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Public administration

in character; one of the various proposals for public


administrations sub-elds sets out six pillars, including
human resources, organizational theory, policy analysis
and statistics, budgeting, and ethics.[9]

1 Denitions

Public administration is both an academic discipline and a eld


of practice; the latter is depicted in this picture of US federal public servants at a meeting.

Public administration is the implementation of


government policy and also an academic discipline that
studies this implementation and prepares civil servants
for working in the public service.[1] As a eld of inquiry
with a diverse scope its fundamental goal... is to
advance management and policies so that government
can function.[2] Some of the various denitions which
have been oered for the term are: the management of
public programs";[3] the translation of politics into the
reality that citizens see every day";[4] and the study of
government decision making, the analysis of the policies
themselves, the various inputs that have produced
them, and the inputs necessary to produce alternative
policies.[5]

Even in the digital age, public servants tend to work with both
paper documents and computer les (pictured here is Stephen C.
Dunn, Deputy Comptroller for the US Navy)

Public administration is centrally concerned with the organization of government policies and programmes as
well as the behavior of ocials (usually non-elected) formally responsible for their conduct[6] Many unelected
public servants can be considered to be public administrators, including heads of city, county, regional, state
and federal departments such as municipal budget directors, human resources (H.R.) administrators, city managers, census managers, state mental health directors, and
cabinet secretaries.[4] Public administrators are public
servants working in public departments and agencies, at
all levels of government.

In 1947 Paul H. Appleby dened public administration


as public leadership of public aairs directly responsible
for executive action. In a democracy, it has to do with
such leadership and executive action in terms that respect
and contribute to the dignity, the worth, and the potentials of the citizen.[10] One year later, Gordon Clapp, then
Chairman of the Tennessee Valley Authority dened public administration as a public instrument whereby democratic society may be more completely realized. This implies that it must relate itself to concepts of justice, liberty, and fuller economic opportunity for human beings
and is thus concerned with people, with ideas, and with
things.[11] According to James D. Carroll & Alfred M.
Zuck, the publication by Woodrow Wilson of his essay,
" The Study of Administration in 1887 is generally regarded as the beginning of public administration as a specic eld of study.[12]

In the US, civil servants and academics such as Woodrow


Wilson promoted American civil service reform in the
1880s, moving public administration into academia.[7]
However, until the mid-20th century and the dissemination of the German sociologist Max Weber's theory
of bureaucracy there was not much interest in a theory
of public administration.[8] The eld is multidisciplinary

Drawing on the democracy theme and discarding the link


to the executive branch, Patricia M. Shields asserts that
public administration deals with the stewardship and implementation of the products of a living democracy.[13]
The key term product refers to those items that are
constructed or produced such as prisons, roads, laws,
schools, and security. As implementors, public man1

HISTORY

agers engage these products. They participate in the


doing and making of the living democracy. A living democracy is an environment that is changing, organic, imperfect, inconsistent and teaming with values. Stewardship is emphasized because public administration is concerned with accountability and eective
use of scarce resources and ultimately making the connection between the doing, the making and democratic
values.[14]

tions was rife with nepotism, favoritism, and political patronage, which was often referred to as a "spoils system".
Public administrators have been the eyes and ears of
rulers until relatively recently. In medieval times, the abilities to read and write, add and subtract were as dominated by the educated elite as public employment. Consequently, the need for expert civil servants whose ability
to read and write formed the basis for developing expertise in such necessary activities as legal record-keeping,
More recently scholars claim that public administration paying and feeding armies and levying taxes. As the European Imperialist age progressed and the militarily powhas no generally accepted denition, because the scope
of the subject is so great and so debatable that it is eas- ers extended their hold over other continents and people,
the need for a sophisticated public administration grew.
ier to explain than dene.[15] Public administration is
a eld of study (i.e., a discipline) and an occupation. The eighteenth-century noble, King Frederick William I
There is much disagreement about whether the study of of Prussia, created professorates in Cameralism in an efpublic administration can properly be called a discipline, fort to train a new class of public administrators. The
largely because of the debate over whether public ad- universities of Frankfurt an der Oder and University of
ministration is a subeld of political science or a sub- Halle were Prussian institutions emphasizing economic
eld of administrative science", the latter an outgrowth of and social disciplines, with the goal of societal reform.
its roots in policy analysis and evaluation research.[15][16] Johann Heinrich Gottlob Justi was the most well-known
Scholar Donald Kettl is among those who view public ad- professor of Cameralism. Thus, from a Western Euroministration as a subeld within political science.[17]
pean perspective, Classic, Medieval, and EnlightenmentThe North American Industry Classication System def- era scholars formed the foundation of the discipline that
inition of the Public Administration (NAICS 91) sector has come to be called public administration.
states that public administration "... comprises establishments primarily engaged in activities of a governmental
nature, that is, the enactment and judicial interpretation
of laws and their pursuant regulations, and the administration of programs based on them. This includes Legislative activities, taxation, national defense, public order
and safety, immigration services, foreign aairs and international assistance, and the administration of government programs are activities that are purely governmental
in nature.[18]
From the academic perspective, the National Center for
Education Statistics (NCES) in the United States denes
the study of public administration as A program that prepares individuals to serve as managers in the executive
arm of local, state, and federal government and that focuses on the systematic study of executive organization
and management. Includes instruction in the roles, development, and principles of public administration; the
management of public policy; executive-legislative relations; public budgetary processes and nancial management; administrative law; public personnel management;
professional ethics; and research methods.[19]

