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ENGLIS

STRATE
GIES.

READI
NG

STRAT

EGIES

ORAL
STRAT
EGIES

WRITI
NG

STRAT
EGIES
THINK
ALOUD
S
RATIONALE:

Think-aloud procedure has been included in this folder as it is an effective


resource used to model students understanding of what they are reading.
Teachers offer great support to students as they demonstrate and describe what
they are thinking and what strategies they are using when reading, displaying
their understanding. Using think-aloud procedures within a classroom allows
students to demonstrate their reading skills, problem solving skills and model
their fluency. Overall think-alouds were chosen as they improve students
comprehension, teaches them to self-correct and adds meaning as the children
relate to the text.
PROCEDURE:
1. Teachers choose a book.
2. Teachers plan the think-aloud (decide strategies and techniques they want
to demonstrate).
3. Demonstrate to students (read the text out loud, explaining their thoughts
and decision making).
4. Make notes on the text about their previous decision.
5. Repeat step 3 and 4 until reading is complete.
6. Reflect on the notes that were taken, discussing strategies used.
7. Repeat process with new book, get students to take turns in thinking
aloud.

ACARA

Processing
Strategies

Cueing
Systems

Modification

MS
V

This strategy can


be modified as
students can work
in groups, pairs or
individuals.
Students thoughts
can be shared
amongst each
other or kept for
teachers viewing
only. This strategy
can be used
throughout a range
of text.

Year 2: Literacy
Read less predictable
texts with phrasing and
fluency by combining
contextual, semantic,
grammatical and phonic
knowledge using text
processing strategies, for
example monitoring
meaning, predicting,
rereading and selfcorrecting(ACELY1669)

Predicting
Crosschecking/confirmi
ng
Self correcting
Comprehending

Video
Example:
http://www.vdoe.whro.org/elementary_readi
ng/ThinkAloud1-20-

2010_F8_FastStart_512k.swf

Reference:

Tompkins. G, Campbell. R, Green. D. (2012). Literacy for the 21st Century


A balanced Approach. Frenchs Forest, NSW: Pearson Australia
http://www.readingrockets.org/strategies/think_alouds/

CLOZE
PROCEDU
RES

RATIONALE:

Cloze procedure is a useful resource within a classroom as it clearly


demonstrates students ability to predict missing words within a text. Students
display comprehension as they determine what word fits for the sentence to
make sense. Cloze procedures are effective within the classroom as they
encourage students to continuously look for meaning in the text their reading.
Students analyse the text, add meaning and share their thoughts with peers as
their answer might be different to their classmates. Overall cloze procedure is a
successful resource for teachers to employee within their classroom as it
demonstrates students reading and comprehension abilities.
PROCEDURE:
1. Teachers construct a cloze passage by taking part of a text that students
are familiar.
2. Delete every fifth word and replace with blanks.
3. Students then read the text, this may be done as a class
4. Students then proceed to add the missing words.

ACARA

Processing
Strategies

Year 1: Language

Predicting
Self correcting
comprehending

Identify the parts of


a simple sentence
that represent
Whats
happening?, What
state is being

Cueing
Systems

Modification

MSV

This strategy can be


modified depending
on what the students
need to learn. It can
be altered to focus on
punctuation, content
or even prefix and
suffixes for

described?, Who
or what is
involved? and the
surrounding
circumstances
(ACELA1451)

examples.

Reference:

SHARED
READING

Tompkins. G, Campbell. R, Green. D. (2012). Literacy for the 21st Century


A balanced Approach. Frenchs Forest, NSW: Pearson Australia
http://olc.spsd.sk.ca/DE/PD/instr/strats/cloze/

RATIONALE:
Shared reading is part of this portfolio as it is a sportive resource that
advances students reading ability. This activity encourages and advances
students reading ability as they progress from being dependent on the teacher
and having them read the text to working independently. Shared reading allows
teachers to explicitly teach students the correct methods of reading as teachers
read the text, pausing to examine interesting words, sentence structure and
concepts of prints. By modelling the correct ways students learn what to take
into their own reading. Overall shared reading is a useful tool as it allows
teachers to model accurate reading skills as well as encouraging students to
make attempts and eventually gives students the correct skills for independent
reading.
PROCEDURE:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Teachers introduce a text.


Teachers read aloud, inviting students to be involved if capable.
Once finished discuss the story.
Reread the story, students take turns in reading.
Continue step 4 for several days.
Once students become familiar with text get them to read independently.

