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‫اﻟﺘﺪﺑﻴﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ‬

‫ﺍﳌﺼﻮﻏﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ‬
‫ﺑﻠﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺼﻮﻏﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺨﻄﻄﲔ ﻭﺍﳌﺪﺑﺮﻳﻦ ﰲ ﻣﻴﺪﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﻼﺯﻣﺔ ﻟﺒﻠﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕ ﻣﺮﻛﺰﺓ ﻭﻣﻨﻄﻘﻴﺔ ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﻣﻠﻤﻮﺳﺔ ﻟﻠﱪﺍﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻌﻤﻠﻮﻥ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺸﻤﻞ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺑﲑ ﺛﻼﺙ ﻣﺮﺍﺣﻞ ﻣﺘﺪﺍﺧﻠﺔ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻄﻴﻂ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﻭﺗﻘﻮﱘ ﺍﻹﳒﺎﺯ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺼﻮﻏﺔ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻄﻴﻂ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻲ‪.‬‬

‫ﻛﻴﻒ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻧﻌﺮﻑ ﺷﺠﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ؟‬


‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺓ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺱ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤﻠﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﺭﺑﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺑﺸﺄﻥ ﲣﻄﻴﻂ ﺍﻟﱪﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﻭﺗﺪﺑﲑﻩ ﻫﻲ ﻣﺎ ﻧﺴﻤﻴﻪ‬
‫ﺷﺠﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ‪ .‬ﻭﲤﺜﻞ ﺷﺠﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺔ )ﺃﻭ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ( ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﺗﺮﻣﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﳍﺪﻑ ﻣﻌﲔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺗﻌﺮﺽ ﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺸﺠﺮﺓ ﰲ ﺷﻜﻞ ﺭﺳﻢ ﺑﻴﺎﱐ‪ ،‬ﻭﻏﺎﻟﺒﺎ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻀﺎﻑ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﻧﺺ ﻭﺻﻔﻲ‪ .‬ﺗﺘﻀﻤﻦ‬
‫ﺷﺠﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﳍﺪﻑ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻴﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﺮﻭﺭﻳﺔ ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﳍﺪﻑ )ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﺃﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻫﺬﻩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﳑﻮﻟﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻑ ﻭﺯﺍﺭﺗﻜﻢ ﺃﻡ ﺷﺮﻛﺎﺋﻜﻢ ﺃﻡ ﺍ‪‬ﺘﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﻌﻤﻠﻮﻥ ﻓﻴﻪ(‪ .‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺷﺠﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ‬
‫ﺗﻨﻘﻞ ﻓﺮﺿﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻀﻤﻨﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﺒﻴﺔ ﺿﻤﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻴﻄﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺍﳍﺪﻑ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺑﺎﺧﺘﺼﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻳﺘﻌﲔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺺ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻨﻈﺮ ﺇﱃ ﺷﺠﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺘﻔﻬﻢ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺩﺉ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻨﺒﲏ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﻭﺃﻥ ﳛﺪﺩ ﰲ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺿﻤﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺠﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻴﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ‬
‫ﻳﺮﺍﻫﺎ ﺿﺮﻭﺭﻳﺔ ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﳍﺪﻑ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻲ‪.‬‬

‫ﺑﻠﻮرة اﻻﺳﺘﺮاﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎت‬

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‫اﻟﺘﺪﺑﻴﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ‬

‫ﻣﺜﺎﻝ ﻟﺸﺠﺮﺓ ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺞ‬

‫ﻣﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺩﻭﺭ ﺷﺠﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ؟‬


‫ﺗﻌﺘﱪ ﺷﺠﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺃﺩﺍﺓ ﻟﻠﺘﺨﻄﻴﻂ ﻭﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ﺃﺩﺍﺓ ﻟﻠﺘﺪﺑﲑ‪ .‬ﻭﻟﺸﺠﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺩﻭﺭ‬
‫ﻣﺮﻛﺰﻱ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﺨﻄﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﻟﻠﻤﺪﺑﺮﻳﻦ ﺇﻃﺎﺭﺍ ﲟﺜﺎﺑﺔ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﻟﺘﻘﻮﱘ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺪﻡ ﰲ‬
‫ﺑﻠﻮﻍ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﻭﻟﺘﻜﻴﻴﻒ ﺍﻟﱪﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺗﺒﻌﺎ ﻟﺬﻟﻚ‪ .‬ﻭﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻳﻘﺪﻡ ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﺷﺠﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﻓﺮﺻﺔ‬
‫ﻣﻬﻤﺔ ﻟﻠﻔﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﱪﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﻟﻠﻌﻤﻞ ﻣﻊ ﺷﺮﻛﺎﺋﻪ ﻭﺍﳌﺴﺘﻔﻴﺪﻳﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻧﺸﻄﺘﻪ ﳋﻠﻖ ﺭﻭﺡ ﺍﻹﲨﺎﻉ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻹﺣﺴﺎﺱ ﺑﺎﳌﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﺑﺸﺄﻥ ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﻭﺍﳌﻘﺎﺭﺑﺎﺕ ﻟﺒﻠﻮﻍ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﳌﺬﻛﻮﺭﺓ‪ .‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺃﺷﺠﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻌﺐ ﺩﻭﺭ ﺃﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺗﻮﺍﺻﻞ ﻷ‪‬ﺎ ﺗﻌﻜﺲ ﺑﺎﺧﺘﺰﺍﻝ ﺃﻫﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﻣﺎ ﺗﺘﻮﺧﻰ‬
‫ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﻫﺪﻑ ﻣﻌﲔ )ﺃﻱ ﻫﺪﻑ ﺍﻟﱪﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﻭﻣﻀﻤﻮﻧﻪ(‪ .‬ﻭﰲ ﺍﻷﺧﲑ‪ ،‬ﲤﺜﻞ ﺃﺷﺠﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ‪ ،‬ﻟﻜﻮ‪‬ﺎ‬
‫ﺃﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺗﺪﺑﲑ ﺣﻴﻮﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻷﺳﺲ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺃﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﻭﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﻫﺎﻣﺔ ﻣﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﱪﻧﺎﻣﺞ‪:‬‬
‫« ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﺇﱃ ﺍﺗﻔﺎﻕ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻳﻖ ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺑﲔ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻷﺧﲑ ﻭﺷﺮﻛﺎﺋﻪ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﳌﺘﻮﻗﻌﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺍﳌﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﻼﺯﻣﺔ‪.‬‬
‫« ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﺧﻄﻂ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻭ ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻤﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫« ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ ﻣﻼﺋﻤﺔ ﻟﻜﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﻭﺑﻠﻮﺭﺓ ﺃﻧﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﳒﺎﺯ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻘﻮﱘ‪.‬‬
‫« ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﳒﺎﺯ ﻻﲣﺎﺫ ﻗﺮﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﺗﺪﺑﲑﻳﺔ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻣﻮﺛﻮﻕ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ )ﺃﻱ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ‬
‫ﺃﻧﺸﻄﺔ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﻣﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﱪﻧﺎﻣﺞ(‪.‬‬
‫« ﲢﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻹﳒﺎﺯ ﻭﺇﻋﻄﺎﺀ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺣﻮﻟﻪ‪.‬‬

‫ﺑﻠﻮرة اﻻﺳﺘﺮاﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎت‬

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‫اﻟﺘﺪﺑﻴﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ‬

‫ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺔ‪ :‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺸﺄﻥ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺼﻮﻏﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻹﳒﺎﺯ‪ ،‬ﺳﻨﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﺃﻣﺜﻠﺔ ﺗﺮﺑﻮﻳﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻻ ﺻﻠﺔ ﳍﺎ ﲟﺠﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺑﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺄﻧﺎ ﳍﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﺭﺑﺔ ﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺮﺑﺔ ﺃﺛﺒﺘﺖ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﻤﺎﺭﺳﺔ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺧﻼﻝ ﻣﻀﻤﻮﻥ ﺧﺎﺭﺝ ﻋﻦ ﻧﻄﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻣﻲ ﺗﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﺍﻷﺷﺨﺎﺹ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺳﺘﻴﻌﺎﺏ ﻣﻔﺎﻫﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ‬
‫ﻋﻮﺽ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﺻﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﲟﺠﺎﻝ ﺍﺧﺘﺼﺎﺻﻬﻢ‪ .‬ﻭﲟﺠﺮﺩ ﺍﺳﺘﻴﻌﺎﺏ ﺍﳌﻔﺎﻫﻴﻢ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺱ‪،‬‬
‫ﳝﻜﻦ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻓﻜﺎﺭ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻤﻠﻬﻢ‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﻌﻤﻠﻜﻢ‪ ،‬ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺮﺣﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻳﺘﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻡ ﺑﺎﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺣﻮﻝ ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﺑﻠﻮﻍ ﻫﺪﻑ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻲ‬
‫ﳏﺪﺩ ﻭﺇﻋﻄﺎﺀ ﺗﱪﻳﺮﺍﺕ ﺣﻮﻝ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻟﻶﺧﺮﻳﻦ‪ .‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺷﺄﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺼﻮﻏﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺑﺸﺠﺮﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺴﺎﻋﺪﻛﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻡ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ‪.‬‬
‫ﰲ ‪‬ﺎﻳﺔ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺼﻮﻏﺔ ﺳﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﺑﺈﻣﻜﺎﻧﻜﻢ ﻭﺇﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﻓﺮﻳﻘﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻡ ﲟﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ‪:‬‬
‫« ﺃﻥ ﺗﺒﻴﻨﻮﺍ ﺑﻮﺿﻮﺡ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺟﻮﺍﻧﺐ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺍﺧﺘﺮﲤﻮﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﲟﺎ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ‬
‫ﻫﻴﺌﺎﺕ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ – ﻛﺎﳌﻨﻈﻤﺎﺕ ﻏﲑ ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳌﺘﱪﻋﲔ ﺍﻵﺧﺮﻳﻦ – ﻫﻲ ﺍﳌﺴﺆﻭﻟﺔ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫« ﺃﻥ ﺗﺸﺮﺣﻮﺍ " ﻓﺮﺿﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ " ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺑﺎﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺑﻌﺒﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺗﻌﱪ ﻋﻦ "ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﺒﻴﺔ"‪،‬‬
‫ﲝﻴﺚ ﺗﺒﻴﻨﻮﻥ ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﺇﱃ ﻫﺪﻑ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻲ ﻋﱪ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﳌﻜﻮﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻼﺯﻣﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻴﻄﺔ‪ ،‬ﰲ ﺍﳌﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺳﺐ‪.‬‬
‫« ﺃﻥ ﺗﺴﺘﻌﻤﻠﻮﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﺒﻴﺔ ﺿﻤﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﻟﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﺎ ﺳﺘﺮﻛﺰﻭﻥ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﰲ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺘﻜﻢ ﺇﺫﺍ ﱂ‬
‫ﺗﺘﻤﻜﻨﻮﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻠﻮﻍ ﺍﳍﺪﻑ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻲ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻳﺔ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻣﻦ ﺷﺠﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ‪.‬‬
‫« ﺃﻥ ﺗﺼﻔﻮﺍ ﺃﻳﺔ ﺍﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﺎﺕ ﻣﻬﻤﺔ ﺗﺘﻀﻤﻨﻬﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺘﻜﻢ ﺑﺸﺄﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻻ ﺃﻧﺘﻢ ﻭﻻ‬
‫ﺷﺮﻛﺎﺅﻛﻢ ﰲ ﺑﺮﺍﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﻗﺎﺩﺭﻭﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻷﺧﻄﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻄﺮﺣﻬﺎ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺑﻠﻮﻍ ﻫﺪﻓﻜﻢ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻲ‪.‬‬

‫ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺔ‪ :‬ﺳﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻔﻴﺪ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﰲ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺼﻮﻏﺔ ﻛﻔﺮﻳﻖ‪ .‬ﻻ ﺗﻨﺴﻮﺍ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﳉﻤﺎﻋﻲ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻮﻗﻒ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺎ ﺳﻴﺘﻌﻠﻤﻪ ﻛﻞ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻵﺧﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻗﺸﺔ ﻭﺍﻧﺪﻣﺎﺝ ﺍ‪‬ﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﰲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺎﺭﻳﻦ ﺧﺼﻮﺻﺎ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﺎﳌﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ‪‬ﻤﻜﻢ‪ .‬ﺇﺫﻥ ﻟﻨﺒﺪﺃ‪.‬‬

‫ﺑﻠﻮرة اﻻﺳﺘﺮاﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎت‬

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‫اﻟﺘﺪﺑﻴﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ‬

