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nl PHONETICS IN ANCIENT INDIA W, SIDNEY ALLEN Pojemr of Compras Piss (nite Unter of Comber oxFoRD w Ove Univerity Pry, Amen Howe, Lndon 4 PREFACE Ts book is intended as a guide to the appreiton ofthe eats phonetcians Whitney's ploneer expontions of certain of our fources some eighty yeas ago ae acknowlaged in the intr tory chaper; but 4 general reinterpretation has now long been implica that they dapley aleelo phonetic Siacoure beyond the fll comprehension of Whitney aad his cone temporarcn, suchas only the advances ofthe te ineecnth and the trent centuries enable sto apprecite oday. The reognt tion that analycs a advanced intel technique shoul have been cvclved at so early date may well ingpre 1 slutury scent Nami, and i woud be at once arogunt and peste na to ‘expect that a reoterpretatin will pan be necessary in another ‘Sty years—or even eight Tam rate to Profesor J R. Firth forthe encouraging ictret the a shown atl stages inthe progres ofthis work, and no les for his constructive mggestions; and Tw happy to acknowledge the recarches af De Sildheshre Varma, the stinulin of whose [pulled work has been augmented fr me by the backround of [is personal association with Profewor Firth over twenty years gon asociation which has le, in the ight of conte init, to a fuller reaiation of the wealth that lest the ancient eats My thanks are aio de wo Profesor J. Brough, ‘tho real the work in ampuscript and made 4 nurmber of help ‘ticle and to Mr. C. A. Ryland aad Me Re, Robin Whe feveroaly undertook to read the whole of the proofs daring my Shvene in India, Finally acknowledge the generosity shown by the sthoriten ‘ofthe Schoo! of Oriental und African Stadia in providing fll fulventon for the publication ofthis work. W.8, ALLEN CONTENTS (00. The Grammatial Achievement (04, The Indian Tflence on Western Phoneticn ‘02, The Sources 03. The Sanit Alphabet 04. The Principles of Description 040. Word and Sentence (041. Phonetics and Phonology 042. Terminology (043. Order of Ansys (Chart of Sanurit Alphabet 10, Mental 1.1, Physiologie: 1:10, Chifeaton tut, Teee-bocea 1.110, Vowels and Consonants tuara, Friatives Semivowele “Liquid sang, Retrallesion saa, Bxtr-buced a3. The eargar 4 4 2 7 » “= contents, 120, Cononant 2.00, Pulmonic and Geta 201. Velir al, aw $340. Word- and Morpheme junction 3:11 Tnitiaty and ality 5.12, Leerjunction: 3130, Consnant stop (abhinidhana) 5121. rf consonat (rarabhaki) 3:22, Stop naal (yams) 4.123, Fretives nasal 124. Stop frcatve 135, Gemiastion 42. Syllable structure: $320. Vowel and Consonant Sylabie Division 3:22, Length and Duration 323. Quanity 324, Tone 33: Tempo EDITIONS OF TECHNICAL WORKS REFERRED TO Whe mr a itn nt teri iii hat nen meen estou aes Ania Sia Up. 8) ik Rag Vi, VS, a4 pp 228 Atha: Prato (AP) (= Samant Ta ad tn WD. Whey, JA08 vs 335% Aihara rains ee 5.8.8) Ted and Shar, Lab, 938 Ek WV. Shave aor, 15) Mapas Sb onda Sieg. Men, tre oA VAR, Dinar and 83, Arya. Poon, 8 Kanal Sit Sas Ram JV, 198; 108 hatha (34) Sete Nominee ‘Wid Pre of Kept nd Papeddtan of Ansan, ed ‘Sat Pee Ahan. inde, O48 ‘Tal Vo Trp Clbahar ts) Lap, 13 Pig (Pon) "TE ind ta. 0 hing Lei, 887 Ee ek 8 che Atal, 7 JP L Ren eT Aa, ih, Pai 28 Pie Sid PS) TE ea aA. We, adc Sain, 8 48-71 Wee iF an an who te Sia Pui dS Prk oan eal M. Gon ‘Case 1538 Piet, Chana Sane "YE ac Ac Weber, dice Sn, wi 8, wm 39 ‘ibe come aap, er Shs (A Pn), ‘cise 1 mit cer leon sm wee Yau hr pnts Compr Sem ha Pr Save th has ak 2. Wa. Be 8) i id PF Chembur, VS x e38 ww Seema Se BEET et AO, Pte, Conger, 186 ee Rk hy Yajima nd wh, Yoeisiors Sia cher St Sou Bae os Tairow raat 1?) ME ed ee, Whines YAO i ELK hargnayeand RS Sua Sem 3) Myre, ed wa W. Pern Matin 1854 Pains Kye (VP, Ver the commer of Oooo Asura gh pp be e28 INTRODUCTION 0.0. The Grammatical Achievement Inthe epbere of gramear iti grifyng cat of present-day Linguiat to pay Iipserice tothe geste of descriptive gran ‘marian, the ancient Indian Piainis and t wae wn eloquent tite toi achievement that one af the great lingua of our own te should write Indoatopearcomparae ranma (tl) a eve oy ‘ow apt ancpe fs hen, he wma of Peeters ie Bupa langunes ih nly the aoa prams of eck Lain wly nope ad estate For ane {rage tthe pt hve men eed compari to Pas eon i ‘ater ange, nn ely Hany engage pen toy wl bo pty rrdad at in apie of the invaluable ranaation of hi wok by Bailing ‘and nom by Reno, ues the nguit himself also a Sanskrit here are insuperale dificlice i the way of fll appreciation ‘of Pin’ achievement; and even forthe Satan complete ‘understanding not exlyatined-agin to quote Blomfield, es with wy conn we poets ee hs feo il have tobe op opon Pit tee we haven emery ‘tabi expan of the ngwage which he reared fra ne 1s inded inthe extent of the interpretive materi seme of which ha felt stained oa canonial ats, thet we Fd king ‘evidence ofthe honour accorded tothe grea rarmanan his Sum land Rat this profusion of commentaries abo bear wioent tothe dials of Papin tecnque:compened whan algebraic ‘ndenation, his work linguists and nea ingunge teacher's ‘rammar, and for th more pedestrian purpose of teaching Sansit ering wet « practieal nee, thin giving rise to farther (eammatiel hierarchies dexcending to x miscellany of schoole ramimar of recent dae.” Te ha been calclated tht there are i fxitence ever a thavand diferent Sanskrit works on Sanskrit 1 L Mansel anu, 1p the Pipe Sh Ha, wsten wen an soma ea, ser Spawn foo tan te a ope Nina's, Panam Dl Dai’ Sith swt mina Egham . PHONETICS IN ANCIENT INDIA ‘except for fragmentary citations, has been le . ec ieee ee nc ochre st gant neue nme think of any peat of tne tori devel of wane werk ot sina wth the eames a eg oth en ask, ‘wy some of or ne equate 7 of out mote grtegue an inadeyune tion (4, ta me by tig bck the Lan rae {Lars sometnes ws fr a Digan Thar reves Anes tegen sang the cpm ef anon pont hog rere Todi wes ae tncenn and en mone eee es intl more evaring And in th el th got foes ‘ately in a more advantageous positon to appreciate the acco bicement, in thatthe aquisition of « working Knowledge ofa in to fara there abs for gone fhe in ei te fr rn phone doen ch 1 ie i as : Faerie cee rsa” ren 5 op ‘Ct mt i 1, The Indian Influence on Western Phonetics Moreover the tink between the ancient Indian andthe modern \Wontcn schol of linguini comideraby eloer in phontiy ‘han im gestae For whit Pipinean techaiqucs are only just heaning to bani the incu of Latin ramtar, our Phonetic egris ad terminology ove more than is pethape generally ‘eal othe influence ofthe Sanakni¢ phonetics, The impact Si Sir Witam Jones's aacovey" of Sanat on the course of ‘Wester fnguintis wel known; but Jones, apart from his now Igraphy of Asati words i Roman Lets! the whole order Treatment and decriive techie i clearly based on Ini ‘adele In «paper on "The English Schoo! of Phonetics Pro- essr J, R. Fir ha sad of thin rest orctast, ‘hatte Ian grammar a boeican ham bended soc mcmmended tt dc 2 age bar etch etary The influence of the Indian works on the phonetic views of Willa Dwight Whitney may be cee sen Inthe discussions shed inthe Journal of the American Oriental Society during the years 1862, subsequent upon the appearance of Lepsis's Stindard Alphabet) and we have the fing that shout thei teaching Whitney might oot have been in postion to express self= Fight indigestion agua that other country from which he ‘a are 