ACARA

Processing
Strategies

Year 1: Literacy
Read supportive
texts using
developing phrasing,
fluency, contextual,
semantic,
grammatical and
phonic knowledge
and emerging text
processing
strategies, for
example prediction,
monitoring meaning
and rereading
(ACELY1659)

Searching
Predicting
Crosschecking/confirmin
g
Self correcting

Cueing
Systems

Modification

MSV

This strategy can be


modified by putting
the students into
ability groups. It can
also be used as peer
teaching, where a
more fluent reader
takes the position of
the teacher.

Reference:
Tompkins. G, Campbell. R,
Green. D. (2012). Literacy
for the 21st Century A
balanced Approach. Frenchs
Forest, NSW: Pearson
Australia

http://keylinks.com.au/shared_reading.asp

STORYBO

RATIONALE:
Storyboards are an effective resource for the classroom as they allow
students to express understandings of their reading in a creative method.
Storyboards can either be used from illustrations out of the book, then
sequenced by students or students can create their own images from the text
they have read. Storyboards allow students to predict the outcome of a story
before reading as well as help low level readers understand the text they are
reading, as they look to the illustrations for meaning.

PROCEDURE:
1. Provide students with a storyboard template.
2. Students draw the main ideas/events of the story in the template
provided.
3. Students write a short caption explaining the above drawing.
4. Compare storyboards with peers.

ACARA
Year 2: Literature
Discuss the
characters and
settings of different
texts and explore
how language is
used to present
these features in
different ways
(ACELT1591)

Processing
Strategies
Attending
Searching
Predicting
Comprehending

Cueing
Systems

Modification

MSV

This strategy can be


modified if students
are given the
storyboards before
the text this way they
have to predict the
outcome of the story.

Reference:Tompkins. G, Campbell. R, Green. D. (2012). Literacy for the 21st


Century A balanced Approach. Frenchs Forest, NSW: Pearson Australia
http://www.facinghistory.org/resources/strategies/storyboard-teachingstrategy

SUSTAINED
SILENT
READING

RATIONALE:
Sustained silent reading is a beneficial resource that should be
incorporated into every classroom. A good daily activity sustained silent reading
is time set aside for independent reading; here students self-select their reading
materials. This activity promotes reading and develops students fluency,
comprehension and increases students vocabulary. By allowing students
freedom in the choice of genre they read students are motivated to participate.

Overall sustained silent reading is a useful tool for the classroom as it


encourages independent work and advances students reading ability.
PROCEDURE:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Students choose their own book.


Students choose a place in the room and read silently.
Teacher sets a time for uninterrupted reading.
Teacher models SSR and all students participate.

ACARA
Year 2: Language
Understand that
different types of
texts have
identifiable text
structures and
language features
that help the text
serve its purpose
(ACELA1463)

Processing
Strategies
Searching
Crosschecking/confirmin
g
Self correcting

Cueing
Systems

Modification

MSV

This strategy can be


modified by
extending the
activity, getting
students to talk about
their reading with a
pair or the class.

SILENT
READING
TIME

Reference:
Tompkins. G, Campbell. R, Green. D. (2012). Literacy for the 21st Century
A balanced Approach. Frenchs Forest, NSW: Pearson Australia

GUESS
THE

RATIONALE:
Guess the First Letter is a valuable resource within a classroom as it
allows the teacher one-onone time with a student. During this time the student
demonstrates their understanding of whole words and sentences. While the
teacher does the reading the student identifies what the missing letter is, for
example the word might be HELP but all the child sees is ELP after listening to
the teacher say the word the child attempts to identify the missing H. This
activity is engaging, allows students to self-check their understandings and is an
effective indication of whether the students struggle with the initial part of a
word.
PROCEDURE:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Teacher chooses a book, one the student is familiar with.


10 thin post-it notes are placed over the first letter of several words.
Read the book to the student; make sure they can see the words.
After a word with a stick-it note is read, pause and see if the child can
identify the missing letter.
5. Keep a record of the childs score, use it as an incentive for the child to
beat their score.

ACARA
Year 1: Language
Manipulate sounds
in spoken words
including phoneme
deletion and
substitution
(ACELA1457)

Processing
Strategies
Attending
Searching
Predicting
Crosschecking/confirmin
g

Cueing
Systems

MSV

Modification
This strategy can be
modified depending
on the level of the
child. As children
advance blending
letters, vowels or
final parts of words
may be covered.