‫اﻟﺘﻔﻜﻴﺮ اﻻﺳﺘﺮاﺗﻴﺠﻲ ‪ :‬ﻣﺎذا ﻳﻌﻨﻲ ذﻟﻚ؟‬


‫ﻟﻨﻔﺮﺽ ﺃﻧﻜﻢ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩﻭﻥ ﺑﺎﻟﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻀﺎﺀ ﻭﺃﻧﻪ ﻳﺘﻌﲔ ﻋﻠﻴﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺬﻫﺎﺏ ﺇﱃ ﺟﺪﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻣﲔ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻘﺒﻠﲔ‪ .‬ﻟﻜﻦ ﻣﺎ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺳﺘﺴﻠﻜﻮ‪‬ﺎ؟ ﳝﻜﻨﻜﻢ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺘﻮﻗﻔﻮﺍ ﰲ ﺗﻮﻧﺲ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺼﺮ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺬﻫﺒﻮﺍ‬
‫ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻮﺩﻳﺔ‪ .‬ﻋﻠﻴﻜﻢ ﺃﻥ ﲣﺘﺎﺭﻭﺍ‪ .‬ﻓﻌﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺳﺘﻘﻀﻮ‪‬ﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﺋﺮﺓ ﻟﻴﺲ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﻀﺮﻭﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﺍﳌﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﻮﺣﻴﺪ‪ .‬ﻭﺃﻧﺘﻢ ﺑﺼﺪﺩ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻗﺪ ﺗﺮﻏﺒﻮﻥ ﰲ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ‬
‫ﺳﺘﻐﲑﻭﻥ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﺋﺮﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺷﺮﻛﺔ ﺍﻟﻄﲑﺍﻥ ﻭﺃﻳﻦ ﺳﺘﺘﻮﻗﻔﻮﻥ ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺍﳌﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺳﺘﻘﻀﻮ‪‬ﺎ ﰲ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻄﺎﺭﺍﺕ‪ .‬ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﻘﺎﺭﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﺎ ﺑﺒﻌﺾ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﻧﺘﻢ ﺣﻴﻨﻬﺎ ﺗﻔﻜﺮﻭﻥ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺳﺘﻘﻮﻣﻮﻥ ﺑﻪ ﻫﻮ ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺘﻜﻢ‪ .‬ﻭﺭﻏﻢ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺳﻴﻘﻊ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻛﻢ‬
‫ﻭﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻓﺮﻳﻘﻜﻢ ﻟﺒﻠﻮﻍ ﻫﺪﻑ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻲ‬
‫ﺳﺘﺘﻀﻤﻦ ﻋﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺗﻌﻘﻴﺪﺍ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺴﺄﻟﺔ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﻴﻞ ﳉﺪﺓ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺱ‪ ،‬ﺃﻻ ﻭﻫﻲ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳋﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻡ ﺑﺎﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ‪ ،‬ﻫﻲ ﳑﺎﺛﻠﺔ ﻭﻟﻮ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﻟﻴﺴﺖ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﻧﻔﺴﻬﺎ ﲤﺎﻣﺎ‪ .‬ﻓﺎﻟﻔﺮﻕ‬
‫ﻳﻜﻤﻦ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﺐ ﻭﺭﺍﺀ ﺿﺮﻭﺭﺓ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‪ .‬ﻓﺘﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺳﻔﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﻄﺎﺋﺮﺓ ﺃﻣﺮ ﺳﻬﻞ‪ .‬ﻓﻤﻦ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺤﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺃﻥ ﻧﻜﻮﻥ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﱳ ﻃﺎﺋﺮﺗﲔ ﳐﺘﻠﻔﺘﲔ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﲡﺎﻫﲔ ﳐﺘﻠﻔﲔ‪ .‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﻭﳓﻦ ﺑﺼﺪﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻄﻴﻂ ﻟﱪﺍﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﻓﻐﺎﻟﺒﺎ ﻣﺎ ﳒﺪ ﺃﻧﻔﺴﻨﺎ ﻣﻀﻄﺮﻳﻦ ﻟﻼﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﻦ ﺑﲔ ﻋﺪﺓ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ‪ .‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻟﻌﺪﻡ ﺇﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻣﻮﺍﺻﻠﺔ ﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕ ﰲ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﻵﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻷﻧﻨﺎ ﻗﺪ ﻻ ﻧﺘﻮﻓﺮ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﳓﻦ ﻭﻻ ﺷﺮﻛﺎﺅﻧﺎ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻘﻴﺎﻡ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﺃﻭ ﺣﱴ ﻟﻮ ﻛﻨﺎ ﻧﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﻻ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻟﺪﻳﻨﺎ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﺮﻭﺭﻳﺔ‬
‫ﳌﺘﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻲ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻛﻞ ﻣﺮﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺗﺘﻮﻗﻒ ﺍﻟﺴﻬﻮﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺳﺘﺤﺪﺩﻭﻥ ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﺃﻧﺘﻢ ﻭﻓﺮﻳﻘﻜﻢ‪ ،‬ﺍﳋﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﻳﻠﺔ‬
‫ﻟﺒﻠﻮﻍ ﻫﺪﻑ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻲ ﻣﻌﲔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﻛﺒﲑﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ‪ ،‬ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺍ‪‬ﺎﻝ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳊﻘﻞ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﻌﻤﻠﻮﻥ‬
‫ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻤﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍ‪‬ﺎﻝ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺍ ﻋﻠﻴﻜﻢ ﺃﻧﺘﻢ ﺃﻭ ﻓﺮﻳﻘﻜﻢ ﻭﻗﺪﺭﺗﻜﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳊﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺏ ﺍﳉﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﰲ ﻣﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺏ ﺍﻟﱵ ﳝﻜﻦ ﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺋﻜﻢ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺪ ﺍﳌﻀﻴﻒ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‪ /‬ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻭﻣﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ .‬ﻭﺳﺘﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺍﳋﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﲢﺪﺩﻭ‪‬ﺎ ﺑﻜﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﺭﺅﻳﺘﻜﻢ ﻟﻠﻤﺸﻜﻞ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ‬
‫ﺩﻓﻊ ﺑﻔﺮﻳﻘﻜﻢ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻘﺮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺪﻑ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻲ ﻣﻌﲔ‪.‬‬

‫ﺑﻠﻮرة اﻻﺳﺘﺮاﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎت‬

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‫اﻟﺘﺪﺑﻴﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ‬

‫ﻟﻨﺄﺧﺬ ﻛﻤﺜﺎﻝ ﻫﺪﻓﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎ ﻳﺮﻛﺰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﲢﺴﲔ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺠﺎﺡ ﺍﳌﺪﺭﺳﻲ‪ .‬ﻗﺪ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﳍﺪﻑ‬
‫ﻣﻌﱪﺍ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻛﺎﻟﺘﺎﱄ‪" :‬ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻤﻲ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ" ﺃﻭ ﻗﺪ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﳍﺪﻑ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﲢﺪﻳﺪﺍ‪" :‬ﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ ﻋﺪﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻼﻣﻴﺬ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻠﻤﻴﺬﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﳛﺼﻠﻮﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻻﺑﺘﺪﺍﺋﻴﺔ )ﺍﻟﻘﺴﻢ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺩﺱ("‪ .‬ﰲ ﻛﻠﺘﺎ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺘﲔ‪،‬‬
‫ﳓﻦ ﻧﻌﻠﻢ ﺃﻥ ﺇﺑﻘﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﻼﻣﻴﺬ ﺑﺎﳌﺪﺍﺭﺱ ﻫﻮ ﻋﻨﺼﺮ ﺿﺮﻭﺭﻱ ﺿﻤﻦ ﻣﻬﻤﺘﻨﺎ‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻓﻜﺮﻧﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎ‪ ،‬ﻣﺎ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺳﻴﻤﻜﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺇﺑﻘﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﻼﻣﻴﺬ ﺑﺎﳌﺪﺍﺭﺱ؟ ﰲ ﻋﺪﺩ ﻛﺒﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻣﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻳﺘﻤﺜﻞ ﺍﳋﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ‬
‫ﺣﺪﺩﺗﻪ ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﳌﺘﱪﻋﻮﻥ ﰲ ﻣﺎ ﻗﺪ ﻧﺴﻤﻴﻪ ﺑﺎﳋﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ "ﺗﻮﻓﲑ ﺍﳌﺰﻳﺪ" ﻭﻳﻌﲏ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﺮﻓﻊ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻷﻗﺴﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﺗﻮﻓﲑ ﻛﺘﺐ ﻣﺪﺭﺳﻴﺔ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ‪ ،‬ﲢﺴﲔ ﻛﻔﺎﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺗﺬﺓ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﰲ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺗﺬﺓ‪،‬‬
‫ﺍﱁ‪ .‬ﻫﻞ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺑﺪﻳﻞ؟ ﺑﺎﻟﻄﺒﻊ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺑﺪﻳﻞ‪ .‬ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ "ﻃﻠﺐ ﺍﳌﺰﻳﺪ"‪ .‬ﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﻄﻠﺐ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳋﻴﺎﺭ ﺃﻣﻮﺭﺍ‬
‫ﻣﺜﻞ ﺇﳚﺎﺩ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﻳﻨﺺ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﺟﺒﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺪﺭﺳﺔ ﻭﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻳﻨﺺ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺇﺟﺒﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺇﻛﻤﺎﻝ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻤﻬﻢ ﺍﻻﺑﺘﺪﺍﺋﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﺒﺪﺋﻴﺎ‪ ،‬ﺇﻥ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﻦ ﺑﲔ ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳋﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻻ ﻳﻌﲏ ﻓﻘﻂ ﺃﻧﻨﺎ ﻧﻔﻀﻞ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ ﺍﻹﺣﺴﺎﺱ ﲟﺰﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﺭﺗﻴﺎﺡ ﳋﻴﺎﺭ " ﺗﻮﻓﲑ ﺍﳌﺰﻳﺪ" ﺑﺎﳌﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ "ﻃﻠﺐ ﺍﳌﺰﻳﺪ"‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﻥ ﺃﺣﺴﻦ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺳﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﺩﺍﺋﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻘﺪﻡ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ ﺍﳊﻠﻮﻝ ﻟﻠﻤﺸﺎﻛﻞ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﺃﻱ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﻛﻞ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺃﺩﺕ ﺇﱃ ﺇﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺗﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺣﻮﻥ ﻣﺜﻼ ﻻ ﻳﻨﺘﺠﻮﻥ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺪﺭ ﺍﳌﻄﻠﻮﺏ ﻷﻥ ﺍﻷﲦﺎﻥ ﻣﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻨﺤﻬﻢ ﺇﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺃﻛﱪ‬
‫ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﺬﻭﺭ ﻗﺪ ﻻ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻧﺎﺟﻌﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎ‪ ،‬ﺇﻧﻨﺎ ﻟﺴﻨﺎ ﺩﺍﺋﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﺩﺭﻳﻦ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺴﻦ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺣﱴ ﻟﻮ ﻛﻨﺎ ﻗﺎﺩﺭﻳﻦ ﻋﻠﻰ ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﻋﺪﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕ ﻹﳒﺎﺯ ﻫﺪﻑ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻲ ﻣﻌﲔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﳒﺪ‬
‫ﺃﻥ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺗﻨﺎ‪ ،‬ـ ﻭﰲ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻷﺣﻴﺎﻥ ﺃﺣﺴﻨﻬﺎـ ﻏﲑ ﻗﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﻟﻺﳒﺎﺯ‪ ،‬ﻟﻌﺪﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﲟﺎ ﰲ‬
‫ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻹﺭﺍﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻏﺎﻟﺒﺎ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺼﺒﺢ ﺍﳌﺸﻜﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻔﺮﻳﻖ ﻫﻮ ﻣﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﳚﺐ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ" ﺛﺎﱐ‬
‫ﺃﺣﺴﻦ" ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺮﺍﻑ ﺃﻥ ﺣﻈﻮﻅ ﺍﻟﻨﺠﺎﺡ ﺿﺌﻴﻠﺔ ﺇﻻ ﰲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻋﺪﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﺭﺑﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻟﺒﻠﻮﺭﺓ ﺷﺠﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ‪ .‬ﻭ ﺗﻄﺮﺡ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺼﻮﻏﺔ ﺇﺣﺪﻯ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻘﺎﺭﺑﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻭﺟﺪﻧﺎﻫﺎ ﻣﻔﻴﺪﺓ ﺣﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﻛﻨﺎ ﻧﻌﻤﻞ ﻣﻊ ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻄﻴﻂ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻲ‪ .‬ﺗﺒﺪﺃ ﺍﳋﻄﻮﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺭﺅﻳﺘﻜﻢ ﻭﺍﺿﺤﺔ ﺑﺸﺄﻥ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺗﺮﻳﺪﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﰲ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ‬

‫ﺑﻠﻮرة اﻻﺳﺘﺮاﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎت‬

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‫اﻟﺘﺪﺑﻴﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ‬

‫ﺑﺮﻧﺎﳎﻜﻢ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺇﱃ ﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﻭﻭﺿﻊ ﺧﻄﻮﻃﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﻳﻀﺔ ﻭﺧﺘﺎﻣﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ‬
‫ﺷﺠﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﻛﺄﺩﺍﺓ ﻹﻋﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻠﲔ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺪﻡ ﺍﳌﻠﻤﻮﺱ ﰲ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﻭﺗﻄﺒﻴﻘﻪ ﻭﺭﺻﺪﻩ‪.‬‬

‫ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺳﺖ ﻣﺮﺍﺣﻞ ﻟﺒﻠﻮﺭﺓ ﺷﺠﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ‪:‬‬

‫ﺗﻮﺿﻴﺢ ﻭﺻﻴﺎﻏﺔ ﻫﺪﻓﻜﻢ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻲ‬ ‫‪.1‬‬


‫ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻴﻄﺔ‬ ‫‪.2‬‬
‫ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﻟﻼﺯﻣﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺎﺕ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻫﻲ ﺍﳌﺴﺆﻭﻟﺔ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫‪.3‬‬
‫ﲢﺪﻳﺪ "ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﺎﺕ ﺍﳊﺎﲰﺔ" ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺮﺑﻂ ﺑﲔ ﳐﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﰲ ﺷﺠﺮﺓ ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺠﻜﻢ‬ ‫‪.4‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺇﲤﺎﻡ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫‪.5‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺠﻜﻢ ﻛﺄﺩﺍﺓ ﺗﺪﺑﲑ‬ ‫‪.6‬‬

