Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 69

PIPING AND TANKAGE

DESIGN

01/02/2005
Delivering excellence through people Slide Number- 1 of 69
PIPING AND TANKAGE DESIGN-GENERAL
SESSION-I
TANKAGES-DESIGN ASPECT

SESSION-II
PIPING-DESIGN ASPECT

SESSION-III
TANK FARM INSTRUMENTATION AND FIRE PROTECTION

SESSION-IV
TANKAGES-OPERATION & SAFETY

PIPING & TANKAGE DESIGN


Engineers India Ltd – Delivering excellence through people 01/02/2005
Slide Number - 2 of 69
SESSION-I

TANKAGES-DESIGN ASPECT

PIPING & TANKAGE DESIGN


Engineers India Ltd – Delivering excellence through people 01/02/2005
Slide Number - 3 of 69
STORAGE PHILOSOPHY

DEVELOP STORAGE PHILOSOPHY FOR

- FEED STORAGE
- INTERMEDIATE FEED STORAGE
- FINISHED PRODUCT STORAGE
 FEED STORAGE
- RECEIVING MODE
- SHIPMENT
- PIPELINE
- ANY OTHER MODE
- OPERATIONAL AND MAINTENANCE REQUIREMENT
- NO. OF TANK AND CAPACITY OF EACH TANK

PIPING & TANKAGE DESIGN


Engineers India Ltd – Delivering excellence through people 01/02/2005
Slide Number - 4 of 69
STORAGE PHILOSOPHY

 INTERMEDIATE STORAGE
- OPERATING PHILOSOPHY & FLEXIBILITY
- EMERGENCY SHUTDOWN
- TURN AROUND REQUIREMENT

 FINISH PRODUCT STORAGE


- OPERATIONAL REQUIREMENT
- MODE OF DISPATCH
- SHUTDOWN REQUIREMENT

- OPTIMIZATION/PREMIUM GRADE INTERMEDIATE


STORAGE

PIPING & TANKAGE DESIGN


Engineers India Ltd – Delivering excellence through people 01/02/2005
Slide Number - 5 of 69
DESIGN BASIS
 TYPE OF TANK USED FOR STORAGE IS BASED ON
PROPERTIES LIKE

- FLASH POINT AND VAPOUR PRESSURE


- POUR POINT
- REACTIVITY AND CONTAMINATION

 STORAGE TANKS ARE CLASSIFIED AS


- ATMOSPHERIC TANK (API-650)
- LOW PRESSURE TANK (API-620)
- HIGH PRESSURE STORAGE (ASME, BS)
- REFRIGERATED STORAGE

PIPING & TANKAGE DESIGN


Engineers India Ltd – Delivering excellence through people 01/02/2005
Slide Number - 6 of 69
DESIGN BASIS
 ATMOSPHERIC TANK
- DESIGN PRESSURE UP TO 150MM OF H2O
- VAPOUR PRESSURE LESS THAN – 10 PSIA
 LOW PRESSURE TANK
- NORMALLY PRESSURE ABOVE 10 PSIA BUT LOWER
THAN 15 PSIG (30 PSIA) AT MAX. OPERATING TEMP.
- THESE ARE NORMALLY BLANKETED TANKS
 HIGH PRESSURE STORAGE.
- VAPOUR PRESSURE ABOVE IS PSIG AT AVERAGE
AMBIENT TEMP.
- THESE COMES UNDER PRESSURE VESSEL.
- TYPICALLY OVER GROUND PRESSURE VESSEL ARE
BULLET, MOUNDED BULLET, HORTON SPHERES.

PIPING & TANKAGE DESIGN


Engineers India Ltd – Delivering excellence through people 01/02/2005
Slide Number - 7 of 69
DESIGN BASIS

 REFRIGERATED STORAGE

- THESE ARE LOW TEMPERATURE STORAGE TO


STORE LIGHT HYDROCARBON.

- STORAGE TEMP MAINTAINED TO KEEP VAPOUR


PRESSURE AT ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE /
LOWER THAN ATMOSPHERIC.

PIPING & TANKAGE DESIGN


Engineers India Ltd – Delivering excellence through people 01/02/2005
Slide Number - 8 of 69
DESIGN CRITERIA

DESIGN GUIDELINE
- MINIMUM THREE OR FOUR TANK (EXCEPT
INTERMEDIATE FEED STORAGE)
- FIXED UP CAPACITY OF EACH TANK.

- IN MARKETING TERMINAL RECEIPT MODE IS IMPORTANT


FOR DECIDING TANK CAPACITY.
- STORAGE OF EACH PRODUCT 7 TO 15 DAYS BASED ON
REQUIREMENT.
- OPERATION TO BE SUSTAINED WHILE ONE OF THE TANK
IS OUT FOR MAINTENANCE.

PIPING & TANKAGE DESIGN


Engineers India Ltd – Delivering excellence through people 01/02/2005
Slide Number - 9 of 69
DESIGN CRITERIA

 TYPE OF TANK FOR DIFFERENT PRODUCT ARE SELECTED


TO
- MINIMISE LOSSES
- TO MEET ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATION
- SAFETY
- QUALITY
- OPERABILITY

 ATMOSPHERIC TANKS
- FLOATING ROOF
- CONE ROOF/ N2 BLANKETED CONE ROOF
- CONE CUM FLOATING ROOF

PIPING & TANKAGE DESIGN


Engineers India Ltd – Delivering excellence through people 01/02/2005
Slide Number - 10 of 69
DESIGN CRITERIA

 FLOATING ROOF TANK

- TANKS ARE DESIGNED AS PER API-CODE-650


- USED FOR LIGHT / MIDDLE DISTILLATE.
- NOMINAL CAPACITY, STORED CAPACITY, NET
CAPACITY REQUIREMENT.
- DESIGN PRESSURE
- VENTING OUT/BREEDING IN DURING PUMPING IN/
OUT, CHANGE IN AMBIENT CONDITIONS
- EMERGENCY VENTING REQUIREMENT

PIPING & TANKAGE DESIGN


Engineers India Ltd – Delivering excellence through people 01/02/2005
Slide Number - 11 of 69
DESIGN CRITERIA

- CORROSION ALLOWANCE.
- ROOF SUPPORT.
- ROOF DESIGN.
- MANHOLES AND CLEAN OUT DOORS.
- SEALING ARRANGEMENT BETWEEN PERIPHERY
OF ROOF AND TANK SHALL.

