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Stirling Engine Home Page -English-

Welcome to Stirling Engine Home Page

There have been viewers since 5 December 1995.

To Japanese Home Page

Do you know about Stirling Engines?

The Stirling engine was invented in 1816, before the gasoline and Diesel engines. A Stirling engine can use any
type of fuel, as well as solar energy and hot spring heat.
This web site offers Stirling engine information.
Please enjoy these pages.

This page is under construction 5 December 95.

Stirling engines for beginners

The Stirling engine's structure and history are examined in this session.

http://www.bekkoame.ne.jp/~khirata/indexe.htm (1 of 4)5/13/2006 5:34:53 PM


Stirling Engine Home Page -English-

View of model Stirling engines

In this session, I am introducing some model Stirling engines.

Let's build model Stirling engines

On this page I offer plans for some easy to build Stirling engines.

Gallery of Stirling engines

On this page I offer pictures of many types of Stirling engines.

Other Stirling engine web sites

Links to other Stirling engine web sites.

Stirling Engine Home Page Academic edition

This web site offers academic information for the Stirling engine.

Information about the Author

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Stirling Engine Home Page -English-

Here is information about me and an easy questionaire. Please help me make my web site better.

Stirling Engine Q&A

If you have any questions, opinions or comments about Stirling engines, please come here.

INFORMATION OF 12th ISEC


12th International Stirling Engine Conference
- 12th ISEC -
7-9 September 2005
Durham University, School of Engineering, UK

The 12th ISEC Official Web Site

INFORMATION
The author has published a web site rerated metal workings. Please
come to my web site!

Elementary Knowledge of Metal Workings

WebRing is a means of linking web pages with similar content. You may click on the items below and jump to other Stirling sites.

This Stirling and Hot Air Engine Ring site owned by Koichi Hirata.
[ Previous 5 Sites | Previous | Next | Next 5 Sites | Random Site | List Sites ]

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Stirling Engine Home Page -English-

To Bekkoame Home Page

Koichi Hirata
e-mail: khirata@gem.bekkoame.ne.jp (Home)
e-mail: khirata@nmri.go.jp (Office)

http://www.bekkoame.ne.jp/~khirata/indexe.htm (4 of 4)5/13/2006 5:34:53 PM


Stirling Engines for Beginners -English-

Stirling Engines for Beginners

To Japanese Page

Today we have ecology problems and energy problems. The world needs a clean and environmental
power source. Stirling engines are able to use many kinds of fuel and achieve a high theoretical
efficiency.

How does a Stirling engine work?

Structure of Stirling engines

History of Stirling engines

Go to Stirling Engine Home Page

Koichi Hirata

http://www.bekkoame.ne.jp/~khirata/english/begin.htm [13.03.2007 00:07:00]


How does a Stirling engine work?

How does a Stirling engine work?

To Japanese Page

Step 1 Characteristics of air

Let's fit a rubber to a can like Figure 1. You can understand easily that the rubber expands when the can is
heated (Figure 2), and the rubber contracts when the can is cooled (Figure 3). It is caused that a pressure of
the air in the can works to the rubber when the air is heated, shown in allows of Figure 2. Of course, you
cannot see the pressure by your eyes.

Step 2 What is a displacer piston?

Next, let's put in a piston into the can like Figure 4. A diameter of the piston must be somewhat smaller than
that of the can, because the piston works to move (displace) the air up and down in the can. And, please heat
the bottom side of the can and cool the upper side of the can. After it has enough temperature difference,
move the piston up and down by your hand. When the piston is moved up, the rubber expands because there
is a lot of hot air in the can (Figure 5). It corresponds to Figure 2. When the piston is moved down, the rubber
contracts because there is a lot of cold air in the can. It corresponds to Figure 3.
In the case of the Stirling engine, this piston, which moves (displaces) the air and make the pressure changes
is called a displacer piston.

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How does a Stirling engine work?

Step 3 Crank mechanism ~ from piston motion to rotation ~

Do you understand about the characteristics of the air and the work of the displacer piston? They are very
important to understand how does the Stirling engine work.
First, connect from the piston and a bent wire with a thread like Figure 6. When the bent wire is rotated, the
piston is moved up and down. This is called a crank mechanism.
Please heat the bottom side of the can and cool the upper side of the can, similar to above description. When
your hand rotates the bent wire, the piston is moved up and down, and the rubber expands and contracts
repeatedly (Figure 7).

Step 4 Power piston ~ function of the rubber ~

The Stirling engine converts from the motion of the rubber to the rotation of the bent wire. Please connect
from the rubber to the bent wire with a rod. In this time, a force of the rubber (expansion and contraction) has
to be the direction, which rotates the bent wire. In short, you must bend the bent wire the just right angle (90
degrees) from the piston like Figure 8 and 9.

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How does a Stirling engine work?

Step 5 Flywheel ~ for the smooth rotation ~

This engine has not worked yet. If you try to work this engine (Figure 8 and 9), the rubber keeps the most
expansion or contraction. In order to rotate smoothly and repeatedly, you must fit a rotated mass with the bent
wire. It is called a flywheel.
Generally, the flywheel is circular like Figure 10. But at this point, please bend the end of the bent wire, and
fit a mass at the edge of the wire like Figure 11. The mass works as the flywheel and to be balanced to the
weight of the piston. So, you must fit the mass against the piston.

Step 6 It is the Stirling engine

Finally, the Stirling engine is completed.

Do you understand how does the Stirling engine work?

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How does a Stirling engine work?

Yes.
No.
I have known the principles before seeing this page.

Do you think that above description is easy to understand?


Yes, it is easy.
No, it is not easy.

If you have any suggestion about this page, please tell me it.

If you can, please tell me your name, e-mail address and country.
Name:
Country:
E-mail address:

Send Cancel

P.S.: When the Stirling engine is understood, it is important that the knowledge of the characteristics of air
(Thermodynamics), the crank mechanism and the flywheel (Mechanics and Mechanical Vibrations). I have
tried to explain about them as simply as possible. Please contact me if you find incomprehensible contents or
any errors, and have any your opinions. I hope that this description becomes more suitable for every young
student. Permission is hereby granted, by author, to print and distribute this description. Thank you.