‫ﺑﻠﻮرة اﻻﺳﺘﺮاﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎت‬

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‫اﻟﺘﺪﺑﻴﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ‬

‫ﺍﳌﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ‪:‬‬
‫ﺗﻮﺿﻴﺢ ﻭﺻﻴﺎﻏﺔ ﻫﺪﻓﻜﻢ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻲ‬

‫ﺳﺘﺴﺎﻋﺪﻛﻢ ﺷﺠﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺃﻧﺘﻢ ﻭﻓﺮﻳﻘﻜﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻮﺿﻴﺢ ﺍﳋﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﻫﺪﻓﻜﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻲ ﻭﲤﻜﻨﻜﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﲢﻘﻴﻘﻪ ﻭﻣﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻤﻜﻦ ﻓﻌﻼ ﲢﻘﻴﻘﻪ ﺑﻌﺪ‬
‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ‪ .‬ﻓﻠﻴﺴﺖ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻣﻘﺎﺭﺑﺔ ﻭﺣﻴﺪﺓ ﻳﻨﺼﺢ ‪‬ﺎ ﻟﺒﻠﻮﺭﺓ ﺷﺠﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﻭﺗﺒﻠﻴﻐﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ‬
‫ﺃﺩﺍﺓ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﲡﺪ‬
‫ﺃﻏﻠﺐ ﺍ‪‬ﻤﻮﻋﺎﺕ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﻔﻴﺪﺓ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻧﺴﻤﻴﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﰲ ﻏﻴﺎﺏ ﻣﺼﻄﻠﺢ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ "ﺭﺳﻢ ﺑﻴﺎﱐ ﻟﺸﺠﺮﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ" ﻛﺎﳌﺜﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺭﻍ ﺃﺩﻧﺎﻩ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺼﻤﻢ ﻟﺘﻮﺿﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺿﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺟﺐ ﲢﻘﻴﻘﻬﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﺒﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﻮﻗﻌﺔ ﺿﻤﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ‪.‬‬

‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﺗﺮﻭﻥ‪ ،‬ﰲ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻢ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﱐ ﻟﺸﺠﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ‪ ،‬ﻋﺮﺿﺖ ﻛﻞ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﰲ ﻣﺮﺑﻊ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺣﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺭﻣﺰ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺑﺎﻷﺳﻬﻢ‪ .‬ﺇﻥ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﺃﺩﺍﺓ ﻣﺮﺋﻴﺔ ﻛﻬﺬﻩ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺍﳉﻤﻴﻊ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻧﺘﺒﺎﻫﻬﻢ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺑﻠﻮﺭﺓ ﺷﺠﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﳝﻜﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻛﺪ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﰲ ﻃﻮﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻠﻮﺭﺓ ﻫﻲ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﻛﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﻭﻣﻨﻄﻘﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻋﻼﻭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻳﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻢ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﱐ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺋﻲ ﻟﺸﺠﺮﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﻛﻤﺴﻮﺩﺓ ﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺗﺒﻠﻴﻎ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﺭﺑﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺑﱪﻧﺎﳎﻜﻢ ﻟﻸﻧﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻻ ﻳﻨﺘﻤﻮﻥ ﻟﻔﺮﻳﻘﻜﻢ‪.‬‬
‫ﺳﻨﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﺭﺳﻮﻣﺎ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻟﺸﺠﺮﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺼﻮﻏﺔ ﻭﺳﻨﺴﺎﻋﺪﻛﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻠﻮﺭ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﺭﺟﺎﺀ ﻻ ﺗﻨﺴﻮﺍ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﲤﺜﻞ ﻓﻘﻂ‬
‫ﻣﻠﺨﺼﺎﺕ ﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺘﻜﻢ‪ .‬ﻭﻷ‪‬ﺎ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻓﻐﺎﻟﺒﺎ ﻣﺎ ﺗﺼﺎﺣﺒﻬﺎ ﻧﺼﻮﺹ ﻭﺻﻔﻴﺔ ﻣﻜﺘﻮﺑﺔ ﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﺗﻔﺎﺻﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺑﻠﻮرة اﻻﺳﺘﺮاﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎت‬

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‫اﻟﺘﺪﺑﻴﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ‬

‫ﻣﻬﻤﺔ ﻭﺷﺮﻭﺣﺎﺕ ﻳﺘﻌﺬﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺒﲑ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺭﺳﻢ ﺑﻴﺎﱐ ﻳﻘﻊ ﰲ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ‪ .‬ﻭﻟﺪﻯ ﺑﻠﻮﺭﺓ ﺷﺠﺮﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ‪ ،‬ﻳﺼﺒﺢ ﺃﻫﻢ ﻫﺪﻑ ﺗﺴﻌﻮﻥ ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻘﻪ ﻫﻮ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻻﻧﻄﻼﻗﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﻫﺪﻓﻜﻢ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻲ ﻭﲨﻴﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﺿﻤﻦ ﺷﺠﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺑﺎﳌﺮﺑﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻮﺿﺤﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﺳﻢ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﱐ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﺘﺒﻮﺃ ﻣﺮﺑﻊ ﺍﳍﺪﻑ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻲ ﻗﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺠﺮﺓ‪ .‬ﻭﳚﺐ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺆﺩﻱ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﰲ ﺷﺠﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳍﺪﻑ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻲ‪) .‬ﺗﺘﻀﻤﻦ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺃﺷﺠﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺃﻫﺪﺍﻓﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﻳﺘﻮﻗﻊ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﳘﺔ ﰲ ﺑﻠﻮﻏﻬﺎ ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ ﳚﺐ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻨﺼﺐ ﺑﺎﻷﺳﺎﺱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻠﻮﻍ ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﻨﺄﺧﺬ ﻣﺜﺎﻝ ﺷﺠﺮﺓ ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﻓﻌﻠﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻻﺣﻈﻮﺍ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳍﺪﻑ ﺍﳌﺒﲔ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﺮﺑﻊ ﻭﺍﺿﺢ ﺑﺸﺄﻥ "ﻣﻦ"‬
‫ﻭ"ﻣﺎﺫﺍ"‪ .‬ﻭﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﻣﺴﺘﻬﺪﻓﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﻭﻫﻲ ﺗﻼﻣﺬﺓ ﺍﳌﺪﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻻﺑﺘﺪﺍﺋﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺗﻐﻴﲑ ﻣﺘﻮﻗﻊ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ‪:‬‬
‫ﻣﻊ ‪‬ﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﱪﻧﺎﻣﺞ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺘﻘﺪﻡ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﰲ ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻤﻬﻢ ﺍﻻﺑﺘﺪﺍﺋﻲ ﻟﻴﺼﻠﻮﺍ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻗﺴﺎﻡ ﻻ ﻳﺼﻠﻮ‪‬ﺎ ﺣﺎﻟﻴﺎ‪ .‬ﺇﻥ‬
‫ﺍﳍﺪﻑ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺼﺎﻍ ‪‬ﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﻳﺴﻤﻰ ﺑﺎﳍﺪﻑ " ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺪ"‪.‬‬

‫ﻣﻦ ﻭﺟﻬﺔ ﻧﻈﺮ ﺍﻹﳒﺎﺯ‪ ،‬ﺇﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻏﺔ ﻟﻠﻬﺪﻑ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻲ ﻣﺜﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﳝﻜﻦ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ‬
‫ﺑﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﺇﱃ ﺣﺪ ﻣﺎ ﲟﺆﺷﺮ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺆﺷﺮﻳﻦ ﻟﻺﳒﺎﺯ )ﺃﻧﻈﺮ ﺍﳌﺼﻮﻏﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ(‪ ،‬ﻛﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﳌﺎﺋﻮﻳﺔ ﻣﺜﻼ‬
‫ﻟﻠﺘﻼﻣﻴﺬ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻠﻤﻴﺬﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻳﻨﻬﻮﻥ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺍﻷﻗﺴﺎﻡ ﺍﻻﺑﺘﺪﺍﺋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺘﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺒﻞ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺴﺘﻤﺮﻭﺍ‪ ،‬ﺧﺼﺼﻮﺍ ﺩﻗﻴﻘﺔ‬
‫ﻟﻺﺟﺎﺑﺔ ﻋﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺴﺆﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺴﻴﻂ‪ :‬ﻫﻞ ﲤﺖ ﺻﻴﺎﻏﺔ ﺍﳍﺪﻑ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻲ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺍﺧﺘﺎﺭﻩ ﻓﺮﻳﻘﻜﻢ‬
‫ﻛﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ؟‬
‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﺆﺍﻝ ﻟﻴﺲ ﺑﺎﻟﻐﺮﺍﺑﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﺒﺪﻭ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﻧﺮﻯ ﰲ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻷﺣﻴﺎﻥ ﺳﻠﺴﻠﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ‬
‫ﺗﺒﺪﻭ ﺟﻴﺪﺓ ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻟﺪﻯ ﲢﻠﻴﻠﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﺗﺪﻝ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺍ‪‬ﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻳﺔ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﺭﻏﻢ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﳛﺪﺙ ﺑﻜﺜﺮﺓ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺃﺳﻔﻞ ﺍﳍﺪﻑ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻲ ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺮ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﻛﻞ " ﺻﻴﺎﻏﺔ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ"‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺪﺓ ﻟﻠﺘﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﺼﺎﻏﺔ ﺑﻮﺿﻮﺡ ﻭﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﺗﺘﻀﻤﻦ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﻓﻌﻠﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ ﻣﺜﺎﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺻﻴﻐﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺟﺪﻧﺎ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﻻ ﺗﺴﺘﺠﻴﺐ ﳌﻘﺎﻳﻴﺲ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﺒﺎﺭ‪:‬‬

‫ﺑﻠﻮرة اﻻﺳﺘﺮاﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎت‬

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‫اﻟﺘﺪﺑﻴﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ‬

‫ﻛﻴﻒ ﳝﻜﻨﻜﻢ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺻﻴﺎﻏﺔ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳍﺪﻑ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻲ ﻛﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ؟‬

‫ﺇﻥ ﺇﺣﺪﻯ ﻃﺮﻕ ﻣﺮﺍﺟﻌﺔ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻐﺔ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺴﺄﻟﺔ ﺍﳊﺚ ﻫﻞ ﲤﺖ ﻓﻌﻼ‪ .‬ﻣﺜﻼ‪:‬‬
‫"ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﻓﻖ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﲑ‪ "...‬ﻭﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺮﻛﺰ ﻣﻘﺎﺭﺑﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺘﻮﻗﻊ ﺃﻥ ﲢﻘﻘﻪ‬
‫ﺳﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﲑ‪ ،‬ﻣﺜﻼ "ﺣﺼﻮﻝ ﺗﻮﺍﻓﻖ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﲑ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺎﺕ ﻏﲑ ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺘﱪﻋﺔ"‪ .‬ﻓﻜﻼ ﺍﳋﻴﺎﺭﻳﻦ ﻳﻌﱪ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺟﺐ ﲢﻘﻴﻘﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﺑﺎﻟﻄﺒﻊ ﺳﻴﺘﻮﻗﻒ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻧﺴﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻇﺮﻭﻓﻜﻢ ﻭﺣﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺻﻴﻎ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩﺓ ﺍﻷﺑﻌﺎﺩ‪ ،‬ﻣﺜﻞ "ﻇﺮﻭﻑ ﺻﺤﻴﺔ ﳏﺴﻨﺔ‬
‫ﻟﻠﻄﻔﻞ ﻭﺍﻷﻡ" ﻳﺼﺒﺢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻌﺐ ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﰎ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﳍﺪﻑ‪ .‬ﻣﺎﺫﺍ ﳝﻜﻨﻨﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻧﻘﻮﻝ ﻣﺜﻼ ﺇﺫﺍ‬
‫ﻭﺟﺪﻧﺎ‪ ،‬ﰲ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻣﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺨﻄﻴﻂ‪ ،‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻈﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺔ ﻟﻸﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﲢﺴﻨﺖ ﺇﱃ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﻛﺒﲑﺓ ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﱂ‬
‫ﺗﺘﺤﺴﻦ ﺍﻟﻈﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺔ ﻟﻸﻣﻬﺎﺕ؟ ﻫﻞ ﺳﻨﻘﻮﻝ ﺇﻧﻨﺎ ﺣﻘﻘﻨﺎ ‪ 50‬ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺪﻓﻨﺎ؟ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺃﻥ ﻧﻨﺘﻘﻞ‬
‫ﺇﱃ ﺍﳋﻄﻮﺓ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻟﻴﺔ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮﻭﺍ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳍﺪﻑ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻲ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺍﺧﺘﺎﺭﻩ ﻓﺮﻳﻘﻜﻢ‪ .‬ﺍﻛﺘﺒﻮﺍ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺟﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺍﻍ ﺃﺩﻧﺎﻩ‪:‬‬

