-PROJECT - ICT INTEGRATION


(1) Not Yet Meeting
Expectations
Understanding and
use of ICTs

Application of
instructional activities
to encourages
collaborative learning
with ICTs

Teachers use and


understanding of ICT is
below a basic level; there
is no evidence of attempts
to successfully integrate
ICT into lessons; lacks
confidence
Instructional activities do
not encourage learners to
collaborate; learners
mostly work alone
completing their own
tasks with no ICTs

21
(2) Approaching
Expectations
Teachers use and
understanding of ICTs are at
basic level; there is no
evidence of attempts to
successfully integrate ICT into
lessons; lacks confidence

(3) Fully Meeting


Expectations
Teachers use and understanding
of ICTs are above basic level;
there is strong evidence of
attempts to successfully
integrate ICT into lessons; high
level of confidence

(4) Exceeding Expectations

Instructional activities
encourage slight collaboration
among: learners: learners are
occasionally allowed to work
in pairs, completing their tasks
with no ICTs

Instructional activities
encourage strong collaboration
among learners: learners
always work in groups,
completing all their tasks with
ICT use.
Learners are given tasks that
give them the opportunity to
select relevant ICTs to carry
out their learning tasks and to
make real world connections.
Tasks allows learner to apply
critical and creative thinking
skills in solving problems.
Assessments are both formative
& summative. Assessment
diagnostics are an integral part
of the learning process.
Facilitator uses assessment
rubric. Most assessments
involve use of ICTs.

Instructional activities encourage


strong collaboration among learners:
learners always work in groups,
completing all their tasks with ICT
use.
Collaboration extends beyond group
work.
Learners are encouraged to use ICTs
to encourage collaboration to
disseminate problems and produce
solutions. Learners are required to
apply critical and creative thinking
skills to solve problems and find
solutions for given tasks.

Promoting student
critical and
creative thinking, with
ICT use

Lessons outcomes allow


no use of ICTs. No
critical or creative
thinking skills are
introduced to the learners.

Lesson outcomes permit


learners to utilize ICTs, but
limit the learners to display
critical and creative thinking.

Student Assessment

Assessments are designed


solely summative and
limited to a written exam.
Assessments do not
involve the use of ICTs.

Assessments are both


formative and summative, but
still limited to written
methods. Assessments do not
include the use of ICTs.

Teachers exhibit mastery of the use of


technology tools for accomplishing
instructional goals; high levels of
confidence displayed

Assessments are both formative and


summative. Different forms of
assessments are utilized (rubrics, peer
assessments etc.) ICT tools are
considered for publishing and
electronic portfolios are used.

Mini Project

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Appendix E
APPLICATION ASSESSMENT ITEMS
Objective: Employ effective ICT methodologies to achieve teaching objectives
1. You are asked to demonstrate the effective use of a PowerPoint presentation to encourage
interaction. Which of the following would you apply?
a. Create a simple timed PowerPoint presentation and upload to individual machines
b. Download and incorporate Mouse Mischief to create an interactive whiteboard
c. Create a PowerPoint presentation with sound and animation and play via projector
d. Run a slideshow using a projector and allow learners to make notes
Objective: Organize classroom ICT resources effectively to meet learning objectives for
each learning outcome
2. You have been asked to collaborate on a project to learn about emerging technologies in
education. What would your strategy be?
a. Use ICT with the whole class to introduce the topic
b. Assign individual learners to ICT devices
c. Arrange learner into small groups with ICTs to ensure that each learner is engaged
and that collaborative effort is balanced
d. Arrange resources for ease of use by individual learners
Objective: Exhibit competence in those areas of ICT that support pedagogy in each
learning outcome
3. The task is to design a project-based learning activity incorporating ICT. Identify the best
way that ICT tools can be used to enhance such a project.
a. Use computers to prepare reports to be printed at the end of the project
b. Use the internet solely for research
c. Use the internet for online collaboration
d. Incorporate the use of digital tools and resources considering the tools that might
be used for communication, presentation and investigation in didactic teaching.
(e.g. learners may use digital clickers to communicate to teachers)
Objective: Use the most suitable ICT to meet teaching objectives, by critically reviewing a
range of generic and subject-specific software
4. Your principal has requested that you create a poster to demonstrate the concept of digital
citizenship. Determine which ICTs would be suitable for use in this activity.
a. A computer with a word processor and graphics installed
b. A graphic tablet
c. A smart phone with Google Play to download an app of choice
d. A computing device with internet access, a word processor or design program

