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- 624_pdfsam_Solucionario Estática - 10 Edición - Hibbeler
- Intro to Statics
- Strength of Mat'l Part 1
- Chapter 3
- Beam Design Formulas With Shear and Moment
- Strength of Material
- Chapter 4
- Chapter 9
- 4 Shear Force and Bending Moment
- 2010 Besavilla - Strength of Materials
- Strength of Materials 4th Edition by Pytel and Singer
- Chapter 11
- Shear and Moment Diagrams
- Statics Chapter 5
- Chapter 7
- Shear_and_Moment_in_Beams
- Engineering Mechanics (Rectilinear Motion and Sample Problems)
- 17676296 Strength of Materials 4th Ed by Ferdinand L Singer Andrew Pytel Www07Mettk
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4

Shear and Moment in Beams

Definition of a Beam

A beam is a bar subject to forces or couples that lie in a plane containing the longitudinal section of

the bar. According to determinacy, a beam may be determinate or indeterminate.

Statically determinate beams are those beams in which the reactions of the supports may be

determined by the use of the equations of static equilibrium. The beams shown below are examples

of statically determinate beams.

Statically Indeterminate Beams

If the number of reactions exerted upon a beam exceeds the number of equations in static

equilibrium, the beam is said to be statically indeterminate. In order to solve the reactions of the

beam, the static equations must be supplemented by equations based upon the elastic deformations

of the beam.

The degree of indeterminacy is taken as the difference between the umber of reactions to the

number of equations in static equilibrium that can be applied. In the case of the propped beam

shown, there are three reactions R1, R2, and M and only two equations (ΣM = 0 and ΣFv = 0) can be

applied, thus the beam is indeterminate to the first degree (3 – 2 = 1).

Types of Loading

Loads applied to the beam may consist of a concentrated load (load applied at a point), uniform

load, uniformly varying load, or an applied couple or moment. These loads are shown in the

following figures.

• Relationship Between Load, Shear, and Moment

• Moving Loads

Shear and Moment Diagrams

Consider a simple beam shown of length L that carries a uniform load of w (N/m) throughout its

length and is held in equilibrium by reactions R1 and R2. Assume that the beam is cut at point C a

distance of x from he left support and the portion of the beam to the right of C be removed. The

portion removed must then be replaced by vertical shearing force V together with a couple M to hold

the left portion of the bar in equilibrium under the action of R1 and wx.

The couple M is called the resisting moment or moment and the force V is called the resisting shear

or shear. The sign of V and M are taken to be positive if they have the senses indicated above.

INSTRUCTION:

Write shear and moment equations for the beams in the following problems. In each problem, let x

be the distance measured from left end of the beam. Also, draw shear and moment diagrams,

specifying values at all change of loading positions and at points of zero shear. Neglect the mass of

the beam in each problem.

section (also shown to the right) is taken as

VC=( Fv)L=R1–wx

where R1 = R2 = wL/2

Vc=2wL−wx

The moment at C is

MC=( MC)=2wLx−wx x2

MC=2wLx−2wx2

If we differentiate M with respect to x:

dxdM=2wL−wx=shear

thus,

dxdM=V

Thus, the rate of change of the bending moment with respect to x is equal to the shearing force,

or the slope of the moment diagram at the given point is the shear at that point.

dxdV=0−w

thus,

dxdV=Load

Thus, the rate of change of the shearing force with respect to x is equal to the load or the slope of

the shear diagram at a given point equals the load at that point.

Properties of Shear and Moment Diagrams

The following are some important properties of shear and moment diagrams:

1. The area of the shear diagram to the left or to the right of the section is equal to the moment

at that section.

2. The slope of the moment diagram at a given point is the shear

at that point.

3. The slope of the shear diagram at a given point equals the load

at that point.

4. The maximum moment occurs at the point of zero shears. This

is in reference to property number 2, that when the shear (also

the slope of the moment diagram) is zero, the tangent drawn to

the moment diagram is horizontal.

5. When the shear diagram is increasing, the moment diagram is

concave upward.

