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GSM SOLUTIONS

GSM 850 / 900 / 1800 / 1900

S12000 Indoor
BASE TRANSCEIVER STATION
CUSTOMER PRODUCT OVERVIEW

2002 Nortel Networks


Printed in France
NORTEL NETWORKS CONFIDENTIAL: The information contained in this
document is the property of Nortel Networks. Except as specifically authorized
in writing by Nortel Networks, the holder of this document shall keep the
information contained herein confidential and shall protect same in whole or in
part from disclosure and dissemination to third parties and use same for
evaluation, operation and maintenance purposes only.
The content of this document is provided for information purposes only and is
subject to modification. It does not constitute any representation or warranty
from Nortel Networks as to the content or accuracy of the information
contained herein, including but not limited to the suitability and performances
of the product or its intended application.

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NOTICE
This document presents the S12000 Indoor Base Transceiver Station (BTS),
describing hardware modules and features without distinguishing between
standard and optional functions.
For more details on S12000 Indoor BTS commercial packaging, please
contact your Nortel Networks representative.

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Table of Contents

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Introduction ...................................................................................................................6
NORTEL NETWORKS BTS Portfolio ........................................................................... 7
Highlights.....................................................................................................................10
Physical Characteristics.............................................................................................. 10
Features...................................................................................................................... 10
Configuration and Packaging...................................................................................... 11
General Description .................................................................................................... 13
PHYSICAL ARRANGEMENT ..................................................................................... 13
RF Functions.......................................................................................................... 13
Radio Channel Management ................................................................................. 13
Signal Processing .................................................................................................. 14
Base Station Controller Interface ........................................................................... 14
Switching................................................................................................................ 14
Operation and Maintenance................................................................................... 14
DIMENSIONS and WEIGHT....................................................................................... 15
Architecture................................................................................................................. 16
Capacity and Configuration ....................................................................................... 20
Capacity...................................................................................................................... 20
Connection to the Base Station Controller.................................................................. 21
Base Station Controller dependancy .......................................................................... 22
Coupling Configurations ............................................................................................. 22
COMPATIBILITY WITH S8000..................................................................................... 26
MODULES .................................................................................................................. 26
SYNCHRONIZATION ................................................................................................. 27
CONFIGURATIONS ................................................................................................... 27
Installation ...................................................................................................................28
Shipping and Installation............................................................................................. 28
Floor Space ................................................................................................................ 28
Power Supply.............................................................................................................. 29
Environment................................................................................................................ 29
Operation and Maintenance ....................................................................................... 30
Operation .................................................................................................................... 30
Initialization ............................................................................................................ 30

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Configuration.......................................................................................................... 30
Fault-monitoring/recovery ...................................................................................... 30
Maintenance ............................................................................................................... 31
Technical Description................................................................................................. 32
Compact Base Common Function (CBCF)................................................................. 32
Functions................................................................................................................ 32
Architecture ............................................................................................................ 32
Driver Receiver (DRX or e-DRX) ................................................................................ 34
Functions................................................................................................................ 34
Architecture ............................................................................................................ 35
Technology............................................................................................................. 37
Packaging .............................................................................................................. 37
Power Amplifier (PA or e-PA) ..................................................................................... 37
Functions................................................................................................................ 37
Architecture ............................................................................................................ 38
Packaging .............................................................................................................. 38
Transmission Coupling ............................................................................................... 39
Functions................................................................................................................ 39
Packaging .............................................................................................................. 40
Receive Multicoupling................................................................................................. 40
Functions................................................................................................................ 40
Packaging .............................................................................................................. 41
Alarm ..........................................................................................................................41
Functions................................................................................................................ 41
Software...................................................................................................................... 41
APPENDIX 1: APPLICABLE SPECIFICATIONS (Indoor Products) ........................ 43
APPENDIX 2: ENVIRONMENTAL PERFORMANCE .................................................. 45
APPENDIX 3: EDGE .................................................................................................... 46
APPENDIX 4: ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS .................................................. 47

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FIGURES
Figure 1: Architecture Diagram of the S12000 Indoor BTS.......................................... 16
Figure 2: S12000 Indoor BTS Cabinet Layout ............................................................. 18
Figure 3: S12000 BTS Capacity and Possible Configurations ..................................... 21
Figure 4: S12000 BTS Coupling Architectures............................................................. 24
Figure 5: S12000 Indoor BTS Installation Configurations ............................................. 28
Figure 6: S12000 BTS Fault Detection and Recovery ................................................. 31
Figure 7: CBCF Architecture ........................................................................................ 33
Figure 8: DRX Functional Block Diagram..................................................................... 35
Figure 8: e-DRX Functional Block Diagram ................................................................. 36

TABLES
Table 1: Radio Equipment of the S12000 Indoor Base Cabinet................................... 18
Table 2: CBCF Equipment of the S12000 Base Cabinet ............................................. 19
Table 3: Extended-CBCF Equipment of the S12000 Base Cabinet ............................. 19
Table 4: S12000 BTS Combiner Insertion Losses ....................................................... 25

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Highlights

INTRODUCTION
Specifically designed for indoor installation, the S12000 Indoor Base
Transceiver Station (BTS) is a complete solution for macrocellular voice and
data applications that can deliver the high-capacity needed in cities as well as
wide-coverage in remote rural areas.
The S12000 BTS is also a platform for future data evolution of GSM networks
supporting GPRS today and ready for EDGE services.
The S12000 BTS uses the latest technology to provide operators with:

High capacity accomodating up to 12 TRXs per cabinet and 48 TRXs


per site in an optimized and dense packaging,

Best-in-class radio perfomance thanks to high receive sensitivity


receivers, unique interference cancellation and improved spatial
diversity algorithms along with high output power, providing optimum
coverage and link quality for both data and voice services,

High modularity concept due to high integration of advanced


technology. This in turn contributes to a significant reduction in
required floor space, size and equipment operating costs. This concept
is adapted to environmental constraints and is leading to the best
economic trade-off between initial and final capacity,
Spectrum efficiency optimization with the support of the undisputed
Nortel Networks capacity features that provide high quality voice and
data service to a dense subscriber population in a limited spectrum and
at competitive cost. These solutions include Fractional Frequency
Reuse, Automated Cell Tiering and future AMR evolution.
Industry leading transmission solution including high signaling
concentration on the Abis and drop and insert capability. As an
example, a single timeslot only is required for carrying the signaling of
a S233 BTS. This represents 30% cost reduction compared to industry
standard.

The S12000 BTS product is designed for full growth capability of up to 12


TRXs per cell in a sectorial configuration or 16 TRXs in an omnidirectional
site.
Future evolution of S12000 BTS will allow to further increase capacity with
configurations up to 16 TRXs per cell and 48 TRXs per site.