Reference:
Tompkins. G, Campbell. R, Green. D. (2012). Literacy for the 21st Century
A balanced Approach. Frenchs Forest, NSW: Pearson Australia
http://www.education.com/activity/article/guess_first_letter_first/

NEWSPAP
ER
HIGHLIG

RATIONALE:

Newspaper Highlights is a simple yet effective tool to place in the


everyday classroom. This activity is a great for observing childrens knowledge of
sight words and/or any other particular content the class might be focusing on.
With the option of working individually or in a pair this activity is flexible and
requires little materials for it to be effective. Children highlight the words they
are asked to identify, these may be varied depending on the students reading
ability. This activity is engaging and exciting for young children as many
associate the newspaper as a grown up activity.
PROCEDURE:
1. Give each student or pair a newspaper and a highlighter. Explain how to
use a highlighter.
2. Reassure the students although there is a lot of small writing on their page
there will be familiar words.
3. Determine the word/words the children are to highlight. If needed write the
word/words on the board.
4. Compare the number of words highlighted amongst the class.

ACARA
Foundation:
Language
Recognise that texts
are made up of
words and groups of
words that make
meaning
(ACELA1434)

Processing
Strategies
Attending

Cueing
Systems

Modification

MSV

This strategy can be


modified by
changing the number
of words needed to
be found. It can also
be altered to search
for specific
punctuation, coupling
vowels and/or words
that start/end in a
particular letter or

pair of letters.

Reference:
Tompkins. G, Campbell. R, Green. D. (2012). Literacy for the 21st Century
A balanced Approach. Frenchs Forest, NSW: Pearson Australia

http://www.education.com/activity/article/reading_highlights_first/
http://highlandkindergarten.blogspot.com.au/2011_02_01_archive.html

WORD
RECOGNI
TION

RATIONALE:

Word recognition is a useful resource that should be implemented into


every early years classroom. It is a basic match up the cards activity that allows
students to recognise the joining of letters creates words. This activity should be
implemented into the classroom once students are fluent with their alphabet and
letter sounds. Throughout the activity students match the picture card to the
written sight word cards reading the word aloud as they do so. This activity is a
useful way of introducing sight words to students and is supportive as students
are able to make meaning from the pictures.
PROCEDURE:
1. Teacher prepares a set of written words and a set of matching picture
words.
2. Cards are then displayed on the desk facing up.
3. Students then connect the corresponding cards.

ACARA
Foundation:
Language
Know that spoken
sounds and words
can be written down
using letters of the
alphabet and how to
write some high-

Processing
Strategies
Attending
Searching
Predicting
Crosschecking/confirmin
g

Cueing
Systems

Modification

MSV

This strategy can be


modified by
changing the amount
of cards. For more
advance students or
higher grades add
adjectives.

frequency sight
words and known
words (ACELA1758)

CAT
BIR
D
BO

Y
tree
Reference:
Tompkins. G, Campbell. R, Green. D. (2012). Literacy for the 21st Century
A balanced Approach. Frenchs Forest, NSW: Pearson Australia
http://www.education.com/activity/article/Word_Recognition/

COLLABO
RATIVE
BOOKS

RATIONALE:

Collaborative books are an effective resource to implement into a


classroom when teaching students the concept of writing. During this activity
students each write a page of a story and at the end every students page is
collected and put together as one complete book. Collaborative books are
beneficial within the classroom as they allow students to practice the process of

writing, as well as provide more time for the teacher to check each students
work, as there is only one page for them to proof-read. This activity is flexible as
it can be done individually or in pairs and if suitable peer-teaching can be used to
get students to proofread each others work. This activity is suitable for any
genre: retelling of narrative, personal story, poem and/or informational book.
PROCEDURE:
1. Teacher chooses topic for students to write, a concept the class is familiar
with.
2. Teacher provides example of the page design.
3. Do the first page as a class depending on the amount of text required.
4. Students create rough drafts and share with peers, make any changes if
they wish.
5. Teacher does final edit and students then complete good copy.
6. Once each page is complete teacher compiles them and puts them
together as one complete book.
7. Copies are made for all students.