‫ﻭﺍﻵﻥ ﻓﻜﺮﻭﺍ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻣﺎ ﻛﻨﺘﻢ ﻗﺎﺩﺭﻳﻦ ﻋﻠﻰ ﲢﺴﻴﻨﻪ؟ ﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺪ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳍﺪﻑ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻲ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻀﻤﻦ ﺻﻴﻐﺎ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩﺓ ﻟﻠﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ؟ ﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤﻠﺔ ﻣﻌﻘﺪﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻛﺎﺩﳝﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﺑﺴﻴﻄﺔ ﻭﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ؟ ﰲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺍﻍ ﺃﺩﻧﺎﻩ‪ ،‬ﺃﻋﻴﺪﻭﺍ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﺔ ﻫﺪﻓﻜﻢ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻲ‪ ،‬ﲝﻴﺚ ﲡﻌﻠﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻐﺔ ﺑﺴﻴﻄﺔ ﻭﻭﺍﺿﺤﺔ ﺑﻘﺪﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﻟﻠﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺮﻏﺒﻮﻥ ﰲ ﲢﻘﻴﻘﻬﺎ‪:‬‬

‫ﺑﻠﻮرة اﻻﺳﺘﺮاﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎت‬

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‫اﻟﺘﺪﺑﻴﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ‬

‫ﺍﳌﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻴﻄﺔ‬

‫ﺑﻌﺪ ﺻﻴﺎﻏﺔ ﻫﺪﻓﻜﻢ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻲ ﰲ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺪ‪ ،‬ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻗﺪ ﺣﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﻟﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪ‬
‫ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﺑﻠﻮﻍ ﻫﺪﻓﻜﻢ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻲ‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﻨﺘﻢ ﺗﻔﻜﺮﻭﻥ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎ‪ ،‬ﺳﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﻟﺪﻳﻜﻢ ﻓﻜﺮﺓ ﺣﻮﻝ‬
‫ﺍﳋﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺱ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺷﺄﻥ ﺷﺠﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺴﺎﻋﺪﻛﻢ‪ ،‬ﺃﻧﺘﻢ ﻭﻓﺮﻳﻘﻜﻢ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﻫﺬﻩ‬
‫ﺍﳋﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪ ﺗﻠﻮ ﺍﻵﺧﺮ‪ .‬ﻟﻨﻘﻞ ﻣﺜﻼ‪ ،‬ﺇﻧﻜﻢ ﻓﻀﻠﺘﻢ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ "ﺗﻮﻓﲑ ﺍﳌﺰﻳﺪ" ﻟﻠﺮﻓﻊ ﻣﻦ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺠﺎﺡ‬
‫ﻭﺇﲤﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻼﻣﻴﺬ ﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺘﻬﻢ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺒﲔ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻢ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﱐ ﺃﺳﻔﻠﻪ ﻋﻨﺼﺮﺍ ﳏﺘﻤﻼ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﻗﺪ ﺗﺴﺎﻫﻢ ﰲ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﳍﺪﻑ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻲ‪ .‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﺘﻀﺢ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﺜﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﲤﺖ ﺻﻴﺎﻏﺔ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺼﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﻛﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺪ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﺇﻻ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﰲ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺃﺩﱏ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺠﺮﺓ‪ .‬ﻭﺗﻠﻌﺐ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻴﻄﺔ ﺩﻭﺭ ﺷﺮﻁ‬
‫ﻣﺴﺒﻖ ﳚﺐ ﲢﻘﻴﻘﻪ ﺃﻭﻻ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺑﻠﻮﻍ ﺍﳍﺪﻑ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻲ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﺑﻌﺒﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻴﻄﺔ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻴﻠﺔ ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﳍﺪﻑ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻲ‪ ،‬ﻷ‪‬ﺎ‬
‫ﺗﺮﺷﺪﻧﺎ ﺇﱃ ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳍﺪﻑ‪ .‬ﻭﺗﺼﻒ ﺍﳋﻄﻮﻁ ﻭﺍﻷﺳﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺘﻀﻤﻨﻬﺎ ﺷﺠﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﻫﺬﻩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﺒﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﺑﺈﻣﻜﺎﻧﻨﺎ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺗﺒﻌﺎ ﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﺇﻥ ﺍﻷﺳﻬﻢ ﺗﻨﻄﻠﻖ ﻣﻦ "ﺍﻷﺳﺒﺎﺏ" ﺇﱃ "ﺍﻵﺛﺎﺭ"‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﰲ ﺃﻏﻠﺐ ﺍﻷﻭﻗﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺗﺘﻤﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺑﲔ "ﺍﻟﺴﺒﺐ" ﻭ"ﺍﻷﺛﺮ" ﺿﻤﻦ ﺷﺠﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﰲ ﺷﻲﺀ‬
‫ﻧﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﺘﺄﻛﺪﻳﻦ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺇﱃ ﺣﺪ ﻣﺎ ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻛﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻛﻴﺪ‪ .‬ﻭﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍ‪‬ﺎﻝ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﻋﻦ "‬
‫ﻓﺮﺿﻴﺔ"‪ .‬ﻭﻧﻘﻮﻝ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ‪:‬‬

‫ﺑﻠﻮرة اﻻﺳﺘﺮاﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎت‬

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‫اﻟﺘﺪﺑﻴﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ‬

‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺐ ﺍﳌﺪﺭﺳﻴﺔ ﻣﺘﻮﻓﺮﺓ ﻭﺳﻬﻠﺔ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻝ‪،‬‬

‫ﻓﺈﻥ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺇﲤﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻼﻣﻴﺬ ﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺘﻬﻢ ﺍﻻﺑﺘﺪﺍﺋﻴﺔ ﺳﺘﺘﺤﺴﻦ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺿﻴﺔ ﺷﻲﺀ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﺒﺎﺭﻩ‪ .‬ﻭ ﳝﻜﻨﻨﺎ ﺃﻥ ﳓﺴﻦ ﻣﻦ ﻛﻔﺎﺀﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻤﲔ ﻭﻧﺮﺍﻗﺐ ﻣﺎ ﳚﺮﻱ‬
‫ﺑﻌﺪ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ .‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﰲ ﻋﻤﻠﻨﺎ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻠﻲ‪ ،‬ﺗﺒﻘﻰ "ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻔﻴﺔ" ﰲ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﺎﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻧﻄﺒﻘﻬﺎ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﱄ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺿﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﳔﺘﱪﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺗﻌﻘﻴﺪﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻳﺔ ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﻭﺑﺴﻴﻄﺔ ﻛﺎﻟﱵ ﻭﺭﺩ ﺫﻛﺮﻫﺎ‬
‫ﺃﻋﻼﻩ‪ .‬ﻭﺳﺘﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺑﻠﻮﺭﺓ ﺷﺠﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﻓﺮﻳﻘﻜﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺟﻮﺍﻧﺐ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺘﻜﻢ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻗﺘﺮﺍﺡ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺟﻬﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﻠﺰﻡ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺴﻠﻜﻬﺎ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﳌﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻟﻴﺔ ﰲ ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺘﻜﻢ ﻛﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﻫﻲ ﻃﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﺴﺆﺍﻝ‪" :‬ﻣﺎﺫﺍ‬
‫ﺑﻌﺪ" ﺃﻱ " ﻣﺎ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻷﺷﻴﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ" ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﻠﺰﻣﻜﻢ ﲢﻘﻴﻘﻬﺎ ﻟﺒﻠﻮﻍ ﻫﺪﻓﻜﻢ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻲ؟ ﻣﺎﺫﺍ ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺜﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﺬﻛﻮﺭ ﻫﻨﺎ؟ ﻣﺎﺫﺍ ﻗﺪ ﳓﺘﺎﺟﻪ ﻟﻠﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﺇﱃ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺃﻛﱪ ﻹﲤﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻋﻼﻭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻮﻓﲑ ﻋﺪﺩ‬
‫ﺃﻛﱪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺐ ﺍﳌﺪﺭﺳﻴﺔ؟ ﺧﺼﺼﻮﺍ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﺎﺋﻖ ﻟﻜﺘﺎﺑﺔ ﺍﳋﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﻗﺎﺭﻧﻮﺍ ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺠﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻴﻄﺔ ﻣﻊ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺍﺧﺘﺮﻧﺎﻫﺎ ﳓﻦ‪ .‬ﺗﺬﻛﺮﻭﺍ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻳﺘﻌﲔ ﻋﻠﻴﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺎﺅﻝ ﻋﻦ ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﻓﻊ ﻣﻦ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺑﺘﺪﺍﺋﻲ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﲢﺪﻳﺪ " ﻣﺎﺫﺍ ﺑﻌﺪ" ﻳﻠﺰﻣﻜﻢ ﻋﻼﻭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﳎﺮﺩ ﺍﳌﺰﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺐ ﺍﳌﺪﺭﺳﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﺭﻧﻮﺍ ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺠﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻴﻄﺔ ﻣﻊ ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺠﻨﺎ‪ .‬ﰲ ﺍﳌﺜﺎﻝ ﺃﺩﻧﺎﻩ ﻗﺮﺭﻧﺎ ﺃﻥ ﲢﺴﲔ ﻛﻔﺎﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺗﺬﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺗﺬﺓ ﺣﺴﺐ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﻼﻣﻴﺬ ﻭﺍﻟﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻷﻗﺴﺎﻡ ﺍﳌﺪﺭﺳﻴﺔ ﻫﻲ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﻋﻮﺍﻣﻞ‬
‫ﺿﺮﻭﺭﻳﺔ ﻟﺘﺤﺴﲔ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺇﲤﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﳍﺪﻑ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﺑﻠﻮرة اﻻﺳﺘﺮاﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎت‬

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‫اﻟﺘﺪﺑﻴﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ‬

‫ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﺭﺟﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﺗﻨﺴﻮﺍ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻣﻘﺎﺭﺑﺔ ﺗﺸﺒﻪ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﲤﺎﻣﺎ‪ .‬ﻓﺒﻌﺾ ﺍﻷﺷﻴﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻀﺮﻭﺭﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﺎﻓﻴﺔ‬
‫ﰲ ﻣﻘﺎﻡ ﻣﺎ ﻗﺪ ﻻ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺿﺮﻭﺭﻳﺔ ﻭﻻ ﻛﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﰲ ﻣﻘﺎﻡ ﺁﺧﺮ‪.‬‬

‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﺗﺮﻭﻥ‪ ،‬ﺃﻫﻢ ﺷﻲﺀ ﻫﻮ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺴﺄﻟﻮﺍ "ﻛﻴﻒ" ﻭ "ﻣﺎﺫﺍ ﺑﻌﺪ" ﺑﺸﺄﻥ ﻛﻞ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﲢﺪﺩﻭ‪‬ﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﻛﻞ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺸﺠﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺃﻧﺘﻢ ﺑﺼﺪﺩ ﺇﺣﺪﺍﺛﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻮﺻﻠﺘﻢ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻹﺟﺎﺑﺔ ﻋﻦ ﻫﺬﻳﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﺆﺍﻟﲔ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﻤﻜﻨﻜﻢ‪ ،‬ﺧﻼﻝ ﻣﺪﺓ ﻣﻌﻘﻮﻟﺔ‪ ،‬ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﺃﻫﻢ ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺘﻜﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﺗﺼﻴﻐﻮﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺑﺄﺳﺮﻫﺎ ﰲ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺍﺕ "ﺳﺒﺒﻴﺔ"‪.‬‬

‫ﺗﻮﺿﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﺒﻴﺔ‬

‫ﺇﱃ ﻫﻨﺎ ﻗﺪ ﻻ ﺗﺒﺪﻭ ﺑﻠﻮﺭﺓ ﺷﺠﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺻﻌﺒﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﺇﱃ ﺣﺪ ﻣﺎ ﻷﻥ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺣﻞ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺱ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺟﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻜﻢ ﲡﺎﻭﺯﻫﺎ ﻣﺮﺍﺣﻞ ﺳﻬﻠﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﻟﺴﺒﺐ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ﻟﻪ ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻷﻣﺜﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻗﺪﻣﻨﺎﻫﺎ‪ .‬ﻓﺎﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺼﻔﻬﺎ ﻟﻴﺴﺖ ﳏﻂ ﺃﻱ ﺟﺪﻝ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﲢﺴﲔ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺠﺎﺡ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺪﺭﺳﻲ ﺍﳌﺒﻴﻨﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺜﺎﻝ ﺃﻋﻼﻩ ﻗﺪ ﺃﺩﺭﺟﺖ ﰲ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ ﺑﺄﺳﺮﻩ‪ .‬ﻓﻤﺎﺫﺍ ﺳﻴﻘﻊ‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﻨﺘﻢ ﺃﻧﺘﻢ ﻭﻓﺮﻳﻘﻜﻢ ﺗﻌﻤﻠﻮﻥ ﰲ ﻣﻴﺪﺍﻥ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ ﻧﺴﺒﻴﺎ‪ ،‬ﻛﺎﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺪﳝﻘﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ ﻣﺜﻼ؟ ﻣﺎ ﳛﺪﺙ ﻋﺎﺩﺓ‬
‫ﻫﻮ ﺃﻥ " ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﺒﻴﺔ" ﻭﺍﳌﺴﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﳌﻔﺼﻠﺔ ﺣﻮﻝ ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﻻ ﺗﻄﺮﺡ ﺑﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﻼﺋﻤﺔ ﰲ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺣﻞ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻛﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﻟﺬﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﲡﺪ ﺍ‪‬ﻤﻮﻋﺎﺕ ﻧﻔﺴﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺧﲑ ﺃﻣﺎﻡ ﺃﺷﺠﺎﺭ "ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﻴﺔ"‬
‫ﺑﻠﻮرة اﻻﺳﺘﺮاﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎت‬