PIPING & TANKAGE DESIGN


Engineers India Ltd – Delivering excellence through people 01/02/2005
Slide Number - 12 of 69
DESIGN CRITERIA

- ROOF DRAINS / EMERGENCY ROOF DRAINS


- ROOF TO SHALL BONDING TO AVOID CHARGE
ACCUMULATION.
- CENTERING AND ANT ROTATION GUIDES ARE
PROVIDED TO COUNTER LATERAL FORCES
(LADDER, WIND, RAIN WATER).

PIPING & TANKAGE DESIGN


Engineers India Ltd – Delivering excellence through people 01/02/2005
Slide Number - 13 of 69
DESIGN CRITERIA

 CONE ROOF TANK/ CONE CUM FLOATING ROOF TANK

- OPEN VENT OR N2/INERT GAS BLANKETED TANKS


DESIGNED UNDER API-650.
- NORMALLY OPEN VENT CONE ROOF TANKS ARE USED FOR
HEAVY HYDROCARBON PRODUCT.
- FUEL OIL, VR, HEAVY Y GAS OIL, BITUMEN, ETC. STORED IN
OPEN VENT TANK.
- N2 BLANKETED TANKS ARE USED FOR INTERMEDIATE
FEED STORAGE WHERE DEGRADATION OF PRODUCT CAN
CAUSE PROBLEM IN DOWN STREAM UNIT
- TANKS STORING TOXIC MATERIALS LIKE BENZENE SOUR
WATER ETC.

PIPING & TANKAGE DESIGN


Engineers India Ltd – Delivering excellence through people 01/02/2005
Slide Number - 14 of 69
DESIGN CRITERIA

- OPEN VENT CONE ROOF TANKS ARE USUALLY


DESIGNED FOR FULL OF LIQ. OR WATER.

- N2 BLANKETED TANK ARE DESIGNED FOR A MAX.


PRESSURE OF 150MM OF WATER. COLUMN. IN POSITIVE
SIDE AND 50 MM IN THE VACUUM SIDE.

- THESE TANKS ARE DESIGNED WITH NORMAL VENT AS


WELL AS EMERGENCY VENT.

PIPING & TANKAGE DESIGN


Engineers India Ltd – Delivering excellence through people 01/02/2005
Slide Number - 15 of 69
DESIGN CRITERIA

 FOR N2 BLANKETED TANKS PVRV IS PROVIDED IN PLACE


OF NORMAL VENTING.

 SET PRESSURES OF PVRV. EMERGENCY VENT SHELL BE


WITHIN THE DESIGN LIMIT.

PIPING & TANKAGE DESIGN


Engineers India Ltd – Delivering excellence through people 01/02/2005
Slide Number - 16 of 69
DESIGN CRITERIA

N2 BLANKETED SYSTEM

PIPING & TANKAGE DESIGN


Engineers India Ltd – Delivering excellence through people 01/02/2005
Slide Number - 17 of 69
DESIGN CRITERIA

 CONE CUM FLOATING ROOF TANK

- THESE TANKS ARE USED FOR STORING TOXIC


PRODUCT AND PRODUCT WITH STRINGENT QUALITY
(E.G. BENZENE, ATF)

- NITROGEN OR INERT GAS BLANKETING MAY BE


PROVIDED IN CASE OF REQUIREMENT

- TANKS WITHOUT NITROGEN/ INERT GAS


BLANKETING ARE PROVIDED WITH CIRCULATING VENT
JUST BELOW THE CONE ROOF

PIPING & TANKAGE DESIGN


Engineers India Ltd – Delivering excellence through people 01/02/2005
Slide Number - 18 of 69
DESIGN CRITERIA
TANKS WITH ELEVATED TEMPERATURE
USED FOR CONGEALING SERVICES.

- POUR POINT, VISCOSITY, AUTO IGNITION TEMP.


OF MATERIAL DECIDES STORAGE
TEMPERATURE

- PRINCIPLE OF DESIGNING HEATING


ARRANGEMENT IS TO ARGUMENT HEAT LOSS.

- THESE TANKS ARE INSULATED TO MINIMISE THE


HEAT LOSS.

PIPING & TANKAGE DESIGN


Engineers India Ltd – Delivering excellence through people 01/02/2005
Slide Number - 19 of 69
DESIGN CRITERIA

- STEAM COILS ARE USED TO SUPPLY HEAT.

- NORMALLY STEAM PRESSURE 3 TO 5 KG/CM2G IS


USED.

- CRUDE/BENZENE TANKS ARE ALSO SOMETIMES


PROVIDED WITH HEATING COIL. BUT NOT
INSULATED TEMPERATURE NORMALLY MAINTAINED
ABOUT 10° ABOVE POUR POINT.

PIPING & TANKAGE DESIGN


Engineers India Ltd – Delivering excellence through people 01/02/2005
Slide Number - 20 of 69
DESIGN CRITERIA
 LOW PRESSURE TANKS

 LOW PRESSURE TANK DESIGN GUIDELINES ARE


PROVIDED IN API-620.

 THESE TANKS ARE NORMALLY N2/ INERT GAS


BLANKETED.

 MAX DESIGN PRESSURE IS 1 KG/CM2G AND VACUUM UP


TO 50 MM OF WATER

 ALL OPERATING REQUIREMENT IS SIMILAR TO N2


BLANKETED ATM. STORAGE TANKS.

