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SCRA CASES

A. Concept and Origin of the Bill of Rights


B. Classification
1. Civil Rights
2. Political Rights
3. Social and Economic Rights
C. Doctrine of Preferred Freedom (Hierarchy of Rights)
PBM Employees Org. vs. PBM Co., Inc., 51 SCRA 189 (1973)
D. The Fundamental Powers of the State
1. Similarities
2. Differences
3. Limitations
II. POLICE POWER
A. Definition, Scope & Basis
B. Characteristics
C. Who exercises said power?
D. Tests of Police Power
Laws:
Lozano vs. Matinez, 146 SCRA 323 (1986)
Del Rosario vs. Bengzon, 180 SCRA 521 (1989)
Tablarin vs. Judge Gutierrez, 152 SCRA 730 (1987)
Zoning and Regulatory Ordinances:
Ermita-Malate Hotel & Motel Operators v. City Mayor, 20 SCRA 849 (1967)
Sangalang vs. IAC, 176 SCRA 719 (1989)
Villanueva vs. Castaneda, 154 SCRA 142 (1987)
Cruz vs. Paraz, 123 SCRA 569 (1983)
Velasco vs. Villegas, 120 SCRA 568 (1983)
Magtajas vs. Pryce Properties, 234 SCRA 255 (1994)
Tano v. Socrates, G.R. 110249, August 27, 1997
Administrative Rules and Regulations
Bautista vs. Junio, 127 SCRA 329 (1984)
Taxicab Operators of Metro Manila vs. BOT, 119 SCRA 597 (1982)
Anglo-Fil Trading vs. Lazaro, 124 SCRA 494 (1983)
III. EMINENT DOMAIN
A. Definition
B. Who exercises the power?
City of Manila vs. Chinese Cemetery of Manila, 40 Phil 349 (1919)
Moday v. Court of Appeals, 268 SCRA 368 (1997)
C. Constitutional limitation - Art. II, Sec. 9
D. Distinguished from destruction due to necessity
E. Objects of Expropriation
RP. v. PLDT, 26 SCRA 620 (1969)
F. Where Expropriation Suit is Filed
Barangay San Roque v. Heirs of Pastor, GR 138896 June 20, 2000
G. Taking
Definition and scope
Requisites
Republic vs. Castelvi, 58 SCRA 336 (1974)
City Govt. of Quezon City vs. Ericta, 122 SCRA 759 (1983)
Deprivation of Use
Republic vs. Fajardo , 104 Phil.443 (1958)
Napocor vs. Gutierrez, 193 SCRA 1 (1991)
U.S. v. Causby, 328 U.S. 256 (1946)
Priority in Expropriation
Filstream International v. CA, 284 SCRA 716 (1998)
Estate or Heirs of Reyes vs. City of Manila, G.R. No. 132431, February 13, 2004
City of Mandaluyong v. Francisco, G.R. No. 137152, January 29, 2001
H. Public use
Heirs of Juancho Ardona vs. Reyes, 125 SCRA 220 (1983)
Sumulong vs. Guerrero, 154 SCRA 461 (1987)
Province of Camarines Sur vs. CA, 222 SCRA 170 (1993)
Manosca v. Court of Appeals, 252 SCRA 412 (1996)
Estate of Jimenez v. PEZA, G.R. No. 137285, January 16, 2001
I. Genuine Necessity
Mun. of Meycayauan vs. IAC, 157 SCRA 640 (1988)
De Knecht vs. Bautista, 100 SCRA 660 (1980)
Republic vs. De Knecht, G.R. 87351, February 12, 1990
PPI v. Comelec, 244 SCRA 272 (1995)
NHA v. Heirs of Isidro Guivelondo, G.R. No. 154411. June 19, 2003
J. Just Compensation
Defined
Eslaban v. De Onorio, G.R. No. 146062, June 28, 2001
RP vs. IAC, et al., G.R. No. 71176, May 21, 1990
City of Cebu v. Spouses Dedamo, G.R. No. 142 971, May 07, 2002
Determination of Just Compensation
EPZA vs. Dulay, 149 SCRA 305 (1987)
When Determined
Ansaldo vs. Tantuico, G.R. 50147 August 3, 1990
NPC v. CA, 254 SCRA 577 (1996)
Manner of Payment
Assoc.of Small Landowners v. DAR, 175 SCRA 343 (1989)
DAR v. CA, 249 SCRA 149 (1995)
Trial with Commissioners
Meralco v. Pineda, 206 SCRA 196 (1992)
NPC v. Henson, G.R. No. 129998, December 29, 1998
Legal Interest for Expropriation Cases
NPC v. Angas, 208 SCRA 542 (1992)
Republic v. Salem Investment Corp., G.R. 137569 23 June 2000
Writ of Possession
City of Manila v. Oscar Serrano, G.R. No. 142304, June 20, 2001
K. Expropriation of Utilities, Landed Estates and Municipal Property
Art. XII, Sec. 18
Art. XIII, Sec. 4
Art. XIII, Sec. 9
City of Baguio vs. Nawasa, 106 Phil. 114 (1959)
Zamboanga del Norte vs. City of Zamboanga, 22 SCRA 1334 (1968)
IV. TAXATION
A. Definition and Nature
B. Purpose
CIR vs. Algue, Inc., 158 SCRA 9 (1988)
Commissioner vs. Makasiar, 177 SCRA 27 (1989)