0 much il ay mung wero he se she plone ple: light of thar nati oe Germ ave banded oars ed tcemiety ci dicen bere on rand son fond 8 and rec “The “seemingly obvious’ dtinction of voind and vacle here ‘i arn Lt To gs kM Tne he Pad dane a rectal weedy repel by ep ‘eed fhe Sani grr nd he a cc ein he woh fA. Ea ec a Pa IV a he ly Bh Pro, picefepct wt we made o Whe wet ‘snot works an abe hc own sere ec ery pi. He apron cao fly {the tet ns than Why a dans ea ‘aon ti dap ef es 7h at hy ol i a at ey eal bce dint ens ome AS yet however, the linguint cannot survey the Inn phonetic sachivement without undertaking an extensive curse af reading, of which only a certain proportion wil be relevant to ha parpoey and on the ther hand, without having viewed the ever feme ork ofthe Indio nai he can hardly anes inal dc Sion. The principal works ave been trandited and cnmmented ‘upon (so fa 8 the phonetic climate othe tans’ cavironenee Detmited) by auch Western scholars ax Whitney, Weber Reve ‘nd Max Miller, and more recently by Indian icky among whom may be expecially mentioned M. D. Shs, 3. K. Saree nd: Ghosh, An interesting selection of epee problems bas been discmed in detail by Siddbeshwar Varms in hin Creal ‘Studi inthe Phonetic Observation of Tdion Grommarint, he ‘resent study ama at presenting a mstemate acount of Tndion Bhinetc doctrine so frat appears to pomew mere than purely 0. The Sources Of the works themselves it wll be sulicint to soe tha they fal into two main eategorieg, the Prater and the Sib, TE Se bt seer aeearoan e eeaete onise Ta — pet eo a Ser rac Sens Reais ea rete darers — inom = See ae eee aeeneae Eevietang ce Panainne’ whee ye Fateh tania utes te ey Ra oe nt a i pe area haces rare Sree hated ns ee ie Pepe rele Gia shes arin in hy dea Var aes CRs ec ais lle ren ocean cour ae Semgrest cats neces fais eeneacacen sevens Sa ee eee ee ee areas nan anaecel ass Se Sera mare Bieormncapes anette aera oS See eee a ta ‘ PHONETICS IN ANCIENT INDIA ‘Mada; adits crest that nda, lke Erope, gam ‘aca writen vad theme of the bs profes) pets ‘vice rch ance aod nontce wots te Bale ‘map, Argyl, aod Upc we nd» marty ‘arou phanctc cupolas af mca, tnt tcaie, semicoke nf chica ooo) andi the White Yji-Vea ee pest ian anatomical it aris etre which lng teeters otc a ol pricey fin els and pr the tongues hh Feiely scited wih Sarat the fen of pert “The shor ofthe phones wok are ttre prescriptive ted Secrgive. Tie avowed purpose lst prose the er {tation of he mace vx vo Ec the dr peas sre Airstened for mprmuncade,fodig decent the lof XKurbipdla? the competent pup, on the ae hand, et couraged by vers sch ttt which cnet TP “allethetnow the sini fan sd ea may go nwt =f which he commentator irre a spying nto inthis world br so i he pe However of oe {ans were dary phoetiin rte tha staan ae {canny coupled wh en shen ad etc metiode logy eo ecpons wc mua erly have enced the iil terme a ference ora the scout ofthe vaiut shore Mena; we fd ele divergences of pronucaton ar betvcn te ening {nd the vent, nd we may sumine Gt these dearest tanya rt scat dla fetus eorepending to he icon of he several Sah or Ve col, Te meh nes thee i nga ack origi dope, and the Sahar nooverion > refer to ach ther’ opinions ina commer objective mano. Cerin prmncatin however, are general. rcoased ss fey fd Tate of ach tus fe, In chap. iv ofthe RP) are hardly lee itoing than dela a che approved. pos “The Pritt have recived the actions of vats ater commer In hte hehe of + ina troy Gy eels to eogment end cit the cole rey of the pions anfrarately, however thera ten tf the tation ome in tany aves to hve Ben Tot sr he Sennentan thar we psc haves habit of wrapping he root {Geral bevel of cng Eiht on he nanraene icon Hin in car te ca Sate of pret iy tad undergone a marke deterioration Between the tie {Teton were composed end the tine of our commen Ea feral we may yey Set abe over where te aan {fetue ave of shoogh nome mates ever Set cul ave Ire frm thems and recent stay of modern do-Aryan Iangage ha socesfly en that any of the ancient dvr Chetechnigucr i al be employed to tdvntage’ ‘These ety peat a ie eich ey thera {he Middle Ager even he mi-tnetenth ety aed ay 8 tconmcnt wAEl he comers ed een Wien or Dlx Miler hae fale to comprehend makes mmedte sms othe ‘hone today ‘The ane oetaningexepin othe general {dry ofthe dian commentators vat hove tpt {nwo the RPand ol the VP reve tegen elie: lng appeach to eiey of phonetic 03. The Sanshrit Alphabet ‘Whit the satements with which we sal concerned are of wide phonetic tres, even the ost general of them are of our TNsed onthe deuripton of «paticulesnguage, namely Saraki. esc este of ‘rlye fr purposes of tex qution, te sundad Renan ‘eltrtion a the Devnet edna eye ‘ifet ec cn he on urine he lo salt andthe orginal San lee fs pea Ret, sented wo lott. Whar homeer Semler rey ss soundacqucce ae made smite ported ‘emripion ned which doers in ee rope hts sandal stem, and wich {ove found comes ae ing of Start poets ach rnrpion ce pads heey LEA. type, Inthe chat on p20 the eo cometion any sie ty de Wher tare amps eee ee ‘indie by he we of ogee bao I ld he stewed ath pe a,x fo eascrip soapy the estan os compe arte by Caer is bd crs monnpenicaatfers shi prot, which har ees ben sped yey ‘modern ling ho favours exis ‘phone sree th ras forming op nich spent ar sh Indian themes fave done vo. Tes wae te Bese seth of wring is lah, ht the nu under nd ‘
    tent i found in the TF ery senate radeon the palit by te edges of the id fhe ‘The accuracy of this particular statement would in fct be wip "in 20 (Ur bie erm np na ute a in i nnn nth oe io Satine reg at Soper peti ti in Eo ” PHONETICS IN ANCIENT INDIA ported by pantograph evidnce'—it the description of the ows that rely tft no dinincion bing peer made Beoween open and oe quits shold be mentioned, owe er thatthe TP, in dcusing the e-vowe,preriey some eye of contact an observation ch could pn be upped, ic only strange that should make no much vem with regard |, whee the contact comidersby preter’ The TP sls mestionsapprociation of the lp fr te acaatin ofthe lip-rounded woudl u The adn tthe TP is followed bythe 7S; hich rferstoip-promiion nthe ce of an, aching the proc of pennen generlysusecned with the cas of ‘owe oi out ht thi docs ct apply inten of tat ‘his the nex ale ges onto mention acl conc s pe Sumably to bolted aements sch a thee tat he AP te eit gs on of ee su at oe involved inthe vowels’ an opinion which Whitney ipatinty amines oo bviuly and rol corre, one would think, to be worth quting ‘Ain the foregoing rics of th oan analysis it my be sed that in certain conten, more expecially nal and tree more tee atid tan cere al nvoled rete Conta than nthe ease of | and; fr thie we have the Spece Satements of «numberof the Sinn" sme of which even pre ‘ere for ya potuncation as jn such emes--an huarrton Which i giant wath rut ter developments Only on rnocesses ” sch grounds cold the dctine of speci degree of cle for the toni be jie? the eer tae, however, uate mec th i tan “The Sanit tem forthe xeory of emivowl ti "sanding betwen Tin tempting ands tempted ede Comment tere thse fering othe potted “imermetne’ dgpes of contac cial ove Heo erm ‘semivowe, to their phosli alteration” ‘The ending 1h, ‘Sning however more ei appablt th place wich thee letersoccapy inthe sii between the stop and the {enter andi dob wheter the ancien sources provide idence for en ther isterpetation ‘\camparcon