Lorenz von Stein, an 1855 German professor from


Vienna, is considered the founder of the science of public
administration in many parts of the world. In the time of
Von Stein, public administration was considered a form
of administrative law, but Von Stein believed this concept too restrictive. Von Stein taught that public administration relies on many prestablished disciplines such as
sociology, political science, administrative law and public
nance. He called public administration an integrating
science, and stated that public administrators should be
concerned with both theory and practice. He argued
that public administration is a science because knowledge is generated and evaluated according to the scientic
method.
Modern American public administration is an extension
of democratic governance, justied by classic and liberal
philosophers of the western world ranging from Aristotle
to John Locke[20] to Thomas Jeerson.[21][22]

In the United States of America, Woodrow Wilson is considered the father of public administration. He rst formally recognized public administration in an 1887 article
entitled The Study of Administration. The future president wrote that it is the object of administrative study
to discover, rst, what government can properly and successfully do, and, secondly, how it can do these proper
2 History
things with the utmost possible eciency and at the least
possible cost either of money or of energy.[7] Wilson was
2.1 Antiquity to the 19th century
more inuential to the science of public administration
than Von Stein, primarily due to an article Wilson wrote
Dating back to Antiquity, Pharaohs, kings and emper- in 1887 in which he advocated four concepts:
ors have required pages, treasurers, and tax collectors to
administer the practical business of government. Prior
Separation of politics and administration
to the 19th century, stang of most public administra-

2.2

US in the 1940s

3
ples, and/or Taylorism. Taylors scientic management
consisted of main four principles (Frederick W. Taylor,
1911):
Replace rule-of-thumb work methods with methods
based on a scientic study of the tasks.
Scientically select, train, and develop each employee rather than passively leaving them to train
themselves.
Provide 'Detailed instruction and supervision of
each worker in the performance of that workers discrete task' (Montgomery 1997: 250).
Divide work nearly equally between managers and
workers, so that the managers apply scientic management principles to planning the work and the
workers actually perform the tasks.

Woodrow Wilson

Taylor had very precise ideas about how to introduce his


system (approach): 'It is only through enforced standardization of methods, enforced adoption of the best implements and working conditions, and enforced cooperation
that this faster work can be assured. And the duty of enforcing the adoption of standards and enforcing this cooperation rests with management alone.'[24]

The American Society for Public Administration (ASPA)


Comparative analysis of political and private orga- the leading professional group for public administration
nizations
was founded in 1939. ASPA sponsors the journal Public
[25]
Improving eciency with business-like practices Administration Review, which was founded in 1940.
and attitudes toward daily operations
Improving the eectiveness of public service 2.2
through management and by training civil servants,
merit-based assessment

US in the 1940s

The separation of politics and administration has been the


subject of lasting debate. The dierent perspectives regarding this dichotomy contribute to dierentiating characteristics of the suggested generations of public administration.
By the 1920s, scholars of public administration had responded to Wilsons solicitation and thus textbooks in
this eld were introduced. A few distinguished scholars of that period were, Luther Gulick, Lyndall Urwick,
Henri Fayol, Frederick Taylor, and others. Frederick
Taylor (1856-1915), another prominent scholar in the
eld of administration and management also published a
book entitled 'The Principles of Scientic Management'
(1911). He believed that scientic analysis would lead to
the discovery of the 'one best way' to do things and /or
carrying out an operation. This, according to him could
help save cost and time. Taylors technique was later introduced to private industrialists, and later into the various government organizations (Jeong, 2007).[23]

Luther Gulick (18921993) was an expert on public administra-

Taylors approach is often referred to as Taylors Princi- tion.

HISTORY

The separation of politics and administration advocated


by Wilson continues to play a signicant role in public
administration today. However, the dominance of this
dichotomy was challenged by second generation scholars, beginning in the 1940s. Luther Gulick's fact-value
dichotomy was a key contender for Wilsons proposed
politics-administration dichotomy. In place of Wilsons
rst generation split, Gulick advocated a seamless web
of discretion and interaction.[26]
Luther Gulick and Lyndall Urwick are two secondgeneration scholars. Gulick, Urwick, and the new generation of administrators built on the work of contemporary behavioral, administrative, and organizational scholars including Henri Fayol, Fredrick Winslow Taylor, Paul
Appleby, Frank Goodnow, and Willam Willoughby. The
new generation of organizational theories no longer relied upon logical assumptions and generalizations about
human nature like classical and enlightened theorists.

The costly Vietnam War alienated US citizens from their government (pictured is Operation Arc Light, a US bombing operation)

