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TRANSFORMER

EFFICIENCY & ITS CONDITION

SOLVED

Example 1: A 50 kVA, 2300/230 V, single-phase transformer has


primary and secondary winding resistance of 2 and 0.02
respectively. The iron loss is 412 W. Calculate the efficiency (i)
at full load and (ii) at half-full load. The load pf is 0.8.
Solution :
Given : R1 = 2 , R2 = 0.02 , Wi = 412 W, pf = 0.8
The full-load primary and secondary and secondary currents are :
(I1)FL =

kVA rating 1000


50 1000
=
= 21.739 A
E1
2300

(I2)FL =

kVA rating 1000


E2

50 1000
=
= 217.39 A
230

(i) Efficiency at full-load 0.8 pf :


First, we will calculate the copper lost at full load.
[Wcu]FL = (I1)2FL R1 + (I2)2FL R2
= (21.739)2 2 + (217.39)2 0.02
= 1890 W
= 1.89 kW
We know that efficiency at any load can be calculated as
(x full loadkVA p f)

% = (x full loadkVA p f) W x 2 [W ] 100


i
cu FL
where
Wi

x = ratio of given load to full load


= iron loss in kW

[Wcu]FL = copper loss at full load in kW


Now, efficiency at full-load 0.8 pf is required.
We have X=1,full-load kVA= rated kVA=50, pf=0.8, Wi = 0.142 kW
1

TRANSFORMER

EFFICIENCY & ITS CONDITION

Hence,

(1 50 0 .8 )
(1 50 0 .8 ) (0 .412 ) (1)2 1 .89

SOLVED

100

= 94.56
(ii) Efficiency at half-full load 0.8 pf :
% =
=

(x full load kVA pf)


(x full load kVA pf) Wi x 2 [Wcu ]FL

(0 .5 50 0 .8 )
(0 .5 50 0 .8 ) 0 .412 (0 .5) 1 .89
2

100
100

= 95.76
Example 2: In a 25 kVA, 2000/200 V transformer, the iron and full
load copper losses are 350 W 400 W respectively. Calculate the
efficiency at full load 0.8 pf lagging. Determine the load in kVA at
which the maximum efficiency occurs. Also determine the
maximum efficiency.
Solution:
Given : Wi = 350 W, [Wcu]FL = 400 W
(i) Efficiency of full load 0.8 pf lagging :
% =
=

(x full - load kVA pf)


(x full load kVA pf) Wi x 2 [Wcu ]FL

(1 25 0 .8 )
(1 25 0 .8 ) 0 .35 (1)2 0 .4

100

100

= 96.39
(ii) Load in kVA at which maximum efficiency occurs :
(kVA) at max = (full-load kVA)

Wi
[Wcu ]FL

TRANSFORMER

EFFICIENCY & ITS CONDITION

SOLVED

350
= 25 400

= 23.385
(iii) Maximum efficiency :
max can be calculated as follows :
%max =

(kVA at max pf)


100,
(kVA at max pf) 2Wi

where Wi
=

= iron loss in kW
(23.385 0.8)
100
(23.385 0.8) 2(0.35)

= 96.39
(iv) Alternating method for calculation of max :
Let at x time full load, the efficiency is maximum.
The value of x can be calculated as follows :
W

x = [W i]
cu FL
=

350
400

= 0.9354
Now, max can be calculated as follows :
%max =

(x full - load kVA pf)


(x full - load kVA pf) 2Wi

100,

[ Wi =Wcu]

TRANSFORMER

where Wi

EFFICIENCY & ITS CONDITION

SOLVED

= iron in kW
=

(0.9354 25 0.8)
100
(0.9354 25 0.8) 2(0.35)

= 96.39
Example 3: A 40 kVa transformer has a core loss of 450 W, fullload copper loss of 850 W. If the power factor of the load is 0.8,
calculate (i) the full-load efficiency, (ii) the maximum efficiency,
and (ii) the load in kVA at which the maximum efficiency occurs.
Solution :
Given : Wi = 450 W, [Wcu]FL = 850 W, pf = 0.8
(i) Efficiency at full-load 0.8 pf :
(x full - load kVA p f)

% = (x full - load kVA p f) W x2 [W ] 100


i
cu FL
=

(1 40 0.8)
(1 40 0.8) 0.45 (1)2 0.85

100

= 96.1
(ii) Maximum efficiency :
Let at x times full load, the efficiency is maximum.
The value of x can be calculated as
x=

Wi
[Wcu]FL

450
= 0.7276
850

Now, the maximum efficiency can be calculated as


%max =
where

(x full - load kVA 5 pf)


(x full - load kVA pf) 2Wi

Wi

100

= iron loss in kW
4

( Wi = Wcu)