wih te scent waters caifeton shee of some terest It wil fist neces, however, to metton that {Ee Indian donot set vp ther ome-comnat datincton ‘chr phone ronda: K asso poet bas ‘he nructr of the sll ae frcer 320 bel) from ths rn of sew the vowel fed yt ty to anc hunt ovale mace! on the RP caer 1 vol with const, oem yl forme ae and ici sgniant that Pata etymologaes the word ara (Coweta = reayan rate — is automo? Tin Greece also both type frtera were employe. Plato men- tions the cates of garforr (it having voi’) and are (it Nicking voice) these categories, exemplified by Greck vowels sndcomonan roping poll thin, and might be tendered by “sonar and. "non-sonan ‘Arse goer on to relate this phonological distinction to the ‘Phonetic ereria of nan-contac (red pmo; ef. Skt. prt) fd eoeact (nerd mpmBas ef. Skt spa). Pat further mene ‘eb int ene Pt cami an, he, See ater 8. Cha, Ort Tupi in eh oe te gn by Grammont, CL Re Somer hoy oan »—_rwoweics x ancien tmo14 Seon argny of cman which arena terse orn as iat ms end spy mth ‘herr eee ny Aisne hee fos alan ad ome Sees ab Sato of phono feet rer he noe dependently pronounces shi, whit the "ha-toname ate with contac and independently Dronouneeable.*"The nly actal example of these alesonant? ven by Plt n-—ratersurpiainly—to thi Arie we, ‘nd fll its given by Dionysian Ta, followed by Dionysos of Hlalicamanns ve, Ty fy ty 82" Thus the Greek "half Soman turnout woe the fcative, the gues the asain theabene of Lor vowel and (i Aion) of ow ge, ‘the question of «phonological category of 'emivowel (the waa tramltion of nfo) does nok aie. Weare rein at dealing ‘ot with sivowels but wth ‘ontinvant of various types some of which may have quasi-sylabie fonction tse the Grech phonological systems Dionysius These expen i “They te led talon that when edn murmuring and ising they are onl le soto eas) han oun ‘And it is noteworthy tht the Latin grammariana generally include ‘mongat thet semieocal the Latin frctive fut not the seri ‘vowels y and w (je) Some Greck sourer see alo to have ‘lassie a "hal-sonan’ che h-element of the voiceless mpiates hy th, Rh, @, x) the inclaion of the aspire reece 6 Satan Epc de rm i) a ht mete hatin bea Danes apc Prician! but appears again in the Ol! Teandie grammatical lweaies, which bo ince the Icelandic deta fctven" "The Greco-Roman tradition of the someecal? til nd expres fon inthe work of Grammont: {smyth sont ent meet de sane et en frees ee ome “There is in fact litle common ground between the Indian ap- prac tothe antabitha and the Gresk approach tothe harm ‘The only mention in our Indian sources of contrast between instantaneous and cotinuousaticulation tha of the RP: or he op here moment cnt: forthe vol and tine and the only Wester statement ofa special degree of contact is ‘hat of Mana Vitor: Siva runt papn or min eat ‘Our own tern semivowel' has its origin inthe Greek juror, through the medium ofthe Latin uemtecali, whit employ ‘ments though no is jemieation, generally coreapende more lovely to that ofthe Sunset antl. tis farther to be noted that our term igi a word more con ‘venient than descriptive, owes its origin tothe west rather than the ext, "The Greek term Spe, ‘moi fi (trated By the Latin liquids) is Rt used ina phonetic sense hy Dionysis ‘Than, who applies ito the Greek Ty, 9° mont of hi om smentstors interpret the word ax mean ‘slippery te ‘tale, with reference tothe metrical fect of thee sounds a second ‘merers of rp stop ligud, where a preceding syllable eon ‘aining shor vowel i of‘doublfl quaaty, tt lo eefered to a yp” Terentanas Mautu, however, explains the term a fefersing to thei Trica mtu i tha hey may function eter in Prof Ami Gh tk. Patan p08) a ah proc Sean nt yn Se Ut Dae Hb LSS Bi then mrmetn enie SEE ma fe wear GA 6m Ct nn, Ka 95M ‘vowels or at contonnts'— remarkable interpretation at applied 1 the phological systems of Greek or Latin Asus Fortu- titans aces inthe term a reference to lack of tensenet (quae ‘mia erm haan) and other interpreters of Dini Ta ‘fer simply to their "smooth and even articulation Lig” iin fact one of thane tera of which Grammont has ssid, “Ellesse coacrtey pr un ln ero, eee ae este wal rte des fo vt are pets nn ‘en er po sages ef enema 1.113, Retrflesion “Amongst the inta-buscl atcustry proceaes we might hve expected the Indians to have mentioned one further feature, ‘ame, rtrofleion. "This however, ngeneraly dicoaed by them ‘conerion withthe pce of articulation (ee 209), an ao featon to its prosodic function se 3.10). To eomade thereto ‘oc artculatons on the same term a the velar pata dental ‘or labial, ven from the pointe view ofthe Indian descriptive Feamework not ently juste. in the TP we finda prescription regarding the poston of the aricultors in ther quince oreutra stat ( cloe parallel to pow war east dng i eit Cohen Sars 12h Ean p15: se sents Ore Hate Ua, Wig ond Ves Net ee foe ES een pout ie ardor ih Th ut me ltt ana ren Dian {In thin condition the velar, palatal, dental and labia articultors te approximately opposite tei epectve places of atiulaton, ‘ecngnie, hy rolling back the tp of the tengue"—that the place of artculition isnot automaticaly determined by the appliestion ofthe closue-proescs othe apical aiuto: there need ofa further praytna, “articulatory eff, which might ‘with consistency have been include at this poi. 12, Bstrabccal ize, Glotal In their reeagriton ofthe voicing proces the Indian phonet- avs make one of thr greats single contributions. The term “Voice (pho) awe have alread sen, fund in eri non- technical erstare, andthe speciale dacovery thie t9 have been of even cart date. ‘To designe the lots the Inns ie ‘ther the word hag, hich in nontechnical wage mean simply ‘tact’, more specially Mhab (or blag) hapa, ‘apertce ‘of the threat Tn the Indian rusia Iterture we a find the picturesque term fr tnd,‘ hte’ which some authorities fave iterpeeted at relerrng to the vocal cordin recent pen, however, De A.A Dake ha point out tht tis interpretation i unfounded, and that ‘strange to may, thee i no trace ofthe now ledge ofthe exitence ofthe voal cord inthe texts onthe theory of music? The flowing are typical ofthe phonetic naerent? “These, rapt, oF pment erin tne fv ati, 1 C1 Sin, Pls Die uae Scr satiric mas fr Ge cama! Rumsoumetommee” ide maine ores breath i) or a he ot open ° (at) conn ‘When the i incl, se prove when i pen, rath? “The mods wed refer thet oes of thi attr pce arc voera,"onrce, se, Sd ein opened il be fered tht the tert wale wed fate description the le cea procene As ear the relatos ofthe voicing proces to the various leer the AP ste, ret ct i cee oe oto and ie in (a ase eyed comones nd vo “The MOM, ao nots the et ofthe ving pcos on eter ‘ail stops, sping af the ¢ ma word wach paca, {tore bythe ving fe pret toning owe 4 feature which efter supported by the semen ofthe ‘Prakrit grammarians.