6. When the shear diagram is decreasing, the moment diagram is concave downward.

Sign Convention

The customary sign conventions for shearing force and bending moment are represented by the

figures below. A force that tends to bend the beam downward is said to produce a positive bending

moment. A force that tends to shear the left portion of the beam upward with respect to the right

portion is said to produce a positive shearing force.

An easier way of determining the sign of the bending moment at any section is that upward forces

always cause positive bending moments regardless of whether they act to the left or to the right of

the exploratory section.

INSTRUCTION:

Without writing shear and moment equations, draw the shear and moment diagrams for the beams

specified in the following problems. Give numerical values at all change of loading positions and at

all points of zero shear. (Note to instructor: Problems 403 to 420 may also be assigned for solution

by semi-graphical method describes in this article.)

Problem 403

Beam loaded as shown in Fig. P-403. See the instruction.

Solution 403

From the load diagram:

MB=0

5RD+1(30)=3(50)

RD=24kN

MD=0

5RB=2(50)+6(30)

RB=56kN

Segment AB:

VAB=–30kN

MAB=–30xkN m

Segment BC:

VBC=–30+56

VBC=26kN

MBC=–30x+56(x–1)

MBC=26x–56kN m

Segment CD:

VCD=–30+56–50

VCD=–24kN

MCD=–30x+56(x–1)–50(x–4)

MCD=–30x+56x–56–50x+200

MCD=–24x+144kN m

To draw the Shear Diagram:

uniformly distributed over the

segment at a magnitude of –

30 kN.

2. In segment BC, the shear is

uniformly distributed at a

magnitude of 26 kN.

3. In segment CD, the shear is

uniformly distributed at a

magnitude of –24 kN.

linear, at x = 0, MAB = 0 and

at x = 1 m, MAB = –30 kN·m.

2. MBC = 26x – 56 is also linear.

At x = 1 m, MBC = –30 kN·m;

at x = 4 m, MBC = 48 kN·m. When MBC = 0, x = 2.154 m, thus the moment is zero at 1.154 m

from B.

3. MCD = –24x + 144 is again linear. At x = 4 m, MCD = 48 kN·m; at x = 6 m, MCD = 0.

Problem 404

Beam loaded as shown in Fig. P-404. See the instruction.

Solution 404

MA=0

12RD+4800=3(2000)

RD=100lb

MD=0

12RA=9(2000)+4800

RA=1900lb

Segment AB:

VAB=1900lb

MAB=1900xlb ft

Segment BC:

VBC=1900–2000

VBC=–100lb

MBC=1900x–2000(x–3)

MBC=1900x–2000x+6000

MBC=–100x+6000lb ft

Segment CD:

VCD=1900–2000

VCD=–100lb

MCD=1900x–2000(x–3)–4800

MCD=1900x–2000x+6000–4800

MCD=–100x+1200lb ft

To draw the Shear Diagram:

uniformly distributed at 1900

lb.

2. A shear of –100 lb is uniformly

distributed over segments BC

and CD.

Diagram:

MAB = 0; at x = 3 ft, MAB =

5700 lb·ft.

2. For segment BC, MBC = –100x

+ 6000 is linear; at x = 3 ft,

MBC = 5700 lb·ft; at x = 9 ft, MBC= 5100 lb·ft.

3. MCD = –100x + 1200 is again linear; at x = 9 ft, MCD = 300 lb·ft; at x = 12 ft, MCD = 0.

Problem 405

Beam loaded as shown in Fig. P-405. See the instruction.

Solution 405

MA=0

10RC=2(80)+5[10(10)]

RC=66kN

MC=0

10RA=8(80)+5[10(10)]

RA=114kN

Segment AB:

VAB=114–10xkN

MAB=114x–10x(x 2)

MAB=114x–5x2kN m

Segment

BC:

VBC=114

–80–10x

VBC=34–

10xkN

MBC=114x–80(x–2)–10x(x 2)

MBC=160+34x–5x2kN m

1. For segment AB, VAB = 114 – 10x is linear; at x = 0, VAB= 14 kN; at x = 2 m, VAB = 94 kN.

2. VBC = 34 – 10x for segment BC is linear; at x = 2 m, VBC= 14 kN; at x = 10 m, VBC = –66 kN.

When VBC = 0, x = 3.4 m thus VBC = 0 at 1.4 m from B.

