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Properties of Acids and Bases

Examples of acids:
Monoprotic acids
HNO3 nitric acid
HCl hydrochloric acid
HC2H3O2 acetic acid
Diprotic acid
H2SO4 sulfuric acid
Triprotic acid
H3PO4 phosphoric acid

Acids
Taste sour
pH less than 7
Acids effect indicators:
1. Acids turn blue litmus to red
2. Acids turn methyl orange to red
Acids neutralize bases producing a salt
and water
Proton donors
(Proton = H+ = hydrogen ion)
Increase H+ ion concentration in solution
Acids are electrolytes
Acids react with carbonates to produce a
salt, water and CO2
Acids react with active metals to produce
hydrogen

Bases
Taste Bitter
pH greater than 7
Bases effect indicators:
1. Bases turn red litmus to blue
2. Bases turn methyl orange to yellow
3. Bases turn phenolphthalein to
purple
Bases neutralize acids producing a salt
and water
Proton acceptors
(Proton = H+ = hydrogen ion)
Increase OH- ion concentration in solution
Bases are electrolytes
Bases feel slippery

Reaction of an acid with a base (neutralization) always produces a salt and water:
Acid
Base
Salt
HCl (aq)
+
NaOH (aq)

NaCl (aq)
H2SO4 (aq) +
Ca(OH) 2 (aq)
CaSO4 (aq)
HNO3 (aq)
+
KOH (aq)

KNO 3 (aq)

+
+
+

water
H2O
2H2O
H2O

Reaction of an acid with an active metal:


Metal
Zn (s)
Mg (s)

+
+

Acid
2HCl (aq)
2HNO3 (aq)

Salt
ZnCl2 (aq)
+
Mg(NO 3)2 (aq) +

Hydrogen gas
H2 (g)
H2 (g)

Reaction of an acid with a carbonate:


Acid
2HCl (aq)
H2SO4 (aq)

+
+

Carbonate
Na2CO3 (aq)
MgCO3 (aq)

Salt
2NaCl (aq)
MgSO4 (aq)

water
H2O +
H2O +

+
+

Examples of bases:
LiOH
NaOH
KOH
Mg(OH)2
Ca(OH) 2
NH4OH

Carbon dioxide gas


CO2 (g)
CO2 (g)