* aad "Apr frm the two pls of ‘beth’ and wie’, a mumber of treaties inode iter factor int dsp the RP estat Wins tet nan interme smi (een hd nd cpu ba sand ts oro and goeson to relate thi feature tothe individu eter a flows, roi ete oF the ol sends and we for the ther, scp for he word reue (aed the led psn hee hh Sth ene a emi? 1 AE ni a. arn an sendin hay eve a ae ec sh oe Sey ted frees al a a Thin supported y the statements ofthe TP, wi ‘When the aii in antenna, nanan ipod Yocom an vce pied) anna th eminn ye, (or elon cst Seto Yor hao the red mcs aed Further, the RP condemns at fle in the pronunciation of ‘ceive breath o inary t wien wound. ‘Rogaring ths third estegory of gta “aloar’ oh sound Max Mile nao Dist ne inch Vrlng, wee wo eran snd Whitey in series of wpe comments, "nn es ee inten hile "The Ry dares bath ath ad nd be pre he somat sms te ln poy bere ef een ‘Sesesnpont: tthe meron eparepyesmar deo, Tr tepouaies The anemp tm ah hi ino iro a a Ch ted el ted real eae ae thr woe phase” Neils to say, the two western scholars were wrong, ‘The {meter Indo-Aryan language bear ample eden evidence trove nee hat the mpieton ofthe ced aspen (Qh Bh, {Ee)isvocd anptin and thereae strong historic and lepral eons for bring the Sarat ht ave een oe TTB] the pony of ach an acatnn no lnger a ater ff Youbet quote an of many vale deseo ‘vod mde Porth sud the wc ede ate so * PHONETICS JN ANCIENT INDIA ‘rill fe le reaper aw “The lure of acy weter phonetic take ote ofthe vi proce hase Yoon upped Aves page of it Tester Anil fuses oar to entry tan a sect renzo aking datnction ete vowel and ermonans es ht wheres the Ine repel by te tongue nd ip the former ae proce hy the vse Bethe matters ot farther puted by hin or bn cea od the wenn tation i realy tat whch bogie with Daa, ‘They the ler diigo the thee clases of Oreck cop (vce, vied, vse amit) by the epee of pie Aint wx an ‘emat, medio and ough repeciey” the ‘eiced stops being comired fos thie pnt of view inter. Irvtebetmeenth cles spratedan he lesen apted ‘ops: I is dic tose how thi sation xn hae bee jied:Starean bas now rghly abandoned an ex heey {tat the aateae cud rr to 4 leafed ad tater bypothen, which would to some eet ft Dn ‘taatcato, named, that the Grek 8, > repented ved ‘Spat, mpparted by wo pte eens weer” Tat wether ont th Sverin weer appa o Gree, ie wan cidenty notin the ee of Let sod ith ene ut fscepion not taken over bythe otherwise ovine Lin pam ‘mata. "The espa for traning th il ia {itn trasaion ofthe Greckterms-—tmat medi a paar “nus be ore by Priadan, wo le ne the Grek caer ‘em in is entity. Unde bythe fac that Latin posses no spat, he splice the ter othe Latin rate f whisk he Semc ne reamemmy se nee puree nate elms ac gp’ "EBs" Gone Greats nn te + ha fe he mots mi apt or ea vs pet ad per er tes le) dentin with the Groc (theater having by hte probably ‘developed its present frative valve) The ambit which the ‘erm thus developed was limately to provide Jaca Crim with 2 espe omen ft feo tenet of he Ltr “Av regard the mature ofthe distinction betwee the voiced and olecles Latin stop, the ancient writers scm to have had ony ‘the vaguest imprestions With tnd d there is he sugestion of ‘ferent place of artiultion!~—a method of diferetaion that ‘wefind perpetuated in Ben Jonson's Engl Grammar. The lan Ing ofthe dsncio ie ecommended by Quintana a eet item ins boy's edeation fat he guarded ota to discus the ‘mater in deal, Ina description by Terentzaus Maar, dealing nth the distinction between bad pad ky there ia suageee ‘on, thoogh abmcorelyexprosed, th the author ha rcogmined the extremely smportnt on fortt opposition (which Whitney ‘vas tather too ready to isi) and Maan Victorinu park ‘lating thie statement, doesn fet we the former term" But any food that may have resided in thea descriptions quickly perished; the medicral gramenarian Hout distinguishes aligundo fom ‘quanta by the potion of theses, ‘trim dt sn diem ere, ant en aden soa, suo et pe poor popes gs ier and inthe seventcenth cesary John Walls states the distinctive Feature to be alty.* Only in the iter pat of the nineteenth ‘century, under the influence of Idan teaching, dacs the recogni tion ofthe voicing process make heatiay Pulmonic Te wil be convenient to consider next the proces of aspiration, {nas much as one of out treaties, the PS, links this with the oii proces: "Red "nrc pinion et am spain wt ane et Si eh eer a ei * PHONETICS IN ANCIENT INDIA sepa voiced the leet apie re ate the vie ope ‘se panty bth Thin the wf pe Inher words, andthe voiedappirates are considered as more fully voiced than the nen-apiates, and the viclee apirates ‘more filly breathed than the aon-epitcs. nthe cae f the ‘voices pir the statement makes good sence when we conider ‘ea, breath 8 relrring tore of voiceless reat ther tha simply ‘voiceless This interpretation ix supported by the ‘aerent ofthe 7P that, More bth ia sited in te eer weiss serene (he ht sept topes te foative? than he shaped ope snd isin accodance with the grammatical and later phonetic terminology ofthe dition btineen spate and non-tprate amelymallcprdna’ "big-beath and apo iti Dreah we now tum wo the PS's statement reparing the voiced pair, similar considerations apply: nada, "voi, beng interpreted. a2 “Toce of voiced breath the statement ips greater breath force on the rele of the pirates than of the hor-spirste. The justiieation or such sutement is cel reflcted in kymographic tracings, where the Voice breath corelater with prc high ampltnde inthe vrai wave-forma from this point of view ‘td the rlese elements ofthe vice sapirats may be considered ‘san ‘overblowing” ofthe following vowel (el alo 3.00 below), “The Indian westment of the sspiration-procens proves Fle tle for dseusion, with the exception of a tterent tthe RP that, SEY a the sprti f he pineconsi hmong ttm beat ih ae yn ts apn ‘src! ve de tr rt Sab hd tod cos a avn The 8 ao, as Laer 098) 4 view that repeated forthe vacln apis bythe Ap. ‘The breathy rene of am pated stop inv aso Seek herve, homething ofthe care of the preceding census {inthe velo sera eating Sgro aon feo be heard rom speakers af same moder Tado-Ary ame fing Dine pronation of ths ipe te Maly to Pave tel inthe cave ‘of Sunk; the ate deslopment of the Sipime tower, hay supports Uvata'ssaumpn of 2 ‘etongy acted pronunciation pth) sch sted infor camps, High Geman 1.122, Nasal ‘The ataliation proces may oc in combination with various lrabuceal pres snd the acen tatenonts rearing the ‘mode af embinaion for the moat prt preeat no ret ely SCimerpeaion. The tal consonant re refered oer yeaa or amma, “having mal component OF the mechan af the roc the PP ay spy ha Say ply pig he al ni (ur phonetic teats, ao Fin elie that bath noe and ‘mouth are involved and the TP farther pnts ot tht ea Into isa fo the serepnding ora consonant’ App othe sop serie (ana spt) thi preg tna on onan Pott nasal fr tre othe emia 5s, av ao ated ms jonctional Feu a Vee Saket 2a uly nt bythe phones connexion with the vowels the working of the proces ie simi quite dear Here ain the term nha eulary Sis erence pe ned ‘Another term, boieve, i alo use by tome ef the eas, yao eee ae ene oes ae Sees te aes Seen cas fe See iemeveas ceamaare ay souchentess seamen: Soe aera See oedema eee cr ene Seren ae eee aie heme een eet See eee Soh cee eteane eee ge yearn ae ee ee ee eae pelegeeh rumen! pieeeierareensaneeret ear reenaa eee Soares array german, ee ee seems aoe -tgr- fd Washers op #8) respectively (ne abore). I optional wes further extended, even ‘ely ax Papin t0 wordfinal postion preceling + sop! where Previous phone leaching had presrbed a homorganic nasal? Inter treatises extend this practice to merphemesjuncions within the word, and even ta intramorphemc position, tng followed {nthislst extension by the graphic practice of mannsenpts and of ome printer. In Prakriti further extended to the potion before aint! vowel “The phonetic value of thi feature, however, bs provided trablem for phonetics and commentators