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Steven Bucher
Mr. Herrmann, Mr. Rutherford
AP U.S. History Per 4
13 September 2015
Chapter 8 Notes
What were some causes for America to secede from the Empire?
1. 20,000 minute men around Boston
2. 2nd Continental Congress - May 10, 1775
a. All colonies represented
b. Drafted new appeals to Parliament but still continued to raise
money, an army, and navy because of possible outbreak of warfare
Why does Congress draft George Washington?
1. Hastey to besiege Boston and was given a rank above colonel
a. Not a huge military genius
b. Had extreme power of leadership and great character
i.
patience, courage and self-discipline and justice
ii.
People trusted him
iii.
Insisted to not be paid but around $100K in costs
c. Political decision
i.
man from largest colony (population wise)
What happened at Bunker Hill and Hessian Hirelings?
1. Increase of warfare around May 1775
a. Captured British garrisons at Ticonderoga and Crown Point
2. seized Bunker Hill in June of 1775
a. Sharp shooting Americans cut off advancing British troops
i.
had to abandon after gunpowder ran out
3. Olive Branch Petition - July 1775 adopted by Continental Congress
a. Professing loyalty to the King to stop the warfare
i.
King George III declined after Bunker Hill and
formally proclaimed rebellion August 1775
1. hired German men called Hessians
What caused the abortive conquest of Canada?

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1. Britain burned Falmouth, (Portland) Maine in Oct 1775


2. American leaders tried to invade Canada
a. Create 14th Colony
b. deprive Britain of a valuable base to strike the colonies from North
i.
No longer fighting defensively
c. Failed after American general Montgomery died after being
defeated by Brit General Arnold
i.
French did not want anti-Catholics(colonists) to
invade
3. British burned town of Norfolk in Virginia and evacuated Boston January 1776
4. Americans won at Moores Creek Bridge in N.C. and at Charleston harbor
Who was Thomas Paine and why was he preaching common sense?
1. Loyalty to America is deeply ingrained into society
a. Strengthened from British acts like burning of Falmouth and
Norfolk
2. Common Sense - influential pamphlet written by radial Thomas Paine
a. Hated on the British and their king
b. Rose questions to the colonists
c. drafted foundational document for American Independence and
foreign policy
d. Extremely popular
What was Paines idea of Republicanism?
1. New kind of political society, Republic, where power was in the people
a. Not first idea of Republicanism - Greeks, Romans
b. Started to practice Republicanism in small town governments
c. Talk about citizen virtue and no political central power
d. Colonists agreed more with this democratic idea than Republic
e. Stability in social order and leveling the social ladder
What is Jeffersons Explanation of Independence?
1. Gradual edge to a clean break from England
2. Individual states for each colony was adopted July 2nd 1776
a. Start of Declaration of Independence
3. Declaration of Independence July 4th 1776
a. Invoking national human rights
b. Ironic cause creators had slaves
c. Patriots were now rebels and no longer just milita men

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d. Influenced the entire world


4. Declaration of the Rights of Man - an off-shoot of Declaration of Independence
a. French Revolution
Who were the Patriots and Loyalists
1. Loyalists - loyal to king and England
a. 16% of American people
b. Educated, rich, and cautious people were loyalists
c. Kings officers, beneficiaries of the crown
d. Numerous but not as powerful or strong as the church
2. American Rebels - Patriots
a. Fought British Redcoats
i.
Proved not able to win over as many Americas
b. Minority movement
What caused the Loyalist Exodus?
1. Persecution of the Loyalists after the Declaration of Independence
a. Imprisoned, hanged, humiliated
b. Around 80K loyalists were driven out or fled
c. Some served as spies while around 50K bore arms for British
Why was General Washington at Bay?
1. British went to N.Y after fleeing Boston
a. 500 ships and 35K seamen
2. General Washington only had 8K poorly trained men to stop British
3. Battle of Long Island - Washington retreated northwards
a. Delaware River crossing to escape but recrossed stealthily
i.
At Trenton on Dec. 26 1776
What was Burgoynes Blundering Invasion?
1. British strategy to take Hudson River Valley to paralyze American cause
2. General John Burgoyne - British invader from Canada
a. Couldnt move forward till they claimed Lake Champlain
b. Started in the winter and was significantly hindered
3. General Howe slow advance to Philadelphia
a. Open up path for Burgoyne
b. But instead abandoned him after defeat to Washington
4. Washington was able to transfer troops to Philadelphia quick enough
5. Burgoyne was forced to surrender at Saratoga on Oct. 17, 1777
Revolution in Diplomacy?