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Highlights

NORTEL NETWORKS BTS PORTFOLIO


The Nortel Networks family of Base Transceiver Station (BTS) products offers
the flexibility of high performance and dense packaging needed to provide the
operator with optimum network solutions. This BTS portfolio benefits from
Nortel Networks vast experience in spectrum management and network
engineering.
The Nortel Networks BTS product family is based on a single module
approach for the receiver, transmitter, and frame processor, refers to as the
DRX (Driver Receiver). The DRX delivers superior performance by integrating
advanced digital signal processing that delivers high spectrum efficiency
providing the operator with an optimum network solution.
Combined with Nortel Networks experience gained through manufacturing
and delivering more than 330,000 DRX to more than 40 countries and 70
operators throughout the world, the DRX-based family of BTS products
provides the operator with the key ingredients required to minimize both the
initial and ongoing infrastructure investment and the on-going operational
expenses.
The Nortel Networks BTS products address all possible coverage and
capacity requirements ranging from rural-to-urban-to in-building coverage.
Small Towns
Highways

Rural

Suburban

Urban

Dense Urban

S2000H

Indoor

e -Cell
S8000 (S111 S888)
S12000 (S222 S16-16-16)

The Nortel Networks BTS portfolio includes the following products and
benefits:
S8000 BTS
The S8000 is a high performance BTS designed for macrocellular voice and
data applications, that has a high modularity and expansion capability
providing site configurations ranging from 1 TRX to 8 TRXs per cell in a
trisectorial site, or up to 16 TRXs in an omnidirectional configuration.
Because of its superior RF performance (high receiver sensitivity, interference
cancellation) and unique frequency re-use features, the S8000 BTS is an
excellent product that delivers wide coverage and optimize spectrum
efficiency. The S8000 BTS indoor version is designed for protected sites,

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Highlights

while the outdoor version is a fully integrated BTS site with AC power supply
and extended temperature range.

S12000 BTS
The S12000 BTS is a twelve-transceivers, high-capacity solution designed to
meet the increasing traffic demand on macrocellular voice and future data
applications.
The S12000 BTS can provide up to 36 TRXs at a single site with 12 TRXs per
cell using only three BTS cabinets. Future evolution will allow to reach 48
TRXs at a single site using four BTS cabinets.
Based on the S8000 BTS market-proven technology, the S12000 BTS inherits
its superior RF performances, unique features and main modules and is
compatible with the installed S8000 base.
Not only can S12000 cabinets be co-sited with S8000 existing sites but also
S8000 sites can be expanded by using S12000 cabinets, allowing capacity
growth while protecting investment and fully exploiting existing BTS
infrastructure.
The modular design of S12000 BTS and the possibility to choose between
multiple RF-combining options allows the operator to deploy the S12000
solution in a number of different scenarios such as a high-capacity solution in
cities or alternatively enabling to provide wide-coverage with a minimum
number of sites in rural areas. The S12000 BTS indoor version is designed for
protected sites, while the outdoor version is a fully integrated BTS site with AC
power supply and extended temperature range.

S2000H BTS
The S2000H BTS is an enhanced BTS ideally suited for field applications such
as highways, tunnels, rural or low traffic suburban environments. It provides
the highest coverage for a low capacity BTS in the industry. The S2000H
Base Unit can house 2 transceivers and allows a maximum of 2 TRX per cell
in a trisectorial configuration (S222) by connecting multiple BTSs.
Its small packaging simplifies the site acquisition process and so low cost
deployments and raped time-to-market. Moreover, the use of masthead power
amplifier architecture maximizes the S2000H link budget and reduces the
number of sites required by up to 30% compared with the industry standard,
providing saving in infrastructure and operational costs in low density and
remote areas.
The S2000H is an ideal product to deploy in the initial stages of GSM
coverage rolling out, and suited for highways, tunnels and low traffic areas
coverage.

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e-cell BTS
The e-cell BTS is the new generation compact and lighter weight micro-BTS
from Nortel Networks. It is quick and easy to install, an ideal solution for hot
spots, patchy coverage and indoor applications. The e-cell unit includes two
transceivers and can be easily extendible to a synchronized four-transceivers
BTS. It is EDGE-ready and provides an ideal solution for outdoor deployment
as part of a microcellular underlay, or for in-building coverage.

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Highlights

HIGHLIGHTS
Designed to meet the economic and environmental constraints inherent in an
indoor installation, the S12000 Indoor BTS offers exceptional RF performance
and industry-leading transmission capabilities. These features, combined with
high configuration modularity and dense packaging help the operator to
reduce site count and floor space and to minimize the network expansion
investment.

PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS
The primary physical characteristics of the S12000 Indoor BTS are optimized
to meet the temperature and mechanical requirements of indoor sites:
High density / low volume (12 TRXs per cabinet and 67 liters (2.37
cu.ft.) per transceiver)
Full frontal accessibility for ease of maintenance
Limited floor space: 0.83 m2 (8.93 sq.ft.) including space required for
clearance, installation and maintenance. There is no clearance
required at the back and at the sides of the cabinet.
Fully equipped cabinet for fast transportation and installation
Easy handling
Cabling from the top of the radio cabinet

FEATURES
The S12000 Indoor BTS benefits from the technological and functional
developments undertaken for the entire product range. The S12000 BTS
therefore offers a set of features enhancing the Quality of Service and the
spectrum efficiency of the network such as:
Support for GSM frequency bands:
-

GSM 850, GSM 900 / E-GSM 900, GSM 1800 and GSM 1900

GSM 900/1800 and GSM 850/1900 Dual Band

Full support of GPRS data services (CS1 and CS2 coding schemes)
HW ready to support EDGE modulation using specific DRX (e-DRX)
and Power Amplifiers (e-PA). EDGE will be available on V15 release.

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Garanteed 110 dBm dynamic single-branch receive sensitivity (GMSK


modulation) at the BTS antenna without any remote Mast-Head
Amplifiers
Improved receiver diversity gain using a Nortel Networks specific
algorithm providing 5dB or more diversity gain in most situations when
spatial diversity and de-correlated antennas are used.
Enhanced voice quality due to an innovative algorithm of interference
cancellation significantly reduces an end-users perception of errors
generated in the radio transmission
Full RF power control range (static and dynamic)
Support of frequency hopping in synthetized mode
Voice Activity Detection/Discontinuous Transmission (VAD / DTX)
Microcellular handover algorithms
Support of multiple GSM vocoders (Enhanced Full-Rate, Full-Rate)
and HW prepared to support AMR Full-Rate and AMR Half-Rate
Fractional frequency re-use algorithms and techniques including
Automated Cell Tiering feature that can dramatically increase the
capacity of the network while maintaining an excellent voice quality.
Dual-band GSM 900/1800 and GSM 850/1900 configurations with
single-BCCH, built in a single or in multiple S12000 BTS cabinets
Drop-and-insert functionality and high signaling concentration on the
Abis interface reducing the operating cost of transmission between the
Base Stations and Base Station Controller
High availability based on duplication of common functions and
optional N+1 redundancy of the RF or transmission functions

CONFIGURATION AND PACKAGING


Configuration and packaging enable:
Smooth and flexible capacity expansion from an omnidirectional BTS
with 2 TRXs (in 1 cabinet) up to a trisector BTS with 12 TRXs per
sector (S12-12-12) in three S12000 cabinets. Future expansion to 16
TRXs per sector (S16-16-16) using four S12000 cabinets is planned.
Possibility to expand existing S8000 sites with S12000 extension
cabinets to create a site controlled from a single Compact Base
Common Function board (common O&M and transmission, cabinets
are synchronized).

