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Leading the world of filtration

Battling bacteria
Using membranes in
pharma applications

• What is nanofiltration?
• A look at depth filtration
• Pharma industry overview

October 2008 www.filtsep.com

Editorial 1
Filtration+Separation October 2008

Adapting the basics

Leading the world of filtration

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Leading the world of filtration

Using membranes
as a sterile filter The latest industry news
medium in pharma 4-10

A closer look at
depth filtration

Contents • Features
Filtration industry overview: World pharmaceutical and
• Editorial 1 biopharmaceutical market 2008 22
Adapting the basics Karen Vacura of McIlvaine Company looks at the 2008 market data
for the pharmaceutical filtration market, including the spread of
• Industry news 4 technologies used in the industry.

• Technology news 10 Filtration overview: A closer look at depth filtration 25

Ken Sutherland looks at the characteristics of depth filtration, at
• Cover story 18 the range of equipment used to implement it, and how it is used.

Membranes and filtration: Membrane filtration in the Biopharmaceutical technology: Cell harvesting –
biopharm industry getting cultural 29
Mandar Dixit of Sartorius Stedim Biotech explains the usage and The harvesting of mammalian cells is one of the growth areas in
importance of membranes as a sterile form of filter media in the biopharm production. Peter Rose of Alfa Laval looks at the role a
biopharmaceutical industries. centrifuge plays in the process.

Filtration+Separation October 2008

Contents 3


Getting cultural – cell 40-41

Sieving metal
harvesting with a powders

42-43 Decontaminating

32-35 What is nanofiltration?

sieving, a producer of materials for the chemical and medical industries

Developments in filtration: What is nanofiltration? 32 turned to ultrasonic deblinding.
A relatively new development in membrane processes, this article takes
a look at the rapidly expanding field of nanofiltration, its characteristics Decontaminating wastewater: Improving
and its applications. decontamination in wastewater 42
A Mexican power plant was in need of a system that would effectively
and efficiently treat its secondary wastewater stream. What would be
• Show preview 36 the solution?
WEFTEC 2008: Chicago
Filtration+Separation magazine looks at the forthcoming WEFTEC event
in Chicago, and speaks to some of the exhibitors about their products.
What new products will be launched at the event?
• Diary dates 48
• Applications • Product Finder 44
Sieving metal powders: Using ultrasonic deblinding
to sieve powders 40
Looking to remove contaminants and reduce particle sizes through • Advertisers’ Index 48

Dates to remember
• 30 September – 3 October • 18-22 October
Aquatech, Amsterdam, Netherlands WEFTEC 2008, Chicago, USA

• 7-8 October • 28 October

Filtrex, Cologne, Germany Filter Testing and Standards, Chester, UK

Filtration+Separation November
October 20082006
4 Industry news
Filtration+Separation October 2008

In brief
Sweco has appointed
Dow teams up with
David M. Sorter as the new
company president. Sorter will
lead the industrial businesses
of Sweco and United Wire, as
universities to develop
well as the ES manufacturing

Sorter joined Sweco in

RO membranes
June 1993 as manager of
University of Texas campus,
manufacturing engineering.
Austin, USA.
His most recent position
was director of global
manufacturing operations.


Thermo Fisher Scientific

has acquired AquaSensors,
LLC. AquaSensors will be
integrated into Thermo
Fisher’s Water Analysis
Instruments business (WAI),
part of the Environmental
Instruments division.

AquaSensors will complement

Thermo Fisher’s existing
capabilities in water markets
for laboratory electrodes and
online analysers.


