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Chapter 1

THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND

Introduction

Family Planning means deciding when is the best time to have

children, and what is the appropriate number of children for a couple to have.

The right time to have children is when a woman is between 20 and 35 years

old, when a woman has not been pregnant for the last 2-3 years, when a

woman has fewer than 4 children, when a woman has no illness that would

place herself or her baby in danger and when the couple wants to have a

baby.

Always let the clients decide for themselves on the method that they

will use, and help them choose the method that is most appropriate for them.

Factors to consider include the age of the woman, woman's reproductive

stage, the effectiveness of a method, the woman's health status and personal

considerations. No method is best for all women, nor is any method best for a

woman throughout her reproductive life.

The researcher is concern with rapid growing population here in our

country. He was motivated to pursue this investigation because of what he

observed in his locality barangay since majority of the couples are using the

method that for them is easy to avail.


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The researcher wants to know the effects of the family planning

methods on the conditions of the couples. This will help him gather relevant

information that will be helpful to the community, especially Barangay Oogong

which is the location of this study

Background of the Study

Brgy. Oogong, Sta. Cruz, Province of Laguna, is one of the barrios

chosen in the program of expansion by the Integrated Development approach

for Nutrition Improvement of the rural poor Founded by UP College of Human

Ecology Los Baňos, Laguna with the help of different private sectors in the

Province of Laguna.

Brgy. Oogong is estimated 8 kilometers away from town proper. With a

land area of 800 areas, composed of 7 sitios. At the year of 2008, Brgy.

Oogong is having a total number of 3, 023 people, averaging 1, 270 numbers

of female and 1, 753 of male. At present , it has a total population of 3, 850

and divided into 911 groups of family.

The researcher became curious as to the family planning methods that

the couples are using and what are the effects of these methods on their

health condition.

Theoretical Framework

The Integrative Theory. Here’s an example of how the model was

used in the strategic planning document for the family planning program:
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To improve the likelihood of engaging in family planning behaviors

then, it must first look at what environmental constraints may be preventing

women from engaging in them and act on those (or help people overcome

them).

Among the constraints identified in the audience research are the few

facilities available in rural counties, busy clinic staff that makes local outreach

and promotion efforts difficult, making time in their busy schedules for setting

clinic appointments, and difficulties using the centralized referral service.

Second, to assess if the person has the necessary skills to access and

effectively use family planning methods over time.

Last is you found that not understanding the eligibility criteria due to

confusing messaging and low literacy skills and non-adherence with birth

control methods over time such as discontinuing pills or missing doses or

even a report of broken condoms leading to unwanted pregnancy.


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CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

Independent Variables Dependent Variables

Profile of Couples: Health Condition of the


Couples:
 Age
 Physical Aspect
 Gender
 Psychological
 Educational
Aspect
Attainment
 Emotional Aspect
Family planning

methods

 Natural Methods

 Artificial Methods

Frame 1 Frame 2

Figure 1: Research Paradigm of the Study

Frame 1. Shows the independent variables which consist of the profile

of the couples and family planning methods that can be used by the

respondents.

Frame 2. Shows the dependent variables which consist of the health

condition of the couples in terms of physical, psychological, and emotional

aspect.
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Statement of the Problem

This study aimed to determine the Effects Of Family Planning Methods

To The Health Condition Of The Selected Couples Of Brgy. Oogong Sta.

Cruz, Laguna, Furthermore, this study wants to find answers to the following

questions:

1. What is the status of the couples in terms of:

1.1 Age

1.2 Gender

1.3 Educational Attainment?

2. What is the level of status of the family planning methods in terms

of:

2.1 Natural Method

2.2 Artificial Method?

3. What is the status of the health conditions of the couples when using

the family planning methods in terms of :

3.1 Physical aspect

3.2 Emotional aspect

3.3 Psychological aspect?

4. Is there a significant effect of family planning methods to the health

condition of the couples in terms of:

4.1 Physical aspect

4.2 Emotional aspect


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4.3 Psychological aspect?

Hypothesis

There is a significant effect of the family planning methods on the

health condition of couples.

Significance of the Study

The purpose of this study is to assess the level of effects of the family

planning methods on the health conditions of the selected couples in Brgy.

Oogong, Sta. Cruz, Laguna.

This study was significant to the following target population:

Selected Couples

To provide a right information regarding family planning method.

Future Researchers

So that this study served as their reference and to the authority to help

in there advocacy to control the increasing number of population here in our

respective baranggay

Community Health Nurse

To provide a specific time for the community, for them to be able an

effective nurse. And to have an a different experience and for their job to be

able to diagnose well the community and to much prioritized the needs of

community.
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Scope and Limitation of the Study

The study was limited only or the effects of the family planning

methods on the health conditions of the couples. The variables included in

this investigation are be the following: age, occupation, educational

attainments, and religious belief. It also includes the level of awareness and

their own management on how they can the methods and the effects of these

methods on their health conditions

Definition of Terms

The following terms are defined operationally to serve as a guide for

the readers to have a better understanding of the terms used in the research:

Artificial Family Planning. Refers to the process used to prevent

pregnancy and plan for the birth of children at the most optimum time.

Commonly referred to as birth control, family planning can be accomplished

using a variety of methods.