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Highlights

S12000 BTS is using the same main FRUs as S8000 BTS that allows
the operator to share the main BTS modules and spares, including
DRX, Power Amplifier, Combiners, CMCF.
Minimized number of antennas per sector using the same antenna for
the receive and transmit paths.
Flexible coupling options:
-

Duplexers to get the highest RF output power that provide


maximum coverage

TX Filters to maintain the duplexer link budget but enabling


capacity to grow beyond 1 TRXs per sector by adding antennas

Hybrid combiner (2 or 4 channels) to grow capacity up to 4TRXs


per sector without adding antennas

Possibility to split cells on multiple S12000 cabinets, meaning that the


TRXs of a sector can be physically located in different cabinets
Possibility of implementing the highest capacity in the industry
trisectorial configurations in a single radio cabinet (S444) using
Duplexers or Hybrid combiners.
Various 900/1800 or 850/1900 dual-band configurations using all types
of coupling system
Optional High Power Amplifier to boost the downlink performance by
up to 3 dB for voice and E-GPRS services (number of high power
amplifiers is limited to 6 per S12000 cabinet). Availability of the High
Power Amplifier is frequency dependent.
Front access for all module cards and cables to minimize clearance
requirements and simplify upgrades, growth and maintenance

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GENERAL DESCRIPTION
PHYSICAL ARRANGEMENT
The S12000 BTS provides the radio interface with the mobile handsets, the
associated signal processing and the transmission interface with the Base
Station Controller (BSC).
The main functions of the S12000 BTS are outlined below.
RF FUNCTIONS
Antenna coupling and duplexing
Power amplification
Reception, including RF 2-way receive diversity
GMSK (Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying) modulation/demodulation
Shifted 8-PSK EDGE modulation/demodulation using EDGE-capable
TRX and PA (e-DRX and e-PA)
Synthetized frequency hopping in all coupling types

RADIO CHANNEL MANAGEMENT


BTS and mobile handset power control
Discontinuous Transmission and Voice Activity Detection (DTX/VAD),
on both uplink and downlink paths
Radio channel filling
Call set-up/release
Mobile timing advance processing
Support of Enhanced Full-Rate (EFR) and Full-Rate (FR) speech
coding
HW prepared for support of AMR Full-Rate and AMR Half-Rate (AMR
to be available in V14)

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Physical Layout

SIGNAL PROCESSING
Channel encoding/decoding
Encryption (A5/2 and A5/1)
Equalization
Cancellation of interference
Processing of radio measurements, including handover algorithms

BASE STATION CONTROLLER INTERFACE


Communication with the Base Station Controller (BSC)
Concentration of signaling on the Abis interface (a single PCM timeslot
can concentrate signaling for up to eight transceivers)
Multiplexing of four traffic channels on one PCM slot (each TRX needs
two PCM slots for traffic)
Dynamic A-bis for EDGE traffic (available in V15)

SWITCHING
Connection between the PCM links and the traffic/signaling channels
Management of drop-and-insert connections
Management of the TRXs and PCM link redundancy

OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE


High level of availability through duplication of switching,
synchronization and control unit (working in active/stand-by mode) and
N+1 redundancy
Monitoring of internal and external alarms, through internal bus and
alarm loops
Remote configuration management from the BSC (site, sector, Abis,
TRX)
Software downloading

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DIMENSIONS AND WEIGHT


The dimensions of the S12000 Indoor base cabinet are:

Height

1.950 m (76.78 in.)

Width

0.910 m (35.83 in.)

Depth

0.450 m (17.72 in.)

Its maximum weight is:

Fully equipped (with 12 DRXs)

345 kg (761 lbs.) (*)

Pre-cabled, non equipped

125 kg (276 lbs.) (*)

cabinet (no DRX, no PA)

(*) preliminary estimation

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Physical Layout

ARCHITECTURE
The architecture of the S12000 Indoor BTS relies on the definition of common
internal and external interfaces and on a set of common physical modules,
enabling the configuration of a BTS according to the required capacity and RF
options (power, band, capacity, coupling, etc.).
The S12000 BTS modularity was defined in order to reach the best
compromise between the following constraints:
Flexible growth from S222 up to S12-12-12 (future release will allow for
S16-16-16)
High reliability and ease of maintenance (only front access to the
S12000 BTS cabinet is needed for capacity growth and maintenance)
Maximize the RF power output

Combiner
+ LNAs

PA

A
L
A
R
M

PA
FH Bus

DRX

Combiner
+ LNAs

Combiner
+ LNAs

DRX

PA
FH Bus
DRX

RX-Splitter

PA

A
L
A
R
M

DRX

RX-Splitter

PA

PA
FH Bus

DRX

A
L
A
R
M

DRX

RX-Splitter

CBCF
Base CABINET
(up to 12 DRXs)

Extension CABINET
(up to 12 DRXs)

Extension CABINET
(up to 12 DRXs)
PCM link
O&M bus

Figure 1: Architecture Diagram of the S12000 Indoor BTS

The architecture of the S12000 Indoor BTS, as illustrated in the diagram


above, is based on the following modules:
Compact Base Common Function (CBCF) is responsible for all
common functions such as concentration, transmission, supervision
and synchronization.
A CBCF is implemented in the main cabinet and provisioned
according to traffic.
An optional high capacity CBCF (Extended-CBCF) will allow the
operator to further increase the S12000 Indoor BTS internal and
external connectivity capability.

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Power Amplifiers (PA) boosts the RF signal delivered to the antenna


through the combiner.
Each PA is a physically independent unit, characterized by its
frequency band. Its output power can be controlled independently.
A specific PA is available to support EDGE (e-PA).
Driver Receive (DRX) units amplify the received RF signals (two in
case of diversity), perform the TDMA frame processing and
control/drive the power amplifier.
One TRX is then made up of one PA and one DRX.
A specific DRX is available to support EDGE (e-DRX).
Combiners couple the RF signals delivered by several power
amplifiers with the received signals.
The operator can select a variety of coupling modules, depending on
the frequency band and the need (e.g. Duplexers, TX Filters, Hybrid
Combiner-Duplexer) and the site configuration (number of TRXs and
antennas).
Receiver multicouplers (LNAs + RX-splitters) pre-amplify and split
the received signal towards the DRX receivers.
A variety of RX-splitters can be selected, depending on the frequency
band and the site configuration.
Alarm module (RECAL) collects external and internal alarm loops.
There is one RECAL board per cabinet. Internal alarms can be used
only inside the cabinet. There are 16 external alarms which can be
protected by one or two ALPRO boards (one for 8 alarms) providing
secondary protection (lighting arrestor) of 16 external alarms.

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Physical Layout

The following diagram shows the position of the modules in the S12000 Indoor
base cabinet.

Figure 2: S12000 Indoor BTS Cabinet Layout

The radio portion of the S12000 Indoor BTS can be equipped according to the
following table
SUB-RACKS

MODULES

Min.

Max.

Number

Number

DRX

DRX

12

PA

PA

12

COMBINERS

DUPLEXERS + LNAs

12

DUPLEXERS + LNAs + TX FILTERS

12

H2D: HYBRIDS + DUPLEXERS + LNAs

12

H4D: HYBRIDS + DUPLEXERS+ LNAs (*)

RX-SPLITTERS

RXSPLITTERS

Diversity is taken into account


(*) H4D not available for GSM 1900 and GSM 850

Table 1: Radio Equipment of the S12000 Indoor Base Cabinet

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The CBCF portion is equipped according to the following table

SUB-

MODULES

Number of Modules

RACKS
CBCF

CMCF (control, routing,

2 (1active/1 passive) or 1 (*)

concentration, and synchro.)