whether ancient Medieval or madera. ome confunon may perhaps be avoided by fine comering the eedence for ix promincati inthe exer snd more limited contexts ame, before thefcatves. Sequences ‘of the ype -VayS (where V ~ any vowel and $ = any fcatve) ‘yee phonology parle oequcaces ofthe type -VEL- (where = any semivowel ace 1) or VIN (ohere © — any up snd 1N = homongnie maa) sam-skpta, for example, pr sal-laya apd t san-tauna, sara-paata, Sc This the masaliy i the types -VEL- and -VNVT- conforms to both the thas and the abhyentraravatea of the fling copsonant: by its parle {elm with thea squences one might she make the therein! suppostion that -VayS-— -V2S- (where Za naaiedfrca- tive) 2 form of sealation tht may be head, for example, i Modern Keelandic, wherein a phrase wich a ln shin frei the ‘word-janction revealed with some evelapping ofthe malian: tion and fiction procemes (in «segmental representation =2 8, SVE}? a only one Tad statement, however i there any implication that my to be comsidered a a frcative® Ta number of languages the tendency in fact forthe nay uch contests oe relized inthe preceding Vowel and forthe CET P ay mabta pnd pra ay ahem amon, 1 Rectan sauna, samp) 1 GL Sin tron en Gram 129 De a Poe ine Sr 9 ie Sot ei Bea Rm Pesce oto woken Skee Bvt "HG pect ern Attn arto, seg ae Sam om Bee SE arom” « PHONETICS 1N ANCIENT INDIA snlabe qunteiv pera to be mantined by “ Af ovls a Sweet ng sp ped eu ith ged a ‘be hehe sd erode preted nel * the preceding vowel! ee “The sume development is posted for tn in Tih! and further ated In Old Lithoann by shernon f he type indu(pren}s hfe (a) Arent the dere langue pel ‘ernaton ay be quoted frm Plat tnd Spans ‘On the ui of anaopes in th angus teeter ‘prs he eet eng ing the vowel ot lcady Tog) th view wa doped ‘Whitney and hos wpe n the athe TP opal na tara 8 having pres a ale? whit the “AP ake trenton of apart from aan Whey Gerber apport hs ian hh hein wen vowel (ew oF for anf. The lengthen ‘te vowed pid te wate of ie TP meal 4 lich ale ert «ie coming Tt othe ther hand sme of ou autores quite er iting the ere nea sd ame, allowing asp fr the VP inde According we Auplie ant of wove ecu ata toning rool (Or in eee ses can wae mr ine Processes * louly elite to the TP The atempts to describe the phonetic ‘ale ofthis "iscrio’, however, are femariaby unklpfl. The 1 describes ta nding Ike te ate the RP cases it wth ‘he vowel and feetives a locking conce and erewhere say that it hs either voeaie or consonaalqualies ard t leat one tncientgrammaran could not be certain whether i was salen ‘on ofthe towel ora separate naval uit Ts thueextemcy dificult to determine the phonetic bai of ‘ur deseritionaTranalaens of the diel such aspirant to vowel-e m (mj dono rally helps merical cosierations slope provide no clue since ailables of the Types VNC, VOC, ‘VEC would i ay ewe be metrically equipollent; and modem Sanskie pronunciations reso various with regard fo mara {ote of ie anata” ac cern, weet soe of the ancent writers ha perceived something other than a snp raletion ofthe vowel, the near nature of thi fete snd ‘ated inthe FP qtation above, and we have alo the sateen tthe TP that we autores precebe the insertion of aaa Increment after the wel? Inthe preset state of our knowledge ‘vould pehape be unwise oma more han that thee autortes tha abserved some form of malized glide in the sation rom the veve a he eave The dangers myer fonwonantal nature way perhaps have a dialectal asi, in ‘Gannetion the fellowingalgh ndieations may be noted on ether sider (i) In describing the mode of traston from m tH inthe Lint hae M4 pwoNsTies tm ANCIENT INDIA ne aa, Poa i wn a th = wit implcon hat ry sone feels ne hesitant he “oor fms ae ontan), 8) Semetoppo fr ach ast spray pated Ora (i) The treatises which iss on a consonant interpretation of eraredra (generally velar) ar of ate composition, * at this pros ‘nunciation fe exprenly condemned by Uvata in his commentary hie RE” Noni weer deeopmens, wee. cei ind eal -N'S- (cE the Sanskrit sandhi mahaantsan for ‘mahaan j sun, &}* ‘he extension of andra in Clanial Sanskrit wo ates where ‘he following comonant sa semivowel provides no fe dis Ba ales meted i liste opens ft ‘erin caves Wheve ear treaties presse « homorgune nal 1 has ben sugested that this extension was purely graphic and tose on the convenience of the simple symbol” to represent ‘salty thinner ls than aro Paes inginiccampctenee, though the possibilty of phonsogical rather than phonetic basis forthe extension must not be overtook. ‘Graphic considerations may well underlie the ltr extension of an oe ea ay (cn OER Mt ages SS Fen mes sen crc cs eee ‘the Tealaation of amaedra might be simpy ated tm term af ceed rot ie meeting Stine Sear a ‘iba i coma store vow, ainamed by egg tomes Saas ee geet eo be uae PP» Nao me shavers ham maena}t ei ac ‘ane to replace homorganic nase within 4 morpheme Of ‘teh extensions Whitney hs id “Te... th nm en th nor arn or maa mae ths Sly aed oo tirade th tr seco area TORE Sits pnce en oe slo be Sapp od ent! “Thee nice are directed oiat Max Mile’ sport ofthe recite refered ta Bt here mucho be sai ont other ide Forage slovenly and undeibl att may well have mete me arom sey a Sriporant ei may, ta he mot a sequence Vat or ¥mp_ eater, different functional unit from there Vo or ioV for rest inthe later me amare uy oi ht fe Totmongtic nas form si aie loge tamscrptn wl recgnise this ft Th parully the can i hae modern no: Aryan languages where the aly {rpm ef certain nol syns aken oer fro Samat (eae Pata ert) nto reqeset omar malty Belore eon ‘Geant of he appropri sei. In sme dialect, moreover we fea chemative Promancatone of the type VNTYY teaton of hmong ual (paratars) with malty and iengh ef woe ermania;t Mch ese the convene and Hnnelogcal appropriateness oa nngle yl forth to per ‘ne Ge SEEHTR inn Pt tt Cn Ph Se he 1 lot da eat pel pol) re bmg al “ MUONETICS IN ANCIENT INDIA ‘ble eltions ae sbviun! Poly sina erations were pect in more ancient tes, and pve face se of {ection which bert the ely phonetic ‘ih bln of naar atm eel tome eth a kn sf Suappoitingyunrewsrngsevs te Aromas how we ag ke oor es fd se qual imprecise on other pit. Tn view of thr peal igh ‘Sinderd of competence soma fat sure tthe poet {reblem in queion wan + parry dific oe, complened Fechpe by mule costs dlc and pra ats: ima I we wero seks ated fest i» moder angunge such oo might ie ocean os sar ode i oto ‘np, i mht perhaps be found inh Japs ald ye Sh ch a ty ete pe en {mongi the otherwise gene povete Seguro he Tater ‘onal Phot Aiphae 13. The Vargas With regard othe three exra-bucelareuatory processes dir ‘cussed above (gota plone asl itahould ally he remarked that ther combination withthe inra-bueal proses of axial lnure pve rite toast of Fie sara letters for each of the five 1,1 hat La ree de ct eran ae el ee imam it banat eat ane seo nye ase ‘Span fnew ue Poems set the semtpion of mao ay be sary to compres ery ot Siatg An hl ten ue wig cea a Py a” BAER Rare tapi Sora ie Ree faa atin Cae pn Pine, ang, places of atone forthe velar ky ks yh 9 Each Such set i known a eu,“ the enor of which ae ‘enemies refered toby number as follows: ‘Veeco nonaeprte—'tt(prathama) Spite "and (deat) Voiced noncaspirate —"srd’ (tea) = spi ‘th? (atta) Neat ‘th (paca) o asta), Tn the able on p. 20 the blck of § bys arya eters enclosed within the heey Tie PART LETTERS 20, Comonants Tr isthe Indian