chaired by University of Chicago professor Louis Brownlow, to examine reorganization of government. Brownlow subsequently founded the Public Administration SerGulick developed a comprehensive, generic theory of or- vice (PAS) at the university, an organization which has
ganization that emphasized the scientic method, e- provided consulting services to all levels of government
ciency, professionalism, structural reform, and executive until the 1970s.
control. Gulick summarized the duties of administrators with an acronym; POSDCORB, which stands for Concurrently, after World War II, the whole concept of
planning, organizing, stang, directing, coordinating, re- public administration expanded to include policy-making
porting, and budgeting. Fayol developed a systematic, and analysis, thus the study of 'administrative policy mak14-point, treatment of private management. Second- ing and analysis was introduced and enhanced into the
generation theorists drew upon private management prac- government decision-making bodies. Later on, the hutices for administrative sciences. A single, generic man- man factor became a predominant concern and emphaagement theory bleeding the borders between the private sis in the study of Public Administration. This period
and the public sector was thought to be possible. With witnessed the development and inclusion of other social
the general theory, the administrative theory could be sciences knowledge, predominantly, psychology, anthrofocused on governmental organizations.The mid-1940s pology, and sociology, into the study of public adminis[23]
Henceforth, the emergence of
theorists challenged Wilson and Gulick. The politics- tration (Jeong, 2007).
administration dichotomy remained the center of criti- scholars such as, Fritz Morstein Marx with his book 'The
Elements of Public Administration' (1946), Paul H. Apcism.
pleby 'Policy and Administration' (1952), Frank Marini
'Towards a New Public Administration' (1971), and others that have contributed positively in these endeavors.
2.2.1 1950s to the 1970s
During the 1950s, the United States experienced prolonged prosperity and solidied its place as a world
leader. Public Administration experienced a kind of heyday due to the successful war eort and successful post
war reconstruction in Western Europe and Japan. Government was popular as was President Eisenhower. In
the 1960s and 1970s, government itself came under re
as ineective, inecient, and largely a wasted eort.
The costly American intervention in Vietnam along with
domestic scandals including the bugging of Democratic
party headquarters (the 1974 Watergate scandal) are two
examples of self-destructive government behavior that
alienated citizens.
There was a call by citizens for ecient administration
to replace ineective, wasteful bureaucracy. Public administration would have to distance itself from politics
to answer this call and remain eective. Elected ocials supported these reforms. The Hoover Commission,

2.3 1980s1990s
In the late 1980s, yet another generation of public administration theorists began to displace the last. The new
theory, which came to be called New Public Management, was proposed by David Osborne and Ted Gaebler in their book Reinventing Government.[27] The new
model advocated the use of private sector-style models,
organizational ideas and values to improve the eciency
and service-orientation of the public sector. During the
Clinton Administration (19932001), Vice President Al
Gore adopted and reformed federal agencies using NPM
approaches. In the 1990s, new public management became prevalent throughout the bureaucracies of the US,
the UK and, to a lesser extent, in Canada. The original public management theories have roots attributed to
policy analysis, according to Richard Elmore in his 1986
article published in the Journal of Policy Analysis and

5
Management.[28]

erally not the province of public administration) in recent


Some modern authors dene NPM as a combination years, believing that they are in opposition to generic pubof splitting large bureaucracies into smaller, more frag- lic policy (termed ecological theory, of the late Urie Bromented agencies, encouraging competition between dif- fenbrenner).
ferent public agencies, and encouraging competition be- Increasingly, public policy academics and practitioners
tween public agencies and private rms and using eco- have utilized the theoretical concepts of political econnomic incentives lines (e.g., performance pay for senior omy to explain policy outcomes such as the success or
executives or user-pay models).[29] NPM treats individ- failure of reform eorts and/or the persistence of subuals as customers or clients (in the private sector optimal outcomes.[36]
sense), rather than as citizens.[30]
Some critics argue that the New Public Management concept of treating people as customers rather than citizens is an inappropriate borrowing from the private sector model, because businesses see customers as a means
to an end (prot), rather than as the proprietors of government (the owners), opposed to merely the customers
of a business (the patrons). In New Public Management, people are viewed as economic units not democratic participants which is the hazard of linking a MBA
(business administration, economic and employer-based
model) too closely with the public administration (governmental, public good) sector. Nevertheless, the model
(one of 4 described by Elmore in 1986, including the
generic model) is still widely accepted at all levels of
government and in many OECD nations.

3 Approaches
Public good and common good approaches
Public management approach
Public administration approach
Public contracting and provision approach
Public choice approach
Community services administration (US and global)

In the late 1990s, Janet and Robert Denhardt proposed a


new public services model in response to the dominance ___________________________________________________________
of NPM.[31] A successor to NPM is digital era governance, focusing on themes of reintegrating government
Systems approach
responsibilities, needs-based holism (executing duties in
cursive ways), and digitalization (exploiting the transfor Ecological approach
mational capabilities of modern IT and digital storage).
One example of this is openforum.com.au, an Australian
Contingency approach
non-for-prot eDemocracy project which invites politicians, senior public servants, academics, business people
Behavioural approach
and other key stakeholders to engage in high-level policy
debate.
Participatory/democratic approach
Another new public service model is what has been called
Competency/functional approach
New Public Governance, an approach which includes a
centralization of power; an increased number, role and inuence of partisan-political sta; personal-politicization ___________________________________________________________
of appointments to the senior public service; and, the assumption that the public service is promiscuously partisan
Business or market systems approach
for the government of the day.[32]
In the mid-1980s, the goal of community programs in the
US was often represented by terms such as independent
living, community integration, inclusion, community participation, deinstitutionalization, and civil rights. Thus,
the same public policy (and public administration) was to
apply to all citizens, inclusive of disability. However, by
the 1990s, categorical state systems were strengthened in
the US (Racino, in press, 2014), and eorts were made
to introduce more disability content into the public policy curricula[33] with disability public policy (and administration) distinct elds in their own right.[34][35] Behaviorists have also dominated intervention practice (gen-

Social sciences research approach


Statistical and engineering approach
Feminist or gender studies approach
Disability public policy approach
Universal vs person-centred approaches
Family studies, theories and community development

6 ACADEMIC FIELD

Core branches

In academia, the eld of public administration consists of


a number of sub-elds. Scholars have proposed a number of dierent sets of sub-elds. One of the proposed
models uses ve pillars":[9]
Organizational theory in public administration is the
study of the structure of governmental entities and
the many particulars inculcated in them.
Ethics in public administration serves as a normative
approach to decision making.
Policy analysis serves as an empirical approach to
decision making.

model". He claimed that rational bureaucrats will universally seek to increase the budgets of their units (to enhance their stature), thereby contributing to state growth
and increased public expenditure. Niskanen served on
President Reagans Council of Economic Advisors; his
model underpinned what has been touted as curtailed
public spending and increased privatization. However,
budgeted expenditures and the growing decit during the
Reagan administration is evidence of a dierent reality.
A range of pluralist authors have critiqued Niskanens
universalist approach. These scholars have argued that
ocials tend also to be motivated by considerations of
the public interest.