CPCMI (PCM link interface)

1 to 3(**)

CBCFICO (interconnection)

RECAL

1 (per cabinet)

(*) Only one CMCF for the simplex CBCF option


(**) Optional redundancy up to 3 CPCMI boards

Table 2: CBCF Equipment of the S12000 Base Cabinet

Using the Extended-CBCF optional equipment, the CBCF portion is equipped


according to the following table

SUB-

MODULES

Number of Modules

RACKS
Extended-

CMCF (control, routing,

CBCF

concentration, and synchro.)

2 (1active/1 passive) or 1 (*)

CPCMI (PCM link interface)

1 to 4(**)

CBCFICO (interconnection)

RECAL

1 (per cabinet)

(*) Only one CMCF for the simplex CBCF option


(**) Optional redundancy up to 4 CPCMI boards

Table 3: Extended-CBCF Equipment of the S12000 Base Cabinet

The corresponding configurations are defined in the following section.

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Capacity and Configuration

CAPACITY AND CONFIGURATION


CAPACITY
The S12000 Indoor BTS can be housed in one to three cabinets. Future
evolution will allow a third cabinet extension (requires the optional ExtendedCBCF module), for a total of four S12000 cabinets.
The number of S12000 BTS cabinets depends on the required capacity:
For a capacity not exceeding 12 TRXs, only one cabinet is required,
namely the Base Cabinet.
For capacities of over 12 TRXs, one or two additional Extension
Cabinets are required.
Capacity and configuration upgrades are particularly flexible and easy,
allowing a maximum capacity of:
16 TRXs per cell in omnidirectional site
12 TRXs per cell in bi- or trisectorial site
16TRXs per cell (future evolution)
36 TRXs per BTS in only three cabinets
48 TRXs per BTS in four cabinets (future evolution)
6 cells per site (e.g. dual-band)

The following diagram gives examples of configurations which can be


implemented in one to three S12000 radio cabinets:

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Capacity and Configuration

O2

S11

S111

S66

S444

S77

S555

S12-12

S888

O4
O8
O12

S9-9-9

S12-12-12

Figure 3: S12000 BTS Capacity and Possible Configurations

CONNECTION TO THE BASE STATION CONTROLLER


Transcoders may be located at the BSC or MSC site. Only two PCM timeslots
over the Abis interface are required for each 8-radio timeslot DRX. The
S12000 BTS performs 16 kbps multiplexing, making it possible to multiplex
four traffic channels on a single 64 kbps PCM timeslot.
The drop and insert capability is used to reduce the number of PCM links
needed to connect the BTS to their Base Station Controller. This can be
implemented through Chain connection or Loop connection, depending on the
level of reliability required.

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Capacity and Configuration

BASE STATION CONTROLLER DEPENDANCY


The S12000 BTS can be controlled from a BSC 2G or from a BSC e3.
However, S12000 will offer its maximum configuration using the last
generation of Nortel Networks BSC (BSC e3).
The following table gives the maximum TRX units and maximum configuration
allowed on a S12000 Indoor BTS using BSC 2G or BSC e3 for V13 and V14
system releases:
V13 release

BSC Type

Max number

Max number

Max number

Max omni / tri-

of DRX per

of TRX per

of TRX per

sectorial

cabinet

cell

site

configurations

BSC 2G

12

16

24

1O16 / 3S888

BSC e3

12

16

36

1O16 / 3S12-12-12

V14 release

BSC Type

Max number

Max number

Max number

Max omni / tri-

of DRX per

of TRX per

of TRX per

sectorial

cabinet

cell

site

configurations

BSC 2G

12

16

24

1O16 / 3S888

BSC e3

12

16

48

1O16 / 4S16-16-16

COUPLING CONFIGURATIONS
Coupling architecture is designed to allow the operator to reach the best
compromise between cost, losses and quality of service. As such, it is based
on the following principles:
Distribution of the PA power between the antennas (RF loss
reduction)
Diversity used spatial or polarization
Coupling selection adapted to the number of TRXs per cell

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Capacity and Configuration

The operator can perform transmission combining by selecting one of the


following modules (examples using a single S12000 cabinet):
Duplexers, whenever the configuration does not exceed two TRXs per
cell. Synthesized frequency hopping can be used with duplexers.
Transmit filters (TX filters) used to extend configurations with
duplexers beyond two TRXs per cell. The advantage of the TX Filter is
that it maintains the same link budget as a duplexer, which in many
case avoids cell splitting and maintains excellent voice quality.
Synthesized frequency hopping can be used with transmit filters.
Two channel hybrid combiners with integrated duplexer (H2D), for
medium capacity configurations (typically 2 to 4 TRX per cell).
Synthesized frequency hopping can be used with H2D combiners.
Four channel hybrid combiners with integrated duplexer (H4D), for
configurations with five or more TRXs per cell. Synthesized frequency
hopping can be used with H4D combiners. H4D is not available for
GSM 850 and GSM 1900.
Receiver multicouplers pre-amplifies the signal received from the duplexer,
and splits it into several outputs to drive the DRX receivers.
Each RX-splitter in standard provides four outputs and two RX-splittters are
necessary when space diversity is used.
Another RX-splitter type is available and provides two outputs.
These modules are described in further detail in the Technical Description
section.
The following diagram illustrates the most common coupling architectures.

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Capacity and Configuration

1-2 TRX

3-4 TRX (a)

Duplexer

Duplexer

LNA

H2D

LNA

LNA

PA

H2D

RX-splitters

LNA

PA

PA

PA

PA

2 RX-splitters 3

PA

3-4 TRX (b)


Duplexer

LNA

Duplexer

TX-Filter

TX-Filter

PA

PA

PA

LNA

PA

RX-splitters

5-8 TRX (a)


H4D

H4D

LNA
PA

PA

PA

LNA

PA

RX-splitters

PA

PA

PA

PA

5-8TRX (b)
H2D

H2D

LNA

H2D

H2D

LNA

PA

PA

PA

2 RX-splitters 3

PA

PA

PA

PA

PA

9-12 TRX
H4D

H4D

LNA
PA

PA

PA

LNA

PA

H4D

RX-splitters

LNA
PA

PA

PA

PA

RX-splitters

PA

PA

10

PA

11

PA

12

Figure 4: S12000 BTS Coupling Architectures

The typical losses induced by these combiners are listed in the table below.

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Capacity and Configuration

Note: These losses does not include internal S12000 BTS coax losses
between the PA and the combiner and between the combiner and the antenna
connector port on the S12000 BTS bulkhead.

