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Seth LeRoy

Period 6
AP Government
21 September 2015
LO 1.A.1: Compare how various models of representative democracy are
reflected through major institutions, policies, events, or debates in the U.S.
There are 3 models of democracy, which are pluralist, majoritarian,
and elite. The 3 procedural democratic theory: universal participation,
political equality, and majority rule.
Majoritarian is the classical theory of democracy in which the
government is elected by the majority of the people. It is a direct
democracy with limitations of representative government. Majoritarian
fulfills the 3 procedural democratic theory. Public officials are expected
to be motivated by reelection and defeat at the polls, which meets the
fourth criterion: responsiveness.
Pluralist democracy is government by the people meaning an
operation through interest groups. This is different from majoritarian
because it challenges the government and shifts from mass electoral to
organized groups. Pluralist allows minorities to rule and make decisions
that can affect public policy, unlike majoritarian where the majority of the
voices overrule the minority voices.
Elite theory is the view that important government decisions will be
made by small groups of people, typically the groups of people that deal
with business and have tons of wealth. The ruling elite will usually get
their way. The elite theory will have controlling key factors which are
financial, communications, industrial, and government institutions. The
difference between elite theory and pluralist democracy is that it doesn't
define in terms of minority's, similar to the majoritarian, but majoritarian
can define in terms of minorities if everybody participates in election,
which is a dream.
LO 1.B.1: Analyze and compare democratic ideals reflected in U.S.
foundational documents.
The constitution is the basic structure of the national government.
There are 3 branches of powers, which the constitution outlines the
relationship between the government and the governed and the national
government and state government. The bill of rights defines and protects
the rights of the governed (the people), while the constitution defines the
national and state governments power over the people.
LO 1.B.2: Compare and interpret Federalist and Anti-Federalist views on
central government and democracy.
The federalists believe in a strong central government, while the
Anti-federalists believe in a strong state government. The national
government is restrained from tampering with fundamental rights, which
is established by the bill of rights. The federalists agreed to the
antifederalists giving them a checks and balance and separation of
powers.

LO 1.C.1: Explain the relationship between key provisions of the Articles of


Confederation and the debate over granting greater power to the
federal government formerly reserved to the states. && LO 1.C.2: Analyze
causes and effects of constitutional compromises in addressing political,
economic, and regional divisions.
In the Articles of Confederation, there was an unbalance of power,
which led to decentralization, then later on, a new form of government. In
the new form of government, the national government needed
improvement in military power and taxes. The Virginia Plan suggested 3
branches of government, the legislative, executive, and judicial. The
legislature consisted of two houses which are proportional to the taxes
paid to national government or free population. The New Jersey Plan
proposed equal representation and members chosen without the power
to veto and limited jurisdiction, so states have more power. This led to the
Great Compromise and granted the small states the equal representation
and the big states got their proportional representation. 3/5ths
compromise established slaves as 3/5ths of a vote, which dehumanized
slaves, but allowed somewhat equal votes between northern and
southern states.
LO 1.C.3: Explain how the issues raised in the ratification debate are
reflected in ongoing philosophical disagreements about democracy and
governmental power.
The key factor to the United States Constitution is protecting the
fundamental rights of the people. This established the Bill of Rights and
defined the fundamental values of people that the government should not
temper.
LO 1.D.1: Evaluate the relationship between separation of powers and
checks and balances. && LO 1.E.1: Assess how the distribution of powers
among three federal branches affects policy making
The separation of powers defined the limits of the judicial branch,
legislative branch, and the executive branch. It also ensures the people
that each branch does not demonstrate power from other branches.
Judges are nominated by the president and approved by the Senate,
which limits the peoples direct influence on the electoral process. In
other words, judges do not have to campaign. The checks and balances
gives each branch a power to overrule a branch's decision to keep it in
check (i.e Congress proposes law, Executive branch can veto, or the
judicial branch can strike the law down by finding it violates the
constitution).
LO 1.F.1: Explain how and why the appropriate balance of power between
national and state governments has been interpreted differently over
time.
The balance of power between national and state governments
have been interpreted differently over time by court cases that
challenged the federal government's power. Marbury v.s Madison case
established the ideal that judicial interpretation is a principal form of
constitutional change and the judicial branch has the power to nullify
government acts that conflict the Constitution. McCulloch vs Maryland

challenged if Congress had the power to establish a national bank and if


so had the power to tax the bank. The Judicial branch ruled that
Congress had the power to establish a national bank, but not tax the
bank because the powers from the national government came from the
people not the states. Gibbons vs Ogden established the definition of
commerce, which ruled every type of commercial act and the national
government started to gain more power over the states. Due to the gain
in power, the commerce clause challenged the supreme court suggesting
that the states rights were gaining power with the United States vs
Lopez, which established that Congress held its authority that it is illegal
to possess a gun in or near a school. Several sheriffs challenged the law
which led to Printz vs United States, which established that local officials
cannot enforce a law that is imposed by the national government.
LO 1.F.2: Analyze questions over the allocation and scope of central
power within a federal structure.
The central government has allocated power as more cases occur.
The case questions the state's power and the national government over
the states. The most recent case is when a state official refused to sign a
gay marriage license because of her religious beliefs. The case made it
to the supreme court, to which it was found unlawful and that she is
required to sign the license because the official took an oath and no
where in the constitution does it say that it is gay marriage is illegal.