Family Planning Methods. Refers to the control of the number of

children in a family and of the intervals between them, especially by the use

of contraceptives

Natural Family Planning. Refers to general term that applies to

various methods that have been developed to help women and men

determine the fertile and infertile times of a woman's menstrual cycle. These

methods can be used to achieve or avoid pregnancy. All of the methods rely

on the interpretation of natural biological signs or indicators of fertility. Implicit


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in these methods are that couples abstain from intercourse and genital

contact during the fertile time of the woman's cycle if they are avoiding

pregnancy. Use of any artificial means to interfere with fertility is not natural

family planning.

Emotional Aspects. Refers to another factor that had the most

influential to the couples.

Physical Aspects. Refers as the contributing factor that affects the

couples in their health condition.

Psychological Aspects. Refers to the factor that has great effects to

the couples in terms of choosing their methods to use and satisfaction.


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Chapter 2

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES

This chapter presents some literatures and studies that are useful in

the construction of the research framework and in drawing inferences of this

study.

Related Literature

Physical Aspect

Copper-bearing IUDs increase blood flow volumes by 20% to 50%

above levels before IUD insertion. Increased menstrual bleeding, often with

pain, is the problem that women most often report while using copper-bearing

IUD. Many women who have these complaints keep their IUDs nonetheless.

Overall rates of removal because of bleeding and pain at 12 months of use

range from 1 to 17 per 100 women in major clinical trials

(www.populationreports.org/b7).

Psychological Aspect

WHO recommends that women use levonorgestrel-only ECPs because

they cause less nausea and vomiting than combined estrogen-levonorgestrel

ECPs. Nausea and vomiting are common side effects associated with ECP

use. WHO does not recommend routine use of antiemetics before taking

ECPs. Predicting which women will experience side effects usually is difficulty
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and many women taking ECP do not experience nausea and vomiting. Expert

working group advises that clinicians offer anti emetics on a case by case

basis according to their medical judgment. Clinicians should take should take

account that anti emetics themselves may cause other side effects, such as

drowsiness and dizziness (Yuzpe 2003).

Emotional Aspect

Hormonal methods appropriate for women with depression. A single

study reported that taking fluoxetine for depression did not reduce the

effectiveness of combined or progestin-only oral contraceptives. Conclusion

cannot be reached concerning postpartum depression or bipolar disorder

because current evidence is inadequate ( WHO 2003).

Family Planning Methods

Family planning users and providers have been calling for more

choices. They want contraceptive methods that provide highly effective

protection and at the same time causes fewer side effects, cost less and are

easier to use. In response, researchers are improving existing contraceptives

and developing new ways to deliver hormones. Offering wide range of safe,

effective and convenient family planning methods encourage more people to

use contraception (Upadhyay,MPH, Adhikary, MPH and Richey 2005).


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Natural and Artificial Method

Virtually all married women know about and many are using family

planning. 98% also know of a place offering family planning services. 25% are

currently using family planning. Female sterilization relied on by 13% of

married women is the most widely used method. Withdrawal and natural

family planning are used by 13% of married women (Philippine National

Statistic Office 2003).

Related Studies

Physical

A study was made by David, et al (2001), entitled “Family Planning: Its

Economic and Psychosocial Influences on the Lives of Women in Western

Visayas”. The main concern of this study was rapid population growth of and

inadequate maternal and child rearing. The study wants to improve the family

planning program, including an effort to provide integrated reproductive

health. Special attention needs to be given to helping women deal with side

effects such as both physically, psychologically and emotional discomfort.

Psychological

Dorado, et, al (2006) on their study entitled “Survey of Family Planning

Methods Preferred by Couples In Selected in Barangay Sto. Angel, San

Pablo City”, in terms of awareness and responsibility of each person in the

community, duly authorized personnel affect the couples regarding what


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natural or artificial methods they will use, also to determine if the method

selected meets the safety of the patient, suitable to patient’s life style and

compatible to patient’s religion or moral convictions. Their study wants to

know the advantages and disadvantages of the natural and artificial protective

use by the respondents. Specifically, what are the assurance of couple

regarding the accuracy of method contraception chosen in terms of desired

birth spacing and prevention of unwanted pregnancy.

Emotional

Study was based on Daughtry, et al (2002) entitled “Marital

Satisfaction and Family Planning Practices“. The specific objectives of his

study is just to describe and compared natural and artificial family planning

couples on the following dimensions: overall relationship satisfaction

measured by the Dynamic Adjustment Scale; communication effectiveness

measured by the Marital Communication Inventory; satisfaction with their

chosen method of family planning measured by the family planning

questionnaire.

Family Planning Methods

The National Statistic Office (2003), made a study entitled “Use Of

Modern Family Planning Methods Up In Rural Areas”, the study aims to

collect data on fertility levels; fertility preferences; marriage and sexual

activities; knowledge and use of family planning methods, breastfeeding


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practices; childhood mortality; and, maternal and child health. The study also

included questions that seek to determine the level of awareness and

behavior of the respondents on AIDS and other sexually transmitted

infections as well as their knowledge, attitude and health-seeking behavior on

tube
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Chapter 3

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

This chapter presented the research design, population and sampling,

research procedure, research instrument to be used in gathering the data and

statistical treatment of data.