TRANSMISSION COUPLING DEVICE

INSERTION LOSSES
GSM

GSM

850/900

1800/1900

Single Duplexer

0.9 dB

1.1 dB

TX Filter

0.9 dB

1.1 dB

Hybrid Duplexer H2D

4.3 dB

4.5 dB

Hybrid Duplexer H4D *

7.4 dB

7.6 dB

* No H4D for GSM 850 and GSM 1900

Table 4: S12000 BTS Combiner Insertion Losses

The standard Power Amplifier produces a nominal power of 30 Watts on both


GMSK and shifted 8-PSK modulations (EDGE).
The optional High power amplifier produces a nominal power of 60 Watts on
GMSK modulation and 45 Watts on shifted 8-PSK modulation (EDGE).
Note: High Power PA will be introduced on V14 for GSM 1900, availability on
other frequencies will depend on market demand.

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Capacity and Configuration

COMPATIBILITY WITH S8000


MODULES
The S12000 is part of the DRX-based product family and allows the operator
to use the same main modules in S8000 BTS and in S12000 BTS.
The following modules can be used either in S8000 or S12000 cabinets:
CBCF, including the following boards
o

CMCF (control, routing, concentration, and synchro. board)

CPCMI (PCM link interface board)

CBCFICO (interconnection board)

RECAL (alarm board)

DRX and e-DRX


Power Amplifier (PA and e-PA)
Transmission Coupling units, including
o

Duplexer

TX Filters,

H2D hybrid combiner

H4D hybrid combiner

Note 1 : Minimum software level on S8000 DRX / eDRX is required for


compatibility with S12000. .
S12000 DRX / e-DRX are compatible with both S8000 and S12000 BTS
products.
Note 2 : If a S8000 CMCF spare is plugged into a S12000 BTS as the passive
BCF, the board is automatically upgraded by the active SW S12000 CMCF.
If a S8000 CMCF spare is plugged into a S12000 BTS as the active BCF, the
board is automatically upgraded by the network.
A S12000 CMCF can be inserted in a S8000 and will be automatically
downloaded by the network.
Note 3 : The Optional Extended-CBCF is only compatible with S12000 BTS.

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SYNCHRONIZATION
When expanding a S8000 site with S12000, the cabinets can be chained and
be synchronized together. This synchronization allows to take the full
advantage of the additional S12000 capacity with the possibility to build a
sector using TRX physically located in different cabinets.
Additionally, the synchronization allows the operator to operate fractional reuse on the S8000/S12000 site as on a S8000 or S12000 site, with no change
on hopping engineering rules and consequently the same procedures and
benefits on capacity and quality.
The synchronization requires no hardware change on the existing S8000 BTS.
Note: The capacity expansion of S8000 BTS with S12000 BTS requires no
hardware change on the existing S8000 BTS if already equiped with CBCF
board.

CONFIGURATIONS
The possibility to expand S8000 sites with S12000 cabinets allows the
operator to grow the capacity of the installed S8000 sites. The following
chained configurations are allowed:
For mono-cabinet S8000 sites, one or two S12000 extension
cabinets can be installed, to form a single high capacity site.
For bi-cabinet S8000 sites, one S12000 extension cabinet can be
installed, to form a single high capacity site.
Note: The capacity expansion of S8000 BTS with S12000 BTS requires no
hardware change on the existing S8000 BTS if already equiped with CBCF
board.

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Installation

INSTALLATION
SHIPPING AND INSTALLATION
The S12000 Indoor Base Station can be installed easily in any equipment
room.
It is designed to be shipped and installed fully equipped, with mechanical
racking, all fixed cabling and pre-tested.
The S12000 Indoor BTS is shipped with one single door in standard.
As a future evolution of the S12000 Indoor BTS, a two-doors option will be
available. In case of problem the doors will be easily removable.

FLOOR SPACE
Three typical S12000 Indoor BTS installation configurations with the 2-doors
option are illustrated below
S12000 Indoor Base
or extension cabinet

0.910

0.450

Total Area:
0.83 m
0.455

Front access for maintenance

Figure 5: S12000 Indoor BTS Installation Configurations

The S12000 Indoor BTS requires a floor space limited to 0.83 m (8.93 sq.ft.)
per cabinet, because installation and maintenance are performed from the
front, with the cabinet doors in a 90 position.

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Installation

All modules are front-cabled, eliminating the need for a backplane and sides
or rear access.
Moreover, as the air intake is placed on the front of the BTS, the operator is
able to install the cabinets against a wall without the need for any clearance at
the rear.
The maximum cable length between two cabinets is 10 meters (32.8 ft.).

EXTERNAL CABLING
All external cables connect from the top.

POWER SUPPLY
The S12000 Indoor BTS is supplied with standard DC power supply (-48 V).

ENVIRONMENT
The S12000 Indoor BTS is designed to be started up when the external
ambient air temperature is in a range of 0C to +45C (+32F to +113F).
When switched on, it operates in an external ambient air temperature range of
-5C to +45C (+23F to +113F), with a relative humidity level of 5% to 95%.
The specifications are listed in Appendix 1, and more detailed environmental
performances are defined in Appendix 2.

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Operation and Maintenance

OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE


OPERATION
The S12000 Indoor BTS performs the Operation functions under the control of
the Base Station Controller (BSC), through the Abis interface. These functions
are initialization, configuration and fault-management/recovery.
INITIALIZATION
A hardware reset or a reinitialization message from the BSC triggers the
S12000 BTS startup. Software downloading may be initiated for reinitializating
the BTS or updating the software. All these operations can be handled
remotely from the OMC-R.
CONFIGURATION
All parameters are programmed under the control of the BSC, including:
Abis interface (traffic and signaling channels)
Radio characteristics (frequency, power, BCCH filling, etc.)
TDMA frame
PCM interfaces (error rate, etc.)
Connections established in the switch.

FAULT-MONITORING/RECOVERY
The S12000 Indoor BTS provides a high degree of service availability using an
efficient fault detection and correction process based on the following
principles:
Active/stand-by redundancy of all common modules (control, switch,
clock, CMCF boards) and optional N+1 redundancy for the CPCMI,
DRX, PA and DC converters.
Permanent monitoring of all external physical alarms, reporting of
internal faults to the Base Control Function and internal tests
Immediate local corrective action for major failures, with isolation
of the faulty element and reconfiguration (when duplicated)
Soft blocking of the faulty module, whenever possible

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Operation and Maintenance

Reporting of all events to the BSC, for observation and corrective


actions in the event of minor failure
Ongoing updating of standby modules to limit information loss in the
event of a switchover
The fault detection and recovery process is summarized in the following
diagram
Main cabinet

Extension cabinet

(Only external links are represented)

ALPRO

C
P
C
M
I

ALPRO

RECAL
(AMU)

8
DRXs

CMCF

8
DRXs

48VDC

48VDC

RECAL
(AMU)

48VDC
PCMp<2..3>

PCMp<0.1>

ALPRO

Alarms &
Remote
Controls*

Alarms &
Remote
Controls*

Alarms &
Remote
Controls*

CBCF SIU

Extension cabinet

8
DRXs

RECAL
(AMU)

48VDC
PCMp<4..5>

* Remote Controls
are pending on
market demand

Alarms
Convert.