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‫اﻟﺘﺪﺑﻴﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ‬

‫ﺳﺘﺨﻠﻖ ﳍﺎ ﻣﺸﺎﻛﻞ ﻻ ﺣﺪ ﳍﺎ ﻟﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻭﻉ ﰲ ﺑﻠﻮﺭﺓ ﺃﺩﱏ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﰲ ﻫﺮﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ‪ .‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﺷﺮﻧﺎ‬
‫ﻟﺬﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺃﺷﺠﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﻣﻼﺋﻤﺔ ﺇﺫﺍ ﱂ ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﺟﻠﻴﺎ ﻋﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﺒﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺇﻥ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻛﻞ ﺷﻲﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﻣﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺇﻻ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﺋﻖ ﺍﻟﱵ ﲢﻮﻝ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺗﻮﺿﻴﺢ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺭ ﰲ ﺷﺠﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ‪ .‬ﻣﺸﻜﻞ‬
‫ﺷﺎﺋﻊ ﺁﺧﺮ ﳛﺪﺙ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺑﲔ "ﺍﻟﺴﺒﺐ" ﻭ"ﺍﻷﺛﺮ" "ﻣﻌﻜﻮﺳﺔ"‪ .‬ﺭﻏﻢ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺿﺢ ﺩﺍﺋﻤﺎ ﻛﻴﻒ ﳛﺪﺙ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺇﻻ ﺃﻧﻪ ﳛﺪﺙ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻌﻞ‪ ،‬ﻟﺬﺍ ﻓﻤﻦ ﺍﳌﻔﻴﺪ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻄﻠﺒﻮﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺷﺨﺺ ﻻ‬
‫ﻳﻨﺘﻤﻲ ‪‬ﻤﻮﻋﺘﻜﻢ‪ ،‬ﻟﻨﻘﻞ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺷﺮﻛﺎﺋﻜﻢ‪ ،‬ﺃﻥ ﻳﺮﺍﺟﻊ ﻣﺴﻮﺩﺓ ﺷﺠﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻭﺿﻌﺘﻤﻮﻫﺎ ﻟﺘﻔﺎﺩﻱ‬
‫ﺃﺧﻄﺎﺀ ﻛﻤﺎ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺜﺎﻝ ﺃﺩﻧﺎﻩ‪.‬‬

‫ﻫﻞ ﺭﺃﻳﺘﻢ ﻣﺎﺫﺍ ﻭﻗﻊ ﻫﻨﺎ؟ ﰎ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ ‪-‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻋﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻣﻦ ﺷﺄ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﳘﺔ ﰲ ﲢﺴﲔ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻨﺠﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﻲ‪ -‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﻹﳒﺎﺯ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ‬
‫ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﺳﺒﺒﺎ ﻟﻪ‪ .‬ﺇﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻨﻄﻖ ﻣﻌﻜﻮﺱ‪ .‬ﻟﻨﺼﻠﺤﻪ ﺇﺫﻥ ﺑﻘﻠﺐ ﺍﳌﺮﺑﻌﲔ‪ .‬ﺗﺬﻛﺮﻭﺍ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻷﺳﻬﻢ ﰲ ﺷﺠﺮﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺩﺍﺋﻤﺎ ﻣﻮﺟﻬﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻷﻋﻠﻰ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ ﺍﻧﻄﻼﻗﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﺇﱃ ﺁﺛﺎﺭﻫﺎ‪.‬‬

‫ﺑﻠﻮرة اﻻﺳﺘﺮاﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎت‬

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‫اﻟﺘﺪﺑﻴﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ‬

‫ﺗﻔﺎﺩﻭﺍ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﺑﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻨﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻔﻴﺔ‬

‫ﺇﻥ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ "ﺍﻷﺻﻨﺎﻑ" ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺷﺠﺮﺓ ﻟﻠﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﻻ ﺗﻌﱪ ﺟﻠﻴﺎ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ "ﺍﻟﺴﺒﺒﻴﺔ" ﺍﻟﱵ‬
‫ﺗﺰﻭﺩﻛﻢ ﺑﺎﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺑﲑﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﲢﺘﺎﺝ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﻛﻴﻒ؟ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﳎﻚ ﻻ ﳛﻘﻖ ﺃﻳﺔ ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺞ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﺒﻴﺔ ﺿﻤﻦ ﺷﺠﺮﺓ ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺠﻜﻢ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺳﺘﻤﻜﻨﻜﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻨﻈﺮﻭﺍ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻷﺩﱏ ﰲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺠﺮﺓ ﻟﺘﺠﺪﻭﺍ ﺃﻳﻦ ﻳﻜﻤﻦ ﺍﳌﺸﻜﻞ‪ .‬ﺳﺘﺘﻤﻜﻨﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺟﻬﻮﺩﻛﻢ ﻭﻣﻮﺍﺭﺩﻛﻢ ﺣﻮﻝ ﻣﻮﺍﻃﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﻌﻒ‪ .‬ﺗﺬﻛﺮﻭﺍ ﺇﺫﻥ ﺃﻥ ﳎﻤﻮﻉ ﺃﺟﺰﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﲑ ﺍﳌﺮﻏﻮﺏ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﺒﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﲑ ﻻ ﳝﺜﻼﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﻲﺀ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ‪.‬‬

‫ﺇﻥ ﺷﺠﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻤﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻨﻮﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﺠﺮﺓ ﺃﺩﻧﺎﻩ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﻋﻦ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻫﺪﻓﻪ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﲣﺎﺫ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍ‪‬ﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺳﺘﺮﻛﺰﻭﻥ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻣﻮﺍﺭﺩﻛﻢ ﺍﶈﺪﻭﺩﺓ‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻂ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺿﻌﻴﻔﺎ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻌﻘﺪﺍ ﺃﻭ ﺧﺎﻃﺌﺎ ﲤﺎﻣﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺷﺠﺮﺗﻜﻢ ﻟﻦ ﺗﺆﺩﻱ ﻫﺪﻓﻬﺎ ﻛﺄﺩﺍﺓ ﺗﺪﺑﲑ‬
‫ﻣﻔﻴﺪﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻧﻈﺮﻭﺍ ﻛﻴﻒ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻴﻄﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺸﺠﺮﺓ ﺃﺩﻧﺎﻩ ﻟﻴﺴﺖ ﻓﻘﻂ ﳐﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳍﺪﻑ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻲ ﺃﻱ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﻟﻴﺴﺖ ﻓﻘﻂ ﺃﺟﺰﺍﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﻛﻜﻞ‪ -‬ﺑﻞ ﺇ‪‬ﺎ ﺗﻐﻴﲑﺍﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻀﺮﻭﺭﻱ ﺇﳒﺎﺯﻫﺎ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻷﻋﻠﻰ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺸﺠﺮﺓ‪ .‬ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﱂ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﲑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﳍﺪﻑ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻲ‪،‬‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺮﺀ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻗﺎﺩﺭﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﱄ ﻭﺃﻥ ﻳﻌﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻻ ﺗﺘﺤﻘﻖ ﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺟﻬﻮﺩﻩ ﻭﻣﻮﺍﺭﺩﻩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﲢﻘﻴﻘﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﺑﻠﻮرة اﻻﺳﺘﺮاﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎت‬

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‫اﻟﺘﺪﺑﻴﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ‬

‫ﺃﺿﻴﻔﻮﺍ ﺗﻔﺎﺻﻴﻞ ﻣﻼﺋﻤﺔ‬


‫ﻳﺘﺴﺎﺀﻝ ﻋﺪﺩ ﻛﺒﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺷﺨﺎﺹ ﻋﻦ ﻛﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﺻﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺟﺐ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﳍﺎ ﰲ ﺷﺠﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ‪ .‬ﻣﺎ‬
‫ﻫﻮ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺟﺐ ﺇﻇﻬﺎﺭﻫﺎ‪ .‬ﻛﻢ ﻣﺮﺓ ﻋﻠﻴﻨﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻧﻄﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﺴﺆﺍﻝ "ﻛﻴﻒ" ﻭ"ﻣﺎﺫﺍ ﺑﻌﺪ" ﻭﳓﻦ‬
‫ﻧﻨﺘﻘﻞ ﺑﺘﺪﺭﺝ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻷﺳﻔﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳍﺪﻑ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻲ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻴﻄﺔ؟ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺟﻮﺍﺏ ﻣﺜﺎﱄ ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺴﺆﺍﻝ‪ .‬ﻭﺃﻧﺘﻢ ﺗﻘﺪﻣﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﺠﺮﺓ ﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺋﻜﻢ ﻣﺜﻼ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻴﻜﻢ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺴﻠﻜﻮﺍ ﺍﻟﺒﺴﺎﻃﺔ ﻭﺃﻥ ﺗﻈﻬﺮﻭﺍ ﻓﻘﻂ‬
‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺍ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻳﲔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻴﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺘﻀﻤﻨﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺸﺠﺮﺓ‪ .‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻔﺮﻳﻖ ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻱ‬
‫ﺍﻟﱪﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﻭﺃﻭﻟﺌﻚ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﺳﻴﺴﺎﻋﺪﻭﻧﻚ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﺒﻴﻖ‪ ،‬ﺳﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﳌﺰﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﻣﻔﻴﺪﺓ‬
‫ﻟﻠﻐﺎﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺇ‪‬ﺎ ﺳﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺩﻗﺔ ﻭﺳﺘﺘﻀﻤﻦ ﺗﻔﺎﺻﻴﻞ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺑﺎﳌﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻴﺎ ﰲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺠﺮﺓ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﺑﺪﺃﻭﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺠﺮﺓ‬


‫ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺗﻌﺘﻘﺪ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍ‪‬ﻤﻮﻋﺎﺕ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻬﻞ ﺑﻠﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺘﻬﻢ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﻃﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﺴﺆﺍﻟﲔ "ﻛﻴﻒ"‬
‫ﻭ"ﻣﺎﺫﺍ ﺑﻌﺪ"‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍ‪‬ﻤﻮﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﺗﻌﺘﻘﺪ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺭﳚﻴﺔ ﺗﻌﻄﻞ ﺗﻔﻜﲑﻫﻢ‪ .‬ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺃﺟﻞ ﻓﺴﺢ ﳎﺎﻝ ﺃﻛﱪ ﻟﻠﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﻭﺟﻌﻠﻬﺎ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺇﺑﺪﺍﻋﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺗﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍ‪‬ﻤﻮﻋﺎﺕ ﻣﻘﺎﺭﺑﺔ "ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺑﻌﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺬﻫﻨﻴﺔ"‪ .‬ﻭﰲ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺘﻢ ‪‬ﺎ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺍﺑﺪﺃﻭﺍ ﺑﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﻫﺪﻓﻜﻢ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻲ‪ .‬ﺃﻣﺎ‬
‫ﺍﳋﻄﻮﺓ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻓﻬﻲ ﻣﻔﺘﻮﺣﺔ‪ .‬ﺍﺳﺄﻟﻮﺍ ﺑﻌﻀﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺾ ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ـ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﻟﱵ ﲣﻄﺮ‬

‫ﺑﻠﻮرة اﻻﺳﺘﺮاﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎت‬

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‫اﻟﺘﺪﺑﻴﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ‬

‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﻢ ـ ﺍﻟﱵ ﳚﺐ ﲢﻘﻴﻘﻬﺎ ﻟﺒﻠﻮﻍ ﺍﳍﺪﻑ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻲ‪ .‬ﳚﺐ ﺗﺪﻭﻳﻦ ﻛﻞ ﻓﻜﺮﺓ ﲣﻄﺮ ﻋﻠﻴﻜﻢ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻭﺭﺍﻕ ﻓﺮﺩﻳﺔ ﺗﻌﻠﻖ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻠﺼﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳊﺎﺋﻂ ﺣﻴﺚ ﳝﻜﻦ ﻟﻜﻞ ﻓﺮﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺍ‪‬ﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺮﻯ ﺻﻴﻎ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﻫﺬﻩ‪ .‬ﰲ ﺑﺪﺍﻳﺔ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻻ ‪‬ﺘﻤﻮﺍ ﲟﺴﺄﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻠﺴﻠﻲ‪ ،‬ﺍﻫﺘﻤﻮﺍ ﻓﻘﻂ ﺑﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻷﻓﻜﺎﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﰲ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻷﺣﻴﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺍﻷﻓﻜﺎﺭ ﺟﺰﺀﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ‪ .‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﺇﺫﺍ ﱂ ﺗﺘﻢ ﻣﻨﺎﻗﺸﺔ‬
‫ﺍﳋﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﰲ ﻭﻗﺖ ﻣﺒﻜﺮ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺣﺎﺋﻂ ﺍﻷﻓﻜﺎﺭ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﻀﻤﻦ ﺃﺟﺰﺍﺀ ﻣﻦ ﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺒﲔ ﺍﳊﺎﺋﻂ ﺃﺩﻧﺎﻩ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻷﻓﻜﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻗﺪ ﺗﻨﺒﺜﻖ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﳍﺪﻑ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻲ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺏ "ﺍﻟﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﰲ ﺗﻮﻓﲑ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻐﺬﺍﺋﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﻷﺳﻮﺍﻕ ﺍﶈﻠﻴﺔ"‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﳓﻦ ﺑﺼﺪﺩ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﺤﻀﺎﺭ ﺍﻷﻓﻜﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﺣﺎﺟﺔ ﻟﻨﺎ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﻻﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﻋﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﺒﻴﺔ ﺑﲔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ‪ ،‬ﺇﻻ ﺣﲔ ﺑﻠﻮﺭﺓ ﺍ‪‬ﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﻟﻜﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻷﻓﻜﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﱵ ﲣﻄﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﺎﻝ ﺃﻓﺮﺍﺩﻫﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻬﺎﺀ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺮﺣﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﳚﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍ‪‬ﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺘﺴﺎﺀﻝ "ﻣﺎﺫﺍ ﻳﺴﺒﺐ ﻣﺎﺫﺍ" ﻭﻣﻦ ﲦﺔ ﲢﺮﻳﻚ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﰲ ﺍﻻﲡﺎﻫﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻌﻜﺲ ﻋﻼﻗﺎ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﺒﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻻ ﺗﻨﺴﻮﺍ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳋﻄﻮﺓ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ﺗﺘﻤﺜﻞ ﰲ ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﻤﻮﻗﻌﺔ ﰲ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ ﺍﳍﺪﻑ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻲ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﻭﺿﻌﻬﺎ ﰲ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺎﺋﻂ ﺑﺎﳌﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‪ .‬ﺗﺒﲔ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻐﺔ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻟﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ "ﺍﳊﺎﺋﻂ" ﻛﻴﻒ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻭﻉ ﰲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺭﻭﺍﺑﻂ ﺳﺒﺒﻴﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺣﱴ ﺗﺘﺄﻛﺪﻭﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻧﻜﻢ ﻓﻬﻤﺘﻢ ﺟﻴﺪﺍ ﻛﻴﻒ ﺗﻨﺘﻘﻠﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﺍﻷﻓﻜﺎﺭ ﺇﱃ ﺷﺠﺮﺓ ﺣﻘﻴﻘﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ‪،‬‬
‫ﺧﺼﺼﻮﺍ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﻹﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺿﻤﻦ ﺷﺠﺮﺓ ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺟﻴﺪﺓ‪ .‬ﻟﻘﺪ ﺑﺪﺃﻧﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻌﻠﻴﻜﻢ‬
‫ﺃﻥ ﺗﻜﻤﻠﻮﺍ ﺍﳌﻬﻤﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﺑﻠﻮرة اﻻﺳﺘﺮاﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎت‬

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‫اﻟﺘﺪﺑﻴﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ‬

‫ﺑﻌﺪ ﺇ‪‬ﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺮﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍ ﻧﻈﺮﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺠﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺍﻗﺘﺮﺣﻨﺎﻫﺎ ﻋﻠﻴﻜﻢ‪ .‬ﻫﻞ ﺗﺸﺒﻪ ﺷﺠﺮﺗﻜﻢ؟ ﻫﻞ‬
‫ﺗﺴﺎﺀﻟﺘﻢ ﻭﺃﻧﺘﻢ ﺗﻀﻌﻮ‪‬ﺎ " ﻛﻴﻒ" ﻭ" ﻣﺎﺫﺍ ﺑﻌﺪ؟"‬

‫ﻟﻘﺪ ﺣﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﺎ ﻷﻥ ﺗﻀﻌﻮﺍ ﺷﺠﺮﺓ ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﻟﻼﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﻜﻢ‪ .‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺃﻥ ﻧﻘﻮﻡ‬
‫ﺑﺬﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻟﻨﺤﺎﻭﻝ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺍﺷﺘﻐﻠﻨﺎ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺣﱴ ﺍﻵﻥ‪ .‬ﺇﻥ ﺷﺠﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ‬
‫ﻭﺿﻌﺖ ﺑﺎﻻﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺑﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﻫﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﲤﺮﻧﺘﻢ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﺭﻏﻢ ﳎﻬﻮﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻗﺎﻡ‬
‫ﺑﻮﺿﻊ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺸﺠﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻧﺮﻯ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻤﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﲢﺴﻨﻮﻫﺎ ﺑﺘﻄﺒﻴﻖ "ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻋﺪ" ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻌﻠﻤﺘﻤﻮﻫﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺣﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻵﻥ‪.‬‬

‫ﺑﻠﻮرة اﻻﺳﺘﺮاﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎت‬

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‫اﻟﺘﺪﺑﻴﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ‬

‫ﺃﺩﻧﺎﻩ‪ ،‬ﺳﺘﺮﻭﻥ ﻛﻴﻒ ﺗﻐﲑﺕ ﺷﺠﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ‪ .‬ﰲ ﻧﻈﺮﻛﻢ‪ ،‬ﳌﺎﺫﺍ ﻗﻤﻨﺎ ‪‬ﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﲑﺍﺕ؟ ﻭﻫﻞ ﺗﺘﻔﻘﻮﻥ‬
‫ﻣﻌﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻞ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺗﻐﻴﲑﺍﺕ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻡ ‪‬ﺎ؟‬

‫ﺑﻠﻮرة اﻻﺳﺘﺮاﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎت‬

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‫اﻟﺘﺪﺑﻴﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ‬

‫ﻣﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺍﳍﺪﻑ ﻭﺭﺍﺀ ﻣﺎ ﻗﻤﻨﺎ ﺑﻪ؟‬


‫ﺣﺴﺐ ﻣﻨﻄﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﲑﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻗﻤﻨﺎ ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻧﺒﺪﺃ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺠﺮﺓ ﺍﶈﺴﻨﺔ ﻭﻧﺴﺘﻤﺮ‬
‫ﻧﺰﻭﻻ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻴﻄﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﳓﻦ ﻧﻄﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﺴﺆﺍﻟﲔ ﺍﳌﻬﻤﲔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﲔ‪" :‬ﻛﻴﻒ؟" ﻭ"ﻣﺎﺫﺍ ﺑﻌﺪ؟"‬
‫« ﻛﺎﻥ ﺃﻭﻝ ﺗﻐﻴﲑ ﻗﻤﻨﺎ ﺑﻪ ﻫﻮ ﺇﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﳍﺪﻑ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻲ ﺍﻷﺻﻠﻲ‪ " :‬ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻢ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻲ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ‬
‫ﺃﻓﻀﻞ"‪ .‬ﻗﻤﻨﺎ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﻷﻧﻨﺎ ﻧﻌﺘﻘﺪ ﺃﻥ ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ ﺗﺘﻮﻗﻒ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻠﻘﲔ ﻧﺎﺟﻊ )ﺍﻟﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻴﻄﺔ ﺍﻷﺻﻠﻴﺔ‬
‫‪ (1.1‬ﻭﻭﺳﻂ ﺗﻌﻠﻢ ﻣﻼﺋﻢ )ﺍﻟﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻴﻄﺔ ﺍﻷﺻﻠﻴﺔ ‪ .(3‬ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺟﻮﺍﻧﺐ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﳚﺐ ﺍﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﻫﺎ‪،‬‬
‫ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﻳﻦ ﺍﳉﺎﻧﺒﲔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻗﻞ ﳘﺎ ﻋﻨﺼﺮﺍﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳍﺪﻑ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻲ ﺍﻷﺻﻠﻲ‪ .‬ﻭﺣﻴﺚ ﺇﻧﻪ ﻻ ﺗﻮﺟﺪ‬
‫ﻫﻨﺎ ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﺳﺒﺒﻴﺔ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﳍﺪﻑ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻲ ﺳﻴﺼﺒﺢ ﺯﺍﺋﺪﺍ ﻭﳚﺐ ﺇﺯﺍﻟﺘﻪ‪.‬‬
‫« ﺑﺈﺯﺍﻟﺘﻨﺎ ﻟﻠﻬﺪﻑ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺲ ﺍﻷﺻﻠﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺷﺠﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ‪ ،‬ﻧﻌﺘﻘﺪ ﺃﻥ " ﲢﺴﻦ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﳌﺪﺭﺳﻲ ﻟﺪﻯ‬
‫ﺗﻼﻣﺬﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ ﺍﻻﺑﺘﺪﺍﺋﻲ" )ﺍﻟﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻴﻄﺔ ‪ (1‬ﺃﺻﺒﺤﺖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻤﺔ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﰲ ﺷﺠﺮﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ‪ .‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻠﻘﻴﻨﺎ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ ﻭﻭﺳﻄﺎ ﺃﺣﺴﻦ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﻠﻢ ﻳﺸﻜﻞ ﰲ ﺗﺼﻮﺭﻧﺎ ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﺳﺒﺒﻴﺔ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﻣﻊ ﺃﺩﺍﺀ‬
‫ﺃﺣﺴﻦ ﻟﻠﺘﻼﻣﻴﺬ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﻜﺬﺍ ﺗﺼﺒﺢ ﻫﺎﺗﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﻴﺠﺘﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﻴﺠﺘﲔ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻴﻄﺘﲔ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪﺗﲔ ‪ 1‬ﻭ‪ 2‬ﻷ‪‬ﻤﺎ ﺗﺴﺎﳘﺎﻥ‬
‫ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﰲ ﻫﺪﻓﻨﺎ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻲ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪ‪.‬‬
‫« ﻭﻣﺎ ﺃﻥ ﰎ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﲑ ﺣﱴ ﺃﺻﺒﺢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻬﻞ ﺃﻥ ﻧﺮﻯ ﺃﻥ ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻟﻴﺲ ﳍﺎ ﺃﻳﺔ ﻋﻼﻗﺔ‬
‫ﺳﺒﺒﻴﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻨﺠﺎﺡ ﺍﳌﺪﺭﺳﻲ ﳚﺐ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﻛﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﻼﻣﻴﺬ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﻵﻥ ﺃﺻﺒﺢ "ﻧﻘﺎﻁ‬
‫ﺃﺣﺴﻦ ﰲ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﺒﺎﺭ" ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﺇﳒﺎﺯ ﻳﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺪﻡ ﳓﻮ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﳍﺪﻑ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻲ )ﺍﻧﻈﺮ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺼﻮﻏﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﲢﺖ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ " ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻹﳒﺎﺯ"(‪.‬‬
‫« ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺪﻱ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﱄ ﻫﻮ ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﺒﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺷﺠﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻳﻌﲏ‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ "ﺍﻧﺪﻣﺎﺝ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺗﺬﺓ )ﺍﻟﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻴﻄﺔ ﺍﻷﺻﻠﻴﺔ ‪ (2‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻜﻮﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺪﺍﻏﻮﺟﻲ )ﺍﻟﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻴﻄﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺻﻠﻴﺔ ‪ (1.2‬ﲢﺖ "ﺃﺩﺍﺀ ﺃﺣﺴﻦ ﻟﻸﺳﺎﺗﺬﺓ" ﻭﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻭﻥ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳌﺪﺍﺭﺱ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺀ ﲢﺖ "ﻭﺳﻂ‬
‫ﺃﻓﻀﻞ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﻠﻢ"‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻣﻊ ﺇﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻭﻥ‪ ،‬ﱂ ﺗﺒﻖ ﺇﻻ ﺍﳊﻮﺍﺳﻴﺐ‪ .‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺗﺮﻭﻥ ﺍﻵﻥ‪ ،‬ﻧﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳊﻮﺍﺳﻴﺐ‬
‫ﻛﻤﺆﺷﺮ ﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺪﻡ ﳓﻮ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻴﻄﺔ ‪.2‬‬

‫ﺑﻠﻮرة اﻻﺳﺘﺮاﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎت‬

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‫اﻟﺘﺪﺑﻴﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ‬