Research Design

The study used the descriptive method of research in gathering the

data needed to answer the problems. A descriptive method of research

includes all the studies which aim to present facts concerning the nature and

status of anything a group of person, a number of objects, a set of condition,

a class or events, a system of thoughts or any kind of phenomena which one

may wish to study.

In particular, the research utilizes the descriptive survey method. The

word survey indicates the gathering of data regarding the present conditions.

Descriptive survey was the general procedure employed in studies that have

for their chief purpose the description of phenomena. In order to obtain

adequate survey, the questionnaire was carefully evaluated.


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Population and Sampling Techniques

The questionnaire was distributed to the 25 selected couples of

Brgy.Oogong, Sta. Cruz, Laguna. Purposive sampling was used in data

gathering.

Research Procedure

The questionnaires were handed out personally and the respondents

were requested to answer the questions on the spot. If however, they were be

busy, the questionnaires were left with the respondents for them to answer at

the convenient time. Questionnaires were collected as soon as possible.

Other records and documents were requested from the office of Brgy.

Captain and Brgy. Health Center.

Research Instrument

The most commonly used and frequently self devised measuring

instrument, the questionnaire was used simply to obtain information directly

from subject as to make a standardized list of factual information or elicited

opinions that was generalized to a larger population. Both open and closed

ended type was to put a check to the appropriate or chosen answer provided

according to their perception. Analysis and interpretation of data obtain was

the researcher’s step.


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A questionnaire was designed to elicit answer pertaining to the effects

of the Family Planning methods used by the selected couples at the Brgy.

Oogong, Sta. Cruz, Laguna. The questionnaires were prepared in Tagalog.

The questionnaire was composed of two (2) parts, Part I presents the

demographic information of the respondents. Part II includes the main

objective of our survey by selecting there own answers.

The data derived from the answers of the selected respondents were

the basis in the assessment of the effectiveness of family planning methods

at Brgy. Oogong, Sta.Cruz, Laguna.

A sample questionnaire was presented in Appendix C.

Statistical Treatment

After the collection of the answered questionnaire, the data were

tallied, tabulated and analyzed using the following formula:

The researcher used weighted mean and standard deviation as the

statistical tools for it reveals the overall average responses of the respondents

on the factors given.

Formula:

WM = ∑wf

Wherein:

WM = weighted mean

∑wf = sum of the products of the frequency and the weight


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N = number of respondents

Formula:

S= √ ∑fm² - (fm)²

n-1 - n (n -1)

Wherein:

S= standard deviation
f= corresponding frequency
m= class mark or midpoint of each class interval
n= sample s

The formula for percentage is:

P = _f_ x 100

Where:

P = percentage

f = Frequency of response

N = total number of cases

The T- test for correlated mean was used to find out the difference of pre- test

and post- test.


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Formula:
∑D
t= n∑D - (∑D) / (n-1)

Wherein:

t= t- value
∑D= the difference
n= number of cases
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Chapter 4

PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS, AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA

This chapter deals with the presentation, analysis and interpretation of

data gathered. The data gathered from the respondents are presented in

tables, analyzed and interpreted based on the data and information gathered

by the researcher with the aid of the questionnaire.

The tables and figures are useful in describing the research result and

in showing the trends that emerge in the analysis.

The status profile of the health condition of the couples was described

in terms of age, civil status and educational attainment.

As to the health condition of family planning of the couples in terms of

natural and artificial family planning methods.

As to the significant effect related to the health condition of the couples

in terms of physical, emotional and psychological aspects.

A descriptive statistics through computation mean and standard

deviation were used to determine the respondent’s health condition at Brgy.

Oogoong Sta. Cruz, Laguna.

Profile of the Couples in Terms of Age

Figure 2 presents the profile of the couples in terms of age

The figure revealed that out of 25 couples, theses are 6 or 24 percent

belongs to age bracket of 30-32, 5 or 20% of them belongs to the age of


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Figure 2: The Profile of the Couples in Terms of Age

27-29 and 24-26, next by 4 or 16% of the respondent from ages 21-23, 3 or

12% of them have an age from 18-20 years of age and 2 or 8 percent under

33 and above year of age.

The study agree with the study of Dorado, et al (2006) which found out

that the age of the couples may be considering factors that affecting the

effects of family planning method.

Profile of the Couples in Terms of Civil Status

Figure 3 presents the profile of the couples in terms of civil status

The figure revealed that, majority of the respondents are married with

an percentage of 40.8% followed by single parents with an percentage of


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Figure 3: The Profile of the Couples in Terms of Civil Status

31.2% and the least is widow with a percentage of 28%.

The findings agree with the study of Philippine National Statistics

Office (2003), married woman are all know the family planning method and

many are using family planning method to prevent the rapid population growth

Profile of the couples in terms of Educational Attainment

Figure 4 presents the profile of the couples in terms of educational

attainment.

The figure revealed that majority of the respondents are high school

graduate with an percentage of 62.4% followed by college graduate with an


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Figure 4: The Profile of the Couples in terms of Educational Attainment

percentage of 41.6% and the least is elementary graduate with an average

percentage of 26%.

The findings agree with the study of Dorado, et al (2006) which found

out that another factor to consider is the educational attainment of the

couples, whether it is a elementary, high school and college graduated or

undergraduate it is very important to know the limitation of health care

provider to deliver the information clear and concise.