Koichi Hirata (khirata@gem.bekkoame.ne.jp)

Return to Stirling Engines for Beginners

Go to Stirling Engine Home Page

Koichi Hirata

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Structure of Stirling Engines -English-

Structure of Stirling Engines

To Japanese Page

Stirling engines have two pistons that create a 90 degree phase angle and two different temperature
spaces. The working gas in the engine is perfectly sealed, and doesn't go in and out to the atmosphere.
Stirling engines can be classified as two pistons type Stirling engines and displacer type Stirling
engines. The two pistons type Stirling engine consists of two power pistons. The displacer type
Stirling engine consists of one power piston and a displacer piston.

Two pistons type Stirling engine

The two pistons type Stirling engine is


shown in this figure. A space above a
hot piston is always heated by a heat
source. A space above a cold piston is
cooled always.

Please click next buttons and you will


see a operation principle of the two
piston type Stirling engine.

Stillness

Animation
(Netscape2.0 is demanded.)

Displacer type Stirling engine


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Structure of Stirling Engines -English-

The displacer type Stirling engine is


shown in this figure. A space above a
displacer piston is always heated by a
heat source. A space below the
displacer piston is cooled always. The
displacer piston displaces hot air and
cold air.

Please click next buttons and you will


see a operation principle of the
displacer type Stirling engine.

Stillness

Animation
(Netscape2.0 is demanded.)

Return to Stirling Engines for Beginners

Go to Stirling Engine Home Page

Koichi Hirata

http://www.bekkoame.ne.jp/~khirata/english/struct.htm (2 von 2) [13.03.2007 00:07:21]


History of Stirling Engines No.1 -English-

History of Stirling Engines No.1

To Japanese Page

The Stirling engine was invented by Robert Stirling in 1816. He was a Scottish minister. At that time,
Stirling engines were recognized as a safe engine that could not explode like steam engines of that era
often did.

Stirling Engine of Robert Stirling (1816)

Go to Next Page

Return to Stirling Engines for Beginners

Go to Stirling Engine Home Page

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History of Stirling Engines No.1 -English-

Koichi Hirata

http://www.bekkoame.ne.jp/~khirata/english/history1.htm (2 von 2) [13.03.2007 00:07:28]


Model Stirling Engines

View of Model Stirling Engines

To Japanese Page

Here are links to information about different model Stirling engines.

Model Stirling Engine "LSE-01"

Model Stirling Boat with MSE-01

Model Stirling Amphibian Ship with MSE-02

Variable Phase Angle Stirling Engine "MSE-03"

Variable Storoke Stirling Engine "MSE-04"

Model Stirling Boat with MSE-05

Rotary Displacer Type Stirling Engine

http://www.bekkoame.ne.jp/~khirata/english/modele.htm (1 von 2) [13.03.2007 00:07:54]


Model Stirling Engines

Free Piston Type Stirling Engine

The Seesaw Stirling Engine by Hubert Stierhof

50 W class Stirling engine, Mini-Ecoboy

The web site named '50 W class Stirling engine, Mini-Ecoboy' has been moved to 'Stirling Engine Home Page at Ship
Research Institute' which is author's official site.

Go to Stirling Engine Home Page

Koichi Hirata

http://www.bekkoame.ne.jp/~khirata/english/modele.htm (2 von 2) [13.03.2007 00:07:54]


LSE-01

Model Stirling Engine "LSE-01"

To Japanese Page

This engine is a two piston type Stirling engine with a cap type heater made of stainless steel and it
does not have a regenerator. Its cooling system is a natural convection cooling by air. The pistons and
cylinders use medical syringes made of glass, so the engine has few leakage of the working gas and
small friction. To minimize the friction loss, at most of drive parts are used ball bearings. This engine
has high speed performance. It can rotate about 3000 rpm.

Model Stirling Engine "LSE-01"

http://www.bekkoame.ne.jp/~khirata/english/lse01e.htm (1 von 2) [13.03.2007 00:08:04]


LSE-01

Go to Section of the LSE-01

Return to View of Model Stirling Engines

Go to Stirling Engine Home Page

Koichi Hirata

http://www.bekkoame.ne.jp/~khirata/english/lse01e.htm (2 von 2) [13.03.2007 00:08:04]


Model Stirling Boat with MSE-01

Model Stirling Boat with MSE-01

To Japanese Page

Following picture is a model boat with MSE-01.


Ship type is named Short Water Area Twin Hal (SWATH).

Model Boat with MSE-01

Detail Information of MSE-01 Stirling Engine

http://www.bekkoame.ne.jp/~khirata/english/mse01.htm (1 von 2) [13.03.2007 00:08:14]


Model Stirling Boat with MSE-01

Development of MSE-01 Boat

Return to View of Model Stirling Engines

Go to Stirling Engine Home Page

Koichi Hirata

http://www.bekkoame.ne.jp/~khirata/english/mse01.htm (2 von 2) [13.03.2007 00:08:14]


Model Stirling Amphibian Ship with MSE-02

Model Stirling Amphibian Ship with MSE-02

To Japanese Page

This amphibian ship is powered by the 5W class Stirling Engine "MSE-02". Running Speed of this
ship is about 2 km/hour on the land and on the water.

Amphibian Ship with MSE-02

Detail Information of the MSE-02

Return to View os Model Stirling Engines

http://www.bekkoame.ne.jp/~khirata/english/mse02e.htm (1 von 2) [13.03.2007 00:08:27]


Model Stirling Amphibian Ship with MSE-02

Go to Stirling Engine Home Page

Koichi Hirata

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Model Stirling Engine "MSE-03"

Variable Phase Angle Stirling Engine "MSE-03"

To Japanese Page

This engine is used the variable phase angle mechanism with four bebel gears. In running the engine,
the engine is been able to change the phase angle between two pistons, and controlled the output
power and the engine speed easily.

http://www.bekkoame.ne.jp/~khirata/english/mse03e.htm (1 von 2) [13.03.2007 00:08:36]


Model Stirling Engine "MSE-03"

Model Stirling Engine "MSE-03"