ACARA
Year 2: Literacy
Create short imaginative,
informative and persuasive
texts using growing knowledge
of text structures and
language features for familiar
and some less familiar
audiences, selecting print and
multimodal elements
appropriate to the audience
and purpose(ACELY1671)

Processing
Strategies
Predicting
Crosschecking/confir
ming
Self correcting
Comprehending

Cueing
Systems

Modification

MS
V

This strategy can be


modified by students
working individually
or in pairs. The
genre is also flexible
as collaborative
books can be created
for any genre.

Reference:

Tompkins. G, Campbell.
Green. D. (2012). Literacy for the 21st Century A balanced Approach.
Frenchs Forest, NSW: Pearson Australia

WORD

R,

RATIONALE:
Word walls are a valuable resource within the everyday classroom. Within
a primary school setting it is common for teachers to hang a large sheet of paper
with each letter of the alphabet written across the top. Below the letter sight
words/high frequency words are written under the letter they begin with. These
word walls are usually displayed all year round, as they support students when
they are writing. Word walls are useful within a classroom as they can be used
for a variety of reasons, they can be used to develop spelling, phonics and/or
assist students when writing. Depending on the class word walls can be created
by the teacher and displayed or they can be made as a class, students help
determine which words should be written on the wall. Throughout the year and
various concepts learnt words can be added to walls.
PROCEDURE:
1. Teacher creates large hanging poster with every letter in the alphabet.
2. Depending on teacher preference words are added to the wall under each
letter by teacher or as a class.
3. Word wall is continuously displayed and referred to during writing
exercises.
4. Throughout the year new words are added to the word wall.

ACARA
Year 1: Language
Know that regular
one-syllable words
are made up of
letters and common
letter clusters that
correspond to the
sounds heard, and
how to use visual
memory to write
high-frequency
words (ACELA1778)

Processing
Strategies
Searching
Crosschecking/confirmin
g

Cueing
Systems

MSV

Modification
This strategy can be
modified depending
on whether the
teacher preplans the
word wall or if it is
done a class. Also
students may create
their own personal
word wall for their
English folder.

Reference:

INTERAC
TIVE

Tompkins. G, Campbell. R, Green. D. (2012). Literacy for the 21st Century


A balanced Approach. Frenchs Forest, NSW: Pearson Australia
http://fisforfirstgrade.blogspot.com.au/2011/05/word-wall.html

RATIONALE:
Interactive writing is a resourceful strategy to be used when students are
developing writing skills. It is beneficial for the classroom as it allows students to
work both individually and as a class developing correct spelling, letter structure,
word structure and punctuation. Throughout this activity students work as a class
with the teacher and create a text on chart paper, at the same time every
student writes down the text on their own whiteboard. This process is then
repeated as students read the completed text as a class and then as an
individual. Interactive writing is useful as it provides support for students as they
develop writing skills, as well as offering an opportunity for teachers to observe
students ability.
PROCEDURE:
1. Teacher collects all materials that are required (chart paper, marking pens,
mini whiteboards etc).
2. Teacher provides a concept for the writing.
3. Teacher and students decide a sentence to write.
4. Whiteboards and markers are handed out.
5. Every now and then teacher asks students to raise whiteboard to observe
their writing.
6. Teacher and student slowly break down the words to create the first
sentence.
7. Particular students are chosen by the teacher to add the next word, space
or punctuation to the class text; this is done until the whole text is
complete.
8. The text is then displayed in the class and continuously referred to.

ACARA
Year 2: Literacy
Create short imaginative,
informative and persuasive
texts using growing
knowledge of text structures
and language features for
familiar and some less
familiar audiences, selecting
print and multimodal
elements appropriate to the
audience and purpose
(ACELY1671)

Processing
Strategies
Predicting
Crosschecking/confir
ming
Self correcting

Cueing
Systems

Modification

MS
V

This strategy can be


modified once students
are fluent in writing and
reading as it can be
done in small groups.
Each member writes a
sentence in a different
colour and signs the
bottom in the same
colour so teachers can
associate them to their

sentence.