The Health Conditions of the Couples using the Family Planning


Methods

Figure 5 presents the health conditions of the couples using the Family

Planning Methods.
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Figure 5: The Health Conditions of the Couples using the Family


Planning Methods

Above the figure showed that majority of the respondents are using

natural method with an average percentage of 68% and the least is artificial

method with 42%.

The findings agree with the study of David, et al (2001) which found

out that many couples were tried the new artificial methods, but the
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satisfaction level are didn’t met, as of their investigation they found out that

majority of the couples are using natural family planning method. And they

provide right information to lessen the incident of unwanted pregnancy.

Status of the Health Conditions of the Couples in Terms of Physical


Aspect

Table 1 presents the status of the health conditions of the couples in

terms of physical aspect.

Table 1

Status of the Health Conditions of the Couples in


Terms of Physical Aspect
Physical Aspect Mean SD Remarks
1.Experience decrease in Libido 5.00 .00 Strongly Agree
2. Able to maintain bodyweight 3.72 .94 Agree
3. Experience dizziness/drowsiness 2.80 1.08 Moderately Agree
When using contraceptive method
4. Feeling of Nausea & Vomiting 2.24 .72 Disagree
5. Feeling of light headache 2.52 .77 Moderately Agree
Average Mean = 3.19 SD= 1.18 Moderately Agree

Legend:

4.50 – 5.00 - Strongly Agree


3.50 – 4.49 - Agree
2.50 – 3.49 - Moderately Agree
1.50 – 2.49 - Disagree
1.00 – 1.49 - Strongly Disagree

As can be seen from the table above, it indicates that the respondents

are “moderately agree” on the following items such as 3. Experience

dizziness/drowsiness when using contraceptive method 5. Feeling of light

headache with the mean score of 2.80, SD= 1.08, and 2.52 and .77 as
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standard deviation respectively. Likewise, the respondents are “ strongly

agree” in items no 1 experience decrease in libido with the mean score of

5.00 and .00 as standard deviation respectively, and “agree” on item no. 2.

Able to maintain body weight with the mean score of 3.72 and .94 as standard

deviation respectively. And given “disagree” on item no. 4 which states

feeling of nausea and vomiting with a mean score of 2.24 and .72 as standard

deviation respectively.

The low standard deviation of 1.18 reveals that the ratings given by the

respondents are homogenous.

The average mean of 3.19 reveals that the respondents are

“moderately agree” on the evaluated health conditions of the couples in

terms of physical aspect.

The findings agree with the study of David, et al (2001) which found

out that they needs to be given to helping a women deal with side effect such

as both physically, mentally and emotional discomfort.

Status of the Health Conditions of the Couples in Terms of Emotional


Aspect

Table 2 presents the Status of the Health Conditions of the Couples in

Terms of Emotional Aspect.

As can be seen from the table, it indicates that the respondents are

“moderately agree” on the following items 1. With episodes of depressions 5.

Episode of anger outburst with the mean score of 3.16, SD= .62, and 2.60
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and .58 as standard deviation respectively. Likewise, the respondents are

“agree” in items no. 4. Mood swing with the mean score of 4.52 and .77

Table 2

Status of the Health Conditions of the Couples in


Terms of Emotional Aspect
Emotional Aspect Mean SD Remarks
Moderately Agree
3.16 .62
1.With episodes of depressions
Disagree
1.80 .41
2. Relationship of satisfaction
Disagree
3.Experienced nervousness 2.0 .00
when contraceptive was used
Agree
4.52 .77
4. Mood Swing
Moderately Agree
2.60 .58
5. Episode of anger outburst
Average Mean = 2.82 SD= 1.15 Moderately Agree

Legend:

4.50 – 5.00 - Strongly Agree


3.50 – 4.49 - Agree
2.50 – 3.49 - Moderately Agree
1.50 – 2.49 - Disagree
1.00 – 1.49 - Strongly Disagree

standard deviation respectively. And “disagree” on items 2. Relationship

satisfaction and 4. Experienced nervousness when contraceptive was used

with the mean score of 1.80, SD= .41 and 2.0 and .00 as standard deviation

respectively.
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The low standard deviation of 1.15 reveals that the ratings given by the

respondents are homogenous.

The average mean of 2.82 reveals that the respondents are

“moderately agree” on the evaluated status of the health conditions of the

couples in terms of emotional aspect.

The study agree with the study of Daughtry, et al (2002) which found

out that some of respondents are well known about family planning but they

didn’t not aware of other methods, by means of effective communication by

the Marital Communication Inventory.

Status of the Health Conditions of the Couples in Terms of


Psychological Aspect

Table 3 Status of the Health Conditions of the Couples in Terms of

Psychological Aspect.

Table 3

Status of the Health Conditions of the Couples in Terms of


Psychological Aspect
Psychological Aspect Mean SD Remarks
1.Experience stress when family Disagree
2.0 .00
planning methods is unavailable
2. Feeling of guilt using contraceptive Strongly Agree
5.0 .00
methods

3.Dificulty in thinking of contraceptive. 3.0 .00 Moderately Agree


4. Create positive outlook in
3.68 .47
life/inability to thinking positively Agree

5. Change in Self perception 3.08 .28 Moderately Agree


Average mean = 3.35 SD= 1.10 Moderately Agree

Legend:
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4.50 – 5.00 - Strongly Agree


3.50 – 4.49 - Agree
2.50 – 3.49 - Moderately Agree
1.50 – 2.49 - Disagree
1.00 – 1.49 - Strongly Disagree

As can be seen from the table above, it indicates that

respondents are “moderately agree” on the following items such as 3.