‫ﺇﺫﻥ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺘﻨﺎ ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﺍﻵﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﱄ‪ :‬ﻫﺪﻓﻨﺎ ﻫﻮ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ " ﺃﺩﺍﺀ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ ﻟﺘﻼﻣﺬﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ ﺍﻻﺑﺘﺪﺍﺋﻲ"‪ .‬ﻛﻴﻒ؟ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺗﻠﻘﲔ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ ﻭﲢﺴﲔ ﻣﻨﺎﺥ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻢ‪ .‬ﻭﻛﻴﻒ ﳝﻜﻨﻨﺎ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﺇﱃ‬
‫ﻫﺎﺗﲔ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﻴﺠﺘﲔ؟ ﺑﺈﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻤﲔ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍ ﺻﺤﻴﺤﺎ ﻟﻠﻘﻴﺎﻡ ﲟﻬﻤﺘﻬﻢ ﻭﺑﺮﻓﻊ ﻣﺴﺎﻧﺪﺓ ﺷﺮﻛﺎﺋﻨﺎ ﰲ ﻣﻴﺪﺍﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ )ﺭﲟﺎ ﺃﻭﻟﺌﻚ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻳﺸﺘﻐﻠﻮﻥ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﳋﺎﺹ(‪ .‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻧﻨﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻖ ﻟﺒﻠﻮﺭﺓ ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻹﳒﺎﺯ ﻟﺘﻘﻮﱘ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺪﻡ ﺑﺸﺄﻥ ﺷﺠﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ‪ .‬ﻭﺳﻨﻨﻬﻲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳉﺰﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﻧﻔﺲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﳌﺒﻴﻨﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺸﺠﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﰲ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺍﳌﺼﻮﻏﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻫﻞ ﺍﻧﺘﻬﻴﻨﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺷﺠﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ؟ ﺭﲟﺎ ﱂ ﻧﻨﺘﻪ ﺑﻌﺪ‪ .‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﳝﻜﻨﻜﻢ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺮﻭﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻟﺔ "ﻣﺎﺫﺍ ﺑﻌﺪ؟" ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺮﻧﻮ ﺇﻟﻴﻨﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳉﺰﺀ ﺍﻷﺳﻔﻞ ﻟﻠﺸﺠﺮﺓ‪ .‬ﻫﻞ ﻳﻨﻘﺼﻨﺎ ﺷﻲﺀ؟ ﻫﻞ ﺷﺠﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ‬
‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻵﻥ ﺗﺴﺘﺠﻴﺐ ﳌﻌﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻀﺮﻭﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎﻳﺔ؟ ﺇﺫﺍ ﱂ ﻳﻜﻦ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﻣﺎﻣﻨﺎ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺟﺒﺎﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﺬﻛﺮﻭﺍ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻻ ﺗﻮﺟﺪ ﺷﺠﺮﺓ ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﻛﺎﻣﻠﺔ‪ .‬ﻓﻜﻞ ﻣﺎ ﻧﺴﻌﻰ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﻳﺔ ﻫﻮ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍ‪‬ﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺮﺗﺒﻄﺔ ﺑﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﺳﺒﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺼﻒ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺘﻨﺎ ﻭﰲ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺗﺰﻭﺩﻧﺎ ﺑﺎﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻀﺮﻭﺭﻳﺔ‬
‫ﻟﻠﺘﺪﺑﲑ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺳﻨﺤﺘﺎﺟﻬﺎ ﻻﲣﺎﺫ ﻗﺮﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﳎﻨﺎ‪ .‬ﺳﻨﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﺠﺮﺓ ﺍﳌﺼﺤﺤﺔ ﰲ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺼﻮﻏﺔ ﺍﳌﺨﺼﺼﺔ ﻟﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻹﳒﺎﺯ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫﻥ ﻻ ﺗﻀﻴﻌﻮﻫﺎ!‬

‫ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻭﻉ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﳊﻘﻴﻘﻲ‬


‫ﻧﻌﻢ‪ .‬ﻟﻘﺪ ﺣﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﻟﺘﺴﺘﻔﻴﺪﻭﺍ ﳑﺎ ﺗﻌﻠﻤﺘﻤﻮﻩ ﰲ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺗﻨﻮﻭﻥ ﲢﻘﻴﻘﻪ‪ .‬ﺍﺑﺪﺅﻭﺍ ﺑﻜﺘﺎﺑﺔ ﻫﺪﻓﻜﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻲ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺮﺑﻊ ﺃﺩﻧﺎﻩ‪ .‬ﺗﺬﻛﺮﻭﺍ‪ ،‬ﺿﻌﻮﺍ ﺻﻴﻐﺎ ﻭﺍﺿﺤﺔ ﻭﺩﻗﻴﻘﺔ ﺑﻘﺪﺭ ﺍﻹﻣﻜﺎﻥ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻵﻥ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻴﻜﻢ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺘﺴﺎﺀﻟﻮﺍ "ﻛﻴﻒ" ﻭﺍﺑﺪﺅﻭﺍ ﰲ ﺑﻠﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﱄ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻴﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ‬
‫ﲡﻴﺐ ﻋﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺎﺅﻝ‪ .‬ﺗﺄﻛﺪﻭﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻛﻞ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﻭﺳﻴﻄﺔ ﺗﻀﻌﻮ‪‬ﺎ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺮﺑﻊ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯ‬
‫ﻣﺼﺎﻏﺔ ﻛﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﻭﺍﺿﺤﺔ ﻭﺩﻗﻴﻘﺔ‪ .‬ﺗﺄﻛﺪﻭﺍ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ ﳍﺎ ﻓﻌﻼ ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﺳﺒﺒﻴﺔ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﺑﺎﳍﺪﻑ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻲ‪.‬‬

‫ﺑﻠﻮرة اﻻﺳﺘﺮاﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎت‬

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‫اﻟﺘﺪﺑﻴﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ‬

‫ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﺮﻭﻥ ﺃﻧﻜﻢ ﺍﻧﺘﻬﻴﺘﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯ‪ ،‬ﺗﺴﺎﺀﻟﻮﺍ ﻭ"ﻣﺎﺫﺍ ﺑﻌﺪ؟"‪ .‬ﻓﻜﺮﻭﺍ ﰲ ﺃﻳﺔ ﻋﻮﺍﻣﻞ‬
‫ﻣﻬﻤﺔ ﻗﺪ ﺗﻜﻮﻧﻮﻥ ﺃﻏﻔﻠﺘﻤﻮﻫﺎ‪ .‬ﺿﻌﻮﻫﺎ ﺿﻤﻦ ﺷﺠﺮﺓ ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺠﻜﻢ‪ .‬ﺗﺎﺑﻌﻮﺍ ﺗﺪﺭﺟﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺎﺯﱄ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻧﺘﻢ‬
‫ﺗﺘﺴﺎﺀﻟﻮﻥ "ﻛﻴﻒ" ﻭ"ﻣﺎﺫﺍ ﺑﻌﺪ؟" ﺣﱴ ﺗﻌﻜﺲ ﺷﺠﺮﺓ ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺠﻜﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺘﻜﻢ ﻛﺎﻣﻠﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﺑﻠﻮرة اﻻﺳﺘﺮاﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎت‬

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‫اﻟﺘﺪﺑﻴﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ‬

‫ﺍﳌﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﻟﻀﺮﻭﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﺃﻭ ﺷﺮﻛﺎﺀ ﺁﺧﺮﻭﻥ ﻫﻢ ﺍﳌﺴﺆﻭﻟﲔ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ‬

‫ﻛﻴﻔﻤﺎ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺴﺘﻌﻤﻠﻮ‪‬ﺎ ﰲ ﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺘﻜﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﶈﺘﻤﻞ ﺃﻧﻜﻢ ﺳﺘﺤﺪﺩﻭﻥ‬
‫ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﻟﻦ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ‪‬ﻤﻮﻋﺘﻜﻢ ﲢﻜﻢ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﺗﺴﺎﺀﻟﺘﻢ‬
‫ﻭ"ﻣﺎﺫﺍ ﺑﻌﺪ؟" ﲟﺎ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎﻳﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﻞ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻧﻜﻢ ﻻ ﳏﺎﻟﺔ‬
‫ﺳﺘﺠﺪﻭﻥ ﺃﻧﻔﺴﻜﻢ ﺃﻣﺎﻡ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔ‪ .‬ﻓﻤﻦ ﺍﳌﻤﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺑﻌﺾ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﰲ ﻃﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﻃﺮﻑ ﺇﺣﺪﻯ ﺍﳍﻴﺌﺎﺕ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻮﺯﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻷﻃﺮﺍﻑ ﺍﳌﺘﱪﻋﺔ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ )ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺍﳌﺼﻮﻏﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻌﺔ‪ :‬ﻋﻘﺪ‬
‫ﺷﺮﺍﻛﺎﺕ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻋﲔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﻭ ﺍﳋﺎﺹ(‪ .‬ﻣﻦ ﻣﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﳉﻤﺎﻋﻲ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺗﻘﺎﺳﻢ ﺍﳌﺴﺆﻭﻟﻴﺎﺕ ﻫﺬﺍ‬
‫ﻗﺪ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺷﻴﺌﺎ ﺟﻴﺪﺍ‪ .‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﻻ ﻳﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﻓﺮﻳﻘﻜﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﻟﺘﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﺃﻣﺜﻞ ﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺘﻪ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻣﺎ‬
‫ﻋﻤﻞ ﺑﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﻨﻔﺮﺩﺓ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﺟﻠﻴﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺃﺷﺠﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺘﻀﻤﻦ ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﻷﻃﺮﺍﻑ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﺍﺳﻢ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻑ ﺍﳌﺴﺆﻭﻝ ﲟﺮﺑﻊ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ‪ .‬ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﰲ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﳊﺎﻻﺕ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺮﺑﻌﺎﺕ ﻣﻈﻠﻠﺔ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺣﺎﺷﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﻣﻨﻘﻄﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺑﺄﻱ ﻃﺎﺑﻊ ﳑﻴﺰ ﺁﺧﺮ‪ .‬ﺍﺭﺟﻌﻮﺍ ﺇﱃ ﺃﺷﺠﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻗﻤﺘﻢ ﺑﺒﻠﻮﺭ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ‬
‫ﻫﺪﻓﻜﻢ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻲ‪ .‬ﻫﻞ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﻭﺳﻴﻄﺔ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻃﺮﻑ ﻣﺘﱪﻉ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻫﻮ ﺍﳌﺴﺆﻭﻝ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ؟ ﺇﺫﺍ‬
‫ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﺃﺿﻴﻔﻮﺍ ﺍﺳﻢ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺆﻭﻟﺔ ﺑﺎﳌﺮﺑﻊ‪.‬‬

‫ﺑﻠﻮرة اﻻﺳﺘﺮاﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎت‬

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‫اﻟﺘﺪﺑﻴﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ‬

‫ﺍﳌﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻌﺔ‬
‫ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻬﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺮﺑﻂ ﺑﲔ ﳐﺘﻠﻒ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﰲ ﺷﺠﺮﺓ ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺠﻜﻢ‬
‫ﻋﻼﻭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﻌﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺷﺮﻛﺎﺅﻛﻢ‪ ،‬ﻏﺎﻟﺒﺎ ﻣﺎ ﲡﺪ ﺍ‪‬ﻤﻮﻋﺎﺕ ﺃﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻋﻮﺍﻣﻞ‬
‫ﻣﻬﻤﺔ ﻻ ﺗﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻻ ﻫﻲ ﻭﻻ ﺷﺮﻛﺎﺅﻫﺎ‪ .‬ﻓﻔﻲ ﺍﻟﱪﺍﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺣﻴﺔ ﻣﺜﻼ‪ ،‬ﻗﺪ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻛﻤﻴﺔ ﺗﺴﺎﻗﻄﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻄﺮ ﰲ ﺳﻨﺔ ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﺣﺎﲰﺔ‪ ،‬ﺇﻻ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﻳﻬﻲ ﺃﻧﻨﺎ ﻻ ﻧﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺎﻗﻄﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻄﺮﻳﺔ‪ .‬ﻧﺴﻤﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻬﻤﺔ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﺑﺎﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﺎﺕ ﺍﳊﺎﲰﺔ‪ .‬ﻣﺜﺎﻝ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻓﺘﺮﺍﺽ ﺃﻥ ﻭﺯﺍﺭﺓ ﺗﻌﺘﻤﺪﻭﻥ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻣﺜﻼ‬
‫ﺳﺘﻮﺍﺻﻞ ﻋﻤﻠﻬﺎ ﺑﻨﻔﺲ ﺍﳌﻴﺰﺍﻧﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻗﻞ ﻃﻴﻠﺔ ﻣﺪﺓ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﻹﺭﺍﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺋﻤﺔ ﻟﺘﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﺗﻐﻴﲑﺍﺕ ﺣﺎﲰﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺇﳒﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﱪﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﻫﻲ ﻣﺜﺎﻝ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺽ ﺣﺎﺳﻢ‪.‬‬
‫ﻏﺎﻟﺒﺎ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻔﻴﺪ ﺗﻘﻴﻴﻢ ﺍﳊﻈﻮﻅ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﻤﺎﻻﺕ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻜﻢ ﺳﻴﻜﻮﻥ‬
‫ﺻﺤﻴﺤﺎ ﺃﻡ ﻻ‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺗﺘﻮﻗﻒ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﻣﻌﲔ ﻟﻠﺘﺴﺎﻗﻄﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻄﺮﻳﺔ ﻛﻞ ﺳﻨﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﻓﻤﺎ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﻤﺎﻻﺕ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺗﻘﻞ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺎﻗﻄﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﳌﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻌﺮﻭﻑ ﺣﻮﻝ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺎﻗﻄﺎﺕ ﰲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻴﺔ؟ ﻭﻣﺎ ﻫﻲ ﺍﳊﻈﻮﻅ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺎﻗﻄﺎﺕ ﺑﺎﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﲢﺘﺎﺟﻮﻧﻪ؟ ﻭﻣﺎﺫﺍ ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ؟ ﻫﻞ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺘﻐﲑ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻹﺭﺍﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻭﺗﻀﻤﺤﻞ ﻣﺴﺎﻧﺪﺓ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﳎﻜﻢ؟ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ‬
‫ﺍﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﺎﺗﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﺣﺎﲰﺔ ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﳊﻈﻮﻅ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﺎﺕ ﺿﻌﻴﻔﺔ ﻓﻘﺪ ﻳﺘﻌﲔ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻴﻜﻢ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﰲ ﻣﻘﺎﺭﺑﺘﻜﻢ ﳍﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﺐ‪ .‬ﳍﺬﺍ ﻧﺴﻤﻲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﺎﺕ ﺑﺎﳊﺎﲰﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍ ﻧﻈﺮﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﺠﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﻜﻢ‪ .‬ﻣﺎ ﻫﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﺎﺕ ﺍﳊﺎﲰﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻭﺿﻌﺘﻤﻮﻫﺎ ﻭﺃﻧﺘﻢ ﺑﺼﺪﺩ ﺑﻠﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺘﻜﻢ؟ ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﺳﻴﻜﻮﻥ‬
‫ﳍﺬﻩ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﺎﺕ ﺃﺛﺮ ﻳﺬﻛﺮ؟ ﻛﻢ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ؟ ﻭﻣﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺍﳋﻄﺮ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﺸﻜﻠﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬
‫ﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺘﻜﻢ؟ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﳋﻄﺮ ﻳﺒﺪﻭ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﻌﻠﻴﻜﻢ ﺇﺫﻥ ﻣﺮﺍﺟﻌﺔ ﺍﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻜﻢ ﻟﺮﺅﻳﺔ ﻣﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ‬
‫ﺑﺈﻣﻜﺎﻧﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺛﲑ ﰲ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﺎ ﺇﻣﺎ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻟﺪﻓﺎﻉ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻱ ﺗﺼﺮﻑ ﺁﺧﺮ؟ ﻟﻦ ﳝﻜﻨﻜﻢ ﻣﺜﻼ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻐﲑﻭﺍ‬
‫ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺎﻗﻄﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻄﺮﻳﺔ ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﺑﺈﻣﻜﺎﻧﻜﻢ ﺃﻥ ﲢﺪﺛﻮﺍ ﺍﳌﺰﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻧﻈﻤﺔ ﲣﺰﻳﻦ ﺍﳌﻴﺎﻩ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺷﻲﺀ‬
‫ﻟﻠﺮﻓﻊ ﻣﻦ ﳒﺎﻋﺔ ﺃﻧﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻘﻲ‪ .‬ﻟﻦ ﳝﻜﻨﻜﻢ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺎﺕ ﺑﺄﻧﻔﺴﻜﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻗﺪ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ‬
‫ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻄﺎﻋﺘﻜﻢ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻢ ﲪﻠﺔ ﻣﻨﺴﻘﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺄﺛﲑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﻛﻲ ﺗﺘﺼﺮﻑ ‪‬ﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺸﺄﻥ‪.‬‬
‫ﺑﻠﻮرة اﻻﺳﺘﺮاﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎت‬