C. Scope (The power to tax is the power to destroy)
D. Who exercises the power?
Art. VI Sec. 28
Art. XIV, Sec. 4 (3)
Art. X, Sec. 5
Tax Exemptions
YMCA vs. CIR, 33 Phil. 217 (1916)
Bishop of Nueva Segovia vs. Provincial Board, 51 Phil. 352 (1927)
Lladoc vs. CIR, 14 SCRA 292 (1965)
Province of Abra vs. Hernando, 107 SCRA 104 (1981)
Abra Valley College vs. Aquino , 162 SCRA 106 (1988)
American Bible Society vs. City of Manila, 101 Phil. 386 (1957)
Double Taxation
Punzalan vs. Municipal Board of Manila, 95 Phil.46 (1954)
License Fees
Physical Therapy Org. vs. Mun. Board of Manila, G.R. 10448, August 30, 1957
V. INDIVIDUAL RIGHTS
A. DUE PROCESS
Art. III, Sec. I
Art. III. Sec. 14 (1)
1. Definition, Nature and Scope
2. Purpose of the guaranty
Hurtado v. California, 110 U.S. 516 (1884)
3. Meaning of Life, Liberty, and Property
4. Substantive Due Process
Requisites:
Villegas vs. Hu Chong Tsai Pao Ho, 86 SCRA 275 (1978)
Rubi vs. Prov. Board of Mindoro, 39 Phil. 660 (1919)
Ople v. Torres, 292 SCRA 141. (1998)
Lawrence and Garner v. Texas, 539 U.S. __ (2003)
Estrada v. Sandiganbayan, G.R. No. 148560, November 19, 2001
5. Procedural Due Process
Publication Requirement
Tanada v. Tuvera, 146 SCRA 446 (1986)
PITC v. Angeles, 263 SCRA 421 (1996)
Pilipinas Kao v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 105014, December 18, 2001
Republic v. Extelcom, G.R. 147096, January 15, 2002
Impartial Court or Tribunal
Tanada vs. PAEC, 141 SCRA 307 (1986)
Anzaldo vs. Clave , 119 SCRA 353 (1982)
Tumey vs. Ohio, 273 U.S. 510 (1997)
People v. Court of Appeals, 262 SCRA 452 (1996)
Tabuena v. Sandiganbayan, 268 SCRA 332 (1997)
People v. Medenilla, G.R. No. 131636-39. March 25, 2001
Prejudicial Publicity
Webb v. De Leon, 247 SCRA 652 (1995)
People v. Sanchez, G.R. No. 121039, October 18, 2001
Notice and Hearing:
Summary Dismissal Board v. Torcita, 330 SCRA 153 (2000)
Secretary of Justice v. Lantion, G.R. No. 139466, October 17, 2000
People vs. Estrada G.R. No. 130487 June 19, 2000
Lim v. Court of Appeals, G.R. 111397, August 12, 2002
Rodriguez v. Court of Appeals, G.R. 134278, August 7, 2002
Roxas v. Vasquez, G.R. 114944, June 21, 2001
Exceptions to notice and hearing requirements
Philcomsat vs. Alcuaz, 180 SCRA 218 (1989)
Suntay vs. People, 101 Phil. 833 (1957)
De Bisshop vs. Galang, 8 SCRA 244 (1963)
Var Orient Shipping Co., Inc. vs. Achacoso, 161 SCRA 232 (1988)
6. Administrative Due Process
Ang Tibay vs. CIR, 69 Phil. 635 (1940)
Montemayor vs. Araneta University Foundation, 77 SCRA 321 (1977)
Meralco vs. PSC, 11 SCRA 317 (1964)
Ateneo vs. CA, 145 SCRA 100 (1986)
Alcuaz vs. PSBA, 161 SCRA 7 (1988)
Non vs. Hon. Dames, G.R. No. 89317, May 30, 1990
B. EQUAL PROTECTION
Political, Economic and Social Equality
Art. XIII, Sec. 1 and 2 (social justice)
Id., Sec. 3 (protection to labor)
Art. XII, Sec. 10 (nationalization of business)
Id., Sec. 2, par. 2 (reservation of marine resources)
Art. II, Sec. 11 (free access to the courts)
Art. VIII, Sec. 5(5) (legal aid to poor)
Art. IX-C, Sec. 10 (protection of candidates)
Art. II, Sec. 26 (public service)
Art. II, Sec. 14 (equality of women and men)
Sexual Discrimination
Phil. Association of Service Exporters vs. Drilon, 163 SCRA 386 (1988)
Taxation
Sison vs. Ancheta, 130 SCRA 654 (1984)
Administration of Justice
People vs. Hernandez, 99 Phil. 515 (1956)
People vs. Isinain, 85 Phil. 648 (1950)
Chavez v. PCGG, G.R. 130716, December 9, 1998
Nunez vs. Sandiganbayan, 111 SCRA 433 (1982)
Lacson v. Executive Secretary, G.R. No. 128096, January 20, 1999
Soriano v. C.A., 304 SCRA 231 (1999)
Public Policy
Unido vs. COMELEC, 104 SCRA 17 (1981)
Ceniza vs. COMELEC, 95 SCRA 763 (1980)
PJA vs. Prado, 227 SCRA 703 (1993)
Olivarez v. Sandiganbayan, 248 SCRA 700 (1995)
Tiu v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 127410, January 20, 1999
ISAE v. Quisumbing, G.R. No. 128845, June 1, 2000
PHILRECA vs. DILG, G.R. No. 143076. June 10, 2003
C. THE NON-IMPAIRMENT CLAUSE
Art. III, Sec. 10
1. Purpose
2. When impairment occurs
3. When allowed
Emergency Powers
Rutter vs. Esteban, 93 Phil. 68 (1953)
Zoning and Regulatory Ordinances
Ortigas vs. Feati Bank, 94 SCRA 533 (1980)
Villanueva vs. Castaneda, 154 SCRA 142 (1987)
Sangalang vs. IAC, 168 SCRA 634 (1988)
Ortigas & Co. v. CA, G.R. No. 126102, December 4, 2000
Labor Contracts
Abella vs. NLRC 152 SCRA 140 (1987)
Administrative Regulations
Tiro vs. Hontanosas, 125 SCRA 697 (1983)
Rental Laws
Caleon vs. Agus Development Corp., 207 SCRA 748 (1992)
Tax Exemptions
Meralco v. Province of Laguna, 306 SCRA 750 (1999)
D. ARRESTS, SEARCHES AND SEIZURES
Art. III, Sec. 2 and 3
1. Purpose and Importance of the guaranty
Alvero v. Dizon, 76 Phil 637 (1946)
2. To Whom Directed
People vs. Andre Marti, 193 SCRA 57 (1991)
