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Introduction to Fabric Manufacturing

1.5 Numerical Examples:

1. The length of a fabric is 10 m. The length of a warp yarn, removed from the fabric, in
straight condition is 10.8 m. Determine the crimp% in warp direction. What should be
contraction %?

Solution:

Crimp % =

Lyarn L fabric
L fabric

100

where, Lyarn = length of warp yarn removed from the fabric,


Lfabric = length of fabric.

Crimp% =

(1.08 1)
100 = 8%
1

Contraction % =

Lyarn L fabric
Lyarn

100

(1.08 1)
100 7.41%
1.08

2. Prove that for cotton yarn, diameter (inch)

1
if packing factor is 0.6.
28 Ne

Solution:

The count of the yarn is Ne.


Let us consider that the diameter and length of the yarn (for mass of 1 pound) is d inch and l inch
respectively.
As the count is Ne, there will be Ne number of hanks (840 Yards) in 1 pound.
Thus here l =Ne84036 inch

Density of cotton fibre is 1.51 g/cm3.


As the packing factor is 0.6, the density of the cotton yarn will be 1.50.6 = 0.9 g/cm3.
=

0.9 2.543
pound/inch 3 0.0325 pound/inch 3
453.6

The volume of the yarn =

d2
4

Mass of the yarn

d2
4

d2
4

Simplifying, we get d (inch)

l inch 3

l 0.0325 pound

Ne 840 36 0.0325 pound =1 pound (by definition)


1
28 Ne

3. A cotton fabric is made from 20 Ne warp and ends per inch is 50. Determine the warp
cover factor.

Solution:

Ends per inch= 50

End spacing (p) =

1
= 0.02
50"

Warp count = 20Ne

So, Warp diameter (d) =

28 Ne
=

= 0.008

28 20
Warp cover factor =

28

d
p

28

0.008
= 11.2
0.02

4. Show that the expression for cloth cover is


factor and K2 is weft cover factor.

Solution:

Let,
d1 = diameter of warp yarn,
d2 = diameter of weft yarn,
p1 = end spacing,
p2 = pick spacing.

Fractional cover =

d1 p2 d 2 p1 d1d 2
p1 p2
=

d1 d 2 d1d 2

p2 p2 p1 p2

Cover factor = 28 Fractional cover


=

28

d1
d
dd
28 2 28 1 2
d2
p2
p1 p2

Fabric cover factor (K) =

K1 K 2

K1 K 2
28

K1 K 2

K1 K 2
28

, where K1 is warp cover

5. Calculate the weight of warp and weft / yd2 and the weight of fabric (oz/yd2) for the
following cotton cloth: 22s 18s; 64 epi 40 ppi ; 6.5% 8.5%

Solution:
1 pound = 16 ounce (oz)
Here warp count is 22 Ne
Weft count is 18 Ne
Ends per inch = 64
Picks per inch = 40
Warp crimp = 6.5%
Weft crimp = 8.5%

Therefore, Weight of warp per yard =

36 64 1.065 16
840 22

oz

= 2.124 oz

Weight of weft per yard =

36 40 1.085 16
840 16

= 1.653 oz

So, cloth weight (oz/yd2) = 2.124+ 1.653


= 3.777 oz/yd2

oz