DNA Structure

AHL 7.1- DNA –RNA
AP Biology

http://vimeo.com/24047115

DNA Structure

AHL 7.1
http://www.biochem.umd.edu/biochem/kahn/teach_res/nucleosom
e/jmol-nsome.html
AP Biology
Molecular visualization of the Nucleosome

Understandings, Applications and Skills

Statement

7.1.U1

Nucleosomes help to supercoil the DNA.

7.1.U6

Some regions of DNA do not code for proteins but have other
important functions.
The regions of DNA that do not code for proteins should be
limited to regulators of gene expression, introns, telomeres
and genes for tRNAs.

7.1.A1

Rosalind Franklin’s and Maurice Wilkins’ investigation of DNA
structure by X-ray diffraction.
Tandem repeats are used in DNA profiling.

7.1.A3
7.1.S1
7.1.S2

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Analysis of results of the Hershey and Chase experiment
providing evidence that DNA is the genetic material.
Utilization of molecular visualization software to analyse the
association between protein and DNA within a nucleosome.

7.1.S1

Analysis of results of the Hershey and Chase experiment
providing evidence that DNA is the genetic material.

Experiments showed that DNA is the genetic material


"Transforming factor" postulated in 1928 by
Frederick Griffith

Hershey-Chase experiments in 1952 determined
that the heredity material was DNA not protein
Studied the simple bacteriophage T2
Showed that the virus injects its DNA into host
cells and reprograms them to produce more viruses
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Using
radioactive sulfur
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Using
radioactive phosphorous
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LE 10-1b

Phage

Radioactive
protein

Bacterium
DNA
Batch 1
Radioactive
protein
Mix radioactively
labeled phages with
bacteria. The phages
infect the bacterial cells.

Batch 2
Radioactive
DNA

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Empty
protein shell

Radioactivity
in liquid

Phage
DNA

Centrifuge

Agitate in a blender to
separate phages outside
the bacteria from the
cells and their contents.

Pellet
Centrifuge the mixture Measure the
so bacteria form a
radioactivity in
pellet at the bottom of
the pellet and
the test tube.
the liquid.

Radioactive
DNA
Centrifuge

Pellet

Radioactivity
in pellet

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To understand this image, go to: http://www.dnalc.org/view/15874-Franklin-s-X-ray.html

This is a very famous picture
used to crack a scientific
puzzle:
What do you think the picture
shows ______________
The lady who developed the
picture never received any
recognition for her work
because she died before the
results were published
Rosalind Franklin’s and Maurice Wilkins’ investigation of DNA
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structure by X-ray diffraction.

DNA Discovery

http://www.youtube.com/watch?
v=0tmNf6ec2kU (50 minutes video)

 James Watson and
Francis Crick were
the first to propose
the structure of
DNA in 1953.
Don’t forget!

http://www.youtube.com/watch?
v=sf0YXnAFBs8
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DNA Structure Key Points
1. Double Helix
2. Monomers = Nucleotides
3. Sugar-Phosphate Backbone
4. A,T,C,G are joined together by H bonds
5. Complementary Base Pairing (A-T, C-G)
6. Coiled up into
chromosomes

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Monomers of DNA & RNA:
Nucleotides
General Version

SL
biology
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Complex Version

HL
biology

Carbon Numbering
 What does ‘antiparallel’ mean?

 Which C is the
phosphate located
near?

 What bonds hold
nucleotides
together?
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Purines and Pyrimidines

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H Bonding Between Base Pairs

 H bonds are weak!
 A-T = 2H bonds
 C-G = 3H bonds

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DNA
Packaging

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Types of DNA Sequence

 Some DNA consists of highly repetitive
sequences, some codes for genes and
some is structural.
1.
2.
3.

Highly Repetitive Sequences
Protein Coding Genes
Structural DNA

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HL

HL

Highly Repetitive Sequences
 ~45% of total human genome
 5-300 base-pair per sequence

 When clustered in discrete areas they are
referred to as ‘satellite DNA’:
 does not have any coding sequence Makes no

proteins
 Ex: at centromeres
 Transposons: change locations
 Discovered by
Barbara McClintock in 1950
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HL

Protein-Coding Genes
 Less than 2% of the chromosomes
 Have coding functions  Make proteins
 Human Genome Project
 Coding fragments of DNA = EXONS
 Non-Coding fragments of DNA = INTRONS
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HL

Structural DNA

 Supercoiled
 Non-Coding
 Located
near centromeres
 at ends of chromosomes
Telomeres
 AKA: Pseudogenes

The regions of DNA that do not code for proteins should be limited to regulators
Biology
of AP
gene
expression, introns, telomeres and genes for tRNAs.

HL

% Breakdown of DNA in Humans
DNA Sequence in Human Genome

%

Exons (protein-coding genes)
Introns
Highly Repetitive Sequences
Structural DNA
Inactive Genes (Pseudogenes)
Other

1-2
24
45
20
2
7-8

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HL

Short tandem repeats and DNA Profiling
• DNA Profiling is obtaining a specific DNA pattern from
an organism example human …
• Although most of our DNA are identical, some
specific regions show significant variation  called
Polymorphisms

• To profile polymorphisms , short tandem
repeats (STR) are targeted at 13 specific loci
(location on chromosome)
• STRs are short repeating sequences of DNA
composed of 2~5 base pairs.
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REVIEW

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How is the Double Helix Maintained?

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http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AF2w
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Any Questions?
http://www.fourh.purdue.edu/apple_genomics/fl
ash/movie3.swf

Read this article:
3DNA: a versatile, integrated software system for the
analysis, rebuilding, and visualization of threedimensional nucleic-acid structures

http://bioinformatics.org/firstglance/fgij//fg.htm?mol=http://www.umass.edu/molvis/bme3d/materials/structures/1aoi.pdb.gz&JAVA

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