3. Who May Invoke the Right?
Bache and Co., vs. Ruiz, 37 SCRA 323 (1971)
Stonehill v. Diokno, 20 SCRA 383 (1967)
Zurcher vs. Stanford Daily, 436 U. S. 547 (1978)
Wilson v. Layne, 98-0083, May 24, 1999
4. Conditions for a valid warrant
a) Existence of Probable Cause
Burgos vs. Chief of Staff, 133 SCRA 800 (1984)
Chandler v. Miller, April 15, 1997, D-96-126
People v. Chua Ho San, 308 SCRA 432) (1999)
People v. Molina, G.R. No. 133917, February 19, 2001
Solid Triangle Sale v. Sheriff, G.R. No. 144309 November 23, 2001
People v. Salanguit, G.R. 133254, April 18, 2001
b) Personal determination by judge
Amarga vs. Abbas, 98 Phil. 739 (1956)
Sta. Rosa Mining Co., vs. Fiscal Zabala, 153 SCRA 367 (1987)
People vs. Inting, 187 SCRA 785 (1990)
Paderanga vs. Drilon, G.R. 96080, April 19, 1991
Pita vs. CA, 178 SCRA 362 (1987)
Abdula v. Guiani. 326 SCRA 1 (2000)
c) Examination of witnesses
Pasion Vda. De Garcia vs. Locsin, 65 Phil 68 (1938)
Yee Sue Kuy vs. Almeda, 70 Phil. 141, (1940)
Alvarez vs. CFI, 64 Phil. 33 (1937)
Mata vs. Bayona , 128 SCRA 388 (1984)
d) Particularity of description
Olaes vs. People, 155 SCRA 486 (1987)
Prudente vs. Judge Dayrit, 180 SCRA 69 (1989)
Chia vs. Coll. of Customs, 177 SCRA 755 (1989)
20th Century Fox Film Corp. vs. CA, 164 SCRA 655 (1988)
Nolasco vs. Cruz Pano, 132 SCRA 152 (1985)
PICOP v. Asuncion, 307 SCRA 253) (1999)
Yousef Al Ghoul vs. C.A, GR No.126859, September 4, 2001
4. Objects of Seizure
(Rule 126, Sec. 2)
5. Warrantless searches
(Rule 126, Sec. 12, Id., Sec. 4)
a) Valid Waiver
People vs. Omaweng, 213 SCRA 462 (1992)
People v. Correa, 285 SCRA 679 (1998)
People vs. Ramos, G.R. 85401-02, June 4, 1990
People v. Barros, 231 SCRA 557 (1994)
Veroy vs. Layague, 210 SCRA 97 (1992)
People vs. Damaso, 212 SCRA 457 (1992)
Lopez vs. Comm. Of Customs, 68 SCRA 320 (1975)
Caballes v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 136292, January 5, 2002
People vs. Asis, et. al., G.R. No. 142531, October 15, 2002
People vs. Tudtud, et. al., G.R. No. 144037, September 26, 2003
b) Incident to lawful arrest
Rule 126, Section 12, Rules of Court
Chimel vs. California, 395 U. S. 752 (1964)
People vs. de la Cruz, G.R. 83988, April 18, 1990
People v. Kalubiran, 196 SCRA 645 (1991)
People v. Malmstedt, 198 SCRA 401 (1991)
People v. Cuenco, G.R. 126277, November 16, 1988
Espano v. Court of Appeals, 288 SCRA 558 (1998)
People vs. Tangliben, 184 SCRA 220 (1990)
People v. Che Chun Ting, 328 SCRA 592 (2000)
People vs. Estrella, G.R. Nos. 138539-40, January 21, 2003
People vs. Libnao, et al., G.R. No. 136860, January 20, 2003
c) Plain view doctrine
People v. Musa, 217 SCRA 597 (1993)
Padilla v. CA, 269 SCRA 402 (1997)
People v. Valdez, G.R. No. 129296, September 25, 2000
Arizona v. Hicks, 480 U.S. 321 [1987]}
People v. Compacion, G.R. No. 124442, July 20, 2001
e) Enforcement of fishing, customs and immigration laws
Roldan vs. Area, 65 SCRA 320 (1975)
Hizon v. Court of Appeals, 265 SCRA 517 (1996)
People v. Gatward, 267 SCRA 785 (1997)
People v. Johnson, G.R. No. 138881, December 18, 2000
People vs. Suzuki, G.R. No. 120670, October 23, 2003)
Bureau of Customs v. Ogarlo, 329 SCRA 289 (2000)
f) “Stop and frisk”
Terry vs. Ohio, 392 US 1 (1968)
People v. Solayao, 262 SCRA 255 (1996)
