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Ecology

obj. 2

The study of the


interactions that
take place among
organisms and their
environment

Biosphere
The part of Earth that supports
life
Top portion of Earth's crust
All the waters that cover Earth's
surface
Atmosphere that surrounds Earth.

Ecosystem
The living and nonliving things
that interact in a particular area.
Biotic: organisms (living things)
in an ecosystem
Abiotic: nonliving things

Population
All the organisms in an
ecosystem that belong to the
same species

Community
All the
populations or
different
organisms that
live together in
an area.

C T O S O P C E

NICHE
Niche- an organisms role in the
ecosystem
type of food, how it obtains this food,
physical conditions needed to survive
and reproduce

Each organism plays a role in the


ecosystem.
Their role is also known as their
niche.
Energy

SUN

GRASS

Producer

ZEBRA

Primary
Consumer

LION

Secondary
Consumer

What is a producer?
Creates its own food
through the process
of photosynthesis.
Plants are producers.

grasses

Producer

Plants use their leaves to


produce their own food through
the process of photosynthesis.
Sunlight

Carbon
Dioxide

Water that comes


from the plants
root system

Oxygen is
released

Sugar/glucose/
food
CH0

Consumers

1. herbivore(PLANT-EATER,
hierbas)

2.carnivore( MEATEATER,carne)
3.omnivores(eat both
plants and
animals)

Each organism plays a role in the


ecosystem. Their role is also known
as their niche.
Energy

SUN

GRASS

Producer

ZEBRA

Primary
Consumer

LION

Secondary
Consumer

Decomposers

Decomposers are
consumers that
break down dead
plants and
animals.

They return
materials stored in
dead plants and
animals to the soil,
water, and air.
Then green plants
use the materials
to make food.

Scavenger
Feed on dead plants
and animals

Vultures

When organisms die, decomposers such as


fungi (mushrooms) and bacteria eat them.
SUN

GRASS

Dies

ZEBRA

Dies

LION

Dies

Food Chain- series of events in which


one organism eats another to obtain
energy.

Food webs
Consists of many
overlapping food
chains in an
ecosystem.

Energy Pyramids
Shows the amount of
energy that moves
from one feeding
level to another in a
food web. Only 10%
of the energy
transfers to the
next level.

Limiting Factor
Anything that restricts the number of
individuals in a population.
Physical barriers( mountains, water,
deserts)
Competition-compete for resources
Climate- typical weather pattern in
an area over a long period of time
(weather is day to day conditions in an area)

Succession
Natural, gradual changes that occur
in a community over time; can be
primary or secondary.
Ex: after a volcano, an ecosystem recovers
Primary begins in a place without soil, no previous
ecosystem existed.(new island- lava cooling
Secondary where soil already exists
(fires,hurricanes, tornadoes, farming, logging)

Primary
Secondary

Pioneer species
A group of organisms, such as
lichens, found in the primary
stage of succession and that
begin an area's soil-building
process

Climax community and


equilibrium
A community that has reached a
stable stage of ecological
succession

Habitat

The place in which an


organism lives
provides the kinds of food and shelter,
the temperature, and the amount of
moisture the organism needs to
survive

Biome

Large geographic areas/


ecosystems with similar climates
and organisms.

Includes
Rain Forest
tropical and temperate
rain forest
Deserts
Grassland
Deciduous forest
Boreal forest
Tundra

Mountains and Ice


Freshwater-ponds,
lakes, streams, rivers
Marine-estuaries