PIPING & TANKAGE DESIGN


Engineers India Ltd – Delivering excellence through people 01/02/2005
Slide Number - 21 of 69
DESIGN CRITERIA
HIGH PRESSURE STORAGE

 HIGH PRESSURE STORAGE ARE PRESSURE VESSELS DESIGN


GUIDELINES ARE AVAILABLE IN ASME, API, BS ETC.
 NORMALLY LPG, PROPANE, PROPYLENE, BUTANE ETC.
REQUIRES PRESSURE VESSEL.
 SPHERES, BULLET OR MOUNDED BULLETS ARE TYPICAL
STORAGES.
 MAJOR HAZARDS FROM THESE STORAGES ARE FLASH FIRE,
VAPOUR CLOUD EXPLOSION AND FIRE BALL OR BLEVE.

PIPING & TANKAGE DESIGN


Engineers India Ltd – Delivering excellence through people 01/02/2005
Slide Number - 22 of 69
DESIGN CRITERIA

 CHANCES OF FIRE BALL OR BLEVE IS ELIMINATED USING


MOUNDED STORAGE
 SPECIAL REQUIREMENT ARE :

- SAFETY RELIEF VALVE.


- AUTOMATIC WATER SPRINKLER ACTUATE BY GAS OR
FIRE DETECTORS.
- REMOTE OPERATED ISOLATION VALVES (FIRE
RESISTANT).
- MINIMISING NO OF LIQUID NOZZLES / FLANGES.
- OVERFILLING PROTECTION

PIPING & TANKAGE DESIGN


Engineers India Ltd – Delivering excellence through people 01/02/2005
Slide Number - 23 of 69
DESIGN CRITERIA

MOUNDED STORAGE
- OVER GROUND STORAGE COVERED WITH MOUND OF
EARTH.
- MOUND SHALL BE ACCESSIBLE TO FIRE TENDER.
- DESIGN GUIDELINES BY ASME SEC VIII OR BS-5500.
- SINGLE CODE TO BE ADOPTED FOR DESIGN,
FABRICATION, INSPECTION, TESTING AND
INSTALLATION.
- SURFACE COATING CATHODIC PROTECTION TO BE
PROVIDED.

PIPING & TANKAGE DESIGN


Engineers India Ltd – Delivering excellence through people 01/02/2005
Slide Number - 24 of 69
DESIGN CRITERIA
- PROVISION TO DRAIN OUT COMPLETELY.
- MOUNDED BULLET CAN HAVE EITHER INTANK PUMP FOR
EXTERNAL PUMP.
- A SINGLE NOZZLE PROVIDED FOR USING EXTERNAL
PUMP.
- ROV (FIRE SAFE TYPE) FOR LIQUID LINE/ VAPOUR
BALANCE LINE.
- TWO PSV OF 30% EACH (MINIMUM) FOR FIRE CASE.
FIRE WATER SPRAY IN EXPOSED AREA HYDRANT AND
MONITOR COVERAGE.

PIPING & TANKAGE DESIGN


Engineers India Ltd – Delivering excellence through people 01/02/2005
Slide Number - 25 of 69
SESSION-II

PIPING-DESIGN ASPECT

PIPING & TANKAGE DESIGN


Engineers India Ltd – Delivering excellence through people 01/02/2005
Slide Number - 26 of 69
OFFSITE PIPING DESIGN
BASIC DATA REQUIRED
 OVERALL PLOT PLAN SHOWING
- LOCATION OF TANKS.
- PUMP HOUSE LOCATION.
- LOCATION OF PROCESS UNIT.
- AREA TOPOGRAPHY.
- BATTERY LIMIT CONDITIONS.
- PROPERTIES OF INDIVIDUAL STREAMS.
- ESTIMATION OF EQUIVALENT PIPE LENGTH.
- PRESSURE REQUIRED AT DESTINATION.

PIPING & TANKAGE DESIGN


Engineers India Ltd – Delivering excellence through people 01/02/2005
Slide Number - 27 of 69
OFFSITE PIPING DESIGN

 LINE SIZING CRITERIA


- ACCEPTABLE VELOCITY RANGE

- ACCEPTABLE PRESSURE DROP PER KM OF


EQUIVALENT LINE LENGTH.

ACCEPTABLE VELOCITY RANG E FOR WATER, LIGHT


HYDROCARBON, HEAVY HYDROCARBON, STEAM,
VAPOURS ETC. ARE AVAILABLE FROM DIFFERENT
SOURCES.

PIPING & TANKAGE DESIGN


Engineers India Ltd – Delivering excellence through people 01/02/2005
Slide Number - 28 of 69
RECOMMENDED VELOCITY AND PRESSURE DROP
FOR CS LIQUID LINE

RECOM. MAX
VELOCITY ALLOW

PRESS.
GENERAL RECOM. 1.5-4.5 8.8
LAMINAR FLOW 1.2-1.5

PUMP SUCTION
BOILING LIQUID 0.6-1.8 1-1
NON-BOILING LIQUID 1.2-2.5 2-2

PIPING & TANKAGE DESIGN


Engineers India Ltd – Delivering excellence through people 01/02/2005
Slide Number - 29 of 69
RECOMMENDED VELOCITY AND PRESSURE DROP
FOR CS LIQUID LINES
RECOM. MAX
VELOCITY ALLOW

PRESS.
PUMP DISCHARGE FLOW, M3/HR
0-55 1.8-2.5 13.2
55-160 2.5-3.0 8.8
MORE THAN 160 3.0-4.5 4.4

GRAVITY RUN LINES 0.3-2.5 0.88

PIPING & TANKAGE DESIGN


Engineers India Ltd – Delivering excellence through people 01/02/2005
Slide Number - 30 of 69
RECOMMENDED VELOCITY AND PRESSURE DROP
FOR CS VAPOUR LINES

