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Operator's Manual

Maintenance and Engine


VH D

72

Oil System

Wear Particles
The analysis values used for comparison
with each other must always come from the
same engine. The results must be evalued
with the knowledge of where the particles
originate from. The particle level (ppm) depends on:
Wear
Particles:

Oil and filter system total volume


Oil volume when taking sample
Oil consumption
Driving conditions, fuel consumption
Time between oil changes

Cause/Origin

Normal Levels
(ppm)

Fe - Iron

Crankshaft, liners, camshaft, tappet, valve guides

<100

Pb - Lead

Big end and main crankshaft bearing shells

<20

Cu - Copper

Big end and main crankshaft bearing shells

<20

Sn - Tin

Surface layer of sliding bearings

<20

Cr - Chrome

Piston rings, valve rod

<10

Al - Aluminum

Pistons

<10

Ni - Nickel

Layer between the surface and copper layers on a


sliding bearing.

<5

Si - Silicon

Sand, dirt, etc.

<20

Insolubles

Carbonized oil, combustion particles, soot

<1.8%
(by weight)

Water

Coolant liquid, condensation water

<0.1%
(by weight)

Fuel Dilution

Incomplete combustion

<3.0%
(by weight)

Antifreeze - Glycol

High levels of sodium and boron indicate coolant


leak

Should not
occur

Total Base Number (TBN)1

TBN shows the remaining alkalines used for acid


neutralization

>4.0

> = more than; < = less than


1

According to ASTM D2896

Recommendations
To get the best service life out of the engine, use oil sampling in addition to regular

maintenance. Oil analysis should only be