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1. French eager to help Americans fight the British


a. Regain honor after loss of Seven Years War
2. Model Treaty - a guide for American commissioners who were about to dispatch
to the French court
a. No political connection.No military connectionOnly a
commercial connection
b. Ben Franklin went to Paris to solve the treaty with France
i.
Adored by the regular people
3. British gave Americans all that they want just not independence
a. French offered an alliance but did not agree to terms of Model
Treaty
i.

Went to war against the British together and

American Revolutionary War was not a world war


What makes the Colonial War become wider?
1. Spain entered war against the British and Holland
a. Fleet against the British was now larger than their fleet
i.
Armed Neutrality - Organized by Catherine the
Great of Russia
1. Passive hostility against the British
2. French provided guns equipment and ammo for the Americans
a. British evacuated Philly and concentrated on N.Y
i.
Washington beat British and remained in N.Y
What were some blows and counter blows?
1. 6K French troops arrived in Newport Rhode Island
a. Plan attack on N.Y
2. British plan to take control of colonies starting with South
a. Took Charleston S.C. in 1780
b. Warfare intensified in the Carolinas
What occurred during the Land and Sea Frontiers?
1. West Indians were supporters of George III but wanted to protect land
a. Paid by English for American scalps
b. Bloody warfare on frontier in 1777
2. Treaty of Fort Stanwix - First treaty between U.S and Indians
a. There was still westward movement in America
i.
British were especially vulnerable

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3. Naval establishment
a. Didnt really affect British
b. Privateers who were privately owned armed ships
i.
Around 1000 who captured around 600 British
ships
ii.
iii.

In it for the money and profit


Raised morale after naval victories

What happened at Yorktown and what was the Final Curtain?


1. Inflation of currency, virtually bankrupt government
2. British General Cornwallis fell back to Chesapeake Bay after Yorktown
a. Assumed British still controlled the sea
b. Assault by French fleet
c. King George stubbornly still kept fighting
i.
54K redcoats still in America
d. Fighting still continued for another year
What was the Peace at Paris?
1. Peace treaty negotiators: Ben Franklin, John Adams, John Jay
a. Had to consult with French allies in any terms
b. French was playing a huge risk in Americas independence
2. Treaty of Paris 1783 - formally recognized America as its own nation
a. End persecution of Loyalists and return their land
How was a New Nation Legitimized
1. Generous British agreements
a. trans-Appalachian area for a gift
b. tried to get Americans away from French ally
c. French happy to get out of the conflict
i.
Savored sweet success

In Class Notes
Disagreement Conflict (Lexington and Concord 1775) Independence
1776
Taxation without representation British argued that Parliament represented all of the colonies

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-Virtual Representation
-Common Sense that an island 3K miles away shouldnt decided on behalf of a larger
area
-Common Law - RIghts of Englishmen
-Precedent - prior example of the code
-Government cannot take away your property without your consent
Not only the taxes that caused the colonists to collect guns
-were projecting themselves after the Boston Massacre
-Found not guilty because there was reason that the crowd sair Fire
-Boston Tea Party was like this because the colonists were trying to raise hell to
gain more people on their side
Loyalists and Patriots and neutrals or unknowns
Restoration of Order in Boston after the Tea Party
-Fight back and forth about order and rights
-Soldiers were used as police force and gave a bad rep for poorly trained in policing
Continental Congress discussion of idea - some were disagreeing with breaking away,
-Rich people and representative from the South because they havent witnessed the
problems and had something to lose
-Virginian government how presents the idea of Declaration of Independence
-Argument to break away
Quartering Soldiers

King sees the americans and trying to encroach on his power so he crushed them to prevent that

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Tax repelled but British include a law saying that they are still in charge
-Stamp Act is repealed and another law was established which was Declaratory Act

TAX MEETING (BOYCOTT) REPEAL(Declaratory act to reaffirm power)

A POWER struggle - between America's power and the Kings (England's) power
Jefferson is pointing finger at King George because there could have been peace but King was a
tyrant
British used their strength to try to regulate
Evacuated Boston and feeling embarrassed because they cant show their power
-React to attacking of New York

STRENGTH vs. NEGOTIATION


(Power)