Reference:
Tompkins. G, Campbell. R, Green. D. (2012). Literacy for the 21st Century
A balanced Approach. Frenchs Forest, NSW: Pearson Australia

QUICKWR

RATIONALE:
Quickwriting is an effective teaching tool that should be incorporated into
every classroom. The concept of the exercise is for students to have freedom and
choice over their writing as they asked to write continuously for five to ten
minutes. Quickwriting is favoured by many students as they not only have
control of their learning, but also because they are not penalised for spelling
error as they are told to focus on creating ideas and improving their fluency.
While children are given no restrictions they are assisted by teachers through the
aid of prompts, this helps students commence their writing. Quickwriting is a
valuable strategy for the classroom as it promotes individual learning,
encourages students to share final work and can also be used as a way for
teachers to determine prior knowledge.
PROCEDURE:
1. Students are provided with paper or asked to write in their English books.
2. Teachers explain to the students they will be continuously writing for five
to ten minutes, do not be concerned about correct spelling as the idea is
to write down as many ideas as possible.
3. Before students begin to write teachers read to the class.
4. Teacher then prompts the students, giving them a concept to write about.
5. Once the five ten minutes is complete students get into small groups and
share their writing.
6. One student from each group is then chosen to share with the class.
7. That student quickly edits their writing then shares to the whole class.

ACARA
Year 2: Literature
Create events and
characters using
different media that
develop key events
and characters from
literary texts
(ACELT1593)

Processing
Strategies
Predicting
comprehending

Cueing
Systems

Modification

MSV

This strategy can be


modified as students
write about their own
subject instead of
being provided with
a prompt.

WRITING
CLUES

Reference:

Tompkins. G, Campbell. R, Green. D. (2012). Literacy for the 21st Century


A balanced Approach. Frenchs Forest, NSW: Pearson Australia

BUILD-ARATIONALE:
Build-a-word is an effective teaching tool that demonstrates students
ability to create one word out of two words and/or letter clusters. This strategy
improves students writing skills as they are given a pile of cards and are asked to
write down how many words they can think of including the letter cluster/word.
This activity is a useful individual task that offers teaching a clear understanding
of the students writing ability and vocabulary. Build-a-word can be used as a self
improvement task, as teachers encourage students to beat their personal best. A
simple task this activity should be incorporated into the classroom to assist
students writing ability.
PROCEDURE:
1. Students are given a pile of words/ letter clusters.
2. Students are then asked to write down how many words the can think that
include what is on their card. Eg. Play might be turned into plays, playing,
played, playground. Or At might get turned into mat, cat, bat, that etc.
3. Students tally up how many they got for each word; this is then recorded
by the teacher.
4. End of week or next day students do the same activity, here teachers can
note improvement.

ACARA
Year 1: Language
Recognise and know
how to use

Processing
Strategies
Attending
Searching
Predicting

Cueing
Systems

Modification

MSV

This strategy can be


modified as students
progress through the
cards they can build

morphemes in word
families for example
play in played and
playing
(ACELA1455)

their own words.


This will demonstrate
their ability to see
two words within
one.

PLAY AT
SH

DAY

ON

ING

Reference:
http://www.education.com/activity/article/buildaword_first/

STORY
CARDS
RATIONALE:
Story cards are an effective writing tool for the everyday classroom. These
imagery cards are great story starters for young students. With many students
losing interest in writing, story cards are a successful tool used to bring out the
creativity in every student. Students choose a card and are then asked to write a
story based from their chosen picture card. With students now motivated to write
the options are never ending; teachers may get students to share their writing to
the class, to a pair, or even publish students work in a collaborative book type
activity.
PROCEDURE:
1. Students pick a random card out of the box.
2. They are then given no restrictions and are allowed to write any story
based on that picture.

3. Students share their work with teacher, pair and/or whole class.

ACARA
Year 1: Literature
Recreate texts
imaginatively using
drawing, writing,
performance and
digital forms of
communication
(ACELT1586)

Processing
Strategies
Searching
Predicting
Crosschecking/confirmin
g
Self correcting
Comprehending

Cueing
Systems

Modification

MSV

This strategy can be


modified as students
may bring in their
own images or
photos, these may
even be passed
around the room
sharing picture cards
with peers.

ALPHABE
T

Reference:

http://paulabecker.com/blog/2008/10/

RATIONALE:
Alphabet tree is a useful hands-on teaching strategy that should be used
throughout early years when learning to write. With letter knowledge and
structure being the fundamental skill of writing this activity is an effective tool for
young students. The activity demonstrates students writing ability and their
knowledge of the alphabet, giving teachers an indication of what needs to be
taught. Alphabet tree is a creative method for students to demonstrate their
alphabet writing ability and it is an activity students can keep in their writing
folders and continuously refer back to when required.
PROCEDURE:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Students are each given a tree handout along with 26 leave templates.
Students are to trace over the dotted letter outline.
Then have a go at writing the letter next to the one they just traced.
Students then glue their leaf onto their tree.
Steps 3 and 4 are repeated until all 26 letters are placed on their tree.
These are then placed in their writing folders or posted around the room.