3.

1. MAB = 114x – 5x2 is a second degree curve for segment AB; at x = 0, MAB = 0; at x = 2 m,

MAB = 208 kN·m.

2. The moment diagram is also a second degree curve for segment BC given by MBC = 160 +

34x – 5x2; at x = 2 m, MBC = 208 kN·m; at x = 10 m, MBC = 0.

3. Note that the maximum moment occurs at point of zero shear. Thus, at x = 3.4 m, MBC =

217.8 kN·m.

Problem 406

Beam loaded as shown in Fig. P-406. See the instruction.

Solution 406

MA=0

12RC=4(900)+18(400)+9[(60)(18)]

RC=1710lb

MC=0

12RA+6(400)=8(900)+3[60(18)]

RA=670lb

Segment AB:

VAB=670–60xlb

MAB=670x–60x(x 2)

MAB=670x–30x2lb ft

Segment BC:

VBC=670–900–60x

VBC=–230–60xlb

MBC=670x–900(x–4)–60x(x 2)

MBC=3600–230x–30x2lb ft

Segment CD:

VCD=670+1710–900–60x

VCD=1480–60xlb

MCD=670x+1710(x–12)–900(x–4)–60x(x 2)

MCD=–16920+1480x–30x2lb ft

To draw the Shear Diagram:

is linear; at x = 0, VAB= 670 lb; at

x = 4 ft, VAB = 430 lb.

2. For segment BC, VBC = –230 –

60x is also linear; at x= 4 ft,

VBC = –470 lb, at x = 12 ft, VBC =

–950 lb.

3. VCD = 1480 – 60x for segment

CD is again linear; at x = 12,

VCD = 760 lb; at x = 18 ft, VCD =

400 lb.

AB is a second degree curve; at

x = 0, MAB= 0; at x = 4 ft, MAB =

2200 lb·ft.

2. For BC, MBC = 3600 – 230x –

30x2, is a second degree curve;

at x = 4 ft, MBC = 2200 lb·ft, at x

= 12 ft, MBC = –3480 lb·ft; When

MBC = 0, 3600 – 230x – 30x2 =

0, x = –15.439 ft and 7.772 ft. Take x = 7.772 ft, thus, the moment is zero at 3.772 ft from B.

3. For segment CD, MCD = –16920 + 1480x – 30x2 is a second degree curve; at x = 12 ft, MCD =

–3480 lb·ft; at x = 18 ft, MCD = 0.

Problem 407

Beam loaded as shown in Fig. P-407. See the instruction.

Solution 407

MA=0

6RD=4[2(30)]

RD=40kN

MD=0

6RA=2[2(30)]

RA=20kN

Segment AB:

VAB=20kN

MAB=20xkN m

Segment BC:

VBC=20–30(x–3)

VBC=110–30xkN

MBC=20x–30(x–3)(x–3) 2

MBC=20x–15(x–3)2kN m

Segment CD:

VCD=20–30(2)

VCD=–40kN

MCD=20x–30(2)(x–4)

MCD=20x–60(x–4)kN m

To draw the Shear Diagram:

uniformly distributed at 20 kN.

2. VBC = 110 – 30x for segment

BC; at x = 3 m, VBC= 20 kN; at x

= 5 m, VBC = –40 kN. For VBC =

0, x = 3.67 m or 0.67 m from B.

3. The shear for segment CD is

uniformly distributed at –40 kN.

MAB = 0; at x = 3 m, MAB = 60

kN·m.

2. MBC = 20x – 15(x – 3)2 for segment BC is second degree curve; at x = 3 m, MBC = 60 kN·m;

at x = 5 m, MBC = 40 kN·m. Note: that maximum moment occurred at zero shear; at x = 3.67

m, MBC = 66.67 kN·m.

3. MCD = 20x – 60(x – 4) for segment BC is linear; at x = 5 m, MCD = 40 kN·m; at x = 6 m, MCD=

0.