Manalili v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 113447, October 7, 1997
Malacat v. Court of Appeals, 283 SCRA 159 (1997)
Florida v. J.L., 98-1993, March 28, 2000
g) Search of moving vehicles
People v. Balingan, 241 SCRA 277 (1995)
Asuncion v. Court of Appeals, G.R. 125959, February 1, 1999
Papa vs. Mago, 22 SCRA 857 (1968)
People vs. CFI of Rizal, 101 SCRA 86 (1980)
Whren v. United States, 95-5841, January 10, 1996
Arkansas v. Sullivan, 00-00262, May 29, 2001
h) Emergency circumstances
People vs. De Gracia 233 SCRA 716 (1994)
i) Checkpoints
Gen. De Villa vs. Valmonte G.R. No. 83988 (May 24, 1990)
Aniag vs. Comelec, 237 SCRA 424 (1994)
People v. Usana, 323 SCRA 754 (2000)
j) Inspection of buildings
Camara vs. Municipal Court, 387 U. S. 523 (1967)
5. Warrantless arrests
Rule 113, Sec. 5
Art. 125, Revised Penal Code
Rebellion as Continuing Offense
Umil vs. Ramos, G. R. 81567, July 9, 1990
Committed in the Presence of Police Officers
People v. Sucro, 195 SCRA 388 (1991)
People V. Doria, 301 SCRA 668) (1999)
People v. Luisito Go, G.R. No. 116001, March 14, 2001
People v. De Guzman, GR No. 117952-53, February 14, 2001
Personal Knowledge of the Offense
People vs. Gerente, 219 SCRA 756 (1993)
People v. Sinoc, 275 SCRA 357 (1997)
People v. Baula, G.R. No. 132671, November 15, 2000
People v. Cubcubin, G.R. No. 136267, July 10, 2001
Time of Arrest
People vs. Rodrigueza, 205 SCRA 791 (1992)
Go vs. Court of Appeals, 206 SCRA 586 (1992)
People v. Calimlim, G.R. No. 123980, August 30. 2001
Marked Money
People vs. Enrile, 222 SCRA 586 (1993)
Lack of Urgency
People v. Pasudag, G.R. No. 128822, May 4, 2001
People vs. Aminnudin, 163 SCRA 402 (1988)
Effect of Entry of Plea
People v. Plana G.R. No. 128285, November 27, 2001
Validity of Conviction
People v. Conde, G.R. No. 113269, April 10, 2001
E. PRIVACY OF COMMUNICATION & CORRESPONDENCE
R.A. No. 4200 (Anti-Wire Tapping Law) (1965)
Arts, 290, 291, 292 and 299. Revised Penal Code.
Gaanan vs. IAC, 145 SCRA 113 (1986)
Katz vs. U.S., 389 U.S. 347 (1967)
Ramirez vs. CA, G.R. No. 93833, September 28, 1995
Privileged Communications
In Re Laureta, 148 SCRA 382 (1987)
People vs. Albofera, 152 SCRA 123 (1987)
Zulueta v. Court of Apeals, 253 SCRA 699 (1996)
Deano v. Godinez, 12 SCRA 483 (1964)
Waterhouse Drug Corporation v. NLRC, G.R. No. 113271. October 16, 1997
6. Exclusionary Rule
Art. III, Sec. 3(2)
Silverthorne Lumber vs. US, 251 US 385 (1920)
People v. Aruta, G. R. 120915, April 3. 1998
People v. Rondero, G.R. 125687, December 9, 1999
7. Liability for damages
Aberca vs. Ver, 160 SCRA 590 (1989)
F. RIGHTS OF PERSONS UNDER CUSTODIAL INVESTIGATION
Art, II, Sec , 12
Miranda vs. Arizona , 384 US , 436 (1966)
Custodial Investigation
People v. Lugod, G.R. 136253, February 21, 2001
People v. Del Rosario G.R. 127755, April 14, 1999
People v. Bolanos, 211 SCRA 262 (1992)
Rhode Island v. Innis, 446 U.S. 291, [1980]
People v. Mahinay, 302 SCRA 455 (1999)
Administrative Investigations
People vs. Judge Ayson, 175 SCRA 216 (1989)
Office of the Court Administrator v. Sumilang, 271 SCRA 316 (1997)
Police Lineup
Gamboa vs.Cruz, 162 SCRA 642 (1988)
United States v. Wade, 388 U.A. 218 (1967)
People v. Escordial, G.R. 138934, January 16, 2002
People vs. Piedad, et al., G.R. No. 131923, December 5, 2002
Cases before January 17, 1973 not applicable