Impax Group plc, the

specialist environmental
Dow Water Solutions has This joint partnership will tackle “Over the past five years,
investment company, and agreed to a multi-year joint one of the toughest technical we’ve invested significantly in
development partnership with challenges in the water desalination innovation to provide sustainable
global index company,
Virginia Polytechnic Institute industry, developing oxidation- water in a more efficient and
FTSE Group have teamed
and State University (Virginia resistant, or chlorine-resistant, cost-effective manner. This joint
up to launch the FTSE
Tech) and University of Texas RO membranes that will simplify partnership is yet another example
Environmental Opportunities
(UT), Austin, USA. Dow will the water treatment process and of how we strategically collaborate
All-Share Index.
collaborate with Virginia Tech convert highly-contaminated and combine our expertise with
This new index, made up and UT on the research and waters into potable water sources. that of innovative leaders to drive
of 450 constituents, will growth and bring solutions to our
development of oxidation- David Klanecky, global director of
cover water treatment and customers around the world.”
resistant reverse osmosis (RO) research and development, Dow
pollution control, waste membranes. Water Solutions, commented: www.dow.com
technologies, and alternative
energy and energy efficiency.
It is one of a series of
environmental indices
MBR-Network draws European
that Impax and FTSE are
currently developing together.
research projects to a conclusion
Selected constituents must The two European research presented in a two-day workshop will also be included in the
demonstrate that a minimum projects ‘Amedeus’ and endorsed by the International workshop programme.
of 20% of their business ‘Eurombra’ of the coalition Water Association.
The final MBR-Network
comes from environmental ‘MBR-Network’ will be
Results of fundamental and workshop will take place on 31
markets or technologies. concluded in 2009 after more
applied research, as well as March-1 April next year, during
The index will include these than three years of intensive
activity. The most prominent technological breakthroughs international conference and
companies and offers a exhibition Wasser Berlin. Held
of these projects, which achieved by the project
broader environmental in Berlin, Germany, this event
are dedicated to progress partners in the field of the
exposure opportunity to concentrates on water and
and advances of the MBR MBR technology, will be
investors. wastewater treatment.
technology for municipal unveiled during presentations.
www.impax.co.uk wastewater treatment, will be A dedicated poster session www.mbr-network.eu
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6 Industry news
Filtration+Separation October 2008

subsidiaries win
two contracts
Chinese nuclear
for separation
Peerless Europe Limited and
power plant uses inge
Burgess-Manning Europe Ltd,
both subsidiaries of Peerless Mfg
Co, have been awarded contracts
worth US$8 million to design and
ultrafiltration modules
Inge watertechnologies AG, energy, in addition to the existing day and treated to attain the
supply filtration and separation, has won a contract to equip the eleven power plants currently quality required for cooling water
and industrial silencing Hongyanhe nuclear power plant feeding the grid. purposes in the power plant.
equipment. with ultrafiltration modules.
Inge will supply Hongyanhe with Inge watertechnologies recently
Peerless Europe Ltd was awarded The plant is currently under
its dizzer 5000plus modules, each outfitted Beijing International
a US$2 million contract to construction in the Liaoning
rated for a treatment output of Airport with its ultrafiltration
supply gas/liquid separation province about 100 km from the
up to 5.0 m3/h. It is planned to technology for wastewater
equipment for application in the port of Dalian, China.
install several hundred modules treatment, ensuring this was in
cryogenic liquefaction cycle of an Hongyanhe is one of six plants to be used in combination with place in time for the Beijing
LNG plant in Algeria. Burgess- currently under construction in reverse osmosis for seawater
Manning Europe Ltd was awarded Olympics.
China, aiming to help meet the desalination. Up to 26,000 m3 of
a US$3.6 million contract to country’s surging demand for seawater will be desalinated every www.inge.ag
design and supply separation
systems for a gas pipeline
extension project in Algeria.
Burgess-Manning Europe has also
been awarded a contract valued at
GE busy at Beijing Olympic games
approximately US$2.3 million for
GE’s filtration technology was in use
pressure relief and start-up vent
at the Beijing National Stadium.
valve silencers for a gas to liquids
project in Qatar.

