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- surveyIBook
- 13.Theodolite
- Theodolite Traverse Survey
- Surveying 1 Lecture Notes
- theodolite
- Lecture 3--Surveying Fieldwork and Instrumentation
- Survey I Practicals
- Angle measurement theodolite
- Traverse Survey
- Theodolites
- Surveying II
- Traverse Survey
- Theodolite
- notes theodolite.pdf
- Chain-Survey.ppt
- Trigonometric Levelling
- Surveying by Dr. Ramachandra
- New Text Document
- Basic Surveying Manual
- Survey Lab Viva Questions

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te

Traversing with

theodolite Er Raju Sharma

(Lecturer)

Department -

civil engineering

Traversing with

theodolite

Traverse may be define as series of

connected lines from the frame work

having the direction and length.theodolite

is used to find out direction of lines and

measuring tape is used for measuring

length in case of theodolite traversing.

There are mainly two method for plotting

traversing.

By measurement of angles between two

successive lines (by direct observation of

angle)

survey line.

Traversing by direct

angles

In this method the angle between the

successive line are measured and the

bearing of the starting line is observed.

The bearing of the remaining lines are

then found from the observed bearing

and the measured angles. Traversing

by this method is done either

By the method of included angles.

By the method of direct angles

By the method of deflection angles

(a) Traversing by method of

included angles

In a closed traverse the angle measured either

interior or exterior according as the traverse is

run in a counter clockwise direction .genrally

closed traverse in anti –counter clockwise

direction. the angle can be measured by

repetition so as to desired degree of accuracy is

obtained.

Procedure : for running the traverse ABCDEFG

Set up the theodolite at 1ST station A and

observed the bearing of the line AB.

2. then measure the angle GAB.

`

Shift the instrument to each of

the successive station B,C etc.

and measure the angles

ABC,BCD etc. F E

3. Measure the line AB,BC,CD etc. D

and take offset to locate the

required detail G C

after this check is applied for N

interiors angles it is (2n-4)x90º,

And for exterior angles it is A

B

(2n+4)x90º S

n = number of sides of the

traverse

By the method of direct angles :

this method is used for open traverse. set up the

theodolite at the starting station P and observe

the bearing of line PQ . Shift the theodolite to Q.

set the venier A to zero, take a back sight on the

preceding station P.unclamp the upper plate, turn

the telescope clockwise, take a foresight on the

following station R, and read both verniers. the

mean of two vernier reading is the required angle

PQR. take other angles in the similar manner.

chainN the line and take the necessary offsets.

P

R

Q S

S

By the method of deflection angle:

This method is also used in open traverse. this is ,much

suitable when the survey line makes small deflection

angles with each other survey roads railway, pipe line

etc .set up the thedolite at the starting point P and

observed the bearing of line PQ. shift the instrument to

station Q. set the vernnier A to zero and take a back sight

on P. then transit the telescope ,loosen the upper clamp

,turn the telescope clockwise and take a foresight on R.

read both verniers, the mean of these readings is the

required deflection angles of QR from PQ. Also note down

its direction. then set up the theodolite at each successive

station R,S,T etc. and observe the deflection angles.

N

Q Ø1R

Ø1R

S

P

T

R

S

Traversing by direct observation

of bearing

There are following three method

direct method when the telescope is transited

Direct method when the telescope is not

transited

Back bearing method

(a) Direct method when the telescope

is transisited

Set up the theodolite at A and level it. set

the vernier A to zero. point the telescope

towards the north

Loosen the upper clamp and bisect B by N

using the upper clamp. read the vernier A

which gives the bearing of AB. B

Shift the instrument and set up at B. N

With the help of lower clamp and tangent N

screw ,back sight on A. transit the C

telescope ,loosen the upper clamp and A

turn the telescope and bisect C ,with the

help of upper clamp and tangent screw S S

,read both verniers which gives the

bearing of line BC E D

Sift the instrument at ‘c’ and repeat the

whole process.

For check at the end FB and BB of line EA

differ exactly by 180º.this will show the

correct observation

Direct method when telescope is not

transited

This is the same method as discussed in the above

the difference is that the telescope is rotated

about horizontal plane.

Back bearing method : set up the instrument at

A and observe the fore bearing of line AB N

Shift the instrument and set it up at B

Set the vernier A to back bearing of AB B

With the vernier A kept clamped at the same N

reading, back sight on A by using the lower clamp N

and its tangent screw. when the line of sight is

directed towards the BA ,the instrument is in C

correct orientation. A

Unclamp the upper plate and turn the telescope S S

until c is sighted. bisect C exactly by using the

upper clamp and its tangent screw.

Read the vernier A which gives the bearing of BC E D

Repeat the process at each of the subsequent

station

Latitude and departure

Both terms are introduced with plotting

the traverse. latitude and departure both

are required for plotting the position of

different point w.r.t y-axis and x- axis. y

axis and x axis are known as reference

line and are also known as the co-

ordinates. N Ø

Reference axis- y axis Departur

e

Easting = Reference axis- x axis

Latitude

Departure +

northing=+

Westing= -ve

W E

Latitude

Southing= -ve

S

Latitude and departure

Latitude of line =l cos Ø

Departure of line = l sin Ø

given line N show that its latitude

and S shows departure of the line.

The following rules will be much useful while

solving problems on traverse surveying

If l is the length of a line and Ø is its

reduced bearing. Then

N

L cos Ø=

latitude l

Ø

W E

L sin Ø

=departure

S

(i) Latitude = l cos Ø

Departure = l sin Ø

latitude

Ø = tan¯1 departure

latitude

(iii) l = (latitude)²+(departure)²

(a) l = latitude x sec Ø

(c) l = departure x cosec Ø

Q: 1 The coordinates of two

points A and B are as follows.