Magtoto vs.Manguera, 63 SCRA 4 (1975)
People vs. Page,77 SCRA 384 (1977)
Rule under the 1973 Constitution (Voluntary, knowing & intelligent waiver)
People vs. Caguioa, 95 SCRA 2 (1980)
People vs. Tampus, 90 SCRA 624 (1980)
The Galit Rule
People vs. Galit, 135 SCRA 465 (1985)
Rule under the 1987 Constitution
Requirement of Independent Counsel
People vs. Bandula, 232 SCRA 566 (1994)
People v. Quidato, G.R. 117401, October 1, 1998
People v. Rous, 242 SCRA 732 (1995)
People v. Januario. 267 SCRA 608 (1997)
People v. Labtan, GR. No. 12793, December 8, 1999
People vs. Samus, G.R. 135957-58, September 17, 2002
Counsel of Choice
People vs. Gallardo, G.R. No. 113684, Jan. 25, 2000
People vs. Barasina, 229 SCRA 450 (1994)
Counsel’s presence required in entire proceedings
People v. Morial, G.R. 129295, August 15, 2001
Seized Articles
People v. Castro. 274 SCRA 115 (1997)
People v. Wong Chuen Ming. 256 SCRA 182 (1996)
Marcelo v. Sandiganbayan, 302 SCRA 102 (1999)
Confession to Newsmen
People v. Andan. 269 SCRA 95 (1997)
People v. Endino, G.R. 133026, February 20, 2001
People vs. Ordono, G.R. No. 132154, June 29, 2000
People vs. Guillermo, GR. No. 147786, January 20, 2004
Other Confessions
People v. Gomez, 270 SCRA 432 (1997)
Illinois v. Perkins, 496 U.S. 292 (1990)
People v. Lugod, G.R. 136253, February 21, 2001
Re-enactment
People v. Luvendino, 211 SCRA 36 (1992)
4. Exclusionary rule
Art. III, Sec. 12 (3)
Fruit of the Poisonous Tree Doctrine
People v. Alicando 251 SCRA 293 (1995)
Harris vs. New York, 401 U.S. 222 (1971)
New York vs. Quarles, 104 S. U. 2626 (1984)
G. RIGHT TO BAIL
Art. III, Sec. 13
1. When right may be invoked
Herras Teehankee vs. Rovira, 75 Phil. 634 (1945)
People vs. San Diego, 26 SCRA 522 (1968)
Cortes v. Judge Catral, A.M. No. RTJ-97-1387, September 10, 1997
Lavides v. CA, G.R. No. 129670. February 1, 2000
Government v. Judge Puruganan, G.R. 148571, December 17, 2002
Procedure for bail
Paderanga v. Drilon, 247 SCRA 741, (1995).
Go v. Bongolan.A.M. 99-1464, July 26, 1999
People v. Gako, G.R. 135045, December 15, 2000
Marallag v. Judge Cloribel, A.M. 1529-RTJ, April 9, 2002
Bail and Habeas Corpus
Enrile vs. Salazar, 186 SCRA 217 (1990)
People vs. Judge Donato, 198 SCRA 130 (1991)
Bail on appeal
People vs. Fortes, 223 SCRA 619 (1993)
Maguddatu v. CA, G.R. No. 139599. February 23, 2000
Obosa v. Court of Appeals, G.R. 114350, January 16, 1997
2. Standards for fixing bail
Rule 114, Sec. 10
Villasenor vs. Abano, 21 SCRA 312 (1967)
De la Camara vs. Enage, 41 SCRA 1 (1971)
Almeda vs. Villaluz, 66 SCRA 38 (1975)
Yap v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 141529, June 6, 2001
Cabañero v. Cañon, A.M. No. MTJ-01-369, September 20, 2001
Bail and the Right to Travel Abroad
Manotoc vs. Court of Appeals, 142 SCRA 149 (1980)
H. RIGHTS OF AN ACCUSED
Art. III, Sec. 14
1. Presumption of Innocence
Proof beyond reasonable doubt
People vs. Dramayo, 42 SCRA 59 (1971)
Order of Trial
Alejandro vs. Pepito, 96 SCRA 322 (1988)(modified by Rule 119 Sec. 3 (e)
Presumption of Guilt
Dumlao vs. Comelec, 95 SCRA 392 (1980)
People vs. Mingoa, 92 Phil. 857 (1953)
Applicability to Juridical Persons
Feeder Int’l Line vs. CA CR 94262 May 31, 1991
Official Duty
People vs. Martos, 211 SCRA 805 (1992)
Equipoise Rule