ACARA
Foundation:
Language
Produce some lower
case and upper case
letters using learned
letter formations
ACELT1580)

Processing
Strategies
Attending

Cueing
Systems

Modification

MSV

This strategy can be


modified as it can be
done as a whole class
activity, a large
alphabet tree can be
pinned on the wall.

Reference:

CLASSRO
OM

http://www.education.com/activity/article/alphabet-trees/

http://www.inspirationforcelebration.com/2011/08/back- to-school-apple-drinkswith-free.html
http://www.magic-mural- factory.com/Level_1/Articles/Tree%20Mural.htm

RATIONALE:
Classroom letterbox is a fun, interactive teaching tool that should be used
within the early years. Classroom letterbox allows students to have a go at
writing sentences and illustrate their images. This activity is engaging and hands
on as students write to their parents, grandparents, friends or siblings a small
message and then post it in the classroom mailbox. This basic writing activity
allows students to express their personal interests as well as provides teachers
an opportunity to observe students writing ability. Overall this is a great strategy
for the early years classroom as it motivates students to begin writing as they
are rewarded with the gift of posting which could be their very first letter.
PROCEDURE:
1. Students are introduced to the class letterbox; its purpose is explained.
2. Students are then given a piece of paper where they are to write one
sentence or a few words describing their week.
3. Teacher monitors student work, assisting them in writing when required.
4. Once complete students illustrate their letter.
5. Students then place the letter in an envelope and students post it in the
class letterbox.
6. A good idea if possible is to actual send the letters off to the person the
child addressed it to, that way the student sees purpose in the activity.

ACARA
Foundation:
Literacy
Create short texts to
explore, record and
report ideas and
events using familiar
words and beginning
writing knowledge
(ACELY1651)

Processing
Strategies
Searching
Predicting
Crosschecking/confirmin
g

Cueing
Systems

Modification

MSV

This strategy can be


modified depending
on special occasions:
letter to the Easter
Bunny, Santa Clause,
one of their peers
birthdays etc.

Reference:
http://www.education.com/activity/article/familymailbox_kindergarten/

HOT SEAT

RATIONALE:
Hot seat is an effective language strategy that should be present within all
classrooms. Creative and interactive hot seat is a fun and engaging tool which
demonstrates a students oral language skills, vocabulary and comprehension.
This activity builds understanding of a recent story and/or informational text as
students learn from their peers, developing deeper knowledge. During hot seat
one child is put in the hot seat and takes on the character from a recent text,
peers then engage in discussion asking the character details about themselves
and their journey. This activity is useful as it engages students in conversation in
a creative and end engaging manner.
PROCEDURE:
1. Students read a particular text.
2. One child assumes the persona of a particular character and they sit in a
chair in front of the students. This may be known as the interview chair or
hot seat.
3. Fellow classmates then ask questions about the character and their life.
4. Student in the hot seat must think or the spot and improvise answers.
5. Once time is up or there is no more questions one student is chosen to
summarise the previous discussion.

ACARA
Year 2: Literacy
Use interaction skills
including initiating
topics, making
positive statements
and voicing
disagreement in an
appropriate manner,
speaking clearly and
varying tone, volume
and pace
appropriately
(ACELY1789)
Reference:

Processing
Strategies
Searching
Predicting
comprehending

Cueing
Systems

Modification

MSV

This strategy can be


modified to a group
activity. Multiple
students may take on
the role of various
characters, each take
it in turns of being
interviewed.

Tompkins. G, Campbell. R,
Century A balanced
Pearson Australia

Green. D. (2012). Literacy for the 21st


Approach. Frenchs Forest, NSW:

http://dramaresource.com/strategies/hot-seating

BEAN

RATIONALE:
Bean bag toss is an effective resource for the early years classroom. An
active, hands-on activity this game is all about remembering the letters of the
alphabet. Students throw the bean bag between each other and when the bean
bag is caught that student must say the correct letter of the alphabet. This
activity is useful within the classroom as it allows teachers to see students
ability level and can be used to observe development. A great engaging lesson
starter this activity encourages and develops oral skills.
PROCEDURE:
1. Teacher introduces the game.
2. Students are told when the bean bag is thrown to them they are to say
one letter of the alphabet. (Explain to children it should be in correct
sequence).
3. Teacher starts, states the letter A before lightly throwing it to a student,
they then state the letter B and pass it on.
4. Step 3 is repeated until there is a mistake.
5. This activity can be repeated several times depending on time.
6. Score is then recorded on the board, as a personal best. (Class goal to
beat their record and make it to the end of the alphabet).