Problem 408

Beam loaded as shown in Fig. P-408. See the instruction.

Solution 408

MA=0

6RD=1[2(50)]+5[2(20)]

RD=50kN

MD=0

6RA=5[2(50)]+1[2(20)]

RA=90kN

Segment AB:

VAB=90–50xkN

MAB=90x–50x(x 2)

MAB=90x–25x2kN m

Segment BC:

VBC=90–50(2)

VBC=–10kN

MBC=90x–2(50)(x–1)

MBC=–10x+100kN m

Segment CD:

VCD=90–2(50)–20(x–4)

VCD=–20x+70kN

MCD=90x–2(50)(x–1)–20(x–4)(x–4) 2

MCD=90x–100(x–1)–10(x–4)2

MCD=–10x2+70x–60kN m

To draw the Shear Diagram:

VBC = 90 kN; at x = 2 m, VBC = –

10 kN. When VAB = 0, x = 1.8 m.

2. VBC = –10 kN along segment

BC.

3. VCD = –20x + 70 is linear; at x =

4 m, VCD = –10 kN; at x = 6 m,

VCD = –50 kN.

degree; at x = 0, MAB = 0; at x = 1.8 m, MAB = 81 kN·m; at x = 2 m, MAB = 80 kN·m.

2. MBC = –10x + 100 is linear; at x = 2 m, MBC = 80 kN·m; at x = 4 m, MBC = 60 kN·m.

3. MCD = –10x2 + 70x – 60; at x = 4 m, MCD = 60 kN·m; at x = 6 m, MCD = 0.

Problem 409

Cantilever beam loaded as shown in Fig. P-409. See the instruction.

Solution 409

Segment AB:

VAB=–wox

MAB=–wox(x 2)

MAB=–21wox2

Segment BC:

VBC=–wo(L 2)

VBC=–21woL

MBC=–wo(L 2)(x–L 4)

MBC=–21woLx+81woL2

VAB = 0; at x = L/2, VAB = –½woL.

2. At BC, the shear is uniformly distributed by –

½woL.

0, MAB = 0; at x = L/2, MAB = –1/8 woL2.

2. MBC = –½woLx + 1/8 woL2 is a second degree;

at x = L/2, MBC = –1/8 woL2; at x = L, MBC = –3/8

woL2.

Problem 410

Cantilever beam carrying the uniformly varying load shown in Fig. P-410. See the instruction.

Solution 410

xy=Lwo

y=Lwox

Fx=21xy

Fx=21x Lwox

Fx=2Lwox2

Shear equation:

V=−2Lwox2

Moment equation:

M=–31xFx=−31x 2Lwox2

M=−6Lwox3

0, V = 0; at x = L, V = –½ woL.

M = 0; at x = L, M = – 1/6 woL2.

Problem 411

Cantilever beam carrying a distributed load with intensity varying from wo at the free end to zero at

the wall, as shown in Fig. P-411. See the instruction.

Solution 411

yL−x=Lwo

y=Lwo(L−x)

F121x(wo−y)

F1=21x wo−Lwo(L−x)

F1=21x wo−woL−Lwox

F1=2Lwox2

F2=xy=x Lwo(L−x)

F2=Lwo(Lx−x2)

Shear equation:

V=–F1–F2=–2Lwox2−Lwo(Lx−x2)

V=–2Lwox2−wox+Lwox2

V=2Lwox2−wox

Moment equation:

M=–32xF1–21xF2

M=–3Lwox3–2wox2+2Lwox3

M=–2wox2+6Lwox3

degree curve; at x = 0, V = 0; at x = L, V = –1/2 woL.

0; at x = L, M = –1/3 woL2.

Problem 412

Beam loaded as shown in Fig. P-412. See the instruction.