practice to deicrbe the places of articulation inthe even oder to that of the IPA. Quite logically they bei with thove which ae nearest tothe origin of the airstream and work ‘rogresively upwards and forwards towards the ip 2.00. Pulmonic and Glottal “Thus the fst organs tobe considered are the lang, which are treated asthe place of articulation forthe voced [8] an voice= lest h. “This treatment, however, i optional; mot af he teats also allow these sounds toe clawed at gta fricatve’—a term ‘which is sil commonly acepted tday, though in need of {ihe Gree rm reahing (ete) mip be mare speopete) ‘Te lowing uatents rte the erate pcan: “Theresa shat dao) omen ‘rn ase, palma rls the ater my serait be cnlre Certain of our authors allow the pulaunc alerative only i the cae off followed by nasal or seaiomele Inter naa adel ob coer a pion ter 1 yay ne en ptt te Git i rr) ch JR. Firth, TPS, 1048 ee TH fine mA et Ty, hhh: sone one ahr el eon neh ce eo ea ana ee e Ss en ie aa bn edn hm a md at ft nl oul ph mal nee a opty ‘fede hes flcy ve ite Wp ‘starry Leh comer me a ao LETTERS ° “We have already myer tat Sarkrit (8) might be en- sidered an an ovecbowing” of the fllonng vowel; the coe ‘litnahip of oth hand hth woah cote enone parse Farhan he oe a fon bet a te epson tape nahi ihre hte bing helo SSE land epee voee Whisney’s obras ae for once ently apmpatete veh elerence to the pumonte are of then ound he mj “Te iy ho ale the pation chess yao be Pilon fopllnely hago terepen bot Sree ences pes stp ie ah ay Neh eens exp rn he Sa dn eat clecehee he chow mel oben sgremen wit the vow hat they me homorpni th hei toa eames ‘Wy shen sal we rnc he ay hn ‘cre ay of peekeh ayaivamciaserei, ashenotee Cee rvs pes ae emcee {ceterthe woncy ta with thr cone ape onl hy sconce ‘The RP rer srpingly ts this homorpni ration among the fs’ a chap but Dats quote antes com Sete sis coctdas ab mses w boceecd pare on eo pees to et ma ae ahr tana pein et ren {Bec cod pronounce etn anyother manne “Thin wil bea consent pitt give some scent of vais Seon ROA) he rin of wh yo ie ecto eae ar Some {St re thn ay ote fo ne SES sep gl tht, ft cha doe Pi a a Gna eo be sri, » PHONETICS 1 ANCIENT INDIA problems connected with -h. This voiceless breathing primaily ‘rcur aly in ral pation ix pa, where histo replace 0 (or less frequently *7)" Corresponding to“ i fou, thee anpested injunction with inital viele consonant the appro ‘rate homorganicfcatives (ix =x, fy =~)" The of these fiatives [gs acura i nal and meal postions, ‘where they are ta parle distribution and quay at separ ‘Phonemic nits, wch consequealy ed thir place monet the ther leters of te alphabet =x and ~, however, aah ‘Glyarenth’(l043 above), ie. they ate bound to al poation, nd aze in complementary dnebution (- before velar, before labia and“ epaua). ‘Thinaernatonsundersandabloenough, andi ingle ace with Whitey’ eralaion of = Winey be aly orton pha what he we sound ae nt ‘The vet fom which the word is derived (ot) haa meanings of ‘the type tranaaableby'to discharge, rela, cn fc. We shall sharma aie oa, ama at. ae Senate pri Ree Sage een pn natn ta Nr ml wht Comm a prt Sabah. Fee Seep pr cn Gr Nts AP dn of hg ico oe ee en eee ene Fae pic ate by Fy opt Da ene gs oh. On ono ne sand made ving ewes Catt EES, Lape Lerrers ” perhaps be giving the most directa ‘aaa ‘The eal of thee extensions wast the position before the tal frais fof ts where replaced the homonganic final =f. ys (indraj fuurah>indrah fur, Sc) This practice was then extended to the postion before the velar and Fea voiceless stops: in connexion with tis inpovation we find mentioned the mares of Rgnivesya, Vili, Sihalya, and the [Midhyardna schoo, whilst the ancient grammaran Stktiyanat is quoted an holding tothe more conserve practice? ‘These changes have been generally accepted ofa as the writing ‘of Sanit is concerned, and AH. Fy in his ancl “A Phonemic {nnerpetaton of Visarg as spec that the spread of was «due othe writers of Chcal Sarait “operating with a phoneme ‘orthography’ Though te term ‘orthography’ once apn begs the vexed question of writing i is pouble tat this extension had ‘hooologial rather than a phonetic hai; bur in this mater we tre faced with similar uncertainties o hone which enahioud the xterniom of amacdra at the expense ofthe homorganic nals, zor. Velor "The velar sin (ha-earga) ie mont generally described a bing priced tthe ikea, rot ofthe tng’ which sey Speaking, an atiolator and oot «pce of atclation: he shane Of hie in fc the hana 0 ofthe per) ‘atherimdequate though ineligible designation ofthe vf paate— ult iota ey et of te ne the at of ‘Amongst the velar consonants is also mentioned the velar ficative ‘(jemi to which reference has already heen made, YE ie 5 PP oP oh 36 1 Nia btn th erin thr of he Shaan Sk AP east hens, * Lae, 14 » PHONETICS IN ANCIENT INDIA “The Indian term ‘toot ofthe tongue has found fovour with ssunber of Water phonctcan, amongst them Sweet" and Pike* “it has to be metioned that inthe later Psineanschers, at reflected, for example, in the Sidhant Katmai the plac breathing (is ‘goal fcatives) are ced withthe Keen? fe whe grup Yn eed tm tal (ap The ‘equivocal nate of the sie amie preserve it from ht contusion = 202, Palatal 'No difcuy is proved by the descriptions of the c-sren, which at the period described by ou testes apes il to have teem tre pata ploives eather than prep alrates sich a regenera in modern Indian pronancations* ‘They are described it being articulated "atthe plate (1)? more speically, te he eaten contact made wih the id f the tng ups he vale! 203, Retrflex ‘We have sen that the eros serie involves a apecil proces ‘ther than a pce of articulation. Sine, however, the Todan Scheme teat this series a parallel to the ther sarge, nd ext {inorder after the pata, twill be appropriate to consider fe a this pot, ‘Though the tem for “retroflexed’ (Pratceite a well, sree in he dss gen yr wes he cal re Tor the retiler seen, employed by both grammarans and ncn emo, tate eed from dh Tread Forthe mérdarat he anclor the pf the tne rete? nthe Cee tat mae wth he ip of the tru rl ae 1 Pine Plo. 10 LEE Sh seein tet oc BE “Ime Shrse we ona toy mae by heey 1 Sei ins eo « Commenting on the latter statement, the TriBhayaratea sy, Dy the word man a mene the wper pat he bce evi! ‘But there no evidence tht the word wat eer used inthis special tense, and comparisons by modern commentators ith Creek ‘nade (it oat of) even’ thence applied to roa of the ‘mouth’ are hardly relevant. Mrdhon means simply “ead! or ‘oint thereteflx sound ar relative at-comers into To- Aryan {nd they consequently occupy a peculiar pein the phonological ‘tem they are thus ly Yo have attracted attention even ata ‘erod when specialist phonetic analysis was unknove, and the {ermaology, Uke that of Latin i the west ike to have pet= tise into period of more preci dencipon Th connexion with the oe ofthe tng in the retroflex series thep. Snake the remarkably acute servation that the contact Jina not withthe tip but with the pare next to the i, othe Underside of the tp? "Punctioning phonolopaly at member ofthe retrlex series ‘we ive abo the vemivowel Fon the phonetic value of thi let, Ihowever widely diverse neounts ae tiately depending ‘on dialectal variation. ‘The same apples vo the vowel fs ‘shih wil therefore he most conveniently comidered in cones ‘with the semivowel. fact preserted by the PS: but is exceptional