ACARA
Foundation:
Language
Recognise the letters
of the alphabet and
know there are lower
and upper case
letters (ACELA1440)

Processing
Strategies
Attending

Cueing
Systems

Modification

MSV

This strategy can be


modified to small,
and can be changed
to any subject may be
counting for
example.

Reference:

CHORAL

http://www.homemade-preschool.com/preschool-language.html

RATIONALE:
Choral reading is a useful resource that helps develops students oral
reading skills. This activity is designed for small texts and/or poems; students
use the text provided and sequence who will read what part. Choral reading is a
flexible resource as there are many different approaches; students may work use
group reading, whole class reading, echo reading, leader-chorus reading or
cumulative reading. With such diversity this activity can be used for all learning
styles and ability, increasing students expression and fluency.

PROCEDURE:
1. Teacher reads a text to the class.
2. As a class students then decide which roles each student or group will say.
3. Students are given their own copy of the text and are asked to highlight
their section.
4. After a few practices the text is read aloud.

ACARA
Year 2: Literacy
Rehearse and
deliver short
presentations on
familiar and new
topics (ACELY1667)

Processing
Strategies
Self correcting
Comprehending

Cueing
Systems

Modification

MSV

This strategy can be


modified to group or
individual work.
Students may use
various sequencing
when delivering.

Video
Example:
http://bcove.me/lu09oyyi

Reference:
Tompkins. G, Campbell. R, Green. D. (2012). Literacy for the 21st Century
A balanced Approach. Frenchs Forest, NSW: Pearson Australia

http://www.readingrockets.org/strategies/choral_reading/

GRAND
CONVERS
ATIONS
RATIONALE:
Grand conversations are a useful resource for the classroom, which
encourages peers to interact and share their understandings with each other.
Student centred this activity is a great observational tool for teachers, as it
requires minimal teacher input. After reading a text students discuss with each
other their personal understandings, the concept of the story, clear any
confusion and encourage responses from peers. This is a beneficial resource for
teachers to use in their classroom as it allows students to direct their learning
and provides teaches an opportunity to observe students social skills, social
roles, oral language skills and comprehension.
PROCEDURE:
1. Students read or a book individually or as a class.
2. Students prepare for grand conversation, write down or draw their ideas
and understandings of the story.
3. Students form small groups to discuss their understandings.
4. Once finished students join as a whole and begin the grand conversation.
5. At the end teacher steps in and prompts any questions or concepts that
werent discussed.
6. Once all big ideas have been explored teacher summarises the discussion.

ACARA
Year 1: Literacy
Engage in
conversations and
discussions, using
active listening

Processing
Strategies
Comprehending

Cueing
Systems

MSV

Modification
This strategy can be
modified depending
on whether the
teacher preplans the
word wall or if it is
done a class. Also

behaviours, showing
interest, and
contributing ideas,
information and
questions
(ACELY1656)

students may create


their own personal
word wall for their
English folder.

Reference:
Tompkins. G, Campbell. R, Green. D. (2012). Literacy for the 21st Century
A balanced Approach. Frenchs Forest, NSW: Pearson Australia

ADD ON
STORY

RATIONALE:

Add on story is an effective resource for the classroom that demonstrates


students creativity and oral language skills. Suitable for all learning abilities this
activity focuses on students ability to improvise and continue a story. This is an

interactive activity where teachers start a story, stating the first sentence then
students take turns to continue the story. This strategy is beneficial as it
demonstrates students oral language and comprehension skills. Add on story is
a useful activity for the class room as it is engaging and provides teachers a
demonstration of students progress.

PROCEDURE:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Teacher introduces the concept.


Students sit in a circle.
Teacher starts off the first sentence.
First student then adds to it, then next student and so on.
Final student must conclude the story.
Teacher may choose to write down the sentences on the board as students
go round.