5.2 Dunleavys bureau-shaping

Public budgeting is the activity within a government The bureau-shaping model, a modication of Niskanen,
that seeks to allocate scarce resources among unlim- holds that rational bureaucrats only maximize the part of
their budget that they spend on their own agencys operited demands.
ations or give to contractors and interest groups. Groups
Human resource management is an in-house struc- that are able to organize a owback of benets to seture that ensures that public service stang is done nior ocials would, according to this theory, receive inin an unbiased, ethical and values-based manner. creased budgetary attention. For instance, rational oThe basic functions of the HR system are employee cials will get no benet from paying out larger welfare
benets, employee health care, compensation, and checks to millions of low-income citizens because this
many more (e.g., human rights, Americans with does not serve a bureaucrats goals. Accordingly, one
Disabilities Act). [The Executives managing the HR might instead expect a jurisdiction to seek budget inDirector and other key Departmental personnel is creases for defense and security purposes in place programming. If we refer back to Reagan once again, Dunalso the subject of Public Administration.]
leavys bureau shaping model accounts for the alleged decrease in the size of government while spending did
Public Administration also has responsibility for core not, in fact, decrease. Domestic entitlement programcontent areas in the university sector which have tradi- ming was nancially de-emphasized for military research
tionally included: Housing and community development, and personnel.
family studies at health and human services, labor and
employment organizations, recreation, tourism and economic development, transportation systems, administrative law for areas such as public utilities, Personnel sys- 6 Academic eld
tems and workforces, non-prot sector and development,
new IT technological developments, and the triparte of See also: Master of Public Administration and Doctor
government (legislative, Executive, judicial).
of Public Administration

Decision-making models

Given the array of duties public administrators nd themselves performing, the professional administrator might
refer to a theoretical framework from which he or she
might work. Indeed, many public and private administrative scholars have devised and modied decision-making
models.

5.1

Niskanens budget-maximizing

In the United States, the academic eld of public


administration draws heavily on political science and
administrative law. Some MPA programs include economics courses to give students a background in microeconomic issues (markets, rationing mechanisms, etc.)
and macroeconomic issues (e.g., national debt). Scholars
such as John A. Rohr write of a long history behind the
constitutional legitimacy of government bureaucracy. In
Europe (notably in Britain and Germany), the divergence
of the eld from other disciplines can be traced to the
1720s continental university curriculum. Formally, ocial academic distinctions were made in the 1910s and
1890s, respectively.

In 1971, Professor William Niskanen proposed a rational The goals of the eld of public administration are rechoice variation which he called the "budget-maximizing lated to the democratic values of improving equality,

6.2

Masters degrees

justice, security, eciency, eectiveness of public services usually in a non-prot, non-taxable venue; business
administration, on the other hand, is primarily concerned with taxable prot. For a eld built on concepts
(accountability, governance, decentralization, clientele),
these concepts are often ill-dened and typologies often
ignore certain aspects of these concepts (Dubois & Fattore 2009).[37]

7
ative public administration, including: the major dierences between Western countries and developing countries; the lack of curriculum on this subeld in public
administration programs; and the lack of success in developing theoretical models which can be scientically
tested.[40] The Comparative Administration group has dened CPA as, the of publicadministration applied to diverse cultures and national setting and the body of factual data, by which it can be examined and tested. Accordingly to Jong S. Jun, CPA has been predominantly
cross-cultural and cross-national in orientation. Due to
the organization of governments in the US, comparative
studies of state governments and practices also are considered central not simply local or national.[41][42]

One minor tradition that the more specic term "public


management" refers to ordinary, routine or typical management concerns, in the context of achieving public
good. Others argue that public management refers to
a newer, market-driven perspective on the operation of
government. This latter view is often called "new public
management" by its advocates. New Public Management
represents a reform attempt, aimed at reemphasizing the 6.2
professional nature of the eld. This will replace the academic, moral or disciplinary emphasis. Some theorists
advocate a bright line dierentiation of the professional
eld from related academic disciplines like political science and sociology; it remains interdisciplinary in nature.

