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Steven Bucher
Mr. Herrmann, Mr. Rutherford
AP U.S. History Per 4
7 October 2015
Chapter 13 Notes
The Rise of Mass Democracy
1. New Chapter in American history
a. Development of new political parties, slave conflicts, economic
distress
i.
ii.

Whigs and Democrats


New strategies for candidates - got more people to

vote
What was the Corrupt Bargain of 1824?
1. Last old style election - Henry Clay, James Monroe, William H. Crawford,
Andrew Jackson were all candidates for president Republicans
a. War-Hero Jackson, antisocial Clay and crippled crawford
b. Jackson had all the votes but Adams was elected, Clay was new
secretary of state
i.

Adams had bribed Clay to take position so Jackson

ii.

Still not enough evidence today

would be 2nd
Who was the Yankee misfit in the White House?
1. John Quincy Adams - under charges of bargain, corruption, and usurpation
a. of voters voted for him
b. Extremely stubborn and lost a lot of followers
c. Helped nationalism and transportation
d. Proposed a national university
e. antagonized by the westerners - resented his speculation in public
domain
i.

attempted to deal with Indians

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What does it mean to go Whole Hog for Jackson in 1828?


1. Jackson planning his campaign for 4 years
a. Seen as honest hero above Adams
b. Presented as a tough common man - was a wealthy plantation
owner
c. Would reform and get rid of the dishonest Adam gang
d. Triumphed over Adams in the 1828 election
i.
Shift from conservation of eastern seaboard to
expansion of west
What did Jackson Old Hickory do as President?
1.
2.
3.
4.

Grew up and orphan with no parental guid


Stuck out in the masses, owned slaves, planted on lots of acres, finest mansion
Huge support from the people
Replaced Jeffersonian simplicity

What was the spoils system?


1. Jackson spoil system - rewarding supporters with public office
a. Bring in new blood - every generation deserves shot at public
office
b. House cleaning of political people
2. Scandal came with the new system
a. Not qualified men in positions
b. Important element of emerging 2 party order
What was the tricky Tariff of abominations?
1. Tariff by Adams - protected american industry against competition from Europe
a. Drove prices up for all Americans and invited retaliatory tariffs on
America agg exports
b. First had supporters until the textile and wool industry boomed
2. Increase in general tariff - 1824 by Congress
a. Disliked by the South because of little manufacturing
3. Tariff of Abominations
a. Southerners hated it because it discriminated against them
i.
Didnt have as many market products
ii.
Worried about how the government might try to
abolish slavery as well

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1. Lead to lots of protesting and public


outcry
Who were the Nullies in South Carolina?
1. Nullifiers throughout Jacksons first term
a. tried to vote for nullification in S.C legislature but blocked by
submission men
b. Congress passed a new Tariff in 1832 - fell short of south's
demands
2. Nullification Crisis - clash between Nullies and Unionists
a. Special convention discussing possibilities
i.
S.C would leave if Washington attempted to collect
by force
ii.
Declare the existing tariff to be void in S.C
b. Jackson quietly prepared for fighting with S.C
3. Compromise Tariff of 1833 and Force Bill
a. Authorized president to use army and navy if necessary to collect
tariff
b. Not a clear victory but Henry Clay reached an agreement and was
a hero
What was the Trail of Tears?
1. Confrontations with natives of western lands - 125K Native Americans
a. Stubborn and shrewd negotiators - agreement for U.S to only
acquire land through formal treaties
b. Respect for those Natives who tried to blend in with White
culture
i.

Cherokees of Georgia - had slaves, law system, and

ii.

Cherokee tribal council was illegal - declared by

schools
Georgia legislature
1. Jackson refused to recognize
legislation

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2. Indian Removal Act - 1830 uprooting 100K indians


a. Blows on the 5 civilized tribes of Indians
b. Forced march - Trail of Tears the Cherokees
i.
Sent to newly established Indians Territory free of
white encroachment
ii.
Bureau of Indian Affairs was established 1836
c. Black Hawk War of 1832 - Indians resisting eviction
i.
Guerrilla warfare in Everglades of Florida
1. Seminoles were doomed with
capture of their leader
2. moved to Oklahoma
What was the bank war?
1. Jackson distracted monopolistic banking and over big business
a. Printed money by banks that only had enough value as the banks
did
b. Bank of the United States was privately owned
i.
Huge amount of power in political and financial
affairs
2. Bank War - 1832 - Daniel Webster and Henry Clay proposed renewal of BoUS
a. If Jackson signed it he would lose west support, if he vetoed it he
would lose presidency in upcoming election
b. Jackson vetoed it - amplified power of presidency
How does Old Hickory wallop Clay in 1832?
1. Jackson vs Clay in upcoming election
2. 3rd Party entered the field - Anti-Masonic party
a. Opposed the influence and fearsome secrecy of the Masonic order
b. Appealed to long standing americans who believed in conspiracy
c. Also and anti-Jackson party
3. Clay with the National Republicans and lost of benefits - $50K
4. Jackson had large supporters and easily defeated Clay
What went into burying Biddles bank?
1. Bank of U.S was about to expire in 1836 - Jackson worried about Biddle trying
again
a. Removed federal deposits from its vaults

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i.
no more funds with Biddle
ii.
Seen as unconstitutional and unnecessary
b. Left financial vacuum in the American economy
i.
Pet Banks - state institutions holding surplus
federal funds
1. Handle day to day operations with
less money than the bigger bank
c. Specie Circular - a decree that required all public lands to be
purchased with hard or metallic money
i.
Contributed to financial crisis of 1837 - huge last
drastic change
ii.