Solution 412

MA=0

6RC=5[6(800)]

RC=4000lb

MC=0

6RA=1[6(800)]

RA=800lb

Segment AB:

VAB=800lb

MAB=800xlb ft

Segment BC:

VBC=800–800(x–2)

VBC=2400–800xlb

MBC=800x–800(x–2)(x–2) 2

MBC=800x–400(x–2)2lb ft

Segment CD:

VCD=800+4000–800(x–2)

VCD=4800–800x+1600

VCD=6400–800xlb

MCD=800x+4000(x–6)–800(x–2)(x–2) 2

MCD=800x+4000(x–6)–400(x–2)2lb ft

To draw the Shear Diagram:

distributed along segment AB.

2. VBC = 2400 – 800x is linear; at x = 2 ft,

VBC = 800 lb; at x = 6 ft, VBC = –2400

lb. When VBC = 0, 2400 – 800x = 0,

thus x = 3 ft or VBC = 0 at 1 ft from B.

3. VCD = 6400 – 800x is also linear; at x =

6 ft, VCD = 1600 lb; at x = 8 ft, VBC = 0.

at x = 2 ft, MAB = 1600 lb·ft.

2. MBC = 800x – 400(x – 2)2 is second

degree curve; at x = 2 ft, MBC = 1600

lb·ft; at x = 6 ft, MBC = –1600 lb·ft; at x

= 3 ft, MBC = 2000 lb·ft.

3. MCD = 800x + 4000(x – 6) – 400(x –

2)2 is also a second degree curve; at x = 6 ft, MCD = –1600 lb·ft; at x = 8 ft, MCD = 0.

Problem 413

Beam loaded as shown in Fig. P-413. See the instruction.

Solution 413

MB=0

6RE=1200+1[6(100)]

RE=300lb

ME=0

6RB+1200=5[6(100)]

RB=300lb

Segment AB:

VAB=–100xlb

MAB=–100x(x 2)

MAB=–50x2lb ft

Segment BC:

VBC=–100x+300lb

MBC=–100x(x 2)+300(x–2)

MBC=–50x2+300x–600lb ft

Segment CD:

VCD=–100(6)+300

VCD=–300lb

MCD=–100(6)(x–3)+300(x–2)

MCD=–600x+1800+300x–600

MCD=–300x+1200lb ft

Segment DE:

VDE=–100(6)+300

VDE=–300lb

MDE=–100(6)(x–3)+1200+300(x–2)

MDE=–600x+1800+1200+300x–600

MDE=–300x+2400lb ft

VAB = 0; at x = 2 ft, VAB = –200

lb.

2. VBC = 300 – 100x is also linear;

at x = 2 ft, VBC = 100 lb; at x = 4

ft, VBC = –300 lb. When VBC = 0,

x = 3 ft, or VBC =0 at 1 ft from B.

3. The shear is uniformly

distributed at –300 lb along

segments CD and DE.

curve; at x= 0, MAB = 0; at x = ft,

MAB = –200 lb·ft.

2. MBC = –50x2 + 300x – 600 is also

second degree; at x = 2 ft; MBC =

–200 lb·ft; at x = 6 ft, MBC = –600

lb·ft; at x = 3 ft, MBC = –150 lb·ft.

3. MCD = –300x + 1200 is linear; at

x = 6 ft, MCD = –600 lb·ft; at x = 7 ft, MCD = –900 lb·ft.

4. MDE = –300x + 2400 is again linear; at x = 7 ft, MDE = 300 lb·ft; at x = 8 ft, MDE = 0.

Problem 414

Cantilever beam carrying the load shown in Fig. P-414. See the instruction.

Solution 414

Segment AB:

VAB=–2xkN

MAB=–2x(x 2)

MAB=–x2kN m

Segment BC:

yx−2=22

y=32(x−2)

F1=2x

F2=21(x–2)y

F2=21(x–2)[32(x−2)]

F2=31(x–2)2

VBC=–F1–F2

VBC=–2x–31(x–2)2

MBC=–(x 2)F1–31(x–2)F2

MBC=–(x 2)(2x)–31(x–2)[31(x–2)2]

MBC=–x2–91(x–2)3

To draw the Shear Diagram:

2. VBC = –2x – 1/3 (x – 2)2 is a second degree curve; at x = 2 m, VBC = –4 kN; at x = 5 m; VBC =

–13 kN.