US city
installs second
SCADA system
Siemens Water Technologies will
provide Meriden, Connecticut,
USA, with a second Supervisory
Control and Data Acquisition
(SCADA) system, valued at
US$1.3 million. The city’s latest
system, to be installed as part of
an upgrade at its 11.6 mgd water
pollution control facility, will be
compatible with the SCADA
system supplied by Siemens to GE exceeded its sales goal for the technology for safe drinking water tons/day of treated water, enough
Meriden’s water division facilities Beijing Olympics, after winning and rainwater recycling at the to fill 37 Olympic-sized swimming
back in 2002. Once the new 400 infrastructure projects in National Stadium. pools, and the water will support
SCADA system comes online and around Beijing, estimated industrial operations of the
in early 2010, Siemens says it In addition to providing two
to generate US$700 million in Tangshan Nanbao economic
will allow the city to control and different water treatment
revenues, making the Beijing development zone. GE water
monitor 1,550 process-related technologies to the National
Games the most successful in GE’s filtration technologies were also
database points, and make Stadium, GE has been providing
in place at the Qinghe wastewater
history. GE managed projects in reverse osmosis membrane
informed decisions regarding the recycling project to process
all 37 competition venues and also technologies for the Tangshan
operation of the pollution control 80,000 m3/day of wastewater to be
168 commercial buildings in and Nanpu Wastewater Reclamation recycled for landscaping purposes
facility, therefore improving the
around Beijing. Several projects Project, located east of Beijing in
facility’s effluent. during the Beijing games.
featured technological firsts the North China Plain. The plant
www.water.siemens.com for China, including filtration will produce more than 93,000 www.ge.com
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8 Industry news
Filtration+Separation October 2008

Financial results
Alfa Laval acquires and new company
branding for

separation company
Alfa Laval Group has acquired channel for centrifugal separation plate heat exchangers from a
Polymer Group Inc (PGI) has
announced results from operations
for the second quarter. The
Hutchison Hayes Separation, a equipment and service. Hutchison company based in Russia. company highlighted that sales
provider of separation equipment, Hayes will operate as a separate continued to reach record levels
parts and services, mainly to the organisation and be consolidated in The order value is worth during the quarter, up 7.3% to
US energy related industries. the Alfa Laval Group. approximately SEK50 million and US$290.9 million over the second
delivery is scheduled for 2009. quarter of 2007 and up 4.9% for the
In acquiring Hutchison Hayes, Alfa In other company news, Alfa first six months compared to the
Laval Group is adding a new sales Laval has received an order for www.alfalaval.com same period of the prior year. Gross
profit improved 6.9% over the first
quarter of 2008 and 3.6% over
Ahlstrom acquires remaining IWA the prior year period to US$45.9
share of joint venture in Brazil announces million for the quarter. Net income
for the second quarter improved
Project to US$2.4 million versus the 2007
amount of US$1.2 million.
In other company news, PGI has
Award winners launched a new logo and revamped
The International Water its website. On of the news features
Association (IWA) has on the company website is the
announced the winners of the Innovation Lab, an interactive tool
Project Innovation Award for customers to match the best
Programme (PIA) 2008. PGI solution to their needs. The
Established to recognise company is also rebranding itself
as PGI.
excellence and innovation
in water engineering projects www.polymergroupinc.com
throughout the world, the
programme’s goal is in keeping
with the IWA’s mission of
“connecting water professionals
worldwide to lead the
development of effective and launches
sustainable approaches to water
management.” filtration
The awards consist of five
categories, which are applied
research, planning, design,
operations/management, and unit
small projects. The Bosch Group has formed
Filtration Americas, a new
The winners were presented regional business unit to be
with their awards during the led by David Sholtis as vice
IWA World Water Congress president and regional business
and Exhibition held in Vienna unit leader. Sholtis comes
São Paolo, Brazil, near to the Jacarei facility now owned by Ahlstrom. in September, and among them to Bosch from Honeywell
were Brown and Caldwell, in International where he served for
the applied research category, 13 years.
Ahlstrom will acquire the India and China. The price for
remaining 40% of the joint for its biosolids treatment
the acquisition is 28 million. Sholtis will be responsible for the
venture formed with Votorantim process, and Joe Brown and
filtration business in both North
Celulose e Papel (VCP) in The assets in the joint venture Mark Sobsey, University of
America and Latin America,
September 2007. The production comprise a paper machine, and North Carolina, were recognised
including strategy formulation,
facility located in Jacarei, Brazil, offline coater and extensive in the small project category,
support coordination, and
manufactures specialty papers, finishing equipment at the for their easy household-scale
coordination of the Bosch Group
and Ahlstrom now owns 100% of Jacarei plant, close to São filtration for Cambodia. and MANN+HUMMEL joint
the shares. The acquisition is in Paolo. The annual net sales are venture – Purolator Filters NA
The awards are sponsored by
line with Ahlstrom’s strategy to
approximately 100 million. Black & Veatch. LLC.
expand its operations in the fast-
growing markets in Brazil, Russia, www.ahlstrom.com www.iwa2008vienna.org www.bosch.com