Jackson left successors to deal with the damage

from this
What caused the Birth of the Whigs?
1. Whig party opposing Jackson and his Democrats - had many diverse elements at
first
a. Emerged as an identifiable group in the Senate with Clay, Webster
and Calhoun
i.
ii.
iii.

To oppose Jackson ruining the federal banks


Supporters of Clays American System
Thought of themselves as conservatives but

supported active government


iv.

1. Better transportation and institutions


Welcomed market economy with manufacturers

v.

Attacked by Democrats to get them seen like fat

from North
cats
What happened at the election of 1836?
1. Martin Van Buren - VP to Jackson was appointed as successor in 1836
a. too old and didnt have too much support
b. Won 170-124 electoral votes and nearly the same popular votes
2. Whigs couldnt decide who to have as their candidate

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a. deadlock broken by house of representatives - Henry Clay


What were the big woes for the Little Magician?
1. Martin Van Buren - 8th president - first born under American flag - New Yorker
a. Had severe handicaps - resented by many democrats
b. 4 years of toil and trouble
c. Jackson left Van Buren with the possible development with a
depression
d. Too much for the little magician to handle
What were the depression doldrums and the Independent Treasury?
1. Panic of 1837 - cause of financial sickness of the times
a. Caused by Jacksons Bank War and Specie Circular
b. Failure of wheat crop causing scarcity
c. British banks failed and investors called in for foreign loans
d. American banking collapsed and some pet banks as well
i.
Commodity prices dropped, sales for public lands
fell off
e. Whigs came forward with proposals
i.
expansion of bank credit, high tariff, subsidies for
internal improvements
f. Van Buren tried to fix with Jacksons old methods
i.
Divorce Bill - divorce gov from banking all together
ii.
Never highly popular - Whigs condemned it
Why were Americans gone to Texas?
1. Americans greedy for land in the west and longing for Texas
a. Arrangement with Stephen Austin to populate Texas for grant of
land
i.

Convert to Roman Catholic and become Mexican -

people stayed American


ii.
Texas-Americans became the majority 30K by 1835
1. Not easy people to push around
iii.
Conflicts between Mexico and Texans
iv. Imprisoned by Santa Anna and she started to send
troops to Texas to end the conflict and uprising of Americans in Texas

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What was the Lone Star Rebellion?


1. 1836 Texas declared their independence under lone star flag
a. Sam Houston was the commander in chief
b. Alamo - Santa Anna trapped 200 Texans and wiped them out
c. Goliad - Americans threw down their arms and butchered as pirates
d. Small army retreated to San Jacinto near present day Houston
e. Wiped out MExican forces and captured Santa Anna
i.
Agreed to withdraw troops and RIo Grande would
be the South border of Texas
ii.
MExico blamed the U.S for the rebellion in Texas
iii.
Texans wanted to union with The United States
1. Annexation in 1837
2. Conflict with being an anti-slave
state
a. Many were still slave
owners
3. Seen as a just a settlement westwards
Where were the Log Cabins and Hard Ciders of 1840?
1. MArtin Van Buren Renominated in 1840 by Democrats for election
2. Whigs united behind William Henry Harrison of Ohio - best vote getter
a. Democrats stupidly insulted the west ending in whigs favor
b. Adopted symbol of west with log cabin and cider for campaign
i.
Appeal more to the common people
3. Harrison won by close margin popular votes but 234 t 60 electoral votes
a. People were faced with decision to choose between 2 economic
visions and possibility to help reform after the depression
i.
Whigs sought to expand and stimulate economy
ii.
Democrats favored retrenchment and an end to large
banks and aggressive corporations
What was the politics for the people?
1. Two major political changes in the election of 1840
a. Popular democratic style triumph - democracy now respectable
i.
Common man was moving to center of political
stage
1. No longer ruled by aristocrats

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What was the 2 Party System?


1. 2nd Dramatic change - formation of a vigorous and durable two party system
a. Jeffersonians and Federalists opposition never formed largely
b. Democrats and the Whigs - came from Jacksons legacy
2. Democrats
a. States rights and federal restraints
b. Glorified liberty of the individual
c. Humble fold
3. Whigs
a. Renewal of banks, protective tariffs, internal improvements, public
schools, and moral reforms like drinking and eventually slavery
4. Fostered horse-trading compromises within each party to prevent either from
having radical and extreme control and positions