PRIVATE PCMp<0..5> & SEL<4..7>

Abis_PCM<0..5>

Figure 6: S12000 BTS Fault Detection and Recovery

MAINTENANCE
Front access to the installed electronic and environmental control equipment
in the S12000 Indoor BTS cabinet facilitates maintenance.
In the event it becomes necessary to change a module, it can be unplugged or
plugged in without service interruption in the following cases:
The module is redundant, or
The module is on one carrier which wouldnt interrupt other carriers
The following features also facilitates the performance of diagnostics and
testing:
Local optional terminal remotely connected to the OMC-R
Display of status and alarms on the front panels of the modules (power
ON, PLL locked/unlocked, active PCM clock, loss of frame, error
counter, etc.)
Reset or initialization buttons
Test connectors

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Technical Description

TECHNICAL DESCRIPTION
COMPACT BASE COMMON FUNCTION (CBCF)
FUNCTIONS
The Compact Base Common Function covers all the functions related to a
complete site, including:
Drop-and-insert facilities for the PCM links with the BTS controller
(BSC)
Reference clock for the air interface, synchronized on the Abis
interface and GSM TIME calculations
Conversion of electrical signals, from external to internal PCM
channels
Switching of PCM slots
Configuration and supervision of all modules

ARCHITECTURE
Designed to operate in duplex mode with redundancy of the control, switching
and synchronization functions, the CBCF architecture is based on the
following boards:
The concentration, routing and synchronization module (CMCF)
The pulse code modulation interfaces (CPCMI)
An interconnection module (CBCFICO).
Hardware interface for the GPS receiver for the potential future
applications.
An alarm and management unit (RECAL) is connected to the CBCF.

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CMCF - STANDBY
DRX

CMCF - ACTIVE

RECAL
AMU

DRX
CPCMI

CONTROL, SWITCHING, CONCENTRATION


AND SYNCHRONISATION

RECAL

BCFICO

DRX
RECAL

Figure 7: CBCF Architecture

Compact Main Common Function (CMCF)


This unit, which is duplicated and operates in duplex mode, performs all
interface, control and maintenance functions, including:
Connection to the BSC
Management of synchronization modules
Management of frequency hopping bus
Management of the Active/Stand-by process and collection of all
alarms and recovery actions from the Alarm Management Unit
A non-blocking switching matrix provides 16 PCM ports (between the CPCMI
boards, the signaling boards and the DRX) and performs the switching
required for the drop-and-insert option and for dynamic allocation of redundant
PCM links.

Compact Pulse Code Modulation Interface (CPCMI)


This unit (a maximum of 3 CPCMI boards can be equipped in CBCF and a
maximum of 4 CPCMI boards can be equipped in Extended-CBCF) provides
the interface with the Abis PCM trunks, as well as the alarm management
function.
Two PCM trunks are implemented per CPCMI boards. CPCMI is available in
two optional standards (E1 or T1) and with two optional impedances (120 or
75 ohms for E1).

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Technical Description

DRIVER RECEIVER (DRX OR E-DRX)


FUNCTIONS
The DRX includes the entire set of functions necessary to handle a full TDMA
frame, including RF receive diversity and RF transmission at low levels.
The RF receive diversity uses Maximum Ratio Combining algorithm (MRC).
A separate Power Amplifier (PA) handles the amplification required for
transmission.
Specific DRX and PA are available to support 8-PSK modulation for EDGE (eDRX and e-PA).
The main functions supported by the DRX include:
Management of the Abis interface
Discontinuous transmission of GMSK (Gaussian Minimum Shift
Keying) modulation
Discontinuous transmission of shifted 8-PSK (Phase Shift Keying)
modulation using specific EDGE DRX (e-DRX)
Diversity reception
RF power control
Equalization
Channel coding/decoding for Full-Rate (FR), Enhanced Full-Rate
(EFR) speech channels, and for data channels including GPRS and
EDGE (available in V15) using e-DRX
Channel coding/decoding for AMR Full-Rate and AMR Half-Rate (AMR
available in V14)
Synthetized frequency hopping
Ciphering (A5/1 or A5/2)
Local alarm management

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Technical Description

ARCHITECTURE
The DRX architecture is based on:
A Digital part, including a management unit (AMNU), a Digital Control
Unit for signal processing, the Transmit Logic (interface with the
transmission part in the radio board) and a Time Base Unit . It is
compatible with all frequency bands.
A Radio part composed of a power supply board and of DRX radio
board which includes receiver and transmitter unit. One specific radio
board is required for each frequency band (850, 900, 1800, 1900).
Two Power Supply boards include one DC/DC converter.

Figure 8: DRX Functional Block Diagram

The e-DRX architecture consist of :


An e-LDRX digital board including a DC/DC converter, a frame
processor TX logic (GMSK and 8PSK modulation), and a local time
base, working for all frequency bands.
An e-RDRX radio board including a DC/DC converter, a low power
driver and a dual receiver

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Technical Description

Figure 9: e-DRX Functional Block Diagram

As mentioned previously, the algorithm implemented in the DRX logic provides


exceptional immunity to interference using a process that cancels correlated
additive noise. This algorithm is optional and is controlled by software at the
OMC.
Additionally, the diversity gain can be increased by almost 2 dB for dispersive
fading channels with a time spread of less than 1 microsecond, in most cases.
Hence, the diversity gain is estimated at 5 dB for products based on DRXs.
The DRX processing provides very high performance : the S12000 Indoor
BTS achieves -115 dBm guaranteed receive sensitivity when diversity gain is
taken into account.
Note: e-DRX availability in GSM 900 pending on market demand

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Technical Description

TECHNOLOGY
All these performances as well as the packing density are based on a set of
highly integrated components specifically developed by Nortel Networks.
PACKAGING
The DRX boards are mounted in a closed metal housing, with a suitable
heat sink.
DRX and e-DRX boards have the same dimensions as folllows:

Height

350 mm (13.78 in.)

Width

65 mm (2.56 in.)

Depth

300 mm (11.81 in.)

Weight

7 kg (15.43 lbs.)

POWER AMPLIFIER (PA OR E-PA)


FUNCTIONS
The Power Amplifier (PA) boosts the level of the GMSK modulated RF pulse,
generated by the transmit driver (located in the DRX subassembly), up to the
RF power level required before coupling/combining.
The EDGE Power Amplifier (e-PA) boosts the level of the GMSK or shifted 8PSK modulated RF pulse, generated by the transmit driver (located in the
DRX subassembly), up to the RF power level required before
coupling/combining.
These levels depend on the chosen class as defined by ETSI 05.05
specification.
Specific PA/e-PA are associated to each of the four frequency bands (GSM
850, GSM 900, GSM 1800 and GSM 1900).
The GSM 850/900/1800/1900 base line versions (PA and e-PA) deliver an
output power of 30 Watts (+44.8 dBm +/- 0.5 dB) on GMSK and shifted 8PSK modulations. A calibrated detector measures this power, and the DRX
adjusts it.
An optional EDGE PA (He-PA) version delivers an output power of 60 Watts
(+47.8 dBm +/- 0.5 dB) on GMSK and 45 Watts (+46.53 dBm +/- 0.5 dB) on

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Technical Description

shifted 8-PSK modulations. He-PA is only available on GSM1900. The number


of high power amplifiers is limited to 6 per S12000 cabinet.
Note: He-PA will be introduced on V14 for GSM 1900, availability of other
frequencies will depend on market demand.
ARCHITECTURE
The PA/e-PA module includes:
RF amplifier
DC/DC converter
Temperature probe
DC consumption detector

PACKAGING
The Power Amplifier (PA/e-PA) subassembly is designed as a stand-alone
unit used inside the BTS.
It is mounted in a closed metal housing, fitted with a suitable heat sink and
provided with RF coaxial and DC multiway connectors.
The same housing is used for all frequency ranges: GSM850, GSM 900, GSM
1800 and GSM 1900.
PA, e-PA and He-PA boards have the same dimensions as folllows:

Height

250 mm (9.84 in.)