RECOM. MAX. ALLOWABLE


VELOCITY PRES. DROP

ABOVE 35 V= (3 TO 24)/ d 1/3 4.4


14-35 d=DENSITY 3.3
10-14 KG/M3 1.32
3.5-10 0.66
0-3.5 0.33
SUB-ATM. (VACUUM) 0.22

PIPING & TANKAGE DESIGN


Engineers India Ltd – Delivering excellence through people 01/02/2005
Slide Number - 31 of 69
RECOMMENDED VELOCITY AND PRESSURE DROP
FOR CS STEAM SERVICES
RECOM. MAX VELOCITY ALLOW PRESS.
GENERAL RECOMMENDATION
MAXIMUM
SATURATED 60.0
SUPERHEATED 75.0

STEAM PRESSURE KG/CM2G


0-3.5 0.55
3.5-10 1.1
10-20 2.2
ABOVE 20 3.3

PIPING & TANKAGE DESIGN


Engineers India Ltd – Delivering excellence through people 01/02/2005
Slide Number - 32 of 69
RECOMMENDED VELOCITY AND PRESSURE DROP
FOR STEAM SERVICES

RECOM. MAX
VELOCITY ALLOW

PRESS.
HIGH PRESSURE STEAM LINES

SHORT (LENGTH
LESS THAN 180 M) 2.2
LONG LENGTH
(MORE THAN 180 M) 1.1
SHORT LEADS 5.5

PIPING & TANKAGE DESIGN


Engineers India Ltd – Delivering excellence through people 01/02/2005
Slide Number - 33 of 69
OFFSITE PIPING DESIGN
SPECIAL CONSIDERATION

 FOR SIZING PUMP SUCTION LINE VELOCITY RANGE


OF 0.8 TO 1.5 M/S IS TAKEN FOR ALL
HYDROCARBON/WATER.

 PRESSURE DROP ESTIMATION FOR CONTROL


VALVES, FLOW METERS, STRAINERS ETC.

 SPECIAL REQUIREMENT FOR PUMP SUCTION LINE,


TANKAGE MANIFOLD VALVING & PUMP MINIMUM FLOW
CIRCULATION

PIPING & TANKAGE DESIGN


Engineers India Ltd – Delivering excellence through people 01/02/2005
Slide Number - 34 of 69
OFFSITE PIPING DESIGN
TYPICAL INPUT FOR SIZING OF LIQUID LINE
 INPUT DATA REQUIRED
- NORMAL/RATED FLOW REQUIREMENT
- B/L CONDITIONS, (PRESSURE, TEMPERATURE) AT
SUPPLY AND DESTINATION
- FLUID PROPERTIES NAMELY, DENSITY &
VISCOSITY.
- ESTIMATE REQUIREMENT LENGTH OF PIPE
BASED ON PLOT PLAN.
- SELECT A PIPE LINE SIZE BASED ON RATED FLOW
WHICH MEETS THE VELOCITY CRITERIA (START
WITH MINIMUM PIPE SIZE WHICH MEETS THE
VISCOSITY CRITERIA).

PIPING & TANKAGE DESIGN


Engineers India Ltd – Delivering excellence through people 01/02/2005
Slide Number - 35 of 69
OFFSITE PIPING DESIGN

 CALCULATE Re NO. USING


Re = 3.54 X 10E4Q/ µD
WHERE, Q = RATED FLOW M3/HR
D=ID OF THE PIPE IN CM
µ = VISCOSITY IN CS
 ESTIMATE FRICTION FACTOR USING GRAPH

PIPING & TANKAGE DESIGN


Engineers India Ltd – Delivering excellence through people 01/02/2005
Slide Number - 36 of 69
OFFSITE PIPING DESIGN

 CALCULATE PRESSURE DROP USING

∆ P = (63.7 X100) Q2 f d
--------
D5
WHERE d = SPECIFIC GRAVITY WITH RESPECT
TO WATER
∆ P = PRESSURE DROP/KM OF PIPE
LENGTH
f= FRICTION FACTOR
PIPING & TANKAGE DESIGN
Engineers India Ltd – Delivering excellence through people 01/02/2005
Slide Number - 37 of 69
PRODUCT BLENDING

- ESTABLISH PRODUCT SPEC. AS PER


REQUIREMENT FOR DIESEL; 5%, DENSITY
FLASH POINT, POUR POINT.
- STREAM THAT ARE REQUIRED TO BE BLENDED
ITS PROPERTIES.
- DESIGN, OPERATING PARAMETER AND
ALTERNATE DESTINATION OF EACH STREAM.
- DEVELOP BLENDING SCHEME

PIPING & TANKAGE DESIGN


Engineers India Ltd – Delivering excellence through people 01/02/2005
Slide Number - 38 of 69
PRODUCT BLENDING

BLENDING
SCHEMATIC
PIPING & TANKAGE DESIGN
Engineers India Ltd – Delivering excellence through people 01/02/2005
Slide Number - 39 of 69
SOME OF OPERATIONAL ASPECTS CONSIDERED
IN PIPING DESIGN FROM OFFSITES

1) PIPING DESIGN TEMPERATURE, 65°C FOR WHILE


OIL/LIGHT HYDROCARBONS AND 150°C AND ABOVE
FOR HEAVY OIL.
2) DO NOT PROVIDE VALVES IN OFFSITE PIPE RACK
EXCEPT CLOSE TO PUMP HOUSE AND TANKAGE
MANIFOLD.
3) ANY FACILITIES REQUIRE CONSTANT MONITORING
TO BE LOCATED CLOSE TO PUMP HOUSE (DOSING
SYSTEM HEATERS ETC.).
4) PROVIDE SEPARATION DISTANCE TO SEGREGATE
PUMPS OF PRESSURIZED LIQUID, WHITE OIL AND
BLACK OIL.