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‫اﻟﺘﺪﺑﻴﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ‬

‫ﺍﳌﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﺍﳋﺎﻣﺴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺇﲤﺎﻡ ﺷﺠﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ‬
‫ﺃﻧﺘﻢ ﺍﻵﻥ ﻭﻻ ﺷﻚ ﺗﺘﺴﺎﺀﻟﻮﻥ ﻋﻤﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﻨﺘﻢ ﺳﺘﻨﺘﻬﻮﻥ ﻳﻮﻣﺎ ﻣﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺷﺠﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ؟ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺭﺃﻳﺘﻢ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﰲ ﺷﺠﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﻳﺘﻮﻗﻒ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﺻﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﻔﻴﺪﺓ‬
‫ﳌﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺑﲑ‪ .‬ﻓﺎﳌﺴﺆﻭﻟﻮﻥ ﰲ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﻗﺪ ﻳﻔﻀﻠﻮﻥ ﺭﺅﻳﺔ ﺷﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﱄ‬
‫ﺗﻔﺎﺻﻴﻞ ﺃﻗﻞ ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﻣﻊ ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻱ ﺍﻟﱪﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﳌﺴﺆﻭﻟﲔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻘﻪ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻣﻲ؛‬
‫ﻓﻌﺪﺩ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﺷﺠﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﻟﻴﺲ ﺇﺫﻥ ﻭﺳﻴﻠﺔ ﺟﻴﺪﺓ ﻻﺧﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺸﺠﺮﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺭﺟﻮﻋﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺃﺣﺴﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﻫﻮ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺷﺠﺮﺗﻜﻢ ﺗﻄﺮﺡ ﲨﻴﻊ‬
‫"ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﺒﻴﺔ" ﺍﻟﻀﺮﻭﺭﻳﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﳌﻀﻤﻨﺔ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺘﻜﻢ‪ .‬ﻭﻟﻠﺘﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺒﺪﺃ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺱ‪ ،‬ﻟﻨﻐﲑ‬
‫ﺍﻻﲡﺎﻫﺎﺕ ﻭﻧﻌﻤﻞ ﺑﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺗﺼﺎﻋﺪﻳﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺳﻔﻞ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺸﺠﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻨﻄﻖ‬
‫ﻭﳓﻦ ﻧﺼﻌﺪ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳍﺪﻑ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻲ‪ .‬ﻭﺑﺎﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﻟﻜﻞ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﻭﻛﻞ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﺍﻃﺮﺣﻮﺍ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺳﺌﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫« ﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﻭﺍﺿﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻏﺔ ﻭﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺪ ﳌﺎ ﳝﻜﻨﻨﺎ ﲢﻘﻴﻘﻪ؟ ﻫﻞ ﻛﻠﻨﺎ ﻣﺘﻔﻘﻮﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺎ ﺗﻌﻨﻴﻪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻏﺔ؟ ﻫﻞ ﳝﻜﻦ ﻟﺸﺨﺺ ﻏﺮﻳﺐ ﻋﻦ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﳎﻨﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻔﻬﻤﻪ؟‬
‫« ﳌﺎﺫﺍ ﻧﺪﺭﺝ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﻭﻫﻞ ﺗﺴﺎﻫﻢ ﰲ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻷﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﺸﲑ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﻬﻢ؟‬
‫« ﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﻟﻮﺣﺪﻫﺎ ﻛﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﺃﻡ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﺍﳌﻘﺪﻣﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ﻣﻬﻤﺔ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﺸﲑ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺴﻬﻢ؟‬
‫« ﻫﻞ ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻴﻄﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻷﺩﱏ ﻣﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻏﲑ ﺿﺮﻭﺭﻱ؟ ﻫﻞ ﺳﻨﻔﺸﻞ ﺇﻥ‬
‫ﺣﺬﻓﺖ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ؟ ﻫﻞ ﺳﺘﺠﺘﺎﺯ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﺃﻭ ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﺧﺘﺒﺎﺭ‬
‫" ﺇﺫﺍ‪ ،..‬ﻓﻤﺎﺫﺍ‪..‬؟"؟‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺗﺬﺓ ﻣﻨﺪﳎﲔ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﰲ ﺍ‪‬ﺘﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻌﻤﻠﻮﻥ ﺑﻪ‬

‫ﻓﺴﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﺃﺩﺍﺅﻫﻢ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﺴﻢ‬

‫ﺑﻠﻮرة اﻻﺳﺘﺮاﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎت‬

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‫اﻟﺘﺪﺑﻴﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ‬

‫« ﻣﺎﺫﺍ ﻧﻔﻌﻞ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺷﻴﺊ ﻧﺎﻗﺺ ﰲ ﻣﻨﻄﻖ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻘﺪﻣﺔ ﰲ ﺷﺠﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ؟ ﻫﻞ‬
‫ﻧﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ ﺃﻥ ﳓﻘﻖ ﻛﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﻭﻣﻊ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻧﻔﺸﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ‬
‫ﻳﺸﲑ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺴﻬﻢ؟‬
‫« ﻫﻞ ﺃﺷﺮﻧﺎ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺴﺆﻭﻟﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ؟ )ﺇﻥ ﻫﻲ ﻭﺟﺪﺕ(‬
‫« ﻫﻞ ﺣﻈﻮﻅ ﺻﺤﺔ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﺎﺕ ﺍﳊﺎﲰﺔ ﺿﺌﻴﻠﺔ ﻟﺪﺭﺟﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﻛﻜﻞ ﺳﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﰲ‬
‫ﺧﻄﺮ؟‬
‫ﻗﺪ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺃﺣﺴﻦ ﻧﺼﻴﺤﺔ ﻫﻲ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻀﻌﻮﺍ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﺎﺕ ﺑﺄﻛﱪ ﻗﺪﺭ ﻣﻦ "ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺔ" ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻮﺭﻕ‬
‫ﺃﻭﻻ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺍﺑﺪﺅﻭﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺷﺠﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ‪ ،‬ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ‪ ،‬ﺗﻌﻄﻴﻜﻢ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻼﺯﻣﺔ‬
‫ﻻﲣﺎﺫ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﳎﻜﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺷﺠﺮﺓ ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺠﻜﻢ ﻻ ﳏﺎﻟﺔ ﻛﺎﻣﻠﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﺭﺟﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﻻ‬
‫ﺗﺴﺘﻌﺠﻠﻮﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ! ﺍﺳﺘﻤﻌﻮﺍ ﺇﱃ ﺻﻮﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺮﺑﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﺑﻠﻮرة اﻻﺳﺘﺮاﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎت‬

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‫اﻟﺘﺪﺑﻴﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ‬

‫ﺍﳌﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺩﺳﺔ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﺷﺠﺮﺓ ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺠﻜﻢ ﻛﺄﺩﺍﺓ ﺗﺪﺑﲑ‬
‫ﺣﺴﻨﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻵﻥ ﻣﺎﺫﺍ؟ ﻓﻘﺪ ﺣﺼﻠﺘﻢ ﺃﺧﲑﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﺠﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺑﺎﻟﺸﻜﻞ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﺮﻏﺒﻮﻥ ﻓﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ‬
‫ﻛﻴﻒ ﳝﻜﻨﻜﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﺷﺠﺮﺓ ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺠﻜﻢ ﻟﺘﺴﺎﻋﺪﻛﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﺇﱃ ﻫﺪﻓﻜﻢ؟ ﻓﻤﻊ ﺷﺠﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ‬
‫ﻛﺪﻟﻴﻞ‪ ،‬ﺣﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﻟﺘﻄﻮﺭﻭﺍ ﺧﻄﺔ ﻋﻤﻞ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﺃﻧﺸﻄﺔ ﲢﺘﺎﺟﻮﻥ ﺇﳒﺎﺯﻫﺎ ﺃﻧﺘﻢ ﻭ ﺷﺮﻛﺎﺅﻛﻢ‬
‫ﻟﻜﻲ ﺗﺼﻠﻮﺍ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﰲ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺘﻜﻢ‪.‬‬
‫« ﺳﺘﺤﺘﺎﺟﻮﻥ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺷﺠﺮﺓ ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺠﻜﻢ ﻟﺘﻄﻮﺭﻭﺍ ﻣﺆﹺﺷﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺭﺻﺪ ﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﳎﻜﻢ‪،‬‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﻟﻜﻲ ﺗﻌﻤﻠﻮﺍ ﻣﻊ ﺷﺮﻛﺎﺋﻜﻢ ﻭﺗﺘﺨﺬﻭﺍ ﻗﺮﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﲨﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﺣﻮﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺳﻴﺠﻤﻊ ﺍﳌﻌﻄﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ‬
‫ﲟﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ‪ .‬ﻓﺸﺠﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺗﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﺍﳉﻤﻴﻊ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻓﻬﻢ ﳐﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭﻛﺔ ﻭﺗﻘﺴﻴﻢ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺴﺆﻭﻟﻴﺎﺕ ﻭﻓﻘﺎ ﻟﺬﻟﻚ‪.‬‬
‫« ﲣﱪﻛﻢ ﻣﺮﺍﺟﻌﺔ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﺳﻨﻮﻳﺎ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣ‪‬ﺆﺷﺮ ﻣﻌﲔ ﻟﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﻫﻮ ﺃﺩﱏ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺘﻮﻗﻊ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﳛﺼﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻧﻜﻢ ﲢﺘﺎﺟﻮﻥ ﺇﱃ ﲢﺪﻳﺪ " ﻛﻴﻒ ﺣﺪﺙ ﺫﻟﻚ " ﺑﺄﺳﺮﻉ ﻭﻗﺖ ﳑﻜﻦ‪ .‬ﻓﺸﺠﺮﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺗﺼﻒ ﻛﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﻭﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺴﺎﻧﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﻏﲑ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺟﻌﺔ ﻭﺳﺘﻤﺪﻛﻢ ﻭﻓﺮﻳﻘﻜﻢ‬
‫ﲞﺮﻳﻄﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﺀ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ‪.‬‬
‫« ﲣﱪﻛﻢ ﻣﺮﺍﺟﻌﺔ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﺃﻥ ﺇﺣﺪﻯ ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺠﻜﻢ ﻗﺪ ﰎ ﺑﻠﻮﻏﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ‪ .‬ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﻫﺬﺍ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺷﺠﺮﺓ ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﻣﺒﻠﻮﺭﺓ ﺑﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺟﻴﺪﺓ ﺳﺘﺴﺎﻋﺪﻛﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﺗﻮﺯﻳﻊ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﱵ‬
‫ﺃﺻﺒﺤﺖ ﺍﻵﻥ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﱂ ﻳﻜﻦ ﻣﺘﻮﻗﻌﺎ‪ ،‬ﻣﺘﺎﺣﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻫﺬﻩ ﻃﺮﻕ ﻗﻠﻴﻠﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺑﲔ ﻃﺮﻕ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻛﺜﲑﺓ ﲤﻜﻨﻜﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﺷﺠﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺣﲔ ﺗﻨﺘﻬﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺗﻄﻮﻳﺮﻫﺎ‪ .‬ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺓ ﻣﻠﻜﻜﻢ ﺍﻵﻥ‪ ،‬ﺍﺳﺘﻐﻠﻮﻫﺎ ﺃﺣﺴﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﻐﻼﻝ‪.‬‬

‫ﺑﻠﻮرة اﻻﺳﺘﺮاﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎت‬

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