Difficulty in thinking of contraceptive and 5. Change in self-perception with the

mean score of 3.0, SD= .00 and .308 and .28 standard deviation respectively.

Likewise, the respondents are “strongly agree” on items no. 2.Feeling of guilt

using contraceptive methods with the mean score of 5.0 and .00 as standard

deviation respectively. And “agree” on items no. 4. Create positive outlook in

life/inability to think positively with the mean score of 3.68 and .47 on

standard deviation. The respondents are “disagree” on items no. 1.

Experience stress when family planning methods is unavailable with the

mean score of 2.0 and .00 as standard deviation respectively.

The low standard deviation of 1.10 reveals that the ratings given by the

respondents are homogenous.

The average mean of 3.35 reveals that the respondents are

“moderately agree” on the evaluated status of health condition of the

selected couples in terms of psychological aspect.

The study agree with the study of David, et al (2001) which found out

that some respondents are using the methods in a wrong way or they didn’t
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consult in any medical services. And they had to pay attention to the woman

which deals with emotional side effects.

Significant Effect of Family Planning Methods to the Health Condition of


the Couples

Table 4 presents the significant effect of family planning methods to

the health condition of the couples.

Table 4 shows the significant effect of family planning methods on the

health condition of the respondents in Brgy. Oogong, Sta. Cruz, Laguna. It

further notice that the computed t-values 4.17, 5.13 and 3.53 probability value

Table 4

Significant Effect of Family Planning Methods to the


Health Condition of the Couples
P-
Health Condition Comp. t- Degrees of Verbal
value
Of Couples value Freedom Interpretation
<(.05)
Physical aspect 4.17 .000 24 Significant
Emotional aspect 5.13 ..000 24 Significant
Psychological
3.53 .002 24 Significant
aspect
Over all comp. t-value = 4.28 .000 24 Significant

of .000 and .0002 is less than alpha .05 level of significance which indicate

that physical, emotional and psychological aspect are all significant on the

health condition of selected couples in Brgy. Oogong, Sta. Cruz, Laguna.

The overall computed t-value of 4.28has p-value .000 which is greater

than alpha .05 level of significant on the health condition of selected couples

in Brgy. Oogong, Sta. Cruz, Laguna. From the above analysis, the findings

revealed that the aspects of physical, emotional and psychological have no


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significant effects on the health conditions of selected couples of Brgy.

Oogong, Sta. Cruz, Laguna.

The study agree with the study of Dorado, et al(2006) which found out

some factors to consider is physical, emotional and psychological aspects of

the couples which affecting the effects of family planning.

Significant Effect of the Related Variables to the Health Condition of the


Couples

Table 5 presents the significant effect of the related variables to the

health condition of the couples.

Table 5

Significant Effect of the related Variables to the Health


Condition of the Couples
Age Educational Civil Status
Health Attainment
Condition Comp. P- Comp. P- Comp. P-
t-value Valu VI t-value Value VI t-value Value VI
e
Physical 1.19 .247 NS -7.39- .000 Sig -8.90 .000 Sig
Aspect

Emotional 2.87 .008 NS -6.45 .000 Sig -14.42 .000 Sig


Aspect

Psychological 1.05 .323 NS -10.72 .000 Sig -14.66 .000 Sig


Aspect

Over all
Comp. t-value= 1.70 .192 NS -8.10 .000 Sig -12.66 .000 Sig

The overall computed t-value of 1.70 has p-value of .192 which

greater than alpha .05, no significant in physical, emotional and


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psychological aspects in terms of age. The overall computed t-values of

-8.19 and -12.66 have p-values of .000 indicated that physical, emotional

and psychological aspects have significant effect on health condition of the

couples.

The study agree with the study of National Statistics Office which

found out that age, educational attainment, and civil status which

contributing the effects of physical, emotional and psychological aspects of

the couples.

Chapter 5

SUMMARY, FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS


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This chapter presents the summary, findings, conclusions, and

recommendations of the study.

The study aimed to assess the effects of family planning methods on

the health conditions of the selected couples of Brgy. Oogong Sta. Cruz,

Laguna.

Summary

Specifically the study answered the following questions: 1. What is the

status of the couples in terms of;1.1 Age, 1.2 Gender,1.3 Educational

Attainment? 2. What is the level of status of the family planning methods in

terms of; 2.1 Natural Method, 2.2 Artificial Method? 3. What is the status of

the health conditions of the couples when using the family planning methods

in terms of ; 3.1 Physical aspect, 3.2 Emotional aspect, 3.3 Psychological

aspect? 4. Is there a significant effect of family planning methods to the health

condition of the couples in terms of; 4.1 Physical aspect, 4.2 Emotional

aspect, 4.3 Psychological aspect?

The descriptive approach of research was utilized with the used up to

date information and studies about effectiveness of family planning in

formulating the questionnaire checklist. The instrument had undergone

validity and reliability of the instrument through a panel of experts.


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The subjects of this study were twenty five (25) selected couples of

Brgy. Oogong Sta. Cruz, Laguna. Appropriate statistical treatment such as

weighted mean, standard deviation, percentage and t-test were used.