PIPING & TANKAGE DESIGN


Engineers India Ltd – Delivering excellence through people 01/02/2005
Slide Number - 40 of 69
SOME OF OPERATIONAL ASPECTS CONSIDERED
IN PIPING DESIGN FROM OFFSITES

5) REMOTE OPERATED (FIRE SAFE) VALVES ARE


PROVIDED TO ISOLATE GANTRY IN CASE OF
EMERGENCY.
6) ADEQUATE EXPANSION PROVISION IS KEPT
FOR PIPING DESIGN ABOVE 150°C.
7) OPERATING VALVES FOR TANKAGES ARE
KEPT OUTSIDE DYKE AREA.
8) MEANS OF POSITIVE ISOLATION IS KEPT FOR
TANKS REQUIRING EXCISE FORMALITIES.

PIPING & TANKAGE DESIGN


Engineers India Ltd – Delivering excellence through people 01/02/2005
Slide Number - 41 of 69
PRODUCT DISPATCH DESIGN GUIDELINES

- DISPATCH BY PIPELINE, RAIL TANKER, ROAD TANKER.


- PIPELINE MAY BE FOR CRUDE, BLACK OIL, OR WHITE OIL
PRODUCTS (MULTIPRODUCT). RAIL GANTRY SHOULD BE
SEPARATE FOR WHITE OIL, BLACK OIL AND
PRESSURIZED LIQUID (LPG).
- ESTIMATE QUANTITY OF PRODUCT TO BE DISPATCH BY
EACH MODE.
- EACH PRODUCT WILL HAVE ITS SOON LOADING HEADER,
METERING FACILITIES AND LOADING ARM.
- FOR ROAD LOADING EACH PRODUCT HAVE SEPARATE
LOADING BAYS.

PIPING & TANKAGE DESIGN


Engineers India Ltd – Delivering excellence through people 01/02/2005
Slide Number - 42 of 69
PRODUCT DISPATCH DESIGN GUIDELINES

- PROVISION TO BE KEPT FOR UNLOADING OF SICK


WAGON/TANKER (GRAVITY DRAIN WITH UNDER GROUND
VESSELS).
- ESTIMATE RACK FILLING/ROAD TANKER LOADING LINE
INCLUDING PLACEMENT, CONNECTION, DISCONNECTION.
- ESTIMATE TOTAL LOADING HOURS AVAILABLE IN A
SINGLE DAY. (FOR ROAD LOADING) AND NO. OF DAYS
AVAILABLE FOR LOADING IN A CALENDAR YEAR.
- CALCULATE THE HEAD REQUIRED FOR LOADING PUMPS
AND FIX UP NO. OF PUMPS POWER REQUIRED USING
PROPERTIES OF FLUID.
- FIXED UP NO. OF ROAD LOADING BAYS REQUIRED.

PIPING & TANKAGE DESIGN


Engineers India Ltd – Delivering excellence through people 01/02/2005
Slide Number - 43 of 69
SESSION-III

TANK FARM INSTRUMENTATION & FIRE


PROTECTION

PIPING & TANKAGE DESIGN


Engineers India Ltd – Delivering excellence through people 01/02/2005
Slide Number - 44 of 69
TANK LEVEL MEASUREMENT

- MINIMUM TWO LEVEL INST.


- SERVO TYPE AND RADAR TYPES GENERALLY USED.
INSTRUMENTS FOR MEASURING DENSITY AND WATER
CUT ARE ALSO SPECIFIED ALONG WITH LEVEL
INSTRUMENT
- MECHANICAL FLOAT TYPE SOMETIMES USED FOR
CLEAN SERVICES TO GENERATE ALARM.
- DP TYPE ARE USED NORMALLY FOR PRESSURIZED
LIQUID E.G. LPG PROPANE/PROPYLENE ETC.
- ALARMS ARE PROVIDED FOR HIGH AS WELL AS LOW
LEVELS.

PIPING & TANKAGE DESIGN


Engineers India Ltd – Delivering excellence through people 01/02/2005
Slide Number - 45 of 69
FLOW MEASUREMENT

ORIFICE METER - LOW ACCURACY


PD METER - HEAVY OIL
TURBINE METER - LIGHT/MED. OIL
ULTRA SONIC - LIGHT/MID/GAS
PITOT TUBE - LOW ACCURACY
USED FOR LARGE DIA
PIPE

PIPING & TANKAGE DESIGN


Engineers India Ltd – Delivering excellence through people 01/02/2005
Slide Number - 46 of 69
GROUPING OF TANKS AND DYKE AREA

 GUIDELINES PROVIDED BY NFPA/OISD

- PREFERABLE TO STORE CLASS-A, CLASS-B AND


CLASS-C PRODUCT IN SEPARATE DYKE.

- MAXIMUM VOL IN A SINGLE DYKE IS 1,20,000 M3


FOR FLOATING ROOF AND 60,000 M3 FOR CONE
ROOF TANKS.

PIPING & TANKAGE DESIGN


Engineers India Ltd – Delivering excellence through people 01/02/2005
Slide Number - 47 of 69
GROUPING OF TANKS AND DYKE AREA

 SOME OF CRITICAL REQUIREMENT ARE:

- DYKE VOLUME, DIKE HEIGHT


- NO. OF ROWS AND ROAD APPROACH
- FIRE WALL FOR EACH TANK.
- TANK HEIGHT DETERMINE BY SOIL BEARING
CAPACITY.
- DRAINAGE SYSTEM (RAIN WATER/TANK DRAIN
WATER/ ROOF DRAIN WATER).
- PIPING IN THE DYKE AREA
- PUMP STATION

PIPING & TANKAGE DESIGN


Engineers India Ltd – Delivering excellence through people 01/02/2005
Slide Number - 48 of 69
FIRE PROTECTION FACILITIES

 FIRE WATER SYSTEM STORAGE, PUMPING, FIRE


HYDRANT & DISTRIBUTION NETWORK.
 DESIGN CRITERIA
- ONE MAJOR FIRE

- 4 HOURS STORAGE, MIN. 2 STORAGE TANKS.