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Appendix F
Contextual Analysis Worksheet

-2
-1
+1
+2

Greatly impedes
Slightly impedes
Slightly facilitates
Greatly facilitates

Orienting Context
Learner Factors
Learner profile and Experiential Background
Learners understanding and use of ICT in everyday lives
Goal Setting
Plans which learners have for themselves relating to ICT
integration
Perceived Utility
Learners ideas about the usefulness of ICT integration
Perceived Accountability
Do participants give consideration to possible consequences
for non-participation in the integration exercise?

-2

-1

+1

+2

-2

-1

+1

+2

-2

-1

+1

+2

-2

-1

+1

+2

-2

-1

+1

+2

-2

-1

+1

+2

-2

-1

+1

+2

-2

-1

+1

+2

-2

-1

+1

+2

Immediate Environment Factors


Social support:
Are participants encouraged by family/co-workers to
participate?
Will the absence of electricity and internet connection affect
the ability of the participants to understand the instructions?
Do learners eating habits affect their capacity to understand
the instruction?
Organizational Factors
Incentives:
Will the receipts of rewards impact the understanding of the
participants?
Learning Culture:
Does the manner in which participants learn (learning style)
impact their understanding of instruction?
1.

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24

Instructional Context:
Learner Factors
Learner role perception:
Do learners views of their role match their actual role within
the learning environment?
Learner task perception
Do learners understand and consider their task to be doable?

-2

-1

+1

+2

-2

-1

+1

+2

-2

-1

+1

+2

-2

-1

+1

+2

-2

-1

+1

+2

-2

-1

+1

+2

-2

-1

+1

+2

-2

-1

+1

+2

-2

-1

+1

+2

-2

-1

+1

+2

Immediate Environmental Factors


Seating
Seating arrangements affect interaction within the learning
environment
Instructor Role Perception
Does the instructor perceive his/her role to be a
facilitator/lecturer
Schedules
Provision for regular opportunities to review and practice
Organizational Factors
Rewards and values
What is the importance of incentives for learners within the
ICT integration programme?
Learning supports
Are the necessary supports available to aid learning? E.g.
equipment, material etc.
Teaching supports
Are the necessary supports available to aid teaching e.g. tech
support etc.
Transfer Context:
Learner Factors
Utility perception
What are the learners opinions about future use of the
acquired skills and technology?
Perceived resources
Are learners convinced that our programme possesses
sufficient materials and equipment to achieve our goals?
Transfer coping strategy

Mini Project
Do learners have the capacity to rebound from possible
failure in attempts to utilize the acquired skills & technology?

25
-2

-1

+1

+2

-2

-1

+1

+2

-2

-1

+1

+2

-2

-1

+1

+2

-2

-1

+1

+2

-2

-1

+1

+2

Immediate Environmental Factors


Transfer opportunities
Are activities made available for encouraging use and
retention of acquired skills and technology
Social support
Are co-workers and supervisors supportive of participants
efforts to integrate ICT into their programmes?
Situational cues
Are participants given reminders to encourage them to utilize
the newly acquired skills in technology?
Organizational Factors
Transfer context
Does the culture of the organization, allow participants to
practice the skills developed?
Incentives
Is there room for promotion/upgrades, for the participants
who make efforts to transfer skills and technology?

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26

Appendix G
PowerPoint Lesson and Instructional Strategies
Slide 1

Slide 2

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Slide 3

27

Slide 4

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Slide 5

28

Slide 6

Mini Project
Slide 7

29

Mini Project
Slide 8

30

Mini Project
Slide 9

31

Mini Project
Slide 10

32

Mini Project
Slide 11

33