2. MBC = –x2 –1/9 (x – 2)3 is a third degree curve; at x = 2 m, MBC = –4 kN·m; at x = 5 m, MBC =

–28 kN·m.

Problem 415

Cantilever beam loaded as shown in Fig. P-415. See the instruction.

Solution 415

Segment AB:

VAB=–20xkN

MAB=–20x(x 2)

MAB=–10x2kN m

Segment BC:

VBC=–20(3)

VAB=–60kN

MBC=–20(3)(x–1 5)

MAB=–60(x–1 5)kN m

Segment CD:

VCD=–20(3)+40

VC

D=

–

20

kN

MCD=–20(3)(x–1 5)+40(x–5)

MCD=–60(x–1 5)+40(x–5)kN m

x = 0, V = 0; at x = 3 m, V = –60 kN.

2. VBC = –60 kN is uniformly distributed along segment BC.

3. Shear is uniform along segment CD at –20 kN.

1. MAB = –10x2 for segment AB is second degree curve; at x = 0, MAB = 0; at x = 3 m, MAB = –90

kN·m.

2. MBC = –60(x – 1.5) for segment BC is linear; at x = 3 m, MBC = –90 kN·m; at x = 5 m, MBC =

–210 kN·m.

3. MCD = –60(x – 1.5) + 40(x – 5) for segment CD is also linear; at x = 5 m, MCD = –210 kN·m,

at x = 7 m, MCD = –250 kN·m.

Problem 416

Beam carrying uniformly varying load shown in Fig. P-416. See the instruction.

Solution 416

MR2=0

LR1=31LF

R1=31(21Lwo)

R1=61Lwo

MR1=0

LR2=32LF

R2=32(21Lwo)

R2=31Lwo

xy=Lwo

y=Lwox

Fx=21xy=21x Lwox

Fx=2Lwox2

V=R1–Fx

V=61Lwo−2Lwox2

M=R1x–Fx(31x)

M=61Lwox−2Lwox2(31x)

M=61Lwox−6Lwox3

To draw the Shear Diagram:

V = 1/6 Lwo – wox2/2L is a second degree curve; at x = 0, V

= 1/6 Lwo = R1; at x = L, V = –1/3 Lwo = –R2; If a is the

location of zero shear from left end, 0 = 1/6 Lwo – wox2/2L, x

= 0.5774L = a; to check, use the squared property of

parabola:

a2/R1 = L2/(R1 + R2)

a2/(1/6 Lwo) = L2/(1/6 Lwo + 1/3 Lwo)

a2 = (1/6 L3wo)/(1/2 Lwo) = 1/3 L2

a = 0.5774L

To draw the Moment Diagram:

M = 1/6 Lwox – wox3/6L is a third degree curve; at x = 0, M =

0; at x = L, M = 0; at x = a = 0.5774L, M = Mmax.

Mmax = 1/6 Lwo(0.5774L) – wo(0.5774L)3/6L

Mmax = 0.0962L2wo – 0.0321L2wo

Mmax = 0.0641L2wo

Problem 417

Beam carrying the triangular loading shown in Fig. P-417. See the instruction.

Solution 417

By symmetry:

R1=R2=21(21Lwo)=41Lwo

xy=woL 2

y=L2wox

F=21xy=21x L2wo

F=Lwox2

V=R1–F

V=41Lwo–Lwox2

M=R1x–F(31x)

V = Lwo/4 – wox2/L is a second degree curve; at x

= 0, V = Lwo/4; at x = L/2, V = 0. The other half of

the diagram can be drawn by the concept of

symmetry.

To draw the Moment Diagram

M = Lwox/4 – wox3/3L is a third degree curve; at x = 0, M = 0; at x = L/2, M = L2wo/12. The other half

of the diagram can be drawn by the concept of symmetry.

Problem 418

Cantilever beam loaded as shown in Fig. P-418. See the instruction.

Solution 418

Segment AB:

VAB=–20kN

MAB=–20xkN m

Segment BC:

VAB=–20kN

MAB=–20x+80kN m

kN.

when x = 4 m, MAB = –80 kN·m.