Masters degrees

One public administration scholar, Donald Kettl, argues


that "...public administration sits in a disciplinary backwater, because "...[f]or the last generation, scholars have
sought to save or replace it with elds of study like implementation, public management, and formal bureaucratic theory.[17] Kettl states that public administration,
as a subeld within political science...is struggling to dene its role within the discipline.[17] He notes two problems with public administration: it has seemed methodologically to lag behind and the elds theoretical work The Knapp-Sanders Building, the home of the School of Governtoo often seems not to dene it"-indeed, some of the ment at the University of North Carolina.
most interesting recent ideas in public administration
Some public administration programs have similarities to
have come from outside the eld.[17]
business administration programs, in cases where the stuPublic administration theory is the domain in which disdents from both the MPA and MBA programs take many
cussions of the meaning and purpose of government,
of the same courses . [In 2014, this similarity is due in
the role of bureaucracy in supporting democratic govpart to 7 times federal contracts over the number of federnments, budgets, governance, and public aairs takes
eral employees in government.] In some programs, the
place. In recent years, public administration theory has
MPA (or MAPA) is more clearly distinct from the MBA,
periodically connoted a heavy orientation toward critical
in that the MPA often emphasizes substantially dierent
theory and postmodern philosophical notions of governethical and sociological criteria that are traditionally secment, governance, and power. However, many public adondary to that of prot for business administrators.
ministration scholars support a classic denition of the
term emphasizing constitutionality, public service, bu- The MPA is related to similar graduate level governreaucratic forms of organization, and hierarchical gov- ment studies programs including MA programs in public aairs, public policy, and political science. Dierernment.
ences often include program emphases on policy analysis
techniques or other topical focuses such as the study of
international aairs as opposed to focuses on constitu6.1 Comparative public administration
tional issues such as separation of powers, administrative
Comparative public administration is dened as the study law, contracting with government, problems of goverof administrative systems in a comparative fashion or the nance and power, and participatory democracy.
study of public administration in other countries.[38][39]
Another denition for comparative public administration is the quest for patterns and regularities in administrative action and behavior.[38] There have been several
issues which have hampered the development of compar-

A unique mid-career Masters Program (e.g., Maxwell


Mid-Career Program at Syracuse University began by
Robert Iversen in the 1970s) may be oered to assist existing Public Managers or Community Managers to advance in their knowledge and careers, while continuing

PUBLIC MANAGEMENT

full-time employment. Community programs may be site Administration (LAGPA) and the Asian Group for Pubof internships, and continuing education credits which lic Administration (AGPA).
can be used by managers and sta members.
IASIA is an association of organizations and individuals
whose activities and interests focus on public administration and management. The activities of its members in6.3 Doctoral degrees
clude education and training of administrators and manThere are two types of doctoral degrees in public ad- agers. It is the only worldwide scholarly association in the
ministration: the Doctor of Public Administration and eld of public management. EGPA, LAGPA and AGPA
the Ph.D. in Public Administration. The Doctor of Pub- are the regional sub-entities of the IIAS.
lic Administration (DPA) is an applied-research doctoral
degree in the eld of public administration, focusing on
practice. The DPA requires a dissertation and signicant coursework beyond the Masters level. Upon successful completion of the doctoral requirements, the title
of Doctor is awarded and the post-nominals of D.P.A.
are often added. Some universities use the Ph.D. as their
doctoral degree in public administration (e.g., Carleton
University in Ottawa, Canada).

6.4

Notable scholars

Main article:
scholars

List of notable public administration

Notable scholars of public administration have come


from a range of elds. In the period before public administration existed as its own independent discipline, scholars contributing to the eld came from economics, sociology, management, political science, administrative law,
and, other related elds. More recently, scholars from
public administration and public policy have contributed
important studies and theories.

International public administration

Also the International Committee of the US-based


Network of Schools of Public Policy, Aairs, and Administration (NASPAA) has developed a number of relationships around the world. They include sub regional
and National forums like CLAD, INPAE and NISPAcee,
APSA, ASPA.[43]
The Center for Latin American Administration for Development (CLAD), based in Caracas, Venezuela, this regional network of schools of public administration set up
by the governments in Latin America is the oldest in the
region.[44] The Institute is a founding member and played
a central role in organizing the Inter-American Network
of Public Administration Education (INPAE). Created in
2000, this regional network of schools is unique in that it
is the only organization to be composed of institutions
from North and Latin America and the Caribbean working in public administration and policy analysis. It has
more than 49 members from top research schools in various countries throughout the hemisphere.[45]
NISPAcee is a network of experts, scholars and practitioners who work in the eld of public administration in
Central and Eastern Europe, including the Russian Federation and the Caucasus and Central Asia.[46] The US
public administration and political science associations
like NASPAA, American Political Science Association
(APSA)[47] and American Society of Public Administration (ASPA).[48] These organizations have helped to create the fundamental establishment of modern public administration.

There are several organizations that are active. The


Commonwealth Association of Public Administration
and Management CAPAM is perhaps the most diverse, 8 Public Management
covering the 54 member states of the Commonwealth
from India to Nauru. Its biennial conference brings to- Public Management is an approach to government and
gether ministers of public service, top ocials and lead- non-prot administration that resembles private-sector
ing scholars in the eld.
management in some important ways. In particular,
The oldest is the International Institute of Administra- the use of management tools appropriate to public and
tive Sciences. Based in Brussels, Belgium, the IIAS is a in private domains, tools that maximize eciency and
worldwide platform providing a space for exchanges that eectiveness is at issue. A contrast is drawn with the
promote knowledge and practices to improve the orga- study of public administration, which emphasizes the sonization and operation of Public Administration and to cial and cultural drivers of government that many contend
ensure that public agencies will be in a position to better (e.g. Graham T. Allison and Charles Goodsell) makes it
respond to the current and future expectations and needs dierent from the private sector.
of society. The IIAS has set up four entities: the International Association of Schools and Institutes of Administration (IASIA), the European Group for Public Administration (EGPA), The Latin American Group for Public

Studying and teaching about public management are


widely practiced in developed nations. Such credentials
as the Master of Public Administration degree oer training in decision making relevant to the public good using

9
public infrastructure.