TRANSFORMER

EFFICIENCY & ITS CONDITION

So, %max =

(0.7276 40 0.8)
(0.7276 40 0.8) 2(0.45)

SOLVED

100

= 96.28
(iii) The load in kVA at maximum efficiency :
kVa of max = full-load kVA

Wi
[Wcu ]FL

= 40 x 0 . 45
0 . 85
= 29.1

Example 4: A 20 kVA, 2000/200 V, transformer primary


resistance and reactance of 2.3 and 4.2 respectively.
Corresponding secondary values are 0.025 and 0.04 . Opencircuit loss is 200 W. Determine (i) full-load regulation and
efficiency at 0.8 pf lagging.
Solution :
Given : R1 = 2.3 , X1 = 4.2 , R2 = 0.025 , X2 = 0.04 ,
open-circuit loss = Wi = 200 W
Full-load currents are :
(I1)FL =
(I2)FL =

kVA rating 1000


E1
kVA rating 1000
E2

=
=

20 1000
= 10A
200

20 1000
= 100A
200

200
E2
K= E =
= 0.1
2000
1
5

TRANSFORMER

EFFICIENCY & ITS CONDITION

SOLVED

(i) Equivalent resistance and reactance referred to


primary :
R01

0 .025
R2
= R1 + R = R1 + 2 = 2.3 +
= 4.8
(0 .1)2
K

X01 = X1 + X = X1 +
Equivalent
secondary :

X2
K2

= 4.2 +

resistance

and

0 .04
= 8. 2
(0 . 1) 2

reactance

referred

to

R02 = R2 + R1 = R2 + K2 R1 = 0.025 + (0.01) 2.3 = 0.048

X02 = X2 + X 1 = X2 + K2 X1 = 0.04 + (0.1)2 4.2 = 0.082

(ii) Full-load regulation at 0.8 pf legging :


% regulation =

I2 R02 cos I2 X 02 sin


E2

100

= 100 0 .048 0 .8 100 0 .082 0 .6 100


200

= 4.38
Full-load efficiency at 0.8 pf lagging :
% =

(x full - load kVA pf)


(x full - load kVA pf) Wi x 2 [Wcu ]FL

100

where x = 1, Wi = 0.2 kW
[Wcu]FL = (I1)2FL R01 = (10)2 4.8 = 480 W = 0.48 kW

TRANSFORMER

EFFICIENCY & ITS CONDITION

So, %max

1 20 0 .8
(1 20 0 .8 ) 0 .2 0 .48

SOLVED

100

= 95.92

Example 5: A 20 kVA transformer has iron loss of 450 W and fullload copper loss of 900W. If the pf of the load is 0.8 lagging,
calculate (i) the full-load efficiency, (ii) the load at which maximum
efficiency occurs, and (iii) the maximum efficiency.
Solution :
Given : Wi = 450 W, [Wcu]FL = 900 W, pf = 0.8 lagging

(i)

Full-load efficiency :

(x full - load kVA pf)


% = (x full - load kVA pf) W x 2[W ] 100
i
cu FL

(1 20 0 .8 )
(1 20 0 .8 ) 0 .45 (1)2 0 .9

100

= 92.22
(ii) The load at which maximum efficiency occurs :
Let at x times full load, the efficiency is maximum
Then the value of x can be calculated as
Wi

x = [W ] =
cu FL

450
= 0.707
900

at 70.7% full load, maximum efficiency occurs.

TRANSFORMER

EFFICIENCY & ITS CONDITION

SOLVED

(iii) Maximum efficiency :


%max =
=

(x full - load kVA pf)


(x full - load kVA pf) 2Wi

(0 .707 20 0 .8 )
(0 .707 20 0 .8 ) 2 0 .45

100
100

= 92.63

Example 6: A 50 kVA, one-phase transformer has an efficiency of


98% at full-load. 0.8 pf and 97% at half-full load, 0.8 pf.
Determine the full-load copper loss and iron loss. Find the load at
which maximum efficiency occurs and maximum efficiency at
unity pf.
Solution :
Given :

% efficiency at full-load 0.8 pf = 98

% efficiency at half-load 0.8 pf = 97


(i) Full-load copper and iron losses :
%efficiency at full load 0.8 pf,
% =
or 98 =

(x full - load kVA pf)


(x full - load kVA) Wi x 2 [Wcu ]FL
(1 50 0 .8 )
(1 50 0 .8 ) Wi (1)[Wcu ]FL

or 0.98Wi + 0.98[Wcu]FL = 0.8

100

100
(i)

% efficiency at half load 0.8 pf,


% =
or 97 =

x full - load kVA pf


100
x full - load kVA pf wi x2[Wcu ]FL
0 .5 50 0 .8
(0 .5 50 0 .8 ) Wi (0 .5)2[Wcu ]FL

100

or 0.097Wi + 0.2425 [WW]FL = 0.6 (ii)


8

TRANSFORMER

EFFICIENCY & ITS CONDITION

SOLVED

From Eqs. (i) and (ii),


Wi

= 0.5527 kW

and[Wcu]FL = 0.2636 kW
(ii) Load at which maximum efficiency occurs :
Let at x times full load, the efficiency is maximum.
The value of x can be calculated as
x=

Wi
=
[Wcu ]FL

0 .5527
= 1.448
0 .2636

i.e., at 144.8% of full load, maximum efficiency occurs.