Photograph of the Model Boat with MSE-03

Principle of the Phase Angle Mechanism

Performance of MSE-03

Return to View of Model Stirling Engines

Go to Stirling Engine Home Page

Koichi Hirata

http://www.bekkoame.ne.jp/~khirata/english/mse03e.htm (2 von 2) [13.03.2007 00:08:36]


Model Stirling Engine "MSE-04"

Variable Storoke Stirling Engine "MSE-04"

To Japanese Page

In running the engine, this engine is been able to change the piston strokes by the special linkage
mechanism, and controlled the output power and the engine speed. This engine is utilized the working
space effectively, because the top dead center of the pistons is always the same point.

http://www.bekkoame.ne.jp/~khirata/english/mse04e.htm (1 von 2) [13.03.2007 00:08:44]


Model Stirling Engine "MSE-04"

Model Stirling Engine "MSE-04"

Photograph of Model Boat with MSE-04

Return to View of Model Stirling Engines

Go to Stirling Engine Home Page

Koichi Hirata

http://www.bekkoame.ne.jp/~khirata/english/mse04e.htm (2 von 2) [13.03.2007 00:08:44]


Model Stirling Boat with MSE-05

Model Stirling Boat with MSE-05

To Japanese Page

This model boat is powered by the MSE-05. The engine is compact and light weight.

Model Boat with MSE-05

Return to View of Model Stirling Engines

Go to Stirling Engine Home Page

Koichi Hirata

http://www.bekkoame.ne.jp/~khirata/english/mse05.htm (1 von 2) [13.03.2007 00:08:55]


Model Stirling Boat with MSE-05

http://www.bekkoame.ne.jp/~khirata/english/mse05.htm (2 von 2) [13.03.2007 00:08:55]


Rotary Displacer Type Stirling Engine

Rotary Displacer Type Stirling Engine

To Japanese Page

Rotary Displacer Type Stirling Engine is new type engine. This engine drive 600rpm when it is heated
by gas burner.

Rotary Displacer Type Stirling Engines

Section of Rotary Displacer Type Stirling Engine

Return to View of Model Stirling Engines

http://www.bekkoame.ne.jp/~khirata/english/rotarye.htm (1 von 2) [13.03.2007 00:09:04]


Rotary Displacer Type Stirling Engine

Go to Stirling Engine Home Page

Koichi Hirata

http://www.bekkoame.ne.jp/~khirata/english/rotarye.htm (2 von 2) [13.03.2007 00:09:04]


Let's Build Model Stirling Engines -English-

Let's Build Model Stirling Engines

To Japanese Page

If you have some machine tools and know how to use them, you can easily build model Stirling
engines. Here are links to other pages with plans for easily constructed Stirling engines and the
instructions for their assembly.

Let's build a Can Stirling Engine

This engine can be built with very simple materials--no machine tools required.

Let's build a Model Stirling Engine 'LSE-01'

This engine is a two-piston type Stirling engine. Its top speed is about 3000 rpm.

Let's build a Model Stirling Engine 'TSE-03'

You must make a few parts for this engine. If you know machine tools well, you can make this engine
in about 1 hour.

Plans for a Rotary Displacer Type Stirling Engine

Plans for this prototype engine.

Let's build a Model Stirling Engine 'ESE-10'

http://www.bekkoame.ne.jp/~khirata/english/make.htm (1 von 3) [13.03.2007 00:09:34]


Let's Build Model Stirling Engines -English-

Sorry, but I am still preparing the figures that show the plans for this engine.

How to cut a glass syringe

This page shows several photographs how to cut the glass syringe.

How to get a glass syringe

Where can you get the glass syringe? This page answers this question.

Down Load the Engine Figures


The following is available as a zip file. Some figures used in the plans above are included in the
English files. The Japanese files include most of the figures.

A Can Stirling Engine , GIF format data, English version with a text and html file for a local
computer, 122 kB
If you had downloaded an old version of this file (no text file), please download this file, cantxte.zip
(4 kB).

A Can Stirling Engine , GIF format data, Japanese version, 140 kB

A Can Stirling Engine , EPS format data, English version, 99 kB

A Can Stirling Engine , EPS format data, Japanese version, 23 kB

A Model Stirling Engine "LSE-01" , GIF format data, Japanese version, 175 kB

A Model Stirling Engine "LSE-01" , GIF format data, English version, 117 kB

A Model Stirling Engine "TSE-03" , GIF format data, Japanese version, 131 kB

http://www.bekkoame.ne.jp/~khirata/english/make.htm (2 von 3) [13.03.2007 00:09:34]


Let's Build Model Stirling Engines -English-

A Model Stirling Engine "TSE-03" , GIF format data, English version, 87 kB

A Model Stirling Engine "ESE-10" , JSH format data, Only Japanese, 174 kB

Go to Stirling Engine Home Page

Koichi Hirata

http://www.bekkoame.ne.jp/~khirata/english/make.htm (3 von 3) [13.03.2007 00:09:34]


Let's Build A Can Stirling Engine -English-

Let's Build a Can Stirling Engine

To Japanese Page

The Can Stirling engine can rotate using a candle as the heat source. This engine is constructed with
very simple materials. There are a can, a balloon, a wood board and others.

A Can Stirling Engine

(This engine was proposed by Mr.Saburo Tsucchida.


He is teacher of Kasukabe technical high scool.)

● Step 1 --- Material Preparation and Structure


● Step 2 --- Cut a Wood Board
● Step 3 --- Make a Wood Piston
● Step 4 --- Make a Diaphragm
● Step 5 --- Make Connecting Rods and a Crank Shaft
● Step 6 --- Construct a Diaphragm and Crank Mechanism

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Let's Build A Can Stirling Engine -English-

● Step 7 --- Construct the Frame


● Step 8 --- Construct a Wood Piston and Crank Mechanism
● Step 9 --- Fit Up a Can
● Step 10 --- Let's Try to Move

Return to 'Let's Build Model Stirling Engines'

Go to Stirling Engine Home Page

Koichi Hirata

http://www.bekkoame.ne.jp/~khirata/english/mk_can.htm (2 von 2) [13.03.2007 00:09:39]


Let's build a LSE-01 -English-

Let's build a LSE-01

To Japanese Page

This engine is a two piston type Stirling engine with a cap type heater made of stainless steel and it
does not have a regenerator. Its cooling system is a natural convection cooling by air. The pistons and
cylinders use medical syringes made of glass, so the engine has few leakage of the working gas and
small friction. To minimize the friction loss, at most of drive parts are used ball bearings. This engine
has high speed performance. It can rotate about 3000 rpm.

Model Stirling Engine "LSE-01"

http://www.bekkoame.ne.jp/~khirata/english/mk_l01.htm (1 von 2) [13.03.2007 00:09:46]


Let's build a LSE-01 -English-

Section of LSE-01

Assembly Drawing of LSE-01 (1)

Assembly Drawing of LSE-01 (2)

Suggestions to Assemble LSE-01

Return to 'Let's Build Model Stirling Engines'

Go to Stirling Engine Home Page

Koichi Hirata

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http://www.bekkoame.ne.jp/~khirata/english/mk_t03.htm

Let's build a TSE-03

To Japanese Page

You can make a model Stirling engine TSE-03 in a short time, because TSE-03 has a few parts. If you
can use machine tools very well, you can make this engine about 1 hour.

Model Stirling Engine "TSE-03"

Section of TSE-03

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http://www.bekkoame.ne.jp/~khirata/english/mk_t03.htm

Assembly Drawing of TSE-03

Suggestions to Assemble TSE-03

Return to 'Let's Build Model Stirling Engines'

Go to Stirling Engine Home Page

Koichi Hirata

http://www.bekkoame.ne.jp/~khirata/english/mk_t03.htm (2 von 2) [13.03.2007 00:09:56]


Plans of Rotary Displacer Type Stirling Engine

Plans of Rotary Displacer Type Stirling Engine

To Japanese Page

This rotary displacer type Stirling engine has very unique feature. I introduce the plans of the
prototype engine in this site. Thare is more information about this engine in "View of model Stirling
engines" site.

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Plans of Rotary Displacer Type Stirling Engine

Prototype of Rotary Displacer Type Stirling Engine

Parts drawings of No. 1 - No. 2

Parts drawings of No. 3 - No. 5

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Plans of Rotary Displacer Type Stirling Engine

Parts drawings of No. 6 - No. 8

Parts drawings of No. 9 - No. 16

Return to 'Let's Build Model Stirling Engines'

Go to Stirling Engine Home Page

Koichi Hirata

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Let's make a ESE-10

Let's make a ESE-10

To Japanese Page

This engine is a two piston type Stirling engine with a cap type heater made of stainless steel and it
does not have a regenerator. Its cooling system is a natural convection cooling by air. The pistons and
cylinders use medical syringes made of glass, so the engine has few leakage of the working gas and
small friction. To minimize the friction loss, at all of drive parts are used ball bearings. This engine
has high speed performance. It can rotate about 4000 rpm.

Model Stirling Engine "ESE-10"

Section of ESE-10

http://www.bekkoame.ne.jp/~khirata/english/mk_e10.htm (1 von 2) [13.03.2007 00:10:21]


Let's make a ESE-10

Now, I am preparing the figures of ESE-10.

Return to 'Let's make Model Stirling Engines'

Go to Stirling Engine Home Page

Koichi Hirata

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http://www.bekkoame.ne.jp/~khirata/english/how_cut.htm

How to cut a glass syringe

To Japanese Page

Almost of my model Stirling engines use medical syringes as pistons and cylinders. The syringe has
performances of few gas leakage and low friction loss.
The syringe is cut using a grinder with a blue grindstone like below photographs.

How to cut the syringe

Return to 'Let's Build Model Stirling Engines'

Go to Stirling Engine Home Page

Koichi Hirata

http://www.bekkoame.ne.jp/~khirata/english/how_cut.htm [13.03.2007 00:10:31]


How to get a glass syringe -English-

How to get a glass syringe

To Japanese Page

I have often received the question, that is "Where can I get the glass syringe?"
The glass syringe is sold at a science goods shop which sells a test tube, flask and etc. Its price is
about 3 to 5 US dollars per one syringe.
You can get it at following shops.

UK

Fisher Scientific UK
Bishop Meadow Road, Loughborough, Leicestershire, LE11 5RG
Telephone: +44(1509)231166, Fax: +44(1509)231893
e-mail: info@fisher.co.uk
Web site (catalogue) at http://www.fisher.co.uk

Canada

Dyna Medical Corp


e-mail: dynabc@netcom.ca
Web site at http://tor-pw1.netcom.ca/~dynabc/index.html

Japan

Tsubasa Industrial Corp.


Minami-senju 3-11-3, Arakawa, Tokyo
Telephone: +81-3-3807-5151

If you know other shops which sell the glass syringe, please tell me information.

http://www.bekkoame.ne.jp/~khirata/english/how_get.htm (1 von 2) [13.03.2007 00:10:41]


How to get a glass syringe -English-

Return to 'Let's Build Model Stirling Engines'

Go to Stirling Engine Home Page

Koichi Hirata

http://www.bekkoame.ne.jp/~khirata/english/how_get.htm (2 von 2) [13.03.2007 00:10:41]


Gallery of Stirling engines

Gallery of Stirling engines

To Japanese Page

Go to Stirling Engine Home Page

http://www.bekkoame.ne.jp/~khirata/english/gallery.htm (1 von 2) [13.03.2007 00:17:50]


Gallery of Stirling engines

Koichi Hirata
e-mail: khirata@gem.bekkoame.or.jp (Home)
e-mail: khirata@mech.saitama-u.ac.jp (Office)

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http://www.bekkoame.ne.jp/~khirata/gallery/alpha3.gif

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http://www.bekkoame.ne.jp/~khirata/gallery/rotary1.gif

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http://www.bekkoame.ne.jp/~khirata/gallery/gamma1.gif

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Other Stirling Engine Web Sites -English-

To Japanese Page

Other Stirling Engine Web Sites


Jump to;

● Building of model Stirling engines (not commercial base)


● Sales of model Stirling engines and related goods
● Developments of high performance Stirling engines (not commercial base)
● High performance and high powered Stirling engines for commercial base
● General descriptions, thermodynamics, analysis model and notes
● Societies, organizations and news letters
● Other information

Building of model Stirling engines (not commercial base)

Mr. Fukui's Stirling engine, Japan


A high performace model Stirling car has been developed by Mr. Fukui at Tokyo University. This
Stirling car can run about 2.5 m/s speed. (in Japanese).

The Metalmaster and Stirling Page, UK


This site introduces nice model Stirling engines with the drawings and detail information.

Stirling Prayer Engine, USA


This site introduces a can Stirling engine made by Bob Blick. He made a 10 second movie showing
the engine in operation.

Model Stirling Engine Library, Japan


Finaly, another Japanese enthusiast, Mr. Tsuchida made a Stirling web site. He presents several

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Other Stirling Engine Web Sites -English-

photos of unique models. But they are Japanese only yet.

Stirling Engine for Education, Japan


A Japanese technical high school teacher, Mr. Ishida made a web site. This site introduces many
Japanese industrial heritage and his Stirling engine for educations. But they are Japanese only yet.

Omniscience Futureneering, USA


This is nice site! Test-Tube Stirling Engine is shown here. And here is many other interesting
information.

Ron Ginger's Home Page, USA


A Hot Air engine which runs on very low heat is shown here. And information of a Hot Air Fan
which made in about 1900 is shown here.

A Novel Stirling Cycle Hot Air Engine To Build, Australia


This is very nice site! There are plans of a model low temperature Stirling engine.

The Idaho Stirling Engine Homepage, USA


Here is a nice model Stirling engine. I like "IDAHO STIRLING ENGINE ANIMATION".

Mechanical Engineering Tools at MIT, USA


This site introduces model Stirling engines as educational tools.

Chris Greve's Homepage, USA


Chris introduces a low temperature Stirling engine that has been running on his cable box for almost 2
years!

Lecture Demonstration Facility at NCSU, USA


Here is material from a lecture at North Carolina State University.

The Rusty Iron Gallery, USA


A Ericsson hot air engine manufatured by the Rider Ericsson company is shown here.

RAYSHADE animation, Germany


You can download a mpeg-animation with a low temperature difference Stirling engine. It is nice!

Designing a Stirling Cycle Engine Module Abstract, USA


It is useful information from University of Massachusetts Lowell.

Ein Stirlingmotor als Bausatz, Germany


A Can Wood Stirling Engine do-it-yourself kit is informed here (in Germany).

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Other Stirling Engine Web Sites -English-

TH Rijswijk's Stirling page, the Netherlands


Here you can find some information from their school project about a Stirling engine.

Takamatsu Technical High School, Japan


There is information of their school project about a Stirling engine (in Japanese).

Roy Rice's Little Engine Pages, USA


There is a lot of beautiful and unique Stirling engines. It is one of the best web sites!

WrenchTEN's Study of External Combustion Engines, USA


Many variable engines from steam to Stirling are shown here.

Dr. Fujio Toda, Saitama University, Japan


Many types of low temperature difference Stirling engines are shown here.

Mr. Chino's Stirling page, Japan


This site shows a multi-cilinder type Stirling engine in Shibaura Industrial University (in Japanese).

Tsuchiura Technical High School, Japan


A nice Stirling powered model car is shown here (in Japanese).

Hans Temme's Stirling engine page, Germany


Very small and nice model engines are shown here.

Symanski's Stirling engine page, USA


Many kinds of the model engines are shown here.

e-Zee (Little) Steam Engines, USA


Many steam engines and their plans are shown here.

Majosoft's Hobby Site, USA


You can see beautiful steam engines here.

Sales of model Stirling engines and related goods

TECHNO PROTO, Japan


This site introduces and sells beautiful Stirling engines and steam engines (in Japanese).

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Other Stirling Engine Web Sites -English-

Exergia, Germany
This site introduces and sells several model Stirling engines. They use the low temperature heat
source.

American Stirling Company, USA


This company is making and selling a model Stirling engine called the "MM-1." This engine will run
on ice or hot water!

Bailey Craftsman Supply, USA


A model Stirling engine, a video and several books are sold here. I recommend the video entitled "An
Introduction to Hot Air Engines." It is very interesting!

Lutzer's Stirling Motor, Germany


A model low temperature Stirling engine is sold here.

E. Schmidt Stirling Engines, Germany


Many kind of model Stirling engines, books and videos are sold here.

Educational Innovations, Inc., USA


A low temperature difference Stirling engine is sold here.

Science Workshop PASCO, USA


A low temperature difference Stirling engine is sold here.

The Philips Stirling Engine, the Netherlands


A book entitled "The Philips Stirling Engine" is sold here.

Ken Rhodes Home Page, USA


Some models of an antique hot air engine are sold here.

Thermodynamics and Gas Dynamics of the Stirling Cycle Machine, USA


You can buy a book entitled "Thermodynamics and Gas Dynamics of the Stirling Cycle Machine."

The Huxtable Desk Top "Working" Hot Air Engine, Australia


Buy a hot air engine.

Northwest Tech, Inc., USA


A model solar Stirling engine is sold here.

Boehm & Daum GdbR, Germany

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Other Stirling Engine Web Sites -English-

High quality and beautiful stirling motors are sold here.

The Stirling Outlet, USA


Very reasonable model Stirling engines are sold here.

The Stirling Engine Powered Fan, USA


A Stirling engine powered fan named FREE BREEZE is sold here.

Model Project Plans & Kits Home Page, USA


This site shows a catalog of model Stirling engine, atmospheric (vacuum) engine, and other types of
model engineering project plans sets, material kits and casting kits for the hobby, educational and
experimental machinist.

Model Stirling Engines, JAPAN


The book entitled 'Model Stirling Engines' shows various model engines (in Japanese).

Theory and Design of Stirling Engines, JAPAN


The book entitled 'Theory and Design of Stirling Engines' describes detailed information related the
Stirling technologies (in Japanese).

Regenerative Thermal Machines (Stirling and Vuilleumier Cycle Machines•jfor Heating and
Cooling, JAPAN
This book shows vapour compression systems using Stirling cycles, heat pumps and chillers using
Stirling cycles, Vuilleumier machines, thermoacoustic machines and pulse-tube refrigerators.

Developments of high performance Stirling engines (not


commercial base)

Stirling Engine Home Page at National Maritime Research Institute, Japan


This is my official site related experimental Stirling engines.

Energy Research at UWRF, USA


This site is produced by Dr. J. R. Senft, who is famous for research of low temperature differential
Stirling engines.

Sandia National Laboratories, USA


This site shows many Solar Stirling Engines.

National Aerospace Laboratory, JAPAN

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Other Stirling Engine Web Sites -English-

This laboratory studies Space Stirling engines.

Stirling Cryocooler Progress Report at NASA, USA


This web site reports the progress of Stirling cryocooler research at NASA.

The University of Reading, UK


This university has quite a bit of Stirling engine research going on.

Canterbury University, New Zealand


Stirling engine battery charger and power generation is being studied here.

Power Technology Earth Applications at NASA, USA


This web site reports some Stirling engines research at NASA.

Stirling Technology at NASA, USA


This web site reports some Stirling research at NASA.

Hybrid Vehicle Propulsion Program at DOE, USA


This web site reports on some Stirling engines developed under the Hybrid Vehicle Propulsion
Program.

A Greenpeace report on ozone, USA


A Greenpeace report on ozone and Stirling coolers.

Olympic Photos Home Page, USA


You can find a high resulution jpg of a solar dish Stirling engine.

Bernd Kammerich's Stirling information, Germany


Some high power Stirling engines are informed here.

Prof. Iwao Yamashita, Tokyo Denki University, Japan


You can see test and evaluation of practical Stirling engines and their application systems developed
by Moonlight Project of AIST, MITI (1982-1987).

Assistant Prof. Hiroichi Watanabe, Nihon University, Japan


This site shows solar Stirling engines, low presurized Stirling engines and model automotive Stirling
engines (in Japanese).

Prof. M. Katsuta, Waseda University, Japan


This site shows Stirling technologyes and other studies of interesting thermodynamics (in Japanese).

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Other Stirling Engine Web Sites -English-

Stirling Engine Research and Computer Programm Development, Germany


There are many academic information related to Stirling engines.

Meisei University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Hamaguchi Lab., Japan


Educational Stirling engines, a new type steam engine, a crypcooler and others are shown here (in
Japanese).

High performance and high powered Stirling engines for


commercial base

Whisper Gen, New Zealand


Whisper-Gen is developing a home-sized Stirling generator. Its power output is 800W.

STM Power Inc. (formerly Stirling Thermal Motors), USA


STM Power Inc. has spent over fifteen years developing a new generation engine based on the Stirling
Cycle principle.

ST05G Stirling engine, Germany


There is a photo of a 500 W Stirling engine "ST05G" developed by Dieter Viebach.(in German)

Sunpower Inc., USA


This site introduces free-piston type Stirling coolers and engines.

TEM Stirling engines, Sweden


TEM has been developing a new type of Stirling engine, which is hermetically sealed, with integrated
generators.

Sigma Elektroteknisk A.S, Norway


This company is currently working on industrialising the PCP (Personal Combustion Powerplant)
using a Stirling engine as the prime mover.

Tamin Enterprises, USA


This company is designing a Stirling engine with several variations. The engines are intended for
commercial applications and for use by the general public.

Bomin Solar Company, Germany


This company has developed low- and medium-temperature Stirling engines. These Stirling engines
are designed for broad applications and mass markets.

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Other Stirling Engine Web Sites -English-

The Hymatic Engineering Co Ltd, UK


There is detail information about cryocoolers.

Stirling Technology, Inc., USA


An over 5 HP of shaft power Stirling engine, ST-5 is informed here.

Small Stirling Refrigerator of Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Ltd., Japan


A 50 Kelvin class Stirling refrigerator is developed here (in Japanese).

Small Stirling Refrigerator of DAIKIN Industries, Ltd., Japan


A 80 Kelvin class Stirling refrigerator is sold here.

SOLO KLEINMOTOREN GMBH, Germany


A solar Stirling engine and 10 kW Stirling engine are developing here.

Submarine of KOCKUMS, Sweden


A Stirling powered submarine developed by KOCKUMS is shown here.

Swedish Armed Forces, Sweden


This web site shows photos of Swedish submarines. There is a photo of a Stirling powered submarine
made by KOCKUMS.

General descriptions, thermodynamics, analysis model and notes

Stirling Engine Animation by ITC and NUD, Germany


There is an animation of the Stirling cycle. Sorry, I cannot understand this site, because it is witten in
Germany.

LASER, Stirling Machine Analysis, USA


A Stirling machine analysis model, LASER is explained here.

Mad Scientist's Lair, Australia


This site is collected information on alternative technology and 'free energy' machines. There are
Stirling-cycle water pump and engine sites.

Eric Anbergen's Stirling Page, Belgium


Inventor Eric Anbergen is describing about Stirling engines.

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Other Stirling Engine Web Sites -English-

The Stirling Engine - The Power Plant of the Future, USA


Air Sport Corporation is describing about Stirling engines.

The Green Heat Machines, USA


There are several nice pictures and useful Stirling information.

Societies, organizations and news letters

Information of Stirling Cycle Machines of JSME, Japan


This site informs Stirling Cycle Symposium of JSME (in Japanese).

UK Stirling News, The Stirling Engine Society, UK


The Stirling Engine Society publishes a quarterly newsletter "UK Stirling News"

European Stirling Forum 2002, Germany


From September 18 - 19, 2002 the 6th European Stirling Forum will be held in Osnabruck, Germany.

Bendigo Society of Model Engineers Inc., Australia


Several Hot air engines are informed here.

Stirling Engine and Hot Air Engine Home Page, UK


This site is being developed for Stirling Cycle Engine enthusiasts.

The Stirling Engine for Cars, Austraria


Students of the University of Melbourne shows their nice report here.

Other information

Mechanical Design for Metal Workers, Japan


This is one of my sites for students learning mechanical design (in Japanese yet).

Tips of Metal Working, Japan


This is one of my sites for students too (in Japanese yet).

Microcomputer for Mechanical Control, Japan


This is also my site (in Japanese yet).

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Other Stirling Engine Web Sites -English-

Fish Robot Home Page, Japan


This information is one of my official researches.

IBM Patent Server, USA


It is very useful site! Please try to search for "Stirling".

Go to Stirling Engine Home Page

Koichi Hirata

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index

The Metalmaster and Stirling Page

(Not such strange bedfellows, as will be seen)

The Metalmaster designed and built by the late David Urwick:

The original Sales


Brochure and Specification.
David Urwick's descriptive Article, published in the SIMEC newsletter.
Photograph and recent history of my machine.
Details of alignment technique etc in the Instruction Manual.

Stirling Engine pages.

Experimental Steam Engines

Piston Rings and Odds

Copyright Mick Collins


at:- sylvestris@btinternet.com

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stirling

Stirling Pages Back to Home Page


(still under construction)

Completed so far:-

Fizgig - Withdrawn 17-11-03 due to unavailability of


either Steradent or stainless steel displacers but
restored by request 17-01-04.

Piglet - A Robinson look-a-like.

Phoelix - A Stirling dyno/lighting set

Whippet - A 5cc Gamma type Competition engine

Whigmaleerie - A yoke drive, alpha type engine

Gallery - Pictures of some of David Urwick's engines.

The Tin Can Stirling - A link to a pdf file on the NAMES


(North American MES) web site.

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Warning_Index

FIZGIG

Introduction & Instructions Drawings (hit 'Back' to return)

IntelliCAD dwg files


IMPORTANT - download a single file to check compatability with your
CAD program before downloading the All.zip file.

Return to Index

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Index of /~sylvestris/fizgign/vectors

Index of /~sylvestris/fizgign/vectors
Name Last modified Size Description

Parent Directory 21-Jan-2004 14:17 -


10.dwg 21-Jan-2004 11:14 80k
11.dwg 21-Jan-2004 11:14 74k
12.dwg 21-Jan-2004 11:14 73k
13.dwg 21-Jan-2004 11:14 75k
14.dwg 21-Jan-2004 11:15 71k
1GA.dwg 21-Jan-2004 11:15 51k
2a.dwg 21-Jan-2004 11:15 70k
2b.dwg 21-Jan-2004 11:15 54k
3.dwg 21-Jan-2004 11:16 82k
4.dwg 21-Jan-2004 11:16 118k
5.dwg 21-Jan-2004 11:16 112k
6.dwg 21-Jan-2004 11:16 105k
7.dwg 21-Jan-2004 11:16 87k
8.dwg 21-Jan-2004 11:16 120k
9.dwg 21-Jan-2004 11:17 88k
All-PurgedVersion14A..> 21-Jan-2004 11:17 458k

Apache/1.3.31 Server at www.btinternet.com Port 80

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Piglet

Piglet, a Robinson lookalike.


Piglet was
built from a set
of commercial
aluminium
castings but
bears little
resemblance to
the original
design. The
most obvious
alteration is
the greatly
increased
length of the
air chamber
and displacer
to both reduce
heat leakage
loss and to
give increased
surface areas
for
regeneration.
The firebox
has been
almost
completely
isolated from
the cooler with
the hot gases
escaping
between the
firebox top and
the flange, and
the slim brass
columns
between the
flange and the
cooler
providing an
effective heat
barrier.
The air

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Piglet

chamber/heater
is made of
0.008" tinplate,
as is the
displacer. (and
its too heavy!)
The heat
baffles in the
displacer are of
0.004" shim
steel and are
held squarely
by tubes of the
same material
rolled to
approx 3/8"
diameter, (not
shown in the
drawing) the
whole stack
being held
together by a
light spring at
the cold end.
(not shown)
A new
pedestal was
made to
accommodate
ball races for
the crankshaft
and almost all
other bearings
and pivots are
also fitted with
ball races.
The cylinder
is fitted with a
cast iron liner,
highly
polished, and
the lightweight
cast iron piston
runs in it
without oil.

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Piglet

Since there is
no side loading
on it, the silver
steel displacer
rod also runs
without oil in a
very long brass
bush,
extending right
down inside
the displacer to
avoid air
leakage.
The flywheel
is by Stuart
Turner.
The overall
effect of the
ball races and
the oil-less
piston is to
give extremely
low friction
and, running
on a 'nite-lite'
candle the
engine
develops just
over 0.6 watt,
ie 25
ft/lbs/min.

Note - The
sketch is not to
scale.

Return
to Index

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phoelix

Phoelix
'Rose from the ashes and keeps on walking'

When the, low friction, loaded PTFE materials first became available to amateurs it was decided to
try them out for the piston of a small hot air engine. The material I had was a very small piece of
'Rulon', a plastic with both a lower coefficient of expansion (c of e) and lower friction than ordinary
PTFE, and this was made into a 'cup washer' seal - similar to a leather cycle pump washer.
The rest of the piston was made of unloaded PTFE and to overcome its high c of e the skirt was split
and bound with brass wire before turning it to fit the cylinder.
The cylinder was drawn brass tube and to assess the durability of this unlikely combination of
materials it was decided to give it an extended life test. So the remainder of the engine is conventional
and kept as simple as possible with the exception of the electric heater which was wound on the hot
end of the air chamber to permit long periods of unattended running and the mechanically operated
snifter which can be seen just above the displacer rod bush.
To provide cross-head loading on the piston the engine needed to drive a load and several small
electric motors were tried as dynamos. Unfortunately these wore out very quickly and were replaced
by a cycle dyno' and this was loaded by a 3.5v 0.3a bulb.
Testing could now begin and, following a disastrous melt down due to the wrong tapping on an
oversized transformer and requiring a complete rebuild of the air chamber assembly, the engine was

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phoelix

left running for long periods.


One very noticeable effect during this time was the affect that ambient temperature had on
performance. Much of the running was during the Summer months and in the afternoons the speed
dropped to reduce the voltage on the lamp to 2.5v. but by 1 AM the following morning it could be
seen at full brilliance, lighting up my workshop at the bottom of the garden.
Many bulbs (and one dynamo) were replaced before I decided to figure out the cost of running the
electric heater - and the testing stopped abruptly!
The engine had logged a total of nearly 7000 hours, sometimes running for several weeks non-stop.
All bearings were completely worn out (the big end had been adjusted several times) but the piston
seal was still 100% and, apart from the dreadful racket, it ran (and still runs) as well as ever.

Note:- PTFE = polytetrafluoroethylene = Teflon (?)

Return to Index

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whippet

Whippet

Whippet was built for the new Class B introduced in the 1980 Hot Air Engine Competition , to be judged
on power to weight ratio, and weight was eventually reduced to 11ozs - the massive looking bed is
actually a very light tinplate shell.
However, in the Competition it developed 4.7 watts (207 ft/lbs/min) and with a swept volume of 5cc, it
actually won the award for specific power. It is thought that this is still the record for a non pressurised
air engine of this size. (?)

The design is really only a 'sports' version of Phoelix, my 6cc dynamo driving engine, the proportions of
which had been very loosely based on a design in a schools metalwork handbook. The principal changes
were the fitting of ball races throughout, a reduction in wall chamber thickness of both air chamber and
displacer together with an increase in length of both. A direct port between chamber and cylinder
replaced the sharp angled passage in Phoelix, piston stroke was reduced to reduce swept volume to 5cc
and the piston was machined from a single piece of Rulon. The displacer rod bushes are 'sintered' from
some of the swarf produced when machining the piston. Reciprocating masses were reduced to the
minimum and the structural design improved to give greater stiffness.
To ensure consistent performance electric heating was used and my previous experience with Phoelix
enabled me to wind a nichrome coil drawing almost exactly 100watts (when hot) from a 24volt
transformer. (thereby ruling it out of Class B with a total weight of 11 ozs + transformer + the National

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whippet

Grid!)

The two blue caps on


the front of the air
chamber are covering
two valves. The
bottom one is a normal
snifter whilst the top
one is a non-return
valve, used to take
peak pressure
readings. This peak,
actually 12.5psi when
snifting, can then be
used to calculate the
IMEP and, by
comparing this with
the measured output,
give an indication of
the engine's
mechanical losses.
The, fully run in,
engine was actually
developing 4.9 watts
during later tests with
a measured torque of
4oz/inches at
1660rpm. The
calculated torque was
5.13oz/inches, giving a
mechanical effy of
78%. Nevertheless,
the overall efficiency,
with 100watts input,
was a mere 4.9%.

In an attempt to
increase power to 5
watts the electric heater was removed and the hot cap run at bright red using a ring type gas burner.
However it stubbornly refused to go beyond its previous best and we must therefore assume that the
100watt electric heater was running it at a similar temperature..

Following all this excitement the engine was stripped and the cause of a light rustling sound coming
from the air chamber found to be due to the mild steel displacer scaling. Since the displacer had
originally been made with a wall thickness of only 0.004" this was deemed to be sufficient cause for
retirement; a small firebox was fitted to take a nite-lite candle for demonstration runs and Whippet was
put out to grass.

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whippet

And he occasionally enjoys a cup of tea ------

Return to Index

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mmbrochure

Specification Photograph Instruction Manual Article Home


Page

Metalmaster/Impetus Sales Brochure


The Metalmaster/Impetus was a general purpose combination metalworking tool designed and built
by W. D. Urwick, the owner of a small foundry, in the early 1950s to exploit his patent triangular gib
key and included many unique and innovative ideas, all aimed at getting maximum versatility and
accuracy out of a small, affordable machine tool. Note the logo - a sketch of the Patent Triangular Gib
Key:-

Pictures and text from the original


promotional brochure but please note that the
radial drill was not fitted on the production
models and the name was later changed to
Metalmaster.

--------------

TURNING
In addition to normal turning the removal of
the radial gib key (Brit. Pat. No. 696773)
locating the bed enables the latter to be set-
over for taper turning and reclamped solidly at
the required angle.

DIVIDING
The main driving pulley has 60 equally spaced
and numbered holes. Any of these holes can
be picked up and the mandrel locked by
means of a link rod. The link rod itself has six
divisions, thus giving a range through 360
degrees.

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mmbrochure

KEYWAY CUTTING
For this purpose a hand lever can easily be attached for racking the saddle along the bed. The leadscrew
nut can be released, giving the saddle a free sliding action.

BORING
A small boring head with radial feed,
operated by star wheel and trip pin, is
supplied, thus at once converting the
machine into a miniature horizontal borer.

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mmbrochure

MILLING
With a crossfeed of 7" and the 10" x 4
1/2" slotted table, quite large workpieces
can be milled. A machine vice mounted
on the table enables end mills, slitting
saws and cutters to be used for a variety
of work,

GEAR CUTTING
If a dividing head is available, gears of 18 D.P. upwards can readily be cut on blanks up to 5" diameter.

TOPSLIDE
The machine is supplied with a four-way tool post. A small topslide is, however, available, and is
intended mainly for turning short tapers and screwcutting.

TAILSTOCK
The tailstock is provided with rack feed to the barrel and has a graduated dial. The barrel is locked by
means of a radial gib key as used on the main column.

LARGE WORK
With the Tee bed in position work up to 8" diameter can be handled. With the tailstock and Tee bed
removed, work up to 14" diameter can be swung, the toolpost being suitably blocked up from the cross-
slide.

Back to top of page

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galleryindex

A Small Picture Gallery of Engines


built by David Urwick on the Metalmaster.

1. A miniature Flame-gulper

2 A Slack type Boat Engine

3 A Two Cylinder Siemens Engine

4 A Ross Yoke type Engine

5 The 'Nutator'

A Horizontal Gamma type Engine

Return to Stirling Index

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smallseimans

Siemens Engine

This two cylindered engine is based on a design for a four cylindered (steam?) engine patented by William
Siemens in 1863 in which a nutating plate driven by a ball ended rod fitting into a socketed disc crank,
interconnects a circle of axial pistons - the phase relationships between the pistons being the same as their
angular position in the circle.
Thus two cylinders 90 degs apart can be used as the power cylinder and the air chamber of a Stirling engine.
Less frictional losses than a swashplate drive but at the expense of far greater complexity, with ball and
socket joints throughout..
(See also the Nutator)

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smallseimans

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nutator

The Nutator
David's name for his ingenious alternative to a Siemens drive.
(It is hoped to replace this with a better quality print.)

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nutator

Nutation:- "(2c) Movement by which an axis is made to describe a cone." (O.E.D.)

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