ACARA
Foundation:
Literacy
Listen to and
respond orally to
texts and to the
communication of
others in informal
and structured
classroom situations
(ACELY1646)

Processing
Strategies
Searching
Predicting

Cueing
Systems

Modification

MSV

This strategy can be


modified into group
work. Students may
be asked to illustrate
their favourite
sentence from the
board.

EXAMPLES:
The alley cat ran down the...
Hidden deep in the
jungle...

At the beach Sandy


likes...
In my lunchbox I
have...

Reference:

http://fun.familyeducation.com/storytelling/creativity/37
170.html

STORY

RATIONALE:
Story retelling is an effective resource that demonstrates a childs
comprehension while building their vocabulary and speaking skills. This activity
is a one on one teacher and student task, where the student retells a story they
have recently read as an individual or as a class. By observing students teachers
become aware of each students oral language and comprehension capabilities.
Story retelling is a useful as it is an effective tool for determining whether a
student has understood their previous work and it also builds students
vocabulary as words and phrases from the book are incorporated into their retell.
PROCEDURE:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Students read a book, individually or as a class.


Teacher calls students over one at a time.
Here students are asked to retell the story, just to the teacher.
Teacher observes students ability, noting their capability.

ACARA
Year 1: Language
Discuss characters
and events in a
range of literary texts
and share personal
responses to these
texts, making
connections with
students' own
experiences
(ACELT1582)

Processing
Strategies
Searching
Comprehending

Cueing
Systems

Modification

MSV

This strategy can be


modified so that it is
done to peers and not
to the teacher. Can be
used throughout any
subject area.

Reference:

Tompkins. G, Campbell. R, Green. D. (2012). Literacy for the 21st Century


A balanced Approach. Frenchs Forest, NSW: Pearson Australia
http://firstgradewow.blogspot.com.au/2012/03/retelling-stories.html

STORY

RATIONALE:
Story bags are an effective resource that develops creative thinking, oral
language and storytelling skills. During this activity students create a story from
the items placed in a mystery bag and then share it with the class. The use of
story bags allows teachers to observe students creativity, their story creating
process and their oral delivery. A fun engaging resource story bags are a simple
activity which progresses students oral language and provides teachers an
indication of the students learning ability. Story bags are a valuable resource for
the classroom as it is in engaging informal method for students to develop oral
language skills.
PROCEDURE:
1. Students are given a mystery bag.
2. Students are given a few minutes to look inside the bag; this is done as an
individual.
3. Students are asked to create a story using the objects they found in the
bag.
4. Students come together as a class and take it in turns to share their story.
5. This can be extended by students illustrating their story.

ACARA
Year 1: Literature
Recreate texts
imaginatively using
drawing, writing,
performance and
digital forms of
communication
(ACELT1586)

Processing
Strategies
Searching
Predicting
comprehending

Cueing
Systems

Modification

MSV

This strategy can be


modified depending
on what is put in the
bag. Teachers may
also choose to do this
activity as pair or
group work.

READERS
THEATRE

Reference:

http://www.apartmenttherapy.com/rainy-day-boredom-buster-diy-s-160311

RATIONALE:
Readers theatre is an effective resource that should be used within a
classroom to develop students oral speaking skills. During this activity students
produce a drama inspired performance with little action. Students must rely on
their voice to communicate the plot, characterisations and mood to their peers. A
beneficial strategy, readers theatre demonstrates students comprehension of
the story as they share their understandings to the class. An engaging activity
readers theatre increases students confidence and develops fluency in their oral
speech. This activity creates an interactive environment where students listen
and learn from one another, as well as provides them an opportunity to advance
their oral language skills.

PROCEDURE:
1. Students are provided with suitable books; ones that can be turned into a
script.
2. Students take on the role of a character, and rehearse their lines.
3. Once prepared students perform their skit in front of the class.
4. Students should be reminded that they are expressing their character
through their oral skills.

ACARA
Year 2: Literacy
Rehearse and
deliver short
presentations on
familiar and new
topics
(ACELY1667)

Processing
Strategies
Searching
Predicting

Cueing
Systems

Modification

MS
V

This strategy can be


modified by students
creating their own script.
Advanced students may
write their own story and
then create a script. This
could be recorded and
made as a class video.

Reference:
Tompkins. G, Campbell. R, Green. D. (2012). Literacy for the 21st Century
A balanced Approach. Frenchs Forest, NSW: Pearson Australia
http://www.thebestclass.org/rtscripts.html

http://broadwayeducators.com/?p=1154