In South Africa, Regenesys Business School through


the Regenesys School of Public Management.

The public manager will deal with critical infrastructure


that directly and obviously aects quality of life. Trust in
public managers, and the large sums spent at their behest, Comparative public management, through government
make them subject to many more conict of interest and performance auditing, examines the eciency and eectiveness of two or more governments.
ethics guidelines in most nations.

8.1

Organizations

Many entities study public management in particular, in


various countries, including:
In the US, the American Society for Public Administration. Indiana University Bloomington
In Canada, the Institute of Public Administration
of Canada, the Observatoire de l'Administation
publique, and various projects of the Federation of
Canadian Municipalities and Infrastructure Canada

9 See also
Administration (government)
Administrative law
Budgeting
Bureaucracy
Civil society
Community services administration
Max Weber

In the UK, Warwick Business School, the London


School of Economics, the UK local democracy
project and London Health Observatory.

Doctor of Public Administration

In the Netherlands, The Hague University of Applied Sciences

Ocial

In Australia, the Institute of Public Administration


Australia.

Professional administration

Municipal government

Politics

In France, the cole nationale d'administration and


the IMPGT, Institute of Public Management and
Territorial Governance in Aix-en-Provence, AixMarseille University.

Public administration theory

In Belgium, the Public Governance Institute, KU


Leuven.

Theories of administration

Public policy
Public policy schools

In Germany, the German University of Adminis- 9.1 Societies


trative Sciences Speyer, the Hertie School of Gov International Institute of Administrative Sciences
ernance, the Bachelor and Master of Politics &
Public Manangement at the Zeppelin University
American Society for Public Administration
Friedrichshafen, and the Bachelor and Master of
Brazilian National School of Public AdministraPublic Policy & Management and the Executive
tion[49]
Public Management Master of University of Potsdam.
Chinese Public Administration Society
In Switzerland, the University of Geneva and the
Dutch Association for Public Administration
Swiss Graduate School of Public Administration
(IDHEAP).
Eastern Regional Organization for Public Administration
In Italy, the SDA Bocconi School of Management,
Indian Institute of Public Administration[50]
the graduate business school of Bocconi University
in Milan, Italy.
Korea Institute of Public Administration
In Cyprus, the Cyprus International Institute of
Philippine Society for Public Administration
Management or CIIM.
Public Administration Association of Nepal
In Ireland, the Institute of Public Administration,
Dublin.
Royal Institute of Public Administration

10

9.2

10 SUGGESTED READING

Public Management academic resources

International Journal of Public Sector Management,


ISSN: 0951-3558, Emerald Group Publishing
Public Management Review, ISSN: 1471-9045
(electronic) 1471-9037 (paper), Routledge
Public Works Management & Policy, ISSN: 15527549 (electronic) 1087-724X (paper), SAGE Publications

10

Suggested reading

Bookchin, M. (1992). A green economy or green


economics?". Newsletter of the Committee on the Political Economy of the Good Society 2 (2): 910.
Bookchin, M. (2006). Ecology of Freedom. Oakland, WV: AK Press.
Bruntland Report. (1987). Our Common Future:
World Commission on Environment and Development. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.
Chomsky, N. (1989). Necessary Illusions: Thought
Control in Democratic Societies. London: Pluto
Press.
Chomsky, N. (1993). Year 501: The Conquest Continues. London: Verso.

Dubois, H.F.W. & Fattore, G. (2009), 'Denitions


and typologies in public administration research: the
case of decentralization', International Journal of
Public Administration, 32(8): 704727.

Curtis, M. (2003). The Web of Deceit: Britains Real


Role in the World. London: Vintage.

Jeong Chun Hai @Ibrahim, & Nor Fadzlina Nawi.


(2007). Principles of Public Administration: An Introduction. Kuala Lumpur: Karisma Publications.
ISBN 978-983-195-253-5

Dean, J. W. (2006). Conservatives Without Conscience. New York: Viking Penguin.

Smith, Kevin B. and Licari, Michael J. Public Administration Power and Politics in the Fourth
Branch of Government, ISBN 1-933220-04-X
White,Jay D. and Guy B. Adams. Research in public administration: reections on theory and practice.1994.
Donald Menzel and Harvey White (eds) 2011. The
State of Public Administration: Issues, Challenges
and Opportunity. New York: M. E. Sharpe.

10.1

Public Management

Adelmann, R. (1989). The Federal Reserve System:


Creature of a triumphant international banking establishment. Bulletin of the Committee to Restore the
Constitution, 324, February.
Bahro, R. (1986). Building the Green Movement.
Philadelphia, PA: New Society Publishers.
BBC. (2006). The Trials of Henry Kissinger. BBC
Four, 3 April, 1.05-2.25am. May also be an earlier,
printed, document.
Benton, R. (1986). Economics and the Loss
of
Meaning$fr1:$f:*0034-6764/86/1201251/$l.50/0ef:". Review of Social Economy 44
(3): 251250. doi:10.1080/758516449.
Bookchin, M. (1980). Toward an Ecological Society. Montreal, Canada: Black Rose Books.

Day, P., & Klein, R. (1987). Accountabilities: Five


Public Services. London: Tavistock Publications.

