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Third Edition

CHAPTER

MECHANICS OF
MATERIALS
Ferdinand P. Beer
E. Russell Johnston, Jr.
John T. DeWolf

Columns

Lecture Notes:
J. Walt Oler
Texas Tech University

2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

Third
Edition

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

Beer Johnston DeWolf

Columns
Stability of Structures
Eulers Formula for Pin-Ended Beams
Extension of Eulers Formula
Sample Problem 10.1
Eccentric Loading; The Secant Formula
Sample Problem 10.2
Design of Columns Under Centric Load
Sample Problem 10.4
Design of Columns Under an Eccentric Load

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MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

Beer Johnston DeWolf

Stability of Structures
In the design of columns, cross-sectional area is
selected such that
- allowable stress is not exceeded
=

P
all
A

- deformation falls within specifications


=

PL
spec
AE

After these design calculations, may discover


that the column is unstable under loading and
that it suddenly becomes sharply curved or
buckles.

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MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

Beer Johnston DeWolf

Stability of Structures
Consider model with two rods and torsional
spring. After a small perturbation,
K (2 ) = restoring moment
L
L
P sin = P = destabilizing moment
2
2

Column is stable (tends to return to aligned


orientation) if
L
P < K (2 )
2
P < Pcr =

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4K
L

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MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

Beer Johnston DeWolf

Stability of Structures
Assume that a load P is applied. After a
perturbation, the system settles to a new
equilibrium configuration at a finite
deflection angle.
L
P sin = K (2 )
2
PL
P

=
=
4 K Pcr sin

Noting that sin < , the assumed


configuration is only possible if P > Pcr.

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MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

Beer Johnston DeWolf

Eulers Formula for Pin-Ended Beams


Consider an axially loaded beam.
After a small perturbation, the system
reaches an equilibrium configuration
such that
d2y

M
P
=
=

y
2
EI
EI
dx

d2y

P
+
y=0
2
EI
dx

Solution with assumed configuration


can only be obtained if
P > Pcr =

2 EI
L2

( )

2 E Ar 2
2E
P
=
= > cr =
2
A
L A
(L r )2
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MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

Beer Johnston DeWolf

Eulers Formula for Pin-Ended Beams


The value of stress corresponding to
the critical load,
2 EI

P > Pcr =

=
cr =
=

L2

P
P
> cr = cr
A
A

( )

2 E Ar 2
L2 A

2E

(L r )

= critical stress

L
= slenderness ratio
r

Preceding analysis is limited to


centric loadings.
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MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

Beer Johnston DeWolf

Extension of Eulers Formula


A column with one fixed and one free
end, will behave as the upper-half of a
pin-connected column.
The critical loading is calculated from
Eulers formula,
Pcr =

cr =

2 EI
L2e

2E

(Le r )2

Le = 2 L = equivalent length

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MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

Beer Johnston DeWolf

Extension of Eulers Formula

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MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

Beer Johnston DeWolf

Sample Problem 10.1


An aluminum column of length L and
rectangular cross-section has a fixed end at B
and supports a centric load at A. Two smooth
and rounded fixed plates restrain end A from
moving in one of the vertical planes of
symmetry but allow it to move in the other
plane.
a) Determine the ratio a/b of the two sides of
the cross-section corresponding to the most
efficient design against buckling.
L = 20 in.
E = 10.1 x 106 psi

b) Design the most efficient cross-section for


the column.

P = 5 kips
FS = 2.5
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MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

Beer Johnston DeWolf

Sample Problem 10.1


SOLUTION:
The most efficient design occurs when the
resistance to buckling is equal in both planes of
symmetry. This occurs when the slenderness
ratios are equal.
Buckling in xy Plane:
1 ba 3
I
a2
2
z
12
rz = =
=
12
A
ab

Le, z
rz

rz =

a
12

0 .7 L
a 12

Most efficient design:


Le, z
rz

Buckling in xz Plane:
ry2

Le, y
ry

Iy
A
=

1 ab3
12

ab

b2
=
12

ry =

b
12

2L
b / 12

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Le, y
ry

0 .7 L
2L
=
a 12 b / 12
a 0 .7
=
b
2

a
= 0.35
b
10 - 11

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MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

Beer Johnston DeWolf

Sample Problem 10.1


Design:
Le
2L
2(20 in ) 138.6
=
=
=
ry b 12 b 12
b
Pcr = ( FS )P = (2.5)(5 kips ) = 12.5 kips

cr =
cr =

Pcr 12500 lbs


=
(0.35b )b
A

2E

=
2
(Le r )

2 10.1 106 psi

(138.6 b )2

E = 10.1 x 106 psi

12500 lbs 2 10.1 106 psi


=
(0.35b )b
(138.6 b )2

P = 5 kips

b = 1.620 in.

L = 20 in.

FS = 2.5

a = 0.35b = 0.567 in.

a/b = 0.35
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MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

Beer Johnston DeWolf

Eccentric Loading; The Secant Formula


Eccentric loading is equivalent to a centric
load and a couple.
Bending occurs for any nonzero eccentricity.
Question of buckling becomes whether the
resulting deflection is excessive.
The deflection become infinite when P = Pcr
d2y

=
2
dx

Py Pe
EI

P
1
ymax = e sec

P
2
cr

Pcr =

2 EI
L2e

Maximum stress
max =

P ( ymax + e )c
1+

r2

P ec 1 P Le

= 1 + 2 sec
2
A r
EA
r

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MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

Beer Johnston DeWolf

Eccentric Loading; The Secant Formula

max = Y =

P ec 1 P Le

1 + sec
A r 2 2 EA r

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MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

Beer Johnston DeWolf

Sample Problem 10.2


The uniform column consists of an 8-ft section
of structural tubing having the cross-section
shown.
a) Using Eulers formula and a factor of safety
of two, determine the allowable centric load
for the column and the corresponding
normal stress.