Findings

Based on the data gathered from the respondents, the following findings

are:

1. Status of the Couples

Majority of the respondents belong to ages 30-32 with an percentage

of 24 percent, 40 or 80% of couples are married and 12 or 48% of the

respondents are high school graduate.

2. Level Of Status Of The Family Planning Methods

Out of 25 respondents, 17 or 68% are using the natural family planning

methods while 8 or 42% of the respondents are using the artificial family

planning methods.

3. Status of the Health Conditions of the Couples in Terms of


Physical Aspect

For physical aspect, most of the respondents are “moderately agree”

with an average mean of 3.19, 2.82 and 3.35 and standard deviation of 1.18,

1.15 and 1.10: respectfully indicates that the status of the health condition of

the couples in terms of physical aspects are “moderately agree”.


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4. Significant Effect of Family Planning Methods to the Health


Condition of the Couples

The over-all computed t-value of 4.28 has p- value of .000 is greater

than alpha 05 level of significance on health condition of the selected couples

of Brgy. Oogong Sta. Cruz, Laguna. From the above analysis, the findings

revealed that the factors such as physical, emotional and psychological

aspects have no significant effects on the health condition of the selected

couples in Brgy. Oogong Sta. Cruz, Laguna.

5. Significant Effect of the related Variables to the Health Condition


of the Couples

The overall computed t-value of 1.70 has p-value of .192 which

greater than alpha .05, no significant in physical, emotional and psychological

aspects in terms of age. The overall computed t-values of -8.19 and -12.66

have p-values of .000 indicated that physical, emotional and psychological

aspects have significant effect on health condition of the couples.

Conclusions

The significant conclusion were making a smooth transition from

statistical data to the conceptual framework, thus, the researcher end with the

following conclusions:

Natural method is the most common used by the respondents, and

withdrawal method is the number one choice of the respondents. They were

using the stated method because of some reasons like fear of surgical
35

intervention, maintenance, obligation to buy, fear on side effects and

consultations.

But there are couples that are capable to use artificial method, most of

them are from ages 18-21. They stated that it is safe to use, easily to find and

buy. Pills is their method of choice.

In terms of physical health condition of the couples, majority of them

are experiencing dizziness or drowsiness and feeling of light headache, but

some couples are able to maintain their body figure when using the method

as they stated.

In emotional health condition of the respondents, majority of them were

usually experiencing episodes of depressions and episodes of anger outburst

because of they were trying to use the method without consultation in medical

team.

For the psychological health condition of the couples, some of them

were feeling of guilt when using the contraceptive, difficulty in thinking of

contraceptive and changing in self perception

Recommendations

This research terminal is allotted for the researchers urge to confine

their words.

1. Act as an impetus that would break into the hindrance that post

couples from inquiring assistance in managing their family scheme including

the importance of utilizing the available health resources offered to them.


36

2. Create awareness among couples on how to manage their fertility

for health reasons while providing information and services on all legally

permissible and medically accepted family planning method.

3. After providing full information, help couples to arrive at an informed

decision through counseling.

4. Respect the right of the couples to plan their family as they see-how

many children to have and when to have them. Remember that the

community health nurse should never impose decisions on them.

5. Stress the fact that condition such as maternal depletion brought by

closely space pregnancy and having too many children takes atleast 2 years

for the mother to recover, thus the importance of proper timing and birth

spacing is inevitable.

6. Planning the family lessens the pressures on the family income, for

there will be fewer children to feed, clothes, educate and provide other basic

necessities for.

7. The husband and wife should be free to determine the size of their

family according to their beliefs and their capabilities to ensure their children

of basic needs.

8. Assumption of responsible parenthood can be achieved through

responsible must be choice. Parents are the ones responsible for the life they

bring into being and it is them who knew best to what extent they can carry

out their responsibility.


37

BIBLIOGRAPHY

A. Books

Johnson, J. and Davis, E. Maternal and Child Nursing, 2008

Lippincott Williams and Wilkins. Nursing 2008 Drug Handbook 28th


Edition, 2008

Udan, J, (2009). Medical Surgical Nursing: Maternal and Child


Nursing(2nd Edition) Educational Publishing House

B. Journals And Magazines

Bloomberg, (2004) WHO Updates Medical Eligibility Criteria For


Contraceptives pp. 5

Ellerston, Evans, and Ferden (2003) Extending The Time Limit For Starting
The Yuzpe Regimen Of Emergency Contraception To 120 Hour.
Obstetrics And Gynecology

Fulcheri, Di Capua and Ragni (2003) Pregnancy Despite IUD; Adverse


Effect On Pregnancy Evolution And Fetus. Contraception

Herzberg,Draper, Johnson and Nicol (2003) Oral Contraceptives,


Depression And Libido, British Medical Journal

Mati, Hunter, andMaggwa (2005) Contraceptive Use And The Risk Of HIV
Infection In Nairobi, Kenya, International Journal Of Gynecology
And Obstetrician

Mothers and Children’s Health in Southern Tagalog (2001); Mother’s


Health Journals of Philippine National Statistic Office pp.1

Salem, R, M, (2006) New Attention to the IUD

Upadhyay, Adhikari, Richey, (2005) Population Report; New Contraceptive


Choices
38

WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO) In : Improving Access to


quality care in family planning; Medical eligibility criteria for
contraceptive used. [3rd edition] Geneva, Nov. 2004