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10 Industry news
Filtration+Separation October 2008

MANN+HUMMEL establishes new Pall acquires

filtration company in China biotechnology
MANN+HUMMEL is set to
establish a new company in Shanghai, China, where
MANN+HUMMEL will set up its
China. Located in Jiading, a new company. Pall Corporation has purchased
district of Shanghai with one GeneSystems, a privately held
of the largest automotive parts French biotechnology company
parks in Asia, the new company that has developed a cost-
and production facility will effective molecular diagnostics
cover an area of 60,000 m2. The platform.
new company, which will mainly
manufacture filter systems and The acquisition of GeneSystems,
filters for the automotive OEM with its approach to rapid
and aftermarket, is expected microbiological detection
to break ground in January equipment and disposables,
2009 while the production expands Pall’s Total
facility will be in place by Fluid ManagementSM
January 2010. It will also be (TFM) capabilities in the
MANN+HUMMEL’s China biopharmaceuticals process
headquarters and the base of its monitoring market. The
Asian research and development acquisition also presents Pall
centre. with new opportunities in
environmental, food and beverage
“China has become the second and water markets.
largest car-producing nation
in the world. As a leader in Process monitoring includes
the automotive and industrial the analytical tests required
filtration industry, we are during biopharmaceuticals
committed to serving the local manufacturing for environmental
market with our industry-leading monitoring, in-process control
technology and products,” said testing and finished product
Patrick Cudmore, managing release testing. These tests often
director of MANN+HUMMEL receive regulatory scrutiny and
China. “We choose Jiading support under initiatives such as
because it has a strong focus on Process Analytical Technology
the automotive parts industry (PAT). Founded in 2000 in Bruz,
and this new company will be France, GeneSystems quickly
our base for future research gained market recognition for its
and development as well as for quantitative Legionella diagnostic
future business development.” platform. Since its first product
arrived on the market in 2004,
www.mann-hummel.com GeneSystems has developed
systems for the rapid and precise
diagnosis of a range of pathogens,
EPA prepares for awards and sets including food safety testing
focused on E. coli.
new standards to reduce emissions
The US Environmental policy innovations, and promote clean air and achieve
Eric Krasnoff, Pall Corporation
chairman and CEO commented:
Protection Agency and the Clean transportation efficiency better air quality. The awards “We are excited by this
Air Act Advisory Committee innovations. will be announced in spring acquisition and the increased
(CAAAC) are preparing for the 2009. opportunities it presents for our
In addition, winners will be
9th Annual Clean Air Excellence pharmaceutical, biotechnology,
recognised in two special award In other news, EPA has set strict
Awards Programme. environmental monitoring,
categories. The Gregg Cooke new standards for gas-powered
quality control and diagnostics
Winners will be honoured Visionary Program Award is lawn equipment and marine programs. Customers seek better
for their outstanding given to the air quality project engines, hoping to reduce the tools for rapid testing and process
accomplishments in projects or program that successfully amount of gas fumes, carbon monitoring. GeneSystems
or technologies that reduce air blends two or more of the five monoxide, hydrocarbons and expands our ability to provide
pollution emissions. Applicants existing awards categories. The smog-forming pollutants emitted Total Fluid Management to
will be judged in a number Thomas W. Zosel Outstanding from a wide range of engines. meet customer’s raw materials,
of categories, including clean Individual Achievement Award
The regulations will take effect production, testing and
air technology, community recognises one individual for his
between 2010 and 2011. environmental requirements.”
development/redevelopment, or her outstanding achievement,
education/outreach, regulatory/ leadership, and commitment to www.epa.gov www.pall.com
A constant flow of fresh ideas.
© 2008 Ahlstrom Corporation