Ekins, P. (Ed.). (1986). The Living Economy. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
Elkin, S. L., & Soltan, K. E. (Eds.). (1999). Citizen
Competence and Democratic Institutions. University
Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press.
Emery, F. E. et al. (1974). Futures We're In. Canberra: Australian National University, Centre for
Continuing Education.
Emery, F. E. (1974). Panning for real but dierent
worlds. In R. L. Acko, (Ed.), Systems and Management Annual. New York: Petrocelli.
Etzioni, A. (1984). Capital Corruption: The New Attack on American Democracy. New York: Harcourt,
Brace and Jovanovitch.
Galbraith, J. K. (1991). Political Change, Military
Power: The Failed Economic Base. Paper given
at IAREP/SASE Conference, (June) in Stockholm,
Sweden.
George, S. (1988). A Fate Worse Than Debt. London: Penguin Books.
Goldsmith, E. (1992). The Way: An Ecological
World-View. London: Rider.
Grossman, R. L., & Adams, F. T. (1993). Taking
Care of Business: Citizenship and the Charter of Incorporation. Cambridge, MA: Charter Inc.
Hancock, G. (1991). Lords of Poverty: The FreeWheeling Lifestyles, Power, Prestige and Corruption
of the Multi-billion Dollar Aid Business. London:
Mandarin.

10.1

Public Management

11

The Tragedy of the Commons.


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doi:10.1126/science.162.3859.1243.
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Hayek, F. A. (1948). Individualism and Economic


Order. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Henrich, J., Longo, F. & Ysa, T. (Eds.) (2009).
The Top 50 Articles of PUBLIC: Stiglitz,
Fukuyama, Mintzberg, Barzelay, Ospina, Rodrik,
Pollitt, Heifetz, Hood, Pfeer, Doig, Kellerman,
Nye, et al.. Barcelona: ESADE.[51]
Hogan, R., Raskin, R., & Fazzini, D. (1990). The
dark side of charisma. In K. E. Clark and M. B.
Clark (Eds.), Measures of Leadership. West Orange,
NJ: Leadership Library of America.
Hogan, R. (2006). Personality, Leadership and
Organisational Eectiveness. Opening Keynote
Speech: Annual Conference of the Division of Occupational Psychology of the British Psychological
Society, Glasgow.
Inkeles, A., & Smith, D .H. (1974). Becoming Modern. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Institute of Economic Democracy. (1982). The
Money Trick. Melbourne, Australia: Heritage; Sudbury, UK: Bloomeld Books.
Janicke, M. (1990).
Polity Press.

State Failure.

Cambridge:

Jaques, E. (1976). A General Theory of Bureaucracy. London: Heinemann.


Jaques, E. (1989). Requisite Organization. Arlington, VA: Cason Hall and Co.
Jeong Chun Hai @Ibrahim. (2007). Fundamental
of Development Administration. Selangor: Scholar
Press. ISBN 978-967-5-04508-0
Kanter, R. M. (1985). The Change Masters: Corporate Entrepreneurs at Work. Hemel Hempstead:
Unwin Paperbacks.
Lane, R. E. (1991). The Market Experience. New
York: Cambridge University Press.
Lynn, L. E., Jr. (1996). Public Management as
Art, Science, and Profession. Chatham House, CQ
Press.
Lynn, L. E., Jr. (2006). Public Management: Old
and New. Routledge.
Marks, N., Simms, A., Thompson, S., & Abdallah, S. (2006). The (Un)happy Planet Index: An
Index of Human Well-being and Environmental Impact. London: New Economics Foundation. Downloadable from www.neweconomics.org and www.
happyplanetindex.org

Marx, K. (1886/1908). Capital: A Critical Analysis of Capitalist Production. London: Swan Sonnenschein.
Miller, G. J. (1992). Managerial Dilemmas. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
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London: Dent.
Monbiot, G. (2000). Captive State: The Corporate
Takeover of Britain. London: MacMillan.
Nelson, E. H. (1986). New Values and Attitudes
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Ollman, B. (2001). What is political science?
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73.
Perkins, J. (2006). Confessions of an Economic Hit
Man: The Shocking Story of How America Really
Took Over the World. New York: Ebury Press.
Pollitt, C. and G. Bouckaert (2004). Public Management Reform. 2nd ed. Oxford: Oxford UP.
Raven, J. (1994). Managing Education for Eective
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the Wealth of Nations and the Societal Learning
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[which summarizes the whole book], 4 [ Some Observations on Money], and 17 [Summary of Parts I
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Riccucci, N. M. (2005). How Management Matters: Street-Level Bureaucrats and Welfare Reform.
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Fort Collins, CO: Betsy Ross Press.
Schacter, Mark (2008). How Good is Your Government? Assessing the Quality of Public Management
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Schweizer, P. (1994). Victory. New York: Atlantic
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Shah, H., & Marks, N. (2004). A Well-being Manifesto for a Flourishing Society. London: New Economics Foundation.
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Penguin Books: Harmondsworth, Mddx.
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Administration. Washington, DC; American Society for
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[13] Shields, Patricia. 1998. Pragmatism as a Philosophy of
Science: A Tool for Public Administration" Research in
Public Administration Vol. 4. pp. 195-225.
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Science: A Tool for Public Administration" Research in
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Verba, S. et al. (1971). Modes of Democratic Participation. Beverley Hills, CA: Sage.

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Shanks, M., et al. (1983). Work and Human Values.
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[16] Haveman, R. H. (1987). Policy analysis and evaluation research after twenty years. Policy Studies Journal, 16(1):
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11

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2010.

