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Election Exam

Matching
Match each item with the correct description below.
a. absentee voting
f. political action committee
b. ballot
g. runoff primary
c. caucus
h. self-announcement
d. coattail effect
i. soft money
e. hard money
j. subsidy
____

1. political extension of special interest groups

____

2. group of people with similar views who meet to select a candidate

____

3. when the two top vote-getters run against each other

____

4. used by voters to make their choice in an election

____

5. a way people can vote without going to polling places

____

6. money given to parties in unlimited amounts

____

7. campaign money given directly to candidates

____

8. when a person declares they are running for office

____

9. grant of government money

____ 10. when a strong candidate helps to attract votes for other candidates
Match each item with the correct description below.
a. contributor
d. political action committee (PAC)
b. fundraiser
e. soft money
c. hard money
f. subsidy
____ 11. someone who donates money
____ 12. contributions to political parties or similar organizations
____ 13. a gathering for the purpose of soliciting money
____ 14. contributions given directly to candidates for their campaigns
____ 15. political arm of a special-interest group
Multiple Choice
Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
____

1. What method of nominating candidates took the place of the caucus system in the 1830s?
a. blanket primary
b. closed primary
c. self-announcement
d. convention system

____

2. A county board of elections selects which of the following?


a. candidates for local offices
b. those who may vote online
c. precinct election boards
d. candidates for state offices

____

3. Which is not a factor influencing the amount of money spent running for office?
a. the level of political office
b. whether the candidate is new or an incumbent
c. how much money can be raised
d. the strength of the candidates ideas

____

4. Which of the following is the main source of campaign funds?


a. public subsidies
b. private sources
c. state government funding
d. a ballot tax

____

5. Why do voters have only two choices for most political offices on election day?
a. because of the nonpartisan system
b. because of the blanket primary system
c. because so few people are interested in running
d. because of the two-party system

____

6. What was a criticism of the caucus system in the early 1800s?


a. It was only used for primary elections.
b. It was only used for national elections.
c. It represented the views of only a few people.
d. It included too many people to be effective.

____

7. Why do the states make the election laws?


a. The states have refused to give up their election powers to Congress.
b. The states are better at protecting the quality of elections.
c. The state and local levels have more units of government.
d. Congress cannot agree on the details of election laws.

____

8. Why has election day become the last day people can vote in many places?
a. because many voters give up voting after a major election
b. because new laws ended voting after election day
c. because of new voting deadlines in state laws
d. because of the many ways to vote before election day

____

9. What keeps the Federal Election Commission from doing a better job of enforcing election laws?
a. Its power is limited by the Federal Election Campaign Act.
b. The election laws are not detailed enough.
c. It does not have enough funds and its staff is too small.
d. Its power is limited by the Supreme Court.

____ 10. Which is responsible for nominating those who will run for public office?
a. state government
b. Congress
c. the blanket primary system
d. political parties

____ 11. Who would be allowed to vote in a Republican closed primary?


a. only registered Republicans and Democrats
b. any registered voters
c. anyone who qualifies to vote
d. only registered Republicans
____ 12. Which is true of the nomination by petition method?
a. It is used only in nonpartisan elections.
b. By law, it is the same in every state.
c. It is often used for minor party and independent candidates.
d. It is most often used for national offices.
____ 13. Which correctly describes how contributions are made to the Presidential Election Campaign Fund?
a. Money for it comes from a tax paid at the polls.
b. People send a three-dollar check to the Federal Reserve.
c. People voluntarily give to it through their income tax return.
d. People are required to give to it when they pay property taxes.
____ 14. How do presidential candidates get most of their money for preconvention campaigns?
a. from a state income tax
b. from a national sales tax
c. from public subsidies
d. from private sources
____ 15. Why did Congress enact legislation to reform campaign finance laws in 2002?
a. Hard money was being used for political ads.
b. Soft money was being used for party building.
c. Hard money was going into political campaigns.
d. Soft money was going into political campaigns.
____ 16. The Help America Vote Act of 2002 required States to
a. replace all lever-operated and punch-card voting devices.
b. allow early voting.
c. eliminate computerized voter registration systems.
d. ban provisional voting.
____ 17. The time that polling places open on election day is set by
a. local boards of elections.
b. individual precinct leaders.
c. State law.
d. federal law.
____ 18. Advocates of voting by mail believe it
a. reduces voter participation.
b. reduces the cost of conducting elections.
c. strengthens the secret ballot principle.
d. is the most common method of voting.
____ 19. In the United States, the largest share of campaign dollars is consumed by
a. local mayoral races.
b. gubernatorial elections.
c. congressional campaigns.

d. the presidential election.