Corpuz vs. People, 194 SCRA 73 (1991)
izon Paminatuan v. People, July 11, 1994
2. Right to be heard personally or by counsel
Importance of Counsel
People vs. Holgado, 85 Phil. 752 (1950)
Delgado vs. CA, 145 SCRA 357 (1986)
Improvident Plea of guilt
People vs. Baluyot, 75 SCRA 148 (1977)
People vs. Magsi, 124 SCRA 69 (1983)
Right to Lawyer of Choice
People vs. Malunsing, 63 SCRA 493(1975)
Rule 119, Sec. 15
Deprivation of Right to be Heard
Moslares v. CA, 291 SCRA 440 (1998)
3. Right to be informed of nature and cause of accusation
Lack of Arraignment
Borja vs. Mendoza, 77 SCRA 422 (1977)
People v. Alcalde, G.R. 139225, May 29, 2002
People v. Dy, G.R. 115236, January 29, 2002
Sufficiency of the Information
People v. Sadiosa, 290 SCRA 82 (1998)
People v. Perez, G.R. No. 122764, September 24, 1998
People v. Lozano, G.R 125080, September 25, 1998
People v. Ladrillo, GR. No. 124342, December 8, 1999
People vs. Lumilan, G.R. No. 102706. January 25, 2000
Evangelista v. People, G.R. 108135-36, August 14, 2000
People v. Valdesancho, G.R. 137051, May 30, 2001
People v. Alcaide, G.R. Nos. 139225-28, May 29, 2002
People vs. Ostia, G.R. No. 131804, February 26, 2003
People vs. Flores Jr., G.R. No. 128823-24, December 27, 2002
3. Right to speedy, impartial and public trial
a. Speedy trial
Acevedo vs. Sarmiento, 36 SCRA 247 (1970)
People vs. Judge Laya, 161 SCRA 327 (1988)
Conde vs. Rivera, 45 Phil. 650 (1924)
Dacanay vs. People, 240 SCRA 490 (1995)
People v. Rivera, G.R. No. 139180, July 31, 2001
Solar Team Entertainment v. How, G.R. No. 140863, August 22, 2000
b. Public trial
Garcia vs. Domingo, 52 SCRA 143 (1970)
Perez v. Estrada, A.M. No. 01-4-03-SC, June 29, 2001
c. Impartial trial
Tumey vs. Ohio, 273 U.S. 510 (1927)
Soriano vs Angeles, G.R. No. 109920. August 31, 2000
4. Right to confront witnesses
U.S. vs. Javier, 37 Phil. 449 (1918)
Right to secure attendance of witnesses
U.S. vs. Garcia, 10 Phil. 384 (1908)
People vs. Sandal, 54 Phil. 883 (1938)
People vs. De Luna, 174 SCRA 204 (1989)
5. Right to be present during trial
a) Trial in absentia
Rule 115, Sec. 1 (c)
People vs. Prieto, 84 SCRA 198 (1978)
People vs. Salas, 143 SCRA 163 (1986)
Gimenez vs. Nazareno, 160 SCRA 1 (1989)
When presence of the accused is a duty
a. Arraignment and plea
Rule 116, Sec. 1 (b)
b. During trial for identification
Aquino vs. Military Commission No. 63 SCRA 546 (1975)
People vs. Salas, 143 SCRA 163 (1986)
Carredo vs. People, G.R. No. 77542 March 19, 1990
c. Promulgation of sentence
Rule 120, Sec. 6
Exception: Light offenses
I. PRIVILEGE AGAINST SELF-INCRIMINATION
Art. III, Sec. 17
1. Scope covers compulsory testimonial incrimination
United States vs. Tan Teh, 23 Phil. 145 (1912)
United States vs. Ong Siu Hong, 36 Phil. 735 (1917)
People vs. Otadura, 86 Phil. 244 (1950)
Villaflor vs. Summers, 41 Phil. 62 (1920)
Bermudez vs. Castillo, 64 Phil. 485 (1937)
Beltran v. Samson, 53 Phil. 570 (1929)
People vs. Tranca, 235 SCRA 455 (1994)
South Dakota v. Neville, 459 U.S. 553 (1983)
Schemerber v. California, 384 U.S. 757 (1966)
People v. Rondero, GR. No. 125687, December 9, 1999
People vs. Gallarde, G.R. No. 133025. February 17, 2000.
2. In what proceedings available
Pascual vs. Board of Medical Examiners, 28 SCRA 344 (1969)
Galman vs. Pamaran, 138 SCRA 274 (1985)