Yuzpe, (2005) Journal of Reproductive Medicine and Ethinylestradiol


and dlnorgestrel as a postcoital contraceptive, fertility and
sterility

C. Unpublished Materials

Dorado, Fajardo, Glena, Guerrero, Jusay and Magcawas ( 2006) “Survey Of


Family Planning Methods Preferred By Couples In A Selected
Couples In A Selected Baranggay” San Pablo College School Year
2005-2006

D. Electronic Publication

Bongaart, J, and Bologh, G, (2008) Studies in Family Planning; Used of


modern Family planning methods up in rural areas
http://www.census.gov.ph/data/pressrelease/2004/pr0414tx.html

David F and Chin F. (2001) Family Planning: Its Economic and


Psychosocial Influences on the Lives of Women in Western
Visayas http://www.fhi.org/en/RH/Pubs/wsp/fctshts/Philippines3.htm

Daughtry, D and Edgar, M, (2003) Marital Satisfaction and Family


Planning Practices http://nfp.freehostia.com/marta.html

Lo B. (2009 Philippine Family Planning Bill Nears a Vote


http://www.womensenews.org/story/the-world/090125/philippine-
family-planning-bill-nears-vote

Mostafavi, S, and Mehryar, A, (2006) Socio-Cultural Factors Affecting


Men’s Use of Family Planning Methods in Ira
http://www.sid.ir/En/VEWSSID/J_pdf/103120064702.pdf

Qazilbash,A, and Sultana, A, (2003) Factors Associated With Failure Of


Family Planning Methods In Pakistan: A Case Study
http://www.sdpi.org/whats_new/seminar_conferences_FAILURE
%20OF%20FAMILY%20PLANNING.htm
39

Appendix A

Laguna State Polytechnic University


MAIN CAMPUS
Santa Cruz, Laguna

January 28, 2010

HON. RIZALDY KALAW


Brgy. Captain
Brgy. Oogong Sta. Cruz, Laguna

Dear Sir,
Good Day!
The undersigned a BSN IV-A Student of Laguna State Polytechnic
University, Sta. Cruz Main Campus, College of Nursing, is presently working
on his thesis entitled “EFFECTS OF FAMILY PLANNING METHODS ON
THE HEALTH CONDITIONS OF THE SELECTED COUPLES OF BRGY.
OOGONG STA. CRUZ, LAGUNA”
In relation to this yours truly is requesting permission from your good
office to gather some information regarding the family planning or birth control
methods that the couples of Brgy. Oogong, Sta. Cruz, Laguna are using.

Hoping for your positive response on this matter.

Thank you very much…

Respectfully yours,
(Sgd)________________
ERYL B. ESTRADA

Noted:
_____________________(Sgd)
ELENITA S. CARANDANG RN, MSN,
Thesis Adviser

Approved:
(Sgd)_________________
HON. RIZALDY KALAW
Brgy. Captain
40

Appendix B

QUESTIONNAIRE

Title: EFFECTS OF FAMILY PLANNING METHODS ON THE HEALTH

CONDITIONS OF THE SELECTED COUPLES OF BRGY. OOGONG, STA.

CRUZ, LAGUNA.

Instruction: Please complete the data & put a check from the following

options according to your choice.

Assured that any information shared will only be utilized for the purpose of

this investigation and your identity will be treated with outmost confidentiality.

Thank you for your whole hearted cooperation.

Age:

[ ] 18 – 20 [ ] 27 – 29

[ ] 21 – 23 [ ] 30 – 32

[ ] 24 – 26 [ ] 33 and above

Educational Attainment:

[ ] Elementary

[ ] High School

[ ] College
41

Please indicate appropriate answer to the following questions; please put a


check on the corresponding numbers:
5 – Strongly Agree
4 – Agree
3 – Neither Agree Nor Disagree
2 – Disagree
1 – Strongly Disagree
1. What is the status of the health conditions of the couples when using the
family planning methods in terms of:

1. Physical Aspects 5 4 3 2 1
1.1 Experience decrease in libido
1.2 Able to maintain body weight
1.3 Experience dizziness / drowsiness
1.4 Feeling of nausea and vomiting
1.5 Feeling of light headache

2. Psychological Aspects 5 4 3 2 1
2.1 Experience stress when family planning method is un available
2.2 Feeling of guilt using contraceptive methods
2.3 Difficulty in thinking or concentrating
2.4 Cerate positive outlook in life / inability to thinking positively
2.5 Change in self perception

3. Emotional Aspects 5 4 3 2 1
3.1 With episodes of depressions
3.2 Relationship satisfaction
3.3 Experienced nervousness when contraceptive is used
3.4 Mood swing
3.5 Episode of anger out burst
42