2. MBC = –20x + 80 is also linear; when x = 4 m,

MBC = 0; when x = 6 m, MBC = –60 kN·m

Problem 419

Beam loaded as shown in Fig. P-419. See the instruction.

Solution

MC=0

9R1=5(810)

R1=450lb

MA=0

9R2=4(810)

R2=360lb

Segment AB:

xy=6270

y=45x

F=21xy=21x(45x)

F=22 5x2

VAB=R1–F

VAB=450–22 5x2lb

MAB=R1x–F(31x)

MAB=450x–22 5x2(31x)

MAB=450x–7 5x3lb ft

Segment BC:

VBC=450–810

VBC=–360lb

MBC=450x–810(x–4)

MBC=450x–810x+3240

MBC=3240–360xlb ft

curve; at x = 0, VAB = 450 lb; at x = 6 ft,

VAB = –360 lb.

2. At x = a, VAB = 0,

450 – 22.5x2 = 0

22.5x2 = 450

x2 = 20

x = √20

To check, use the squared property of

parabola.

a2/450 = 62/(450 + 360)

a2 = 20

a = √20

third degree curve; at x = 0, MAB = 0; at x = √20, MAB = 1341.64 lb·ft; at x = 6 ft, MAB = 1080

lb·ft.

2. MBC = 3240 – 360x for segment BC is linear; at x = 6 ft, MBC = 1080 lb·ft; at x = 9 ft, MBC = 0.

Problem 420

A total distributed load of 30 kips supported by a uniformly distributed reaction as shown in Fig. P-

420. See the instruction.

Solution 420

w=30(1000) 12

w=2500lb/ft

FV=0

R=W

20r=30(1000)

r=1500lb/ft

V1=1500x

M1=1500x(x 2)

M1=750x2

Second segment (from 4 ft to mid-span):

V2=1500x–2500(x–4)

V2=10000–1000x

M2=1500x(x 2)–2500(x–4)(x–4) 2

M2=750x2–1250(x–4)2

linear; at x = 0, V1 = 0; at x = 4 ft, V1 =

6000 lb.

2. For the second segment, V2 = 10000 –

1000x is also linear; at x = 4 ft, V1 =

6000 lb; at mid-span, x = 10 ft, V1 = 0.

3. For the next half of the beam, the

shear diagram can be accomplished

by the concept of symmetry.

second degree curve, an open upward

parabola; at x = 0, M1 = 0; at x = 4 ft,

M1 = 12000 lb·ft.

2. For the second segment, M2 = 750x2 –

1250(x – 4)2 is a second degree

curve, an downward parabola; at x = 4

ft, M2 = 12000 lb·ft; at mid-span, x =

10 ft, M2 = 30000 lb·ft.

3. The next half of the diagram, from x =

10 ft to x = 20 ft, can be drawn by

using the concept of symmetry.

Problem 421

Write the shear and moment equations as functions of the angle θ for the built-in arch shown inFig.

P-421.

Solution 421

For θ that is less than 90°

Components of Q and P:

Qx=Qsin

Qy=Qcos

Px=Psin(90 – )

Px=P(sin90 cos –cos90 sin )

Px=Pcos

Py=Pcos(90 – )

Py=P(cos90 cos +sin90 sin )

Py=Psin

Shear:

V= Fy

V=Qy–Py

V=Qcos –Psin answer

Moment arms:

dQ=Rsin

dP=R–Rcos

dP=R(1–cos )

Moment:

M= Mcounterclockwise– Mclockwise

M=Q(dQ)–P(dP)

M=QRsin –PR(1–cos ) answer

Components of Q and P:

Qx=Qsin(180 – )

Qx=Q(sin180 cos –cos180 sin )

Qx=Qcos

Qy=Qcos(180 – )

Qy=Q(cos180 cos +sin180 sin )

Qy=–Qsin

Px=Psin( –90 )

Px=P(sin cos90 –cos sin90 )

Px=–Pcos

Py=Pcos( –90 )

Py=P(cos cos90 +sin sin90 )

Py=Psin

Shear:

V= Fy

V=–Qy–Py

V=–(–Qsin )–Psin

V=Qsin –Psin answer

Moment arms:

dQ=Rsin(180 – )

dQ=R(sin180 cos –cos180 sin )

dQ=Rsin

dP=R+Rcos(180 – )

dP=R+R(cos180 cos +sin180 sin )

dP=R–Rcos

dP=R(1–cos )

Moment:

M= Mcounterclockwise– Mclockwise

M=Q(dQ)–P(dP)

M=QRsin –PR(1–cos ) answer

Problem 422

Write the shear and moment equations for the semicircular arch as shown in Fig. P-422 if (a) the

load P is vertical as shown, and (b) the load is applied horizontally to the left at the top of the arch.

Solution 422

MC=0

2R(RA)=RP

RA=21P

For θ that is

less than 90°

Shear:

VAB=RAcos(90 – )

VAB=21P(cos90 cos +sin90 sin )

VAB=21Psin answer

Moment arm:

d=R–Rcos

d=R(1–cos )

Moment:

MAB=RA(d)

MAB=21PR(1–cos ) answer

For θ that is greater than 90°

Components of P and RA:

Px=Psin( –90 )

Px=P(sin cos90 –cos sin90 )

Px=–Pcos

Py=Pcos( –90 )

Py=P(cos cos90 +sin sin90 )

Py=Psin

RAx=RAsin( –90 )

RAx=21P(sin cos90 –cos sin90 )

RAx=–21Pcos

RAy=RAcos( –90 )

RAy=21P(cos cos90 +sin sin90 )

RAy=21Psin

Shear:

VBC= Fy

VBC=RAy–Py

VBC=21Psin –Psin

VBC=–21Psin answer

Moment arm:

d=Rcos(180 – )

d=R(cos180 cos +sin180 sin )

d=–Rcos

Moment:

MBC= Mcounterclockwise– Mclockwise

MBC=RA(R+d)–Pd

MBC=21P(R–Rcos )–P(–Rcos )

MBC=21PR–21PRcos +PRcos

MBC=21PR+21PRcos

MBC=21PR(1+cos ) answer

Relationship Between Load, Shear, and Moment

section (also shown to the right) is taken as

VC=( Fv)L=R1–wx

where R1 = R2 = wL/2

Vc=2wL−wx

The moment at C is

MC=( MC)=2wLx−wx x2

MC=2wLx−2wx2

If we differentiate M with respect to x:

dxdM=2wL−wx=shear

thus,

dxdM=V

Thus, the rate of change of the bending moment with respect to x is equal to the shearing force,

or the slope of the moment diagram at the given point is the shear at that point.

dxdV=0−w

thus,

dxdV=Load

Thus, the rate of change of the shearing force with respect to x is equal to the load or the slope of

the shear diagram at a given point equals the load at that point.

Properties of Shear and Moment Diagrams

The following are some important properties of shear and moment diagrams:

1. The area of the shear diagram to the left or to the right of the section is equal to the moment

at that section.

2. The slope of the moment diagram at a given point is the shear

at that point.

3. The slope of the shear diagram at a given point equals the load

at that point.

4. The maximum moment occurs at the point of zero shears. This

is in reference to property number 2, that when the shear (also

the slope of the moment diagram) is zero, the tangent drawn to

the moment diagram is horizontal.

5. When the shear diagram is increasing, the moment diagram is

concave upward.

6. When the shear diagram is decreasing, the moment diagram is concave downward.

Sign Convention

The customary sign conventions for shearing force and bending moment are represented by the

figures below. A force that tends to bend the beam downward is said to produce a positive bending

moment. A force that tends to shear the left portion of the beam upward with respect to the right

portion is said to produce a positive shearing force.

An easier way of determining the sign of the bending moment at any section is that upward forces

always cause positive bending moments regardless of whether they act to the left or to the right of

the exploratory section.

INSTRUCTION:

Without writing shear and moment equations, draw the shear and moment diagrams for the beams

specified in the following problems. Give numerical values at all change of loading positions and at

all points of zero shear. (Note to instructor: Problems 403 to 420 may also be assigned for solution

by semi-graphical method describes in this article.)

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