3. Use Immunity v. Transactional Immunity.
Art. XIII, Sec. 18 (8)
R.A. No. 1379, Section 8
Galman vs. Pamaran, 138 SCRA 274 (1985)
Brown v. Walker, 161 U.S. 591
4. Exclusionary rule
Art. II, Sec. 12 (3)
5. Effect of denial of privilege by court
Chavez vs. Court of Appeals, 24 SCRA 663 (1968)
J. RIGHT TO SPEEDY DISPOSITION OF CASES
Art. III, Sec. 16
Art. VIII, Sec. 15
Art. VII, Sec. 19 par. 3
Art. IX, A, Sec. 17
Duterte v. Sandiganbayan, 289 SCRA 721 (1998)
Tatad vs. Sandiganbayan ; 159 SCRA 70 (1988)
Abardo v. Sandiganbayan, G.R. No. 139571, March 28, 2001
Lopez v. Ombudsman, G.R. 140529, September 6, 2001
Licaros v. Sandiganbayan, G.R. 145851, November 22, 2001
K. PUNISHMENTS
Excessive fines and cruel, degrading and inhuman punishments
People vs. Dela Cruz, 92 Phil. 906 (1953)
People vs. Borja, 91 SCRA 340 (1978)
Venegas vs. People, 115 SCRA 790 (1984)
People vs. Dacuycuy, 173 SCRA 90 (1989)
Loiusiana v. Resweber, 329 U.S. 459 (1947)
Ford v. Wainwright, 477 U.S. 399 [1986]
1. The death penalty
People vs. Camano, 115 SCRA 688 (1982)
Echegaray v. Secretary of Justice, G.R. No. 132601 January 19, 1999
2. Involuntary servitude
Art. III, Sec. 18
Aclaracion vs. Gatmaitan, 64 SCRA 131 (1979)
3. Imprisonment for debt
Art. III, Sec. 20
Lozano vs. Martinez, 146 SCRA 323 (1986)
People vs. Linsangan, 62 Phil. 646 (1935)
Sura vs. Martin, 26 SCRA 286 (1969)
People vs. Nitafan, 207 SCRA 726 (1992)
In Re: Habeas Corpus of Benjamin Vergara, G.R. No. 154037. April 30, 2003
4. Ex post facto laws and bills of attainder
Art III, Sec. 22
Kay Villegas Kami, 35 SCRA 429 (1970)
Mejia vs. Pamaran, 160 SCRA 457 (1988)
People vs. Ferrer, 48 SCRA 382 (1972)
Misolas vs. Panga, 181 SCRA 648 (1990)
People vs. Sandiganbayan, 211 SCRA 241 (1992)
Wright vs. CA, 235 SCRA 341 (1994)
6. Double Jeopardy
Art. III, Sec. 21
Rule 117, Sec. 7
Rule 120, Sec. 5
People vs. Obsania, 23 SCRA 1249 (1968)
Melo vs. People, 85 Phil. 766 (1959)
People vs.Yorac, 42 SCRA 230 (1971)
People vs. Bocar, 138 SCRA 166 (1985)
Galman vs Sandiganbayan, 144 SCRA 43 (1986)
Flores vs. Ponce Enrile, 115 SCRA 236 (1982)
Heirs of Rillorta vs. Firme, 157 SCRA 518 (1988)
People vs. Relova, 148 SCRA 292 (1987)
Perez vs. CA, 168 SCRA 236 (1988)
People vs. City Court, 154 SCRA 175 (1987)
Cruz vs.Enrile, 160 SCRA 702 (1988)
Tan v. Barrios. October 18, 1990
People vs. Grospe, 157 SCRA 154 (1988)
People vs. Judge Santiago, 174 SCRA 143 (1989)
Que vs. Cosico, 177 SCRA 410 (1989)
Caes vs. IAC, 179 SCRA 54 (1989)
Nierras vs. Dacuycuy, 181 SCRA 1 (1990)
Icasiano vs. Sandignabayan, 209 SCRA 377
People vs. Miraflores, 115 SCRA 586 (1982)
People vs. Judge Vergara, 221 SCRA 560 (1993)
People vs. Tiozon, 198 SCRA 368 (1991)
People vs. Judge Villarama, 210 SCRA 246 (1992)
Tupaz v. Ulep, GR. No. 127777, October 1, 1999
People v. The Sandiganbayan, G.R. 140633, February 4, 2002
L. PRIVILEGE OF THE WRIT OF HABEAS CORPUS
Art. II, Sec. 15
Art. VII, Sec, 18
Villavicencio vs. Lukban, 39 Phil 778 (1919)
Moncupa vs. Ponce Enrile, 141 SCRA 223 (1986)
Lansang vs. Garcia, 42 SCRA 448 (1971)
Chavez vs. Court of Appeals, 24 SCRA 663 (1968)
Gumabon vs. Director of Prisons, 37 SCRA 420 (1971)
In re Abadilla, 156 SCRA 92 (1987)
Norberto Feria vs. CA, et al. G.R. 122954 Feb 15, 2000
Illusorio v. Bildner, G.R. 139789, May 12, 2000
M. FREEDOM OF EXPRESSION
Art. III, Sec. 4
Id., Sec. 18 (1)
1. Purpose
United States vs. Bustos, 37 Phil. 731 (1918)
Burgos vs. Chief Of Staff, 133 SCRA 800 (1984)
New York Times vs. Sullivan 380 US 51 (1964)
2. Restrictions
Gonzales vs. COMELEC, 27 SCRA 835 (1969)
Social Weather Station v. Comelec, G.R. 147571, May 5, 2001
a. Balancing of Interest Test
b. Dangerous Tendency Test
c. Clear and Present Danger Test
Zaldivar vs. Sandiganbayan, 170 SCRA 1 (1989)
Sanidad vs. COMELEC, G.R. 90878, January 29, 1990
Reno v. ACLU, D-96-511 June 26, 1997
Miriam College v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 127930 December 15, 2000
3. Freedom of Expression, Libel and National Security