____ 20. All federal law dealing with campaign finance is administered by the
a. Federal Election Commission.
b. Treasury Department.
c. Internal Revenue Service.
d. U.S. Senate.
____ 21. A meeting of a small group of people to select the candidates they will support is called
a. a primary.
b. a convention.
c. a caucus.
d. nomination by petition.
____ 22. Nomination by petition would likely not be used for
a. a county judgeship.
b. the presidency.
c. county commissioner.
d. an independent candidate.
____ 23. Most election law in the United States is
a. county law.
b. federal law.
c. State law.
d. party law.
____ 24. Which of these terms refers to the great length of the ballots in many elections?
a. sample ballot
b. party-column ballot
c. Indiana ballot
d. bed-sheet ballot
____ 25. The nominating process is usually the only point at which there is any real contest for public office in
a. States that hold open primaries.
b. most rural areas of the United States.
c. one-party constituencies.
d. direct democracies.
____ 26. A runoff primary is held only when
a. an absolute majority of votes is needed to carry a primary.
b. candidates are not identified by party labels.
c. there are more than five candidates for the same office.
d. all candidates for nomination are listed on a single ballot.
____ 27. In which procedure are candidates nominated by means of a document signed by a certain number of
qualified voters in the election district?
a. write-in ballot
b. self-announcement
c. petition
d. caucus
____ 28. Most politicians prefer the party-column ballot because it
a. discourages ballot fatigue.

b. encourages straight-ticket voting.


c. forces voters to use more judgment in casting ballots.
d. encourages voters to choose familiar candidates.
____ 29. Which of the following ballots is used for informational purposes only?
a. bed-sheet ballot
b. Australian ballot
c. Indiana ballot
d. sample ballot
____ 30. Small contributors typically donate to a candidate for office because they
a. believe in the party or the candidate.
b. belong to a political action committee.
c. hope to be appointed to a civil service job.
d. want an invitation to a government function, such as a State dinner.
____ 31. Why has the Federal Election Commission (FEC) been unable to do a more effective job of administering
campaign finance law?
a. Federal campaign finance laws are not worded strongly enough.
b. The FEC is underfunded and understaffed.
c. The FEC can place limits on campaign expenditures but not on contributions.
d. Campaigns are not required to report large contributions in a timely manner.
____ 32. When is campaign spending limited?
a. in all congressional elections
b. in all presidential primary campaigns
c. when a presidential candidate rejects FEC subsidies
d. when a presidential candidate accepts FEC subsidies
____ 33. Hard-money contributions are given
a. to PACs.
b. to political parties.
c. directly to candidates.
d. to 527 organizations.
Short Answer
The need for collecting large campaign funds would vanish [go away] if Congress provided an
appropriation [federal money] for the proper . . . expenses of each of the great national parties,
an appropriation ample [large] enough to meet the necessity [the needs of the political
parties]. . . . Then [the parties should agree that] no party receiving campaign funds from the
[federal] Treasury should accept more than a fixed amount from any individual . . . and
[detailed information about the money taken in and spent] could without difficulty be provided.
President Theodore Roosevelt, Annual Message to Congress, December 3, 1907
1. (a) Explain the problem that President Roosevelt describes in the excerpt. (b) How would he like to correct
the problem?
2. Would you support President Roosevelts proposal? Explain.

Election Exam
Answer Section
MATCHING
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

F
C
G
B
A

6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.

I
E
H
J
D
A
E
B
C
D

MULTIPLE CHOICE
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

D
C
D
B
D
C
C
D

9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.

C
D
D
C
C
D
D
A
C
B
D
A

21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.

C
B
C
D
C
A
C
B
D
A
B
D
C

SHORT ANSWER
1. Possible response: (a) The problem is that political parties must raise a large amount of money in order to
finance their campaigns. (b) President Roosevelt thinks that federal money should be made available to
political parties to finance campaigns. This would reduce the need to raise large amounts of cash.
Contributions by individuals should then be limited to a fixed amount. The parties would then be more willing
to provide information about how their campaigns were financed.
2. Possible response: I agree with President Roosevelts goal of placing some limit on campaign fundraising, but
I believe his method would fail because it would not take into account the raising and expenditure of soft
money. Without additional reforms, Roosevelts proposal would simply increase the importance of soft money
in campaigns.