E = 29 106 psi.

b) Assuming that the allowable load, found in


part a, is applied at a point 0.75 in. from the
geometric axis of the column, determine the
horizontal deflection of the top of the
column and the maximum normal stress in
the column.

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MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

Beer Johnston DeWolf

Sample Problem 10.2


SOLUTION:
Maximum allowable centric load:
- Effective length,
Le = 2(8 ft ) = 16 ft = 192 in.

- Critical load,
Pcr =

2 EI

=
2
Le

)(

2 29 106 psi 8.0 in 4

(192 in )2

= 62.1 kips

- Allowable load,
62.1 kips
P
Pall = cr =
FS
2

=
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Pall 31.1 kips


=
A
3.54 in 2

Pall = 31.1 kips

= 8.79 ksi
10 - 16

Third
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MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

Beer Johnston DeWolf

Sample Problem 10.2


Eccentric load:
- End deflection,
P
1
ym = e sec

2 Pcr


= (0.075 in )sec
1
2
2


ym = 0.939 in.

- Maximum normal stress,


P ec P

m = 1 + 2 sec

2 Pcr

31.1 kips (0.75 in )(2 in )


1+
sec

2
2
2
2

3.54 in
(1.50 in )

m = 22.0 ksi
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MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

Beer Johnston DeWolf

Design of Columns Under Centric Load


Previous analyses assumed
stresses below the proportional
limit and initially straight,
homogeneous columns
Experimental data demonstrate
- for large Le/r, cr follows
Eulers formula and depends
upon E but not Y.
- for small Le/r, cr is
determined by the yield
strength Y and not E.
- for intermediate Le/r, cr
depends on both Y and E.

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MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

Beer Johnston DeWolf

Design of Columns Under Centric Load


Structural Steel
American Inst. of Steel Construction

For Le/r > Cc


2E
cr =
2

all =

(Le / r )

cr
FS

FS = 1.92

For Le/r > Cc


(Le / r )2
cr = Y 1
2
C
2

all =

5 3 L / r 1 L / r
FS = + e e
3 8 Cc
8 Cc

cr
FS

At Le/r = Cc
cr =
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1
2 Y

Cc2

2 2 E

Y
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MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

Beer Johnston DeWolf

Design of Columns Under Centric Load


Aluminum
Aluminum Association, Inc.

Alloy 6061-T6
Le/r < 66:
all = [20.2 0.126(Le / r )] ksi
= [139 0.868(Le / r )] MPa

Le/r > 66:


all =

51000 ksi

(Le / r )

351 103 MPa

(Le / r )2

Alloy 2014-T6
Le/r < 55:
all = [30.7 0.23(Le / r )] ksi
= [212 1.585( Le / r )] MPa

Le/r > 66:


all =
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54000 ksi

(Le / r )

372 103 MPa

(Le / r )2
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MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

Beer Johnston DeWolf

Sample Problem 10.4


SOLUTION:
With the diameter unknown, the
slenderness ration can not be evaluated.
Must make an assumption on which
slenderness ratio regime to utilize.
Calculate required diameter for
assumed slenderness ratio regime.
Evaluate slenderness ratio and verify
initial assumption. Repeat if necessary.
Using the aluminum alloy2014-T6,
determine the smallest diameter rod
which can be used to support the centric
load P = 60 kN if a) L = 750 mm,
b) L = 300 mm
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MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

Beer Johnston DeWolf

Sample Problem 10.4


For L = 750 mm, assume L/r > 55
Determine cylinder radius:
P 372 103 MPa
all = =
A
(L r )2
60 103 N

c = cylinder radius
r = radius of gyration
=

c 4 4 c
I
=
=
2
A
2
c

372 103 MPa


0.750 m

c/2

c = 18.44 mm

Check slenderness ratio assumption:


L
L
750mm
=
=
= 81.3 > 55
r c / 2 (18.44 mm )

assumption was correct


d = 2c = 36.9 mm

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MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

Beer Johnston DeWolf

Sample Problem 10.4


For L = 300 mm, assume L/r < 55
Determine cylinder radius:
all =

P
L
= 212 1.585 MPa
A
r

60 103 N

c 2

0.3 m
6
= 212 1.585
10 Pa
c / 2

c = 12.00 mm

Check slenderness ratio assumption:


L
L
300 mm
=
=
= 50 < 55
r c / 2 (12.00 mm )

assumption was correct


d = 2c = 24.0 mm
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Third
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MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

Beer Johnston DeWolf

Design of Columns Under an Eccentric Load


An eccentric load P can be replaced by a
centric load P and a couple M = Pe.
Normal stresses can be found from
superposing the stresses due to the centric
load and couple,
= centric + bending
max =

P Mc
+
A I

Allowable stress method:


P Mc
+
all
A I

Interaction method:
P A

Mc I

( all )centric ( all )bending


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