Babst vs. NIB, 132 SCRA 316 (1984)
Espuelas vs. People, 90 Phil. 524 (1951)
Elizalde vs. CFI 116 SCRA 93 (1982)
Lopez vs. Court of Appeals, 34 SCRA 116 (1970)
Quisumbing vs, Lopez, 96 Phil. 510 (1955)
Bulletin vs. Noel, 167 SCRA 255 (1988)
Texas v. Johnson, 491 U.S. 397 (1989)
Borjal v. C.A., 301 SCRA 1(1999)
Bartnicki v. Vopper, 99-1729, May 21, 2001
4. Freedom of Expression and the Administration of Justice
Cabansag vs. Fernandez, 102 Phil. 152
People vs. Castelo, 4 SCRA 947 (1962)
People vs. Alarcon, 69 Phil. 265 (1939)
In Re Ramon Tulfo, AM 90-4-1545-0, April 17, 1990
Nestle Phils. vs. Sanchez, 154 SCRA 542 (1987)
In Re Atty. Emil Jurado AM 90-5-2373 July 12, 1990
5. Freedom of Assembly
BP Blg. 880 (Public Assembly Act of 1985)
Primicias vs. Fugoso, 80 Phil. 71 (1948)
Navarro vs. Villegas, 31 SCRA 730 (1970)
Ignacio vs. Ela, 99 Phil. 346 (1956)
J.B.I. Reyes vs. Bagatsing , 125 SCRA 553 (1983)
Ruiz vs. Gordon, 126 SCRA 233 (1983)
Malabanan vs. Ramento, 129 SCRA 359 (1984)
Arreza vs. GAUF, 137 SCRA 94 (1985)
German vs. Barangan, 135 SCRA 514 (1985)
Acosta v CA and CSC GR 132088 Jun 28, 2000
6. Freedom of Expression, Movie Censorship, Obscenity and the Right to
Privacy
Gonzales vs. Kalaw Katikbak, 137 SCRA 356 (1985)
Lagunzad vs. Sotto, Vda. De Gonzales 92 SCRA 476 (1979)
Ayer Productions vs. Judge Capulong, 160 SCRA 861 (1988)
People vs. Kottinger, 45 Phil. 352 (1923)
People vs. Co. 97 Phil. 418 (1955)
People vs. Padaan, 98 Phil. 749 (1957)
Reno v. ACLU, June 26, 1997, D-96-511
Miller v. California, 413 U.S. 15 (1973)
7. Radio Broadcasts
Eastern Broadcasting Corp. (DYRE) vs. Dans, 137 SCRA 247 (1985)
N. FREEDOM OF INFORMATION
Art. III, Sec. 7
Baldoza vs. Dimaano, 71 SCRA 14 (1976)
Tanada vs. Tuvera, supra
Valmonte vs. Belmonte, 170 SCRA 256 (1989)
People’s Movement ,for Press Freedom vs. Manglapus, G.R. 48642, September 13,
1988
Legasspi vs. CSC, 150 SCRA 530 (1987)
Garcia vs. BOI, 177 SCRA 374 (1989)
O. FREEDOM OF ASSOCIATION
Art. III, Sec. 8
Art. IX, Sec. 2 (5)
Art. XIII, Sec. 3, par.2
Occena vs. COMELEC, 127 SCRA 404 (1985)
In re Edillon, 84 SCRA (1979)
Rotary Int’l v. Rotary Club, 481 U.S. 537 (1987)
P. FREEDOM OF RELIGION
Art. III, Sec. 5
Estrada v. Escritor, A.M. No. P-02-1651. August 4, 2003
Islamic Da’wah Counsil v. Executive Secretary, G.R. No. 153888, July 9, 2003
1. Nonstablishment Clause
a. Operation of Secretarian schools
Art. XIV, Sec. 4(2)
b. Religions instruction in Public schools
Art. XIVSec. 3(3)
Civil Code, Art. 359(1)
c. Anti- evolution laws
Epperson vs. Arkansas, 33 U. S. 27 (1968)
d. Prayer and Bible reading in public schools
Engel vs. Vitale, 370 U. S. 421 (1962)
Abington Schools Dist. vs. Schempp, 374 U. S. 203 (1973)
Stone v. Graham, 449 U.S. 39 (1980)
e. Tax exemption
Art. VI, Sec. 28 (3)
f. Public aid to religion
Art. VI, Sec. 29 (2)
Aglipay vs. Ruiz, 64 Phil. 201 (1937)
Mueller v. Allen, 463 U.S. 388 (1983)
Lemon v. Kurtzman, 403 U.S. 602 [1971]
Stone v. Graham, 449 U.S. 39 [1980]).
Wallace v. Jaffree, 472 U.S. 38 [1985]).
Intramural religious disputes
Fonacier vs. CA, 96 Phil. 417 (1955)
2. Free Exercise Clause
a. Flag salute
West Va Board of Education vs. Barnette, 319 U. S. 624 (1943)
Ebralinag v. Division Superintendent (March 1, 1993)
b. Freedom to propagate religious doctrines
American Bible Society vs. City of Manila , 181 Phil. 386 (1957)
Swaggart Ministries v. Cal Bd. Of Equalization, 493 U.S. 378 (1990)
c. Exemption from Union shop
Victoriano vs. Elizalde Rope Workers Union , 59 SCRA 54 (1974)
d. Disqualification for local government officials
Pamil vs. Teleron , 86 SCRA 413 (1978)
3. Religious Test
Torcaso vs. Watkins 367 U.S. 488 (1961)
Q. LIBERTY OF ABODE AND TRAVEL
Art. III, Sec. 6
Salonga vs. Hermosa, 97 SCRA 121 (1989)
Caunca vs. Salazar, 82 Phil. 851 (1940)
Manotok vs. CA. 142 SCRA 149 (1986)
Marcos vs. Manglapus, 177 SCRA 668 (1989)
Silverio vs. CA, G.R. no. 94284 April 8, 1991
Lorenzo v. Director of Health, 50 Phil 595 end.