Appendix C
Data Matrix

PHYSICAL
1
NO. OGF RESPONDENTS 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5
1 3 4 3 2 3 3
2 3 5 3 2 3 3.2
3 3 5 5 2 4 3.8
4 3 5 3 3 3 3.4
5 2 5 4 3 5 3.8
6 3 4 3 2 3 3
7 2 2 4 3 2 2.6
8 3 5 3 2 3 3.2
9 2 5 5 3 3 3.6
10 3 5 3 5 3 3.8
11 3 5 5 3 4 4
12 2 4 3 2 3 2.8
13 2 5 5 3 3 3.6
14 2 4 3 2 3 2.8
15 3 5 3 3 3 3.4
16 2 3 4 2 3 2.8
17 3 5 4 3 2 3.4
18 2 3 4 2 3 2.8
19 3 5 3 3 3 3.4
20 2 3 5 2 3 3
21 2 5 4 3 5 3.8
22 2 3 4 2 3 2.8
23 3 5 4 3 5 4
24 3 3 4 2 4 3.2
25 3 5 4 3 3 3.6
AVERGE MEAN 2.56 4.32 3.8 2.6 3.28 3.312
SD 0.506623 0.945163 0.763763 0.707107 0.791623 0.424578
43

PSYCHOLOGICAL
2
NO. OGF 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5
RESPONDENTS
1 3 1 3 5 2 2.8
2 3 1 3 5 2 2.8
3 4 1 3 5 2 3
4 3 2 3 5 2 3
5 4 1 3 5 1 2.8
6 4 1 3 5 2 3
7 3 1 3 4 1 2.4
8 3 2 4 5 2 3.2
9 3 1 4 5 1 2.8
10 3 2 2 5 2 2.8
11 3 2 4 3 1 2.6
12 4 2 4 5 2 3.4
13 3 1 4 3 3 2.8
14 3 2 2 3 3 2.6
15 4 2 2 5 4 3.4
16 3 2 2 3 3 2.6
17 3 2 2 3 3 2.6
18 3 3 2 3 3 2.8
19 3 2 2 5 2 2.8
20 4 3 2 3 2 2.8
21 3 3 2 3 1 2.4
22 3 2 2 3 1 2.2
23 3 2 4 4 1 2.8
24 4 2 2 3 1 2.4
25 4 1 2 3 2 2.4
AVERGE MEAN 3.32 1.76 2.76 4.04 1.96 2.768
SD 0.476095 0.663325 0.830662 0.978093 0.840635 0.298217

EMOTIONAL
44

3
NO. OGF 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5
RESPONDENTS
1 2 5 2 3 2 2.8
2 2 5 2 3 2 2.8
3 2 4 2 3 2 2.6
4 2 5 2 4 2 3
5 2 4 1 3 3 2.6
6 2 5 2 3 2 2.8
7 2 5 3 3 2 3
8 2 5 2 3 3 3
9 2 5 2 2 2 2.6
10 2 5 2 3 2 2.8
11 2 5 2 3 2 2.8
12 2 5 2 3 2 2.8
13 2 5 2 2 2 2.6
14 2 5 2 4 2 3
15 3 5 2 3 2 3
16 2 5 2 3 2 2.8
17 2 5 2 2 2 2.6
18 2 5 1 3 2 2.6
19 2 5 2 3 2 2.8
20 3 4 1 4 2 2.8
21 2 5 2 3 2 2.8
22 2 5 1 3 2 2.6
23 2 5 2 3 2 2.8
24 2 4 2 3 2 2.6
25 2 3 2 3 2 2.4
AVERGE MEAN 2.08 4.76 1.88 3 2.08 2.76
SD 0.276887 0.522813 0.439697 0.5 0.276887 0.163299

CURRICULUM VITAE

ERYL B. ESTRADA
45

Sitio 2 Brgy. Oogong Sta. Cruz, Laguna


Mobile No.: 09065497687
E- mail Add.: eryl_nam@yahoo.com

PERSONAL DATA

Date of Birth: June 5, 1989


Place of Birth: Laguna Holy Family Clinic, Sta. Cruz, Laguna
Age: 20
Civil Status: Married
Gender: Male
Religion: Aglipayan
Citizenship: Filipino
Height: 5’8”
Weight: 60 kg
Language Spoken: Filipino and English
Mother: Lydia Baltazar Estrada
Father: Arthur Sofer Estrada

EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND

Tertiary: Laguna State Polytechnic University


Sta. Cruz Campus, Sta. Cruz, Laguna
S. Y. 2005- 2010
Degree: Bachelor of Science in Nursing

Associate in Health Science Education


S.Y. 2006- 2008

Secondary: Laguna State Polytechnic University


Sta. Cruz Campus, Sta. Cruz, Laguna
S. Y. 2000- 2004

Primary: Sta. Cruz Central Elementary School


Sta. Cruz, Laguna
S. Y. 1995- 2001

ORGANIZATIONAL/AFFILIATIONS

Mousike Organization (LSPU-SCC Main Campus)


46

Sta. Cruz, Laguna

National Center for Mental Health


Mandaluyong City

San Lazaro Hospital


Metro Manila

Philippine Orthopedic Center


Banawe, Quezon City

United Candelaria Doctors Hospital


Candelaria, Quezon

Calamba Medical Center


Calamba, Laguna

Laguna Provincial Hospital


Sta. Cruz, Laguna

Laguna Holy Family Hospital


Sta. Cruz, Laguna

Nagcarlan District Hospital


Nagcarlan, Laguna

Laguna Polymedic Hospital


Sta. Cruz, Laguna

SEMINARS ATTENDED

Filipino Nurses, Patriots, Leaders for Change


Cultural Center, Sta. Cruz Laguna
September 11, 2009

Disaster Nursing
Red Cross Laguna Chapter Sta. Cruz Laguna
October 20-22, 2009