Find the length and bearing of

AB

Let l = length of AB

Ø = the reduced bearing of AB. points Co-ordinates

LATITUDE of AB = 840.78 – 500.25=

340.53

DEPARTURE of AB = 315.60-640.75= Northing

-325.15

Easting

tan Ø = departure 325.15 = .

9548 A 500.25 640.75

latitude 340.53

Ø = 43º41’

B 840.78 315.60

Since the latitude is +ve and the N 840.78,315.60

departure is –ve ,the line AB lies in b

the fourth (N.W) quadrant.

R.B of AB = N 43º41’W 500.25,640.75

W.C.B of AB = 360-43º41’= 316º19’ a

W E

(ANS)

length of AB = (L²)+(D²)

470.83 m (ans)

Q : 2 the following are

the length and bearing

of the sides of a closed

traverse ABCD

Calculate the length and

bearing of line DA. Line Length bearing

Let length of DA= l ,R.B of

in

line-Ø meters

(i) Convert the W.C.B to the AB 78.2 140º12

R.B ’

R.B of AB= 180º-140º

12’=S39º 48’E

BC 198.0 36º 24’

R.B of BC=36º24’

=N36º24’E CD 37.8 338º

R.B of CD= 48’

360º-338º48’=N21º12’W DA ? ?

(ii) find the latitude and departures of the lines

from the known length and bearing of the lines.

latitude of BC =198XCOS 36º 24’= +159.37 (N)

latitude of CD = 37.8x COS 21º 12’= 35.24 (N)

latitude of DA = l x cosØ = l cosØ

Algebraic sum of the latitude( ∑ )

= l cosØ+35.24+159.37-60.08

= l cosØ+ 134.53

The traverse being closed ( ∑ ) should equal zero

lcosØ+134.53 = 0

lcosØ= -134.53

Departure of AB = 78.2xsin 39º48’= +50.06 (E)

Departure of BC = 198xsin 36º24’ = +117.49 (E)

Departure of CD = 37.8x sin 21º12’ = -13.6 (w)

Departure of DA = lxsinØ

= l sinØ+50.06+117.49-13.67

= lsinØ + 153.88

But ∑ D =0

lsinØ + 153.88 = 0

lsinØ = -153.88

(iii) since the latitude and departure of DA are both –ve

therefore, the line DA lies in the iii (SW) quardent

now tanØ= departure 153.88

latitude 134.53

=1.1438

Ø =48º50’

hence reduced bearing of DA= S48º50’W

W.C.B of DA = 180º+ 48º50’=228º 50’

length of DA = (lat) ²+(dep)² = 204.40m(ans)

Error in theodolite

These may be surveying

classified into 3 groups

Instrumental error

Personal error or observation error

Natural error

Instrumental error : (i) non adjustment of

plate level:

if the adjustment of a plate is not proper as a result,

the horizontal circle is inclined and the angles are

measured in an inclined plane instead of horizontal

plane. The error are introduced in the

measurement of both horizontal and vertical

angles. the error is serious when the horizontal

angles between points at considerably different

elevation are to be measured. the error can be

minimized by levlling the instrument with reference

to be altitude bubble.

(ii) The line of collimation not being

perpendicular to the horizontal axis:

if line of collimation not perpendicular to

the horizontal axis ,as a result of this the

horizontal angles when measured

between points at widely different

elevation will be incorrect

the

error can be eliminated by reading

angles on both the faces and taking the

mean of the observed reading

(iii) the horizontal axis not being

perpendicular to the vertical axis

if the horizontal axis is not perpendicular to

the vertical axis, the line of collimation not

revolved in a vertical plane when the

telescope is raised or lowerd. This causes an

angular error both in horizontal and vertical

angles.

the error can be eliminated

by reading angles on both the faces and

taking mean of the two values.

(iv) the line of collimation and the

axis of telescope –level not being

parallel to each other

if this type of condition occurred ,the zero

line of vertical verniers is not a true line of

reference and as a result ,an error is

introduced in the measurement of vertical

angle

the error can be eliminated

by taking two observation of the angles,

one with the telescope normal and the

other with the telescope inverted ,and

taking mean of the two values

The inner and outer axis i.e the axis of both

upper and lower plate not being concentric

the error can be eliminated by reading both verniers

and averaging the two values.

The graduation being unequal

The error is eliminated by measuring the angles

several times on different parts of the circle and

taking mean of all.

Vernier being eccentric

The zero of the vernier will not be diametrically

opposite to each other. an error will be introduced if

only one vernier is read ,but it will cancel itself ,if

both verniers are read and the mean taken.

The vertical hair not being exactly vertical

The error is minimised by using the portion of

the hair near the horizontal hair for bisecting

the signal.

Personal error :

Inaccurate centering

Inaccurate leveling

Working wrong tangent screw

Slip

Parallax

Inaccurate bisection of the point sighted

and non-verticality of the ranging rod

Other error such as

mistake in setting the vernier

Mistake in reading the scale and the vernier

Mistake in reading wrong vernier

Mistake while booking the reading

Natural error : this error are due to

High temperature causing irregular refraction

Wind storm causing vibration of the instrument

The sun shining on the instrument

These are negligible for ordinary survey. but the precise work is

usually performed under the most favorable atmosphere

condition

Er Raju Sharma

(Lecturer)

Department- Civil

Engineering

Yamuna polytechnic for

Engineering

Yamunanagar

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