(iii) Maximum efficiency :
(x full - load kVA pf)

%max
=

= (x full - load kVA pf) 2W 100


i
1 .488 50 1
(1 .488 50 1) 2 0 .5527

100

= 98.496

Example 7: The efficiency of 200 kVa, 1100/230 V transformer is


a maximum of 98% at 50% of rated load. Calculate (i) core loss,
(ii) efficiency at rated load, and (iii) efficiency at a load of 75%.
The power factor of the load is unity.
Solution:
Given : max=98%, load = 50%of rated, i.e, half load, pf = 1 (unity).
(i) Core loss :
Maximum efficiency at half load,
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TRANSFORMER

EFFICIENCY & ITS CONDITION

% max =

(x full - load kVa pf)


(x full - load kVA pf) 2Wi

SOLVED

100

(0 .5 200 1)

or 98 = (0 .5 200 1)2W 100


i
or Wi = 1.020408 kW
At max Wi = Wcu
So,

[Wcu]HL = 1.0230408 kW

(ii) Efficiency at rated load :


First we calculate the copper loss at full load. as copper
loss at half load is known, we can write
[Wcu]HL = (0.5)2 [Wcu]FL
= (0.5)2 [Wcu]FL

or 1.020408

So, [Wcu]FL = 4.08163 kW


now, %
=

(x full - laod kVA pf)


100
(x full - load kVA pf) Wi x 2 [Wcu ]FL

(1 200 1)
(1 200 1) 1 .020408 (1)2 4 .08163

100

= 97.51
(iii) Efficiency at a load 75% :
% =
=

(x full - load kVA pf)


(x full - load kVA pf) Wi x 2 [Wcu ]FL

100

(0 .75 200 1)
(0 .75 200 1) 1 .020408 (0 .75 )2 4 .08163

= 97.84

10

100

TRANSFORMER

EFFICIENCY & ITS CONDITION

SOLVED

Example 8 : A 25 kVA single-phase transformer has load cycle


for a day as follows :
(i) 15 kW at 0.8 pf 6 hours,
(ii) 20 kW at 0.9 pf for 10 hours,
(iii) 10 kW at 0.9 pf for 4 hours,
(iv) No-load condition for 4 hours,
The iron loss is 400 W and the full-load copper loss is 500 W.
Calculate the all-day efficiency of the transformer.
Solution :
The copper loss at different load condition can be calculated as
follows :
(i) When load is 15 kW, load kVA will be :
kVA =

15
kW
=
= 18.75
cos
0 .8

The load corresponding to 18. 75 kVA,


x=

load kVA
full - load kVA

18 .75
25

= 0.75

So, copper loss = (0.75)2 [Wcu]FL


= (0.75)2 500
= 281.25 W
(ii) When load is 20 kW, load kVA will be :
load kVA =
So,
x=

kW
cos

20
= 22.222
0 .9

the load corresponding to 22.222 kVA,


22 .222
load kVA
=
25
full - load kVA

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TRANSFORMER

EFFICIENCY & ITS CONDITION

SOLVED

22 .222
500
=
25
2

So, copper loss

= 359.053 W
(iii) When load is 10 kW, load kVa will be :
load kVA =

kW
cos

10
= 11.111
0 .9

So, the load corresponding to 11.111 kVA,


x=

11 .111
load kVA
=
25
full - load kVA
2

11 .11
500
=
25

So, copper loss

= 98. 765 W
(iv) When transformer is at no-load condition, copper loss
will be practically zero :
Total energy spent because of copper loss in a day
= 281.25 6 + 395.053 10 + 98.765 4 + 0
= 6.03309 kWh
Total energy spent because of iron loss in a day= 400 24
= 9.6 kWh
Energy output in a day = 15 6 + 20 10 + 10 4
= 330 kWh
Hence, all-day efficiency
all day =

Energy outp ut
Energy sp ent Energy sp ent 100

Energy oup ut
in iron loss in cop p er loss

330
100
330 9 .6 6 .03309
12

TRANSFORMER

EFFICIENCY & ITS CONDITION

SOLVED

= 95.48%
Example 9 : Find the all-day efficiency of a kVA distribution
transformer, whose copper loss and iron loss at full load are 4.5
kW and 3.5 kW respectively. During a day of 24 hours, it is
loaded as under :
Loading in
kW