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12 External links
Gov Monitor: A public administration, policy and
public sector website
Public Administration Theory Network (PAT-Net)
: This is an international network of professionals
concerned with the advancement of public administration theory.
The Global Public Administration Resource : A
forum where practitioners, academics and students
can discuss topics in public administration.
United Nations Public Administration Network
(UNPAN): A body which aims to establish an
Internet-based network that links regional and national institutions devoted to public administration.
National Association of Schools of Public Aairs
and Administration
International Public Management Network
International Public Management Association for
Human Resources

14

13

13

TEXT AND IMAGE SOURCES, CONTRIBUTORS, AND LICENSES

Text and image sources, contributors, and licenses

13.1

Text

Public administration Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Public%20administration?oldid=655016216 Contributors: Edward, Michael


Hardy, Mac, Glenn, Rmilson, Andres, Andrewman327, Bevo, Joy, AaronSw, Robbot, RedWolf, Babbage, Guy Peters, Clossius, Stevietheman, Andycjp, Piotrus, Catdude, Howardjp, Neutrality, Zacha, Canterbury Tail, Discospinster, Kait, Uppland, El C, Lycurgus, Kwamikagami, Pearle, Mdd, Espoo, Alansohn, Tek022, Rd232, Jnothman, Alinor, Wtmitchell, Evil Monkey, Danthemankhan, Stemonitis, Issk,
Woohookitty, Chochopk, Je3000, Tabletop, Aaroamal, Dangerous-Boy, Isnow, Electionworld, Rjwilmsi, Mayumashu, ElKevbo, Czar,
John Maynard Friedman, Chobot, YurikBot, Borgx, Bhny, NawlinWiki, Cquan, RaF, Neum, Malcolma, CaliforniaAliBaba, Sarkar112,
Tonywalton, Closedmouth, Ruennsheng, Mais oui!, GrinBot, Ilikenwf, SmackBot, NaiPiak, SeaNap05, Roberto Cruz, Hu Gadarn, Sciintel, Paxse, HalfShadow, Ohnoitsjamie, Chris the speller, Cattus, SchftyThree, Jahiegel, KaiserbBot, Wikiphilia, Noles1984, Veeru7,
Salt Yeung, Folio1701, John, Geeteshgadkari, Heydeesmeet, Kazooou, Beetstra, SQGibbon, RichardF, Cyril Washbrook, Levineps, OnBeyondZebrax, ShadowClones, Shoreranger, Eastlaw, JForget, Dgw, ShelfSkewed, Ryan Lanham, Trident13, Kozuch, Nihan, Thijs!bot,
Ericip, Lord Hawk, Barticus88, Biruitorul, Naspaa, Marek69, NorwegianBlue, NERIUM, Dugwiki, Windows72106, Andiecain, Alphachimpbot, Leafman, JAnDbot, Ekabhishek, MER-C, Jrabc, Robina Fox, SiobhanHansa, VoABot II, Transcendence, Hdynes, MetsBot,
Kathleen McNutt, Glen, DGG, Arjun01, R'n'B, EdBever, Sasajid, Maurice Carbonaro, Hossain Akhtar Chowdhury, HAppleby, Mrg3105,
M-le-mot-dit, Goutamforindia, Funandtrvl, VolkovBot, Wbhildreth, Philip Trueman, P.dunleavy, SteveStrummer, LeaveSleaves, Wmcg,
Lxxxi, Rlogan1128, Devgowri, WereSpielChequers, VVVBot, Jimmy.jd, Oxymoron83, Ss376-07, Fratrep, Secretlyironic, Jc hai, Dlrohrer2003, Jaipurite, ClueBot, Justin.mckay, Saddhiyama, Thektron, Jenafalt, Masterpiece2000, Techfast50, Bobbytheonlyone, Dsmurat,
TheovanderKrogt, Jonverve, JDPhD, Apparition11, Ps07swt, BarretB, HKUL, Stickee, Ost316, Addbot, Mitrabhanu, Reedmalloy, AndersBot, Jan eissfeldt, Niklas g, Luckas-bot, Yobot, Teng1981, AnomieBOT, JackieBot, Ulric1313, Materialscientist, Bob Burkhardt, ArthurBot, Xqbot, TinucherianBot II, Autorads, Linburats, DSisyphBot, Schmitts54, Grim Reaper, Almabot, J04n, C+C, GrouchoBot, Omnipaedista, Miriska, RibotBOT, Shman644, Shadowjams, Zugzwang1972, FrescoBot, Silentbob05, Mekongforest, Tumblehome, W Nowicki, Melissa bxl, Mino-wiijiindi, Louperibot, Citation bot 1, Pinethicket, I dream of horses, Neurosojourn, Skyerise, A8UDI, Tabletalker,
Sic6sic, Lotje, Theo10011, Canuckian89, Ronfernandes, DARTH SIDIOUS 2, Swbanks, RjwilmsiBot, Ermontgo, EmausBot, WikitanvirBot, Sgt oxx, Jeckhart85, RenamedUser01302013, We hope, PBS-AWB, Jenks24, Commonerborn, Anir1uph, Ingvildoia, Donner60,
Cnajmee, ClueBot NG, Cntras, REHspeedtrolly, Silvana4444, Helpful Pixie Bot, HMSSolent, Curb Chain, Fogoieveivvfevbvibfsj, Luciparmer, Altar, Sandeepkmassey, Kalikcharan, One.tenth, Andrewengler9489, Afantastica, JARacino, Frosty, Jamesx12345, Prachi.jnu,
CsDix, Arivera92, Babitaarora, RubleuleR, Ginsuloft, Edvin.arnby, Adqlth, 1980sEnglehart, Seyoume Egizeabher and Anonymous: 306

13.2

Images

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