- 100% DIESEL DRIVEN (6 HOURS CONTINUOUS


RUNNING)
- 50% EXTRA CAPACITY

- MIN. 7 KG/CM2G PRESSURE AVAILABLE AT HYDRANT


POINT

PIPING & TANKAGE DESIGN


Engineers India Ltd – Delivering excellence through people 01/02/2005
Slide Number - 49 of 69
FIRE PROTECTION FACILITIES

- FIRE WATER STORAGE MIN. 30 M AWAY.


- HYDRANT NETWORK.

- SPACING OF HYDRANT AND MONITORS AND LOCATE OUTSIDE


DYKE AREA.

- NETWORK NORMALLY KEPT PRESSURIZED.


- DESIGN WATER FLOW RATE

- COOLING THE TANK ON FIRE 3 LPM/M2

- OTHER TANKS AT R+30M WITHIN IN THE DYKE AREA 3 LPM/M2.

PIPING & TANKAGE DESIGN


Engineers India Ltd – Delivering excellence through people 01/02/2005
Slide Number - 50 of 69
FIRE PROTECTION FACILITIES

- R+30M BUT NOT IN SAME DYKE 1 LPM/M2.

- WATER FLOW REQUIREMENT FOR APPLYING FOAM FOR


THE SINGLE LARGEST TANK.

- ALTERNATE CALCULATION IS OPERATION OF 4


HYDRANTS AND 1 MONITOR SIMULTANEOUSLY.

PIPING & TANKAGE DESIGN


Engineers India Ltd – Delivering excellence through people 01/02/2005
Slide Number - 51 of 69
FOAM SYSTEM

 FIXED FOAM SYSTEM CONSIST OF

- WATER SUPPLY
- FOAM CONCENTRATE TANK
- EDUCTOR AND SUITABLE PROPORTIONATING
EQUIPMENT
- FOAM MAKER VAPOUR SEAL BOX.
- FIRE DETECTION SYSTEM TO ACTIVATE THE FOAM
SYSTEM.

PIPING & TANKAGE DESIGN


Engineers India Ltd – Delivering excellence through people 01/02/2005
Slide Number - 52 of 69
FOAM SYSTEM
 SEMI FIXED FOAM SYSTEM

- SUPPLY FOAM SOLUTION THROUGH MOBILE


FOAM TENDER AND CONNECTED FIXED FOAM
MAKERS CUM VAPOUR SEAL BOX FOR CONE
ROOF TANK OR FOAM MAKER AND FOAM
POWDER IN CASE OF FLOATING ROOF TANK.
 MOBILE SYSTEM

- SUPPLY THROUGH MONITOR / TOWER USING


FOAM TENDER.

PIPING & TANKAGE DESIGN


Engineers India Ltd – Delivering excellence through people 01/02/2005
Slide Number - 53 of 69
FOAM SYSTEM

SPECIAL FOAM INJECTION SYSTEMS

CONE ROOF
- SUBSURFACE FOAM INJECTION THROUGH HIGH
BACK PRESSURE FOAM SUPPLY SYSTEM.

FLOATING ROOF

- AUTOMATIC ACTUATED (THROUGH LINEAR HEAT


DETECTOR) FOAM FLOODING SYSTEM
(FLOATAFOAM OR EQUIVALENT).
- RIM SEAL FOAM POURER

PIPING & TANKAGE DESIGN


Engineers India Ltd – Delivering excellence through people 01/02/2005
Slide Number - 54 of 69
LEAK AND FIRE DETECTION SYSTEM

- GAS DETECTORS PROVIDED WHERE LEAKAGE CAN


CAUSE VAPOUR / GAS RELEASE.

- HYDROCARBON DETECTORS, H2S DETECTOR,


CHLORINE DETECTORS USED IN REFINERY.

- FIRE DETECTORS ARE USED WHERE LEAKAGE OF HOT


MATERIALS CAN RESULT AUTO IGNITION.

- THESE ARE HEAT DETECTORS OR ULTRA VIOLATE RAY


DETECTOR.

PIPING & TANKAGE DESIGN


Engineers India Ltd – Delivering excellence through people 01/02/2005
Slide Number - 55 of 69
SESSION-IV

TANKAGES-OPERATION & SAFETY

PIPING & TANKAGE DESIGN


Engineers India Ltd – Delivering excellence through people 01/02/2005
Slide Number - 56 of 69
SAFETY FACTORS CONSIDERED DURING DESIGN
SAFETY OF EVERY TANK IS OF UTMOST IMPORTANCE.
FAILURE OF ANY TANK WILL LEAD TO PROPERTY LOSS
AND MAY AFFECT SMOOTH OPERATION OF UNITS. AT THE
EXTREME CASE IT CAN RESULT HAZARDOUS
CONSEQUENCES IN CASE OF FIRE.
IMPORTANT SAFETY FACTORS CONSIDERED DURING
DESIGN;
◆ DESIGN CODE
◆ FINALIZATION OF CAPACITY
◆ SELECTION OF TYPE OF TANKS
◆ PLOT PLAN LOCATION
◆ VENTING
◆ INSTRUMENTATION
◆ FIRE PROTECTION FACILITIES
◆ MISCELLANEOUS SAFETY POINTS
PIPING & TANKAGE DESIGN
Engineers India Ltd – Delivering excellence through people 01/02/2005
Slide Number - 57 of 69
SAFETY FACTORS CONSIDERED DURING DESIGN

 SELECTION OF TYPE OF TANKS:

TYPE OF TANK TO BE DECIDED CONSIDERING THE


FOLLOWING SAFETY POINTS:

 VAPOUR LOSS AND HYDROCARBON EMISSION


 FIRE HAZARD
 TO MEET STRINGENT WATER SPECIFICATION
 TO MEET STRINGENT ENVIRONMENT SPECIFICATION
 PRODUCT CONTAMINATION WITH INGRESS AIR

PIPING & TANKAGE DESIGN


Engineers India Ltd – Delivering excellence through people 01/02/2005
Slide Number - 58 of 69
SAFETY FACTORS CONSIDERED DURING DESIGN

 PRODUCT HAVING HIGH VAPOUR PRESSURE AND LOW


FLASH POINT ARE GENERALLY STORED IN FLOATING
ROOF TANKS OR DOME ROOF TANK TO REDUCE
VAPOUR LOSS, HYDROCARBON EMISSION AND FIRE
HAZARD.
 PRODUCT HAVING LOW VAPOUR PRESSURE AND
HIGHER FLASH POINT STORED IN CONE ROOF TANKS.
 TO MEET STRINGENT WATER SPECIFICATION IN THE
PRODUCT OR TO MEET STRINGENT ENVIRONMENT
SPECIFICATION , PRODUCT STORED IN CONE CUM
FLOATING ROOF TANKS.
 TO AVOID PRODUCT CONTAMINATION WITH INGRESS
AIR TO AVOID POLYMERIZATION OF PRODUCT ,
NITROGEN BLANKETING TANKS IS CONSIDERED.

PIPING & TANKAGE DESIGN


Engineers India Ltd – Delivering excellence through people 01/02/2005
Slide Number - 59 of 69
SAFETY FACTORS CONSIDERED DURING DESIGN
 VENTING : EACH TANK IS PROVIDED WITH SUITABLE
VENT. TANK VENT IS TO BE SIZED AS PER API-2000.

FOLLOWING PARAMETERS NEED TO BE CONSIDERED


WHILE DESIGNING VENT;

◆ MAXIMUM PUMPING IN RATE OR RECEIPT RATE


◆ MAXIMUM PUMPING OUT RATE OR DISPATCH RATE
◆ OUT BREATHING FROM THERMAL EXPANSION OF VAPORS
CAUSED BY MAXIMUM INCREASE IN AMBIENT
TEMPERATURE.
◆ IN BREATHING FROM THERMAL CONTRACTION OF VAPORS
CAUSED BY MAXIMUM DECREASE IN AMBIENT
TEMPERATURE.
◆ OUT BREATHING RESULTING FROM FIRE EXPOSURE
PIPING & TANKAGE DESIGN
Engineers India Ltd – Delivering excellence through people 01/02/2005
Slide Number - 60 of 69
SAFETY FACTORS CONSIDERED DURING DESIGN
HOWEVER , IN ADDITION TO THE ABOVE , SOME SPECIFIC
CASES , WHICH CAN CAUSE OVERPRESSURE OR VACUUM
IN TANKS , ARE ALSO TO BE CONSIDERED DURING VENT
DESIGN. SOME OF THESE ARE EXPLAINED BELOW:

◆ FOR INERT GAS BLANKETED TANKS, THERE IS


POSSIBILITY OF FAILURE OF PRESSURE CONTROLLER ,
RESULTING IN THE OVERPRESSURE.
◆ CHANGE IN TEMPERATURE OF FEED LIQUID TO TANK
DUE TO IMPROPER COOLING IN THE UNIT LEADING TO
OVERPRESSURE OF THE TANK.
◆ MECHANICAL FAILURE OF TANK HEATING COIL

PIPING & TANKAGE DESIGN


Engineers India Ltd – Delivering excellence through people 01/02/2005
Slide Number - 61 of 69
SAFETY FACTORS CONSIDERED DURING DESIGN

 MISCELLANEOUS SAFETY POINTS:


◆ CORROSION ALLOWANCE : CORROSION
ALLOWANCE SHOULD BE SPECIFIED BASED ON THE
NATURE OF PRODUCT STORED , STORAGE
TEMPERATURE, ITS IMPURITIES, AMBIENT
CONDITION.
◆ EARTHLING OF TANKS : EVERY STORAGE TANK ,
INCLUDING ITS ROOF AND ALL METAL CONNECTION
SHOULD BE ELECTRICALLY CONTINUOUS AND
EFFECTIVELY EARTHED.
◆ FLAME ARRESTOR : CONE ROOF TANK HAVING
OPEN VENT , STORING CLASS “A” PETROLEUM
PRODUCT PREFERABLY BE PROVIDED WITH FLAME
ARRESTOR.

PIPING & TANKAGE DESIGN


Engineers India Ltd – Delivering excellence through people 01/02/2005
Slide Number - 62 of 69
SAFETY FEATURES

PUMP IN/OUT ARE TO BE WITHIN THE DESIGN LIMIT


- PRODUCT RUNDOWN TEMPERATURE NEEDS TO
BE MONITORED. HIGHER TEMPERATURE RESULT
VAPOUR BEING RELEASED TO ATMOSPHERE
CAUSING HAZARDS.
- DURING PUMPING OUT FLOATING ROOF LEGS TO
BE AT LOWEST POSITION (NORMAL OPERATION).
- BREATHER VENT SOMETIMES PROVIDED WITH
FLAME ARRESTOR ARE LIKELY TO PLUGGED,
SPECIALLY FOR HEAVY MATERIALS WITH TANK
HEATING ARRANGEMENT.

