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Five Orientations to Learning

Learning Team C
ATE/500
October 13, 2014
Michael Burnett

Orientation

Behaviorist

Humanist

Cognitivist

Social Learning

Definition

A theory of learning based


upon the idea that all
behaviors are acquired
through conditioning.
Conditioning occurs through
interaction with the
environment.

The human potential for


growth. This orientation is
concerned with the how
much an individual will push
themselves to continue
growing their mind, or self.

Self-directed learning and


the learners construct their
own knowledge from their
experiences.

Constructivism is a theorybased on
observation and scientific study about
how people learn.

Through operant
conditioning, an association is
made between a behavior and
a consequence for that
behavior.

Biggest motivator is the


individual, small group
discussions

Rehearsal strategy is
developed when the student
is given information to learn
and the student repeats it
over and over to themselves
to memorize it.

Cognitive process that takes


place in a social context and
can occur purely through
observation or direct
instruction, even in
the absence of motor
reproduction or
direct reinforcement
Teacher presents a live
model to demonstrate or act
out a behavior.
Teacher verbalizes the
behavior thats being
demonstrated by the model.

Teacher decides the issue to be studied,


select the activities, gives the directions,
and sets up the problematic solutions

Constructivist

Instructional
Strategies:

The teacher will reinforce the


value of class discussions and
participating with getting a
good grade.

Elaboration strategy is when


a student uses what he or
she has already learned and
expands on it by relating
other information to it such
as an analogy.

Small group and whole group


learning can also be utilized

Desired Behavioral
Outcomes:

Students will connect the


value of discussions and
group work with the desired
good grade.

Focuses on advancing human


potential
Positivity should reinforce
the motivation and allow the
individual to continue to
succeed to their goal

Cooperative learning
Open-ended problem
solving
Experimentation

The job of the teacher is nurture divergent


solutions and to help students to
recognize and explain their ability to
think critically

Attention: In order to learn


the students must pay
attention.

Put students into situations that demand


critical thinking and encourage the
internalizing of major concepts

Retention: Students must be


able to store the information.

Inquiry activities also give students the


opportunity to express, confront, and
analyze preconceptions and
misconceptions in an active,
nonthreatening way

Reproduction: Once student


has paid attention to model
and stored the information,
student must perform the
behavior observed.
Application

Homework / assignments can


be gone over and discussed.
This will give the student
immediate feedback.
It will help in the retention of
course work.

Assignments should also be


applied that allows the
individual to work through
the problem and achieve
success for their self, as
opposed to being taught how
to solve the problem in the
style of a lecture

One application in the


classroom that could be
used for cognitivist
orientation is computer
simulations specifically
geared toward the learner to

People construct their own understanding


and knowledge of the world, through
experiencing things and reflecting on
those experiences.
Teacher sets the stage and selects the
student groups that will participate in the
activities

Students first write down the


behavior they observed.
Students then act out the
behavior they wrote down
from observation.

give feedback.
Students finally discuss the
behavior.

Students first tackle a teacher-created


problematic situation
Conceptualize questions, construct
hypotheses, and reach a consensus on
solutions
Discuss and debate their proposed
solutions with the class
Apply their contextualized insights to an
important historical issue
Researching and analyzing events and
societal conditions of the time

Proposing solutions to the controversial


issue
Reaching a decision on the best solution

References

Bevevino, Mary M; Dengel, Joan; Adams, Kenneth. Constructivist Theory in the Classroom, The Clearing House; May/Jun 1999; 72.5.
www.thirteen.org/edonline/concept2class/constructivism
Merriam, S.B., Caffarella, R.S., & Baumgartner, L.M. (2007). Learning in adulthood: A comprehensive guide (3rd ed.). San Francisco, CA: JosseyBass.
The University of Kansas. (2014). Teacher Tools Related to Cognitive Strategies. Retrieved from http://www.specialconnections.ku.edu/?
q=instruction/cognitive_strategies/teacher_tools.