Width

65 mm (2.56 in.)

Depth

300 mm (11.81 in.)

Weight

5 kg (11.02 lbs.)

Note: He-PA dimensions are based on a preliminary estimation and subject to


change.

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Technical Description

TRANSMISSION COUPLING
FUNCTIONS
The operator can use different types of couplers to couple the Power
Amplifiers to the antennas and to combine the Rx and Tx paths hybrid
combiners, transmit filters or duplexers. Their main characteristics of each are
summarized below:

Duplexer
This
device
filters
the
signal
transmitted
from
the
PA and preamplifies and protects the receiver from transmitted signals. It uses
a single antenna feeder. It is a full-band device for each of the GSM frequency
bands.
Particularly well adapted to small capacities (1 to 2 TRXs per cell) the
duplexer limits the transmission losses to about 1.5 dB (typical losses
including the cable losses between the PA and duplexer and between the
duplexers and the antenna connector on the S12000 BTS bulkhead),
providing high coverage performance.
Synthesized frequency hopping can be used with duplexers.

Transmit (TX) Filter


This device only filters the signal transmitted from the PA to the antenna and
does not provide the reception path. It is a full-band device for each of the
GSM frequency bands.
Particularly well adapted for sectors with capacities of 3 to 4 TRXs, the TX
filter provides high coverage performance (same transmission losses as
Duplexer). As a result, the TX filter allows the operator to maintain the
coverage area provided with duplexers, when the capacity of the sector
increases beyond 2 TRXs.
Synthesized frequency hopping can be used with transmit filters.

H2D Hybrid Combiner


This wide-band device provides all the functionality of the duplexer described
above and combines the signals from two power amplifiers through a twochannel hybrid combiner.
The typical overall insertion loss induced by this type of combiner is about 5
dB (including the cable losses between the PA and hybrid combiner and
between the hybrid combiner and the antenna connector on the S12000 BTS
bulkhead).
The received signal is delivered to the RX-splitter.
Synthesized frequency hopping can be used with H2D combiners.

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Technical Description

H4D Hybrid Combiner


This wide-band device provides all functionalities of the duplexer described
above and combines the signals from four Power Amplifiers through a fourchannel hybrid combiner.
The typical overall insertion loss induced by this type of combiner is about 8
dB (including the cable losses between the PA and hybrid combiner and
between the hybrid combiner and the antenna connector on the S12000 BTS
bulkhead).
The received signal is delivered to the RX-splitter.
Synthesized frequency hopping can be used with H4D combiners.
PACKAGING
The combiners are housed in the coupling shelf which may include:
6 Duplexers + 6 TX filters (1S444 configuration using 2 cross-polarized
antenna per sector, for example)
12 Duplexers (1S222_222 dual band configuration)
or 4 Duplexers and 8 TX filters (1S66 configuration, for example)
or 6 H2D hybrid combiners (1S444 configuration using 2 antennas per
sector, for example)
or 3 H4D hybrid combiners (1S444 configuration using 1 antenna per
sector, for example)
As an add-on to these coupling devices, an optional VSWR (Voltage Standing
Wave Ratio) meter equipment is enclosed in a dedicated housing. It receives
two signals from the duplexer proportional to the forward and reflected
powers. If the signal is in a power range between the nominal level and 12 dB
below the nominal level, the VSWR equipment delivers three alarm signals for
three preset VSWR values (two values for TX-filters).

RECEIVE MULTICOUPLING
FUNCTIONS
The RX multi-coupling design contains two basic components:
Low Noise Amplifier (LNA) boosts the signal from the duplexer
RX-splitter separates each of the signal coming from the LNA into two
(or four) outputs to drive up to 2 (respectively 4) TRXs, depending on
the RX multi-coupling packaging.
The RX-splitters are powered up by DRXs.

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PACKAGING
The LNAs are integrated into the TX combiners.
Two packagings are available. The first packaging includes 1 RX-splitter - 1
input to 4 outputs. A new packaging includes 2 RX-splitters - 1 input to 2
outputs.
The RX-splitters are housed in a dedicated shelf below the DRX shelf.

ALARM
FUNCTIONS
The Alarm module (RECAL) is in charge of collecting the external and internal
alarm loops, and also in charge of managing the alarms relative to the OEM
equipment. The capacity of the alarm system is:
16 inputs for external loops (current loops)
88 input loops (level detection, diode protected) internal and external
4 analog inputs (*)
4 command outputs (*)
The alarm module is connected to the CBCF which alerts the BSC in case of
an alarm.
An optional protection board (external alarm module) is necessary to expand
the connectors and protect the loops. Each protection board provides:
8 external loops with lightning protections for user defined purposes
2 command outputs for user purposes (*)
Up to two of these optional protection boards can be plugged on the S12000
Indoor BTS.
* Hardware. Software handling is pending on market demand.

SOFTWARE
The BTS software is distributed among the following units:
the CBCF unit, which provides the interface between the Base Station
and its Base Station Controller, and manages the Operation and
Maintenance of the Base Station

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Technical Description

the DRX units, designed to transmit and receive (modulate and


demodulate), and manage the TDMA frame
Redundancy is operated in passive/dynamic mode, with hot restart.
The active processor sends status information to the stand-by
processor.
If a major failure occurs on the active side, the stand-by processor
takes over CBCF control.
All the software can be downloaded from the Base Station Controller (under
the control of the OMC-R), with a selective loading option (file by file).

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Appendix 1

APPENDIX 1: APPLICABLE SPECIFICATIONS


(INDOOR PRODUCTS)

Ref A1

IEC 721-3-3 (3) Classification of Groups of Environmental Parameters and


their Severities Stationary use at Weather Protected Locations.
Classes 3K5/3Z2/3Z4/3B2/3C2/3S3/3M2.

Ref A2

IEC 529 Degree of Protection Provided by Enclosures.

Ref A3

IEC 917 Module Order for Development of Mechanical Structures for Electronic
Equipment Practices.

Ref A4

IEC 721-2-6 (2) Environmental Conditions Appearing in Nature-Earthquake


Vibration and Shock.

Ref A5

ETS 300 342-2 Radio Equipment and Systems ; Electromagnetic Compatibility


for European Digital Cellular Telecommunication System (GSM 900/1800) Part
2: Base Station Radio and Ancillary Equipment.

Ref A6

FCC Part 15 Class B: Radio Frequency Devices. (The GSM1900 product is


not FCC approved.)

Ref A7

ISO 1996/1 Acoustics - Description and Measurement of Environmental Noise


Part 1 Basic Quantities and Procedures.

Ref A8

ISO 7779 Acoustics - Measurement of Airborne Noise Emitted by Computer


and Business Equipment.

Ref A9

ISO 3270 Methods of Tests for Paints.

Ref A10

ISO 3461 Graphic Symbols.

Ref A11

ISO 3864 Safety Colors and Safety Signs.

