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RISE OF THE ROMAN

REPUBLIC

THE LAND OF ROME


In the center of
the Italian
peninsula in the
Mediterranean
Sea
Mountains along
the eastern coast
Broad fertile
plains

THE FOUNDING OF ROME


Roman legend says
that Rome was
founded by two sons,
Romulus & Remus, of
a Latin woman and
the war god Mars.
They were abandoned
and fed by a she-wolf
Romulus killed Remus
and names city after
himself

ROME SETS UP A REPUBLIC


A republic is a government system in which people choose
some of the officials.
The most powerful governing body was the senate, made up of
patricians, landholding elite. Senators served for life.
Two consuls were nominated by senators to work together to
supervise the government and the army. Consuls served 1 year
terms.
Dictators were appointed to have complete control during wartime only

MIDDLE/LOWER CLASS ROMANS


Plebeians were the lower
classmen who were not
represented in the Senate.
After fighting for
representation, they gained
the right to elect tribunes,
who could veto laws.

Plebeians also convinced the


Senate to post the laws of
Rome on 12 tablets and post
them in the forum, Romes
Reproductions of the 12
marketplace.
Now everyone would know
what the laws were

Tables at the Museum of


Roman Civilization in Rome

THE ROMAN FORUM

ROMAN SOCIETY
The male head of the family had absolute
power.
Women did participate in Roman society, they
could own property and run businesses, but
most worked at home.
All Roman children were educated, and the
wealthy hired private tutors to extend their
education.
Roman religion was based on gods and
goddesses similar to those of the Greek
religion.
Mars god of war; Neptune god of sea; Jupiter
chief god

ROMAN DEFENSE
Rome had a well-trained army made up of military
units called legions.
1 Legion = 5000 unpaid men
Operated with strong rewards and strong punishments

Conquests brought the entire Italian Peninsula


under Roman control
Punic Wars: Carthage (in Africa) resisted Roman control,
forces led by Hannibal invaded from the North. When
Hannibal returned home, Romans were waiting &
conquered his remaining forces.
By 133 BC, the Roman Empire spread from Spain to Egypt!!

SPREAD OF ROMAN EMPIRE

RESULT OF IMPERIAL ROME

Conquests brought riches, but the widespread practice of


enslaving the conquered put farmers out of business.
Farmers fell into debt and went to find jobs in Rome and other
cities. These unhappy poor became angry, and the few wealthy
became greedier.

Julius Caesar came to power as a dictator during wartime.


His popularity made the Senate think he would try to become
king of Rome, so they killed him.

COLISEUM IN ROME