With Ahlstrom's help, water is cleaner, air is clearer, and engines are unpolluted.
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Small fibers. Big difference.

www.ahlstrom.com Email: filtration@ahlstrom.com

12 Technology news
Filtration+Separation October 2008

Crossflow filtration system

for process development
Sartorius Stedim Biotech has The SIP (steaming-in-place) The Sartoflow® Alpha plus,
developed Sartoflow® Alpha module for thermal sterilisation a flexible modular benchtop
plus, a flexible modular benchtop gives users the option to run all crossflow filtration system.
crossflow filtration system. crossflow processes aseptically
The Sartoflow® Alpha plus and for such applications,
provides semi-automatic micro, heat-resistant Sartocon® filter
ultra and diafiltration and is cassettes are available along with
especially suited for process custom-built valves and sterile
development, clinical testing and connectors. This makes in situ
smaller production processes. The sterilisation of the entire system
system can be adapted quickly and possible.
easily to the changing production
The filter holder takes up to five
demands of downstream processing
Sartocon® slice cassettes, each of
due to a choice of options.
which has a filter surface of 0.1
According to Sartorius the m2 and hydrodynamic properties
consistent modularity and which can be transferred to larger
wide range of accessories such cassettes in the Sartocon® family.
as conductivity sensors, pH All available Sartoflow® Alpha
electrodes, peristaltic pumps plus modules are designed for a
and 21 CFR part 11 compliant minimum recirculation volume of
software, means the Sartoflow® 300 ml.
Alpha plus is adaptable to many
processes. www.sartorius.com

Backwashing filter with valve actuator technology

Cross Manufacturing has
introduced the Cross Phoenix
IQT, an in-line automatic
backwashing filter which
incorporates valve actuation
The Cross Phoenix IQT combines
the mechanical benefits of the
Phoenix automatic water filter
with the advantages of the Rotork
IQT intelligent electric valve
actuator, providing self-contained
local and remote electrical control,
indication and diagnostics within
a double-sealed IP68 watertight
submersible enclosure.
The Phoenix IQT features secure,
non-intrusive point and shoot
commissioning and interrogation
The Cross Phoenix IQT combines the mechanical benefits of the Phoenix automatic water filter with the
by means of a hand held setting advantages of the Rotork IQT intelligent electric valve actuator.
tool. A menu display facilitates
filter settings and commissioning minimises the requirement for Profibus, Foundation Fieldbus, It is possible for many existing
and the integral actuator data routine maintenance. DeviceNet, Modbus and Pakscan. Phoenix filter installations to
logger records all settings and any be retrofitted with the IQT
historical data, including torque The filter can be specified for Automatic backwashing is
actuator upgrade. An onsite
profiles. Using the hand held tool, three-phase, single-phase or DC programmed with an adjustable
survey can determine if this is
this data can be downloaded for electrical power supplies to suit pressure differential switch and
an option.
diagnosis on a PC running Rotork’s existing site control systems. Digital achieved with the minimum
IQ Insight software, and therefore bus connectivity options encompass consumption of backwash water. www.crossmanufacturing.com
Technology news 13
Filtration+Separation October 2008