PIPING & TANKAGE DESIGN


Engineers India Ltd – Delivering excellence through people 01/02/2005
Slide Number - 63 of 69
SAFETY FEATURES

- TANKS WITH STORAGE TEMP. OF 80°C OR 140°C


SPECIAL CARE TO BE TAKEN FOR BOIL OVER.
SPECIALLY DURING COMMISSIONING.
- STATIC ELECTRICITY IS A MAJOR HAZARD DURING
INITIAL FILLING OF TANKS.
- PRESSURE RELIEF VALVES TO BE TESTED EVERY YEAR
- TESTING & INSPECTION OF VESSEL/TANKS ONCE IN 5
YEARS.
- OPERATING AND MAINTENANCE MANUAL UPDATION

PIPING & TANKAGE DESIGN


Engineers India Ltd – Delivering excellence through people 01/02/2005
Slide Number - 64 of 69
OPERATION OF STORAGE TANK
 NORMAL OPERATION
THE NORMAL OPERATION REQUIRED FOR STORAGE TANKS ARE
TO RECEIVE PRODUCTS FROM PROCESS UNIT OR FROM
OUTSIDE AND TRANSFER THEM FOR ONWARD PROCESSING /
DISPATCH BY PUMPS. WHILE DOING THE ROUTINE OPERATIONS ,
OFFSITE OPERATING PERSONNEL SHOULD TO TAKE FOLLOWING
PRECAUTIONS:
 WHILE RECEIVING PRODUCT IN AN EMPTY TANK, CARE
SHOULD BE TAKEN SO THAT THE FLOW VELOCITY AT THE
TANK INLET DOES NOT EXCEED 1 M/SEC UNTIL THE INLET IS
COMPLETELY SUBMERGED.
 ADEQUATE CARE SHOULD BE TAKEN TO ENSURE THAT AT
NO TIME A TANK IS FILLED BEYOND ITS SAFE FILLING HEIGHT.
 JET MIXING NOZZLE OR SIDE ENTRY MIXERS SHOULD NOT
BE USED WITH LOW LEVEL IN THE TANK. THIS MAY PRODUCE
STATIC CHARGE IN THE TANK.

PIPING & TANKAGE DESIGN


Engineers India Ltd – Delivering excellence through people 01/02/2005
Slide Number - 65 of 69
GUIDELINES IN OPERATION WITH STORAGE TANK
 DRAIN VALVES OF THE TANKS SHOULD NEVER BE LEFT
OPEN / UNATTENDED. WHENEVER DRAINING IS TO BE
DONE , OPERATOR SHOULD PERSONALLY ATTENDED TO IF
AND ENSURE THAT THE VALVE IS PROPERLY CLOSED
AFTER THE NECESSARY DRAINING IS OVER.

 GAUGE HATCH ON THE TANK TOP SHOULD NORMALLY BE


KEPT CLOSED AS A MEASURE OF SAFETY AS WELL AS TO
AVOID ENTRY OF RAIN WATER AND REDUCE LOSS OF
PRODUCT DUE TO EVAPORATION.

 TANKS WHICH ARE PROVIDED WITH STEAM HEATING COIL


SHOULD BE REGULARLY CHECKED FOR CORRECT
WORKING OF STEAM COILS AND STEAM TRAPS.
TANK WITH LOW LEVEL SHOULD NOT BE CHARGED WITH
HEATING STEAM UNLESS THE STEAM COILS ARE
COMPLETELY SUBMERGED IN OIL.

PIPING & TANKAGE DESIGN


Engineers India Ltd – Delivering excellence through people 01/02/2005
Slide Number - 66 of 69
GUIDELINES IN OPERATION WITH STORAGE TANK
 PROPER TEMPERATURE SHOULD BE MAINTAINED IN TANK
CONTAINING BLACK PRODUCT TO AVOID CONGEALING
PROBLEM.
 FOR OPERATING FLOATING ROOF TANKS, SPECIAL CARE
AS OUTLINED BELOW SHOULD BE TAKEN.
− THE PONTOON/PAN SHOULD NOT BE ALLOWED TO REST
ON THEIR LEGS UNDER NORMAL CIRCUMSTANCES.
− THE LIFTING OF THE PONTOON/PAN FROM ITS RESTING
POINT SHOULD BE DONE SLOWLY ALLOWING IT TO
FLOAT AS UNIFORMLY AS POSSIBLE.
− TRANSFER OPERATIONS TO AND FROM THE TANKS
SHOULD NOT BE DONE IN THE CRITICAL REGION OF THE
PONTOON/PAN (PONTOON OR PAN NOT FLOATING
FULLY) AS THE OIL ACCOUNTING WILL BE ERRONEOUS.
− IN CASE OF FLOATING ROOF TANKS, ROOF DRAIN
SHOULD NORMALLY BE KEPT CLOSED AND SHOULD BE
OPENED IN CASE OF A RAIN FALL ENSURING THAT RAIN
WATER DOES NOT ACCUMULATE ON THE ROOF.
PIPING & TANKAGE DESIGN
Engineers India Ltd – Delivering excellence through people 01/02/2005
Slide Number - 67 of 69
GUIDELINES IN OPERATION WITH STORAGE TANK
 FOR OPERATING THE SIDE‑ENTRY MIXERS, THE
FOLLOWING SHOULD BE CHECKED :
− CHECK THAT THE MOTOR SHAFT IS REASONABLY FREE
AND GREASING IS PROPER.
− CHECK THAT THE MOTOR SHAFT COUPLING IS
PROPERLY SECURED AND COUPLING‑GUARD IS IN
POSITION.
− ENERGIZE THE MOTOR AND CHECK THAT THE
DIRECTION OF ROTATION IS ALL RIGHT.
− FLUSH AND RENEW OIL IN THE GEAR BOX.
− CHECK THAT OIL LEVEL IN THE TANK IS SUFFICIENT FOR
OPERATION OF THE SIDE‑ENTRY MIXER. RUN THE
MIXER.
− CHECK FOR UNUSUAL NOISE, VIBRATIONS AND RISE OF
TEMPERATURE IN THE GEAR BOX AND MOTOR
BEARINGS.

PIPING & TANKAGE DESIGN


Engineers India Ltd – Delivering excellence through people 01/02/2005
Slide Number - 68 of 69
Thank
You

www.engineersindia.com