eiewhere! ‘The Praikiyas generally require am alveaar articulation’ (which grees with the present pronunciation af Sarr and the gener practice ofthe mem Indo-Aryan language) ‘The AP, VP, and RY reer tothe alveolar positon by the ter otal, 'o(} the teeth arame which has been empeye ko by Sweet" A light dificult eae by the fact tht some ‘ofthe treaties refer to the dental series by thie ameter; in auch tases, however the reference isto the janetion of the teth with the gs (Sweet's rim) and the alveolar postion of i then ‘eal distinguished bys farther description Fr cance wade by the en the anguetp behind peta) ‘the ts ft et ‘the word prtyak Being Farther interpreted by the Triyyaratna ‘Ss mening "whin and above’ Certun authorities quoted bythe [RP alo refer wo # a 'eartsya' a haps plone by Urata as dena Jing "the projection bchind the roots of the eth ie the alveolar ah "The prescription of slbeolar articulation corresponds wll with ‘the name ropa interpreted as ‘tearing sound” (see 042 above) i ‘hat alld Fach an this vera fo imply could burly be retro fex;*excemit ling, however, lint aoa faulty the RP. and Ua tle to this type of promunciation andes". "Two ‘reaties, the RP and the A, tet as dental, but mention the lvealar pronunciation ax an sternative. pe mann ch Seba aR g Teeae tt memetnem ri TAPCO pn diem VP A eden: RO MRP ene ER Ll: ephe ie “The dnnreements on the pronunciation of rare daly noted by veo: See thot pronoun As rears the vowel fan alveolar pronunciation ix magesed by the TP in a pang which reads, pany theip a henge pein oer? "The Trbharyarama ioterprets the “bese ax refering 10 “the erations bed the eo of teeth whichis reminiscent of it ‘Comment onthe semivowel (oe above). Other Westies, however, ‘grein alloting yt the velar clas thi presrption is prob Temas and is applied by atleast one autor sso to. The ter sppean cal inthe ingle oot Kip- and ithas been sugested that {ntuch a phoned context [i likely to have been acted with "ark resaanee an tht inthis which hs cased tobe ceed ss elr(fon consonant, 2.0 blow). But nosh arguments Spply to f, and indend the Middle Todian pai ‘Fuer to 8 palatal resonance for both owen? Tes in ay cae ‘iia 0 believe thatthe Indians would have clasiied thew ‘sounds by their secondary rather than their primary arsculaons Tis jst panble that i connexion with yr we should inerpet ihc asl rather than wea; sony strange tat tne hve ho sch description of the semiowel Fe except i sof ‘2 ic mentioned amongst + lt of alternatives by the Verne Tithe rertexseies there remains ola peculiarity connected On, emt ng nt ai tn i. {ht dat spt UPR aestuarii AP Bele tate pcecpapeace devon tsb irs ee Bocelli ec fT dcp Fepsoutel ie teeta SI phan lamin ph (Pree ateatllge mitige spe * MONETICS 1N ANCIENT INDIA with the ficative In the Pati Stra we find the sate. ment, ‘Alon o amined with oomcam othe han rete, # tbe renamed skh? statement whic is repeated ins number ofthe later Sikqta* ‘This pronunciation of gs eommonin Sans losn-words in some ‘ofthe modern languages (Hindi dokh beside Skt doga), and is traditional in Yajurvedie rection “There fy howevet, no ‘mention of such a procucstion i the earlier tetinen” 2.04. Dental “The dent arewnequiocly dsr meting produced ‘at the teeth oat the i othe teeth" The YP and AP goon to spect the pf th tongue ats heater wor further Sting th he ip spat’ word which = most nataaliy taney spread, at oe, Witney, “ir forward) a het ae af tal at The HP howe, ‘nspprovescl exer tng spreading nan of he top sein Th pencalyweated ase sovowe nce with he dete ‘das and mont ofthe tenes reverie» dental resin. ‘The ‘RP nls in ts st of ful arco wth both cade of the tng hate ai nate Uri Tian thot th ward ow yoo ein ers nie den Sten er Zag’ peel wecrpe tunes the relrece to pening and ot coma (bist st mien oa em mata Rar Friern sn (Ph, hp ames Ar i en 3 At gine uit! arcuatin). ‘The R's disapproval is perhaps ‘iecedagsinat the secondary back-rasig mentioned. above Gecitipsmcne eas eae tare oed 2.05. Labial "The abi stops and the upadhmaniya Fctive are described as being produced withthe twe ipa orimply ate the ip? ba at the upper lip as whina. For the semivowe ¥, which i epuaty ‘seocsted with the lb serie, and which has alse phonological ‘eltionahip withthe Hp-rounded vowel uy further obseryons renecemary” For whit is elie peotunction was doubts ‘ra bilabial [ow] tha by the tne of ur tates acquired, at text in vme diets, the lbioentl articulation [o which i ‘ypical of many modern Indo-Aryan lnguages— "The learned’, Syne PS, declare tbelabiondentl Fore] only the middle tthe ioe i enact with the ea the acratinn (quoted by the Ap. Si, tha if formed “atthe corners of the mouth’) hence mat appropriates ‘owls into pairs desigsted bya singe ter, Land for example, being refered to at tear, “Lelour or quality. In the eae of {Yl aed wf it would sppeae from the phoneicans' account that there wat no ret divengence of quality a between the short and ‘helong vowels? Phondogially parallel tthe pir and wf + 1P a6 ia pose ye a eR oa ata. 9; YP inthe paira/am butt sein rom the ancient descriptions tat the members ofthis pair dered considerably not only i length (Gash) bat ano in ther quality or “gree of penne {evedra-thina)~in the moder languages n fact the distinetion is ‘more generally maintained by the qualitative than by the quantita tie iferece aa generally recognized by out texts asthe most open (vets) vowel, whist a ie refered fos relatively closet (Gameyta) But the advantages of treating tnd wa as members of = qualitstive pir are, an Fan reaioe,comsiderablezon this teat tment depends, for example the ral that, ‘When a short vole allowed yin vowel te creping meron aibaied rn? so that parallel to unctonsof the type y+ iechet = yadilechot {nd sand; uktam — saadhuktam the rle capable of fmbracng, eg. na}astl= naast, fc. Then, having based his {Phonologial statements om the Ftion of iene quality, Pi fanels ot the ero by the phonetic admission of hs fanous ast phorism, aa be ‘The shor a wich for phono perpone ben ested mo ete wih hw ga eel her ‘This simple though ingenious device of Paginis has given ie tonspateof involved and forthe most part uneiping contoversy: *Tenhy discus i fund atthe beginning ofthe AM Put ‘ethap all that realy need be said bas been sid in the sah Irth which the icuon opens ‘The tesa of 8 apes an. purpose incon of 0. (acim hc long member af asa) Even from the phonetic point of view, however, a and a are scien similar to be considered under single arclatry 1 See) th Pre md nt Gong M.S, pe ef cho 2g APL a; YP 7 rune (Ut: ha aed smth adage ab een a perpen at ma Tier ta mere dl fT mb pry ming meh alae Pa, ie Rt hin TS 0 0 shane ewe entig vin ep ew sty en Salon he wl td ve eng "To ele the open vowels at “loa” appears at Gest sight an indlenible procedure. Te becomes lem so when we peeve the ‘concept framework underying Uese sutements It will be femambered thatthe ZP refered to a “neutral position of the rcculitory organs, in which ‘the ne ented a depend, and ep ain the pono ‘The clifton of wa lta begin to make sense if we assume that it was viewed au neural’ vowel inthe sense of involving mo special intw-buceal aiculatory eflor.® Such an asumption i {ly supported by aaatement inthe Mahathdya: “The place of arelaton othe vowels xr scl a some would fie ee le mh swith hand mentioned by the RP, cxpiable” tobe pronounced withthe articulatory condition (arent) tf a0 This statement also becomes phonetically weaning if a ‘Sinterpreted a vocal neuraly” unmodified veo which freruperimposed the vowelariculations ivol¥ing various degres of tonguerising* PS, hoe oh, We are now in poston to undertand « tied problematic doctrine referred tthe RP, vit Seneey tat he voice af th voice etna coi fm ‘This lst statement enables us to trace a consistent thread running through the vers of apparently eccentric aphoriams nd to relate them precinely tothe descriptive framework ofthe other ‘gata sean: @ ‘is comlered an “pure beat’ able to modification by he close vowel ‘and apablesther af independent fanetion ‘arjenya) or of proving the appropriate airstream forthe voiceless consonanta (@) Bis considered as breath + voce’ ale to moifeaton by the clove vowels and capable either of independent fune- tion (= hake) or of providing the appropiate airstream for the voiced apestn" (9 sis considered at pre voice’ lable to maifcaton by the lowe vowel, and eapable either of independent funtion (Ceara) or of providing the appropriate aistream for the woe conscomate Artificial such descriptive basis may appear, ite in fet nat 99 ‘ery remote from sme natements ofthe most recent branch of ‘Phonetic analysis, “acoustic phonetic’; the fallowing may be ‘quoted for comprion: We therefore icin vowel prod othe pote hat he Sota ete etch eames echoes tet seen {eget othe gta net tat th lg! practi teary adie fot toe ey depen ‘fof ech eh The pecan othe vowel t Hest I the pen LiPo be vehement led oe Sh regency by the wana pers fhe natn er? ‘Two thousand years and more before the sound » ‘aStound” was not an unretonabe subttte for the tion Of re ‘lowal spectram’.* reg pererimrraret hab fe ee es Tk, \Withroar tot emai oly omestion hatin ater etn ‘oving tothe exemon of the term haga (we 3.1 above) (Ge snd sh) i prope with he belar series th ing one Seri tothe synmety of he earmasomamye at the expense of phone peeion. au he “The ce font quay {i appropriately died apa! (tales) tthe TP says more spect ‘or Lui he mil of the omg pronto hepa? Teng ck gay ni ye preter ne tongu-potn, a a (on) he shape * runny refered to aapproxinatl e. ounde, ra lng, pte” aan ‘Astothe prominciation ofthe voaicf and, the ancient tate- meets ae perp not lea we eould wish, ut their Renera {rend scaly followed. "Thee places of aticulstion hive already ‘been dscused above. Tn distinction from the ether vowel they are refered to a ined Le combining features of vowel and om Fue rd, Cog, Phan Seo 9 fs TL tt Sori se mile ee Hep aoc, sy, ean ang ed pte ayn boo “ PHONETICS IN ANCIENT INDIA comonant (Fl)! for this reason some writers even refed to tet them tthe vowel ayer? There general agrecmene tht their phoneuestructureisafthetype:comodantaelement vocal slement~consonantal element {cana (a al dct he St hal of £7) and the i he le "The characte of that compound of for seamen shee the ve andl area, wn ec pre coma, NE partons o* ‘In this conesin it if interest 1 compare such Avestan parallel ax fort beside Sk. prthu, rp beside kp Astothe quality ‘ofthe vocal ment the VP ats tht abd | comit of and 1 bended into one uit with the vowel a ‘Regarding the method of combining the voaic and consonant lerents we may note aban example of prturenquenes rather than ihumimation the staterente quoted by the commentary onthe Py, ‘which declare tha they are connected al on th ner, 0 eal nating ora worm in the ria” 0; ai, au wll be convenient to consider in conjunction the gpa and rl vowels ef and alfa. "Theatr, the trations ‘ets, are diphthongs and are regulary so desribed; the former tho were hutorcllydiphhongal and continued to function a fuch for ertain phonological purpoe (eg. inanya:kdam — ‘ilpaayedam). ‘But there ae ndkatons tha where the phono "CE AP Ly, 30. samp rn han erm A ete vrs ee te ae a Tsp acre ae modo mt * Saeed "rave morgen Mien pace Jogi value of efo was aif that of alfa was once aif: tte diaintion maybe dlutrated by junctions of the type "Toconsider now the ancient descriptions the tem forthe diph- Se, ent oe sarin cee me ‘especialy ote-plta andlor balan the FP ap Inala te ot eta he cd pa al? bath the APY andthe WP pit ou, however, ht ‘About dphongs ae ambi owe, thy ae weed a wet om ‘As rears € and, the PS soca to preserve the tation of a Aiphthongal pronunciation (itn frome that of al and a) Sie eteansesawinnnenes= the pasige continues withthe words ‘ter eeto-mert fas ten Go hegemmetod bere en Cae interpeets a refersngto the fact hat, na and, thei at al forthe acement open andthe scond half rand w-lement it low’ but is more probable hat the words eer tthe oper 88 ‘which forme the ft lament of alfau apd the clover a which Formn he fit element of the narrower diphthongs ef?” The “Nor for: cf ad of aha an a aa hg PSs atta haan gn Ap... ‘tea ie “ lune interpretation ie apport by apne in the Makar, tovihetapptsn loon petbaly coaenelvihtheas pen aa of aja." "The pronunciation of ef seers to be indicated by the RP when i says that they are 10%, lke alfa, heard a linet sequence, beenue ofthe celecenee (amar) of thet paras Urata goes on to explain, ‘One dtm sere wre the 8d andthe rw ben, eee ‘ns eco Ie ml ed we ‘typeof combination which Kaiyata, continuing the traditional Simul, contrat withthe mate of tand an water * "Therein ein the way of detailed descriptions of the monoph- ‘thong articulation of fo. The TP, however, metions that for e the ips ate more spread and fr © more rounded than in the ease ‘of andthe imermediate degree of sure fore (between and ‘insremed by the Tribhayyerama: ne the sang of the mid the tage twa the pale ee ‘tam nthe ee af mi othe fat hat the foe el ith {twill be noted that even where the monophthongal value of efo ‘a phonetiallyeatablahed, the feng fort phonslogical equiva: fence to aif sill prevail andthe basi of description i tll provided bythe simple framework ‘ 8 4 hemtion th rend ws ent rina oe ene, smh Seay act yo li er mont ahaa areal a PART 111 PROSODIES 30. Definition inthe technique of keter-astaction various features ofthe ager ‘unis of unteranee ae left unacoupted for. T the reiteration ofthese Features at forms one ofthe tks of sys and {to them thatthe tile of "promdy’ i hee applied" The ancient ccounts of these proodie festare willbe considered der the following headings: 1 Features of jancton (amd). 2. Features of oyllablestractare. 3.1: Junction ‘The nature of our mater makes convenient o wok with he following subdivisions: (@) Word- and morpheme junction. (@) Loner junction ‘The treatment of word;junction and morpheme junction under the ame heading is jstified by the close parle ofthe wo chases of promod in Sanskrit) a ls bythe tated principles of ‘our treaties, eg ‘alas sect we the contrary, one should wat te pars a «weed stron ae Nora mma tes ae fy apy {tn both (and (cetin ofthe prosaic features ae relatable to ‘the basi proceses considered in Pre this enly to be expected ‘in view of the fact that these processes had bea arbitrary se ‘mented by the leter-anayis, and have tobe restored in the syn- thei ere considered Sefer 1 Fin, nds nd Prt’ TS, 104, tte ee “ PHONETICS IN ANCIENT INDIA 3.410. Word. and Morphemecjunction (cf, also 0.49) In the synthesis of the word-islates certain of the features sictng intial ad finals are capable of desertion in terms of, eters the fact, for example, that the juncton-frm of tat ca is ‘cen, ay be and i deseribed a terms of eplacerent” of the isolated