Ref A12

ETS 300 019-1-1 Classification of Environmental Conditions Storage Class 1.2.

Ref A13

ETS 300 019-1-2 Classification of Environmental Conditions Transportation


Class 2.2.

Ref A14

EN 60950 Safety of Information Technology Equipment, including Electrical


Business Equipment.

Ref A15

UL 1950, CSA C22.2 No 950: Safety of Information Technology Equipment,


including Electrical Business Equipment.

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Appendix 1

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Appendix 2

APPENDIX 2: ENVIRONMENTAL PERFORMANCE


The references (Ref []) are connected with Appendix 1: Applicable
Specifications.
Operational Temperature The S12000 Indoor BTS is designed to operate when the
Range
external ambient temperature is in the range of -5C to +45C.
This operational temperature range is achieved within one hour
of BTS switch-on.
The internal ambient air temperature range for a safe switch-on
of all Indoor BTS equipment is 0C to +45C.
Mechanical Life

The S12000 Indoor BTS mechanical design operates under the


environmental conditions defined by Ref [A1], for a minimum
period of 15 years. This lifetime shall be achieved without the
requirement for routine maintenance.

Ingress Protection

The S12000 Indoor BTS meets the requirements of IP20 as


defined by Ref [A2].

EMC/EMI

The S12000 Indoor BTS meets the requirements [A5].

Product Safety

For Europe the product is CE marked. It complies with [A14].

Acoustics Noise

The maximum sound power level emitted by the S12000


Indoor BTS is 65 dB (A), when measured in accordance with
Ref [A8].

Operational Vibration

The S12000 Indoor BTS is designed to operate under the


vibration limits defined by Ref [A1].

Humidity

The S12000 Indoor BTS is designed to operate under the


humidity levels defined by Ref [A1].

Air Purity

The S12000 Indoor BTS is designed to operate under the


conditions of airborne mechanically chemically active
substances, defined by Ref [A1] - Class 3C2/3S3.

Seismic Shock

The mechanical design of all BTS products takes into account


the effects of seismic shock up to the level of seismic shock
level 3, as defined by Ref [A4].

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Appendix 3

APPENDIX 3: EDGE
EDGE (EGPRS) is a new modulation technique and improved coding
schemes introduced to enhance the bit rate of GSM carriers.
EDGE (EGPRS), together with GPRS is part of the 2.5G evolution made to
enhance wireless packet data services on the existing 2G spectrum (GSM,
DCS, PCS).
EGPRS enables a single GSM carrier to provide data services at data rates
from 64kbs up to 384kbs according to the radio conditions and the number of
resources allocated in each cell and the proximity of the user to the BTS
antenna.
The advantage of EDGE over newer 3G architectures is that it doesnt require
the deployment of a new network. The introduction of EDGE is an evolution of
GPRS services based on exiting GSM equipment. Quite often this can be
accomplished with a TRX and PA upgrade. This keeps the operators capital
investment to a minimum.

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APPENDIX 4: ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS


Abis

ETSI generic name for the BSC-BTS interface

AC

Alternative current (power source)

AMR

Adaptative Multirate Coding

BCCH

Broadcast Control Channel


Common mobile logical channel used for broadcasting system
information on the radio interfaces.

BSC

Base Station Controller

BSS

Base Station Subsystem


A BSS is made up of BSCs, plus a number of BTSs, some
transcoder units, and an OMC-R.
A BSS is connected to an MSC, and therefore to the global
network through the A interface.

BTS

Base Transceiver Station

CBCF

Compact Base Common Function


Generic name of the set of BTS equipment handling the
common functionality of a radio site.

CBCFICO

Interconnection unit of the CBCF

CMCF

Compact Main Common Function. CBCF board for control,


routing, concentration and synchronization

CPCMI

Compact
Pulse
Code
This board pertains to the CBCF.

dBm

Decibel milliwatt
Logarithmic unit to express a power level, with reference to
1 mW.

DC

Direct Current (power source)

Diversity

The receiver includes both main and diversity channel down


conversion and sampling in the same RX volume. Both
channels are then processed by the Frame Processing Unit
(FPU), using an equivalent Maximal Ratio Combining technique
through a joint equalization of both receive signals.

Modulation

Interface

Drop and insert A technique allowing several components to be daisy chained


on a common physical bus with each component, and ensuring
data integrity and positioning.
DRX

Driver + Receiver + Frame Processor

DTX

Discontinuous Transmission
A technique allowing the suppression of transmission when
nothing is to be transmitted.

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Duplexer

A frequency band selective circulator. Used, as any multiplexer,


to minimize the number of physical transmission lines. For
radio, transmission lines are antenna systems.

E1

Standard European PCM (2.048 Mbit/s)

EDGE

Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution

e-DRX

EDGE Driver + Receiver + Frame Processor

e-PA

EDGE Power Amplifier

E-GPRS

EDGE on Genaral Packet Radio Services

E-GSM

Extended GSM

EIRP

Equivalent Isotropic Radiated Power.

EMC

Electromagnetic compatibility

EMI

Electromagnetic interference

ETSI

European Telecommunication Standard Institute

FCC
FH bus

Federal Communications Commission


Frequency hopping bus
Shortcut to name a distributed switching matrix allowing
baseband frequency hopping without apparent specific
hardware.

FP

Frame Processor

GMSK

Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying


Radio modulation used in GSM 900/1800.

GPRS

General Packet Radio Services

GSM

Global System for Mobile communication

GSM 850

Radio cellular network standard operating at 850 MHz.

GSM 900

Radio cellular network standard operating at 900 MHz.

GSM 1800

Radio cellular network standard adapted for the 1800 MHz


frequency band.

GSM 1900

Radio cellular network standard adapted for the 1900 MHz


frequency band.

H2D

2-way hybrid combiner

H4D

4-way hybrid combiner

HDLC

High-Level Data Link Control


Protocol used on data links.

He-PA

EDGE High Power Amplifier

IEC

International Electrotechnical Committee

LNA

Low Noise Amplifier

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An RF amplifier used to enlarge very small useful signals


received with minimum added noise.
MLT

Microwave Link Terminal

MRC

Maximum Ratio Combiner


Name of the most efficient linear combining technique for
receive diversity.

MSC

Mobile Services Switching center

O&M

Operation and Maintenance

OEM

Original Equipment Manufacturer

OMC

Operation and Maintenance Center for the radio sub-system.


OMC-R then stands for Operation and Maintenance Center Radio

PA

Power Amplifier

PCM

Pulse Code Modulation


By extension, name given to the E1 or T1 physical link.

PLL

Phase Locked Loop

8-PSK

8-Phase Shift Keying


Radio modulation used in EDGE

PSU

Power Supply Unit

RECAL

Alarm handling module.


S8000/S12000 cabinet.

RF

Radio Frequency

RFI

Radio Frequency Interference

R-GSM

Railway GSM

RX

BTS receiver

SYNC

Synchronization module

T1

Standard US PCM system (1.544 Mbit/s)

TDMA

Time Division Multiple Access


Multiple access technique based on timeslot structure.

TRX

BTS Transmitter/Receiver

TX

BTS transmitter

VAD

Voice Activity Detection

VSWR

Voltage Standing Wave Ratio

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This module is present in every

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