No. of hours

Power Factor

400

0.8

10

300

0.75

100

0.8

0.8

Solution
Copper loss at different load condition can be calculated as
follows :
When load is 400 kW, the load kVA will be
kW
400
kVA = pf =
= 500
0 .8

Load kVA is equal to full-load kVA


So, copper load = 4.5 kW
When load is 300 kW, the load kVA will be
kW

300

kVA = pf =
= 400
0 . 75
400
So, copper loss = 500 4.5 = 2.88 kW

When load is 100 kW, the load kVA will be

13

TRANSFORMER

kVa =

EFFICIENCY & ITS CONDITION

SOLVED

100
kW
=
= 125
pf
0 .8
2

125
4.5 = 0.281 kW
So, copper loss =
100

When load is 0 kW, copper loss is also 0 kW.


Total energy spent because of copper loss in a day
=(4.5 6)+ (2.88 10) + (0.281 4)+ (0 4)
= 56.924 kWh
The iron loss takes place throughout the day irrespective of the
load on the transformer because its primary side is energized all
the 24 hours.
Hence, total energy spent because of iron loss in a day = 3.5 24
= 84kWh
Energy output in a day

= (4006)+(30010)+(100 4)+(0 4)
= 5800 kWh

Hence,all day

Output energy
Energy spent Energy spent

Output energy
in iron loss in cop p er loss

100

(for a day)
=

5800
100
5800 84 56 .924

= 97.63%
Example 10: A transformer has its maximum efficiency of 0.98 at
15 kVA at unity power factor. During the day, it is loaded as
under :
(i) 2 kW at 0.5 for 12 hours,
(ii) 12 kW at 0.8 pf for 6 hours,
(iii) 18 kW at 0.9 pf for 6 hours,
14

TRANSFORMER

EFFICIENCY & ITS CONDITION

SOLVED

Find the all-day efficiency.


Solution
Given : max at unity pf = 0.98, kVA at max = 15
So, max =

kVA at max pf
(kVA at max pf) 2Wi

or 0.98 =

15 1
15 1 2Wi

(. . At max Wi = Wcu)

So, Wi = 0.153 W
andWcu = 0.153 W (. . Wi = Wcu)
i.e., the copper loss at 15 kVA is 0.153 kW.
The copper loss at different load conditions can be calculated as
follows :
(i) When load is 2 kW, load kVA will be :
kVA =

kW
pf

2
0 .5

=4

We know that copper loss corresponding to 15 kVA = 0.153 kW.


So, copper loss corresponding to 4 kVA
2

4
= 0.153 = 0.01088 kW
15

(ii)When load is 12 kW, load kVA will be


12

kW

kVA = pf =
= 15 kVA
0 .8
So, copper loss = 0.153 kVA
(iii) When load is 18 kW, load kVA will be :
kW

18

kVA = pf =
= 20
0 .9
15

TRANSFORMER

EFFICIENCY & ITS CONDITION

So, copper loss =

20

15

SOLVED

0.153 = 0.272 kW

Thus, total energy spent because of cu loss in a day


= (0.01088 12) + (0.153 6) + (0.272 6)
= 2.68056 kWh
Also total energy spent because of iron loss in a day= 0.153 24
= 3.672 kWh
Total output energy in a day= (2 12) + (12 6) + (18 6)
= 204 kWh
So, %all day

204
100
204 3 .672 2 .68056

= 96.98
Example 11: A 100 k VA lighting transformer has a full-load loss
of 3 kW, the loss being equally divided between iron and copper.
During a day, the transformer operates on full load for 3 hours,
one-half load for 4 hours, the output being negligible for the
remainder of the day. Calculate the all-day efficiency.
Solution :
The lighting transformer always operates at unity pf.
Copper loss = 1.5 kW
iron (or core) loss

= 1.5 kW

Copper loss at different load conditions can be calculated as


follows :
Copper loss for 3 hours on full load = 1.5 kW
Copper loss for 4 hours on one-half load =
Copper loss for remainder of the day

1

2

1.5 = 0.375 kW
= 0kW

Hence, total energy spent because of cu loss in a day


16

TRANSFORMER

EFFICIENCY & ITS CONDITION

SOLVED

= (1.5 3)+ (0.375 4) = 6kWh


and total energy spent because of iron loss = (1.5 24) = 36 kWh
Total output energy in a day can be calculated as follows :
Output power for 3 hours on full load

= (x full-load kVA pf)

= (1 100 1) = 100 kW
Output power for 4 hours on half load=( x 5 full-load kVA pf)
= (0.5 100 1)
= 20 kW
So, total output energy

= (100 3) + (50 4) + 0
= 500 kWh

This gives %all day =

500
100
500 36 6

= 92.25

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