Further investment in catalytic filters research

MemPro Ceramics Corp has been carried out tests and optimisation the ceramic nanofibre format
awarded a US$500,000 grant from of production techniques to make could lead to lower cost catalytic
the National Science Foundation ceramic nanofibres that hold tiny converters, potentially replacing
to continue development of a new particles of catalysts. those now used in the automotive
class of catalytic filters for pollution industry. The company is
Catalysts are used to convert
control. currently working with small scale
hazardous gases from engine
engineers in the outdoor power
Initial research began in 1996 at exhaust into harmless components
equipment industry and large
the University of Akron, Ohio, of air – primarily oxygen and
power plants in the electric power
USA, however MemPro began nitrogen. They are also used by
generation industry, to develop
product research in January 2007 the power generation industry to
new products for these industries.
and by February 2008 the company reduce pollutants and to satisfy
The US$500,000 grant will fund
became the university’s exclusive air quality standards. MemPro
research costs until June 2010.
licensee of the pollution control researchers realised that the small Alumina nanofibres holding platinum
technology. The university has amount of catalyst required in www.mempro.com nanoparticles.

Faster flow
rates for sterile Please visit us at:
Aquatech Amsterdam: Stand 3.305 Hall 3
filtration Weftec 2008: Booth 13069 Hall C
Millipore Corp has announced
the expansion of its 33 mm
Sterile Millex family of syringe
filters, which it says includes
the fastest filters on the market.
Sterile syringe filters are used
Tubular Membrane MacroFlow™
universally for sterilising or Radial Cartridge Filter™
clarifying solutions, and are Module™ PTFE Cartridge
frequently used for sterile
cell culture and clinical
pharmaceutical applications.
The 33 mm Millex syringe
filters are available in 0.22
μm (GP) and 0.45 μm (HP)
pore sizes and deliver faster
filtration rates with low
protein-binding properties.
With 20% more surface area
than standard 25 mm devices,
the company says the Sterile
Superior Strength. Superior Filtration. Optimal Performance.
Millex family of filters offer a
higher process volume of 200 At Porex Filtration, we’ve found a multitude of answers to the
ml and a greater burst strength
(150 psig), allowing for high difficult challenges of solid/liquid separations. Using patented
operating pressure. Researchers and patent-pending technologies like the abrasion-resistant
often face filters bursting or
clogging, however without this Tubular Membrane Module, the backwashable Radial Cartridge
risk, researchers do not need to Filter and the easily-installed Macroflow PTFE Cartridge, our
use multiple filters per sample
structural filtration media is not only superior in design but also
or worry about incomplete
filtration. easily suits your application with a wide range of pore sizes
In addition to improving and filter configurations.
filtration throughput, the new
Millex filters also increase For more information go to www.porexfiltration.com or
experimental reproducibility. email us at info@porexfiltration.com.
Because 33 mm filters have a low
hold-up volume (less than 100
μL), there is minimal sample loss 500 Bohannon Rd., Fairburn, GA 30213 USA | T. +1 770.515.7700 | F. +1 770.515.7799
during filtration. PFD-042-080808-01

14 Technology news
Filtration+Separation October 2008

New York Blood dust on cullet
Centre chooses Pall Donaldson has launched
Donaldson Torit, a dust collector
that can be inserted into existing

filtration technology systems. Traditionally, two design

approaches have been commonly
used for dust collection in glass
plants, namely centralised and
Technology from Pall Life the centre effectively deliver conditions, resulting in lower decentralised. Centralised systems
Sciences will support New York leukoreduced red blood cells white blood cell residuals with usually have several hoods and
Blood Centre’s (NYBC) transition to meet increased hospital greater consistency and reduced duct runs connected to a single
to a new filtration system which demand. Blood collected by the filter plugging. “The Pall RC2D dust collector. Though they offer a
aims to improve efficiency when Pall Leukotrap RC System with Filter is integral to the blood flexible installation process, there
removing white blood cells from RC2D Filter can be stored up collection system,” said Allan is a risk of complete system failure
donated blood. to 72 hours at 1°C-6°C before Ross, president, medical business, if the dust collection system is not
filtration, permitting greater Pall Life Sciences. “We developed regularly maintained.
The Pall, Leukotrap® RC system
flexibility for staff scheduling. The this system to help our customers
with RC2D filter, incorporates Decentralised systems involve
Pall RC2D filter design increases collect, process and deliver the
leukoreduction, a process that point-of-use dust collectors,
the filtration surface area by highest quality blood products
provides a blood product with allowing discharge of nuisance
50% over single-sided filters. It utilising the safest, quickest and
fewer white blood cells. NYBC dust material back into
provides consistent performance most efficient processes.”
determined that Pall’s new in- the system. While there is
line filtration process will help across a broad range of processing www.pall.com
significantly less ductwork to
maintain, there are more dust
Filter tackles longwall contamination in mines collectors and dust discharge
systems to service.
Donaldson Torit have followed
The LW60 filter for longwall distributed approach, by directly
contamination control filtration.
integrating the dust collector into
an existing batch house or cullet
tunnel. Dust collection is then
decentralised, with the advantage
of less ductwork, while dust
discharge is centralised for more
efficient handling.
The first key to this approach
is the company’s Dalamatic
DLMV dust collector, which is
a collector without a housing of
its own. The components – filter
media, cleaning mechanism and
a fan – can be integrated, either
horizontally or vertically, within
the existing process equipment or
With the Donaldson Torit
decentralised approach, dust
collectors can be shut down
individually for service, meaning
Schroeder Industries has straight-through flow, Schroeder efficiency options. This level of production is not interrupted.
introduced the LW60 filter for says the design maximises efficiency filtration is required to protect Space is often an issue in glass
longwall contamination control. and minimises pressure drop, and the valves at the shields and is plants and finding enough vertical
Developed to overcome problems can clear any vertical restrictions not achievable using alternative space for a traditional style bag
caused by higher pump flows and commonly associated in mines. wire mesh elements because of collectors can be challenging.
extend the pilot element’s service their lack of absolute ratings. The The Dalamatic DLMV is a bag-
This filter features style collector that functions
life, the LW60 is beneficial for the filter is supplied with 2 inch BSPP
ExcellementMD™, a new horizontal, vertical or at an angle,
large longwall systems. ports, easily adaptable to Super
propriety synthetic media designed demanding less space and able to
Stecko fittings commonly used
The LW60 consists of a single specifically for the mining industry, fit into odd places.
filter housing aligned horizontally and is offered in Beta200 >3 μm,
with the fluid supply. By allowing 5 μm, 10 μm, and 15 μm absolute www.schroederindustries.com www.donaldson.com
Technology news 15
Filtration+Separation October 2008

Filter for analysing and

controlling emissions
Munktell has introduced the inert. Micro-glass fibre filters with
Glass and Quartz filter range ideal binders, can resist temperatures
for use in air pollution control, up to 180°C and, according
exhaust emission testing, analysis to distributors Anachem, the
of acidic gases, and the retention cylindrical glass fibre thimbles
of particulate dusts. are the perfect solution when
condensation, water or oils have
Manufactured from borosilicate to be separated from compressed
glass and bound by synthetic air, gases or exhaust air for
binders, glass fibre filters can analytical or technical purposes.
provide high efficiency rates
down to submicronic levels The filters are available as
combined with high direct circular filters, sheets, reels or
holding capacity and effective air thimbles in a variety of sizes. The
permeability. This filter media is
compatible with a large number
Glass and Quartz filter range is
now available in the UK and
Ireland from Anachem.
Bacteria are
tough customers.
of inorganic and organic solutions
and is physically and biologically www.anachem.co.uk

Filtering process We are tougher.

water at a lower cost
Industrial Purification in suspension above the media
Systems (IPS), has introduced bed. IPS claims this also
provides lower pressure drops, Probiotic starter cultures, vaccines, hormones,
CrossFlowMF1.0, a new
technology which the longer filtration and shorter enzymes – without industrially cultivated bacteria,
company says bridges the gap backwash cycles making direct proper health care for the world‘s increasing
between water filter systems savings on operational costs. population would be impossible.
and advanced membrane The high interstitial void
technology, or ultrafiltration, volume of the media allows for So, to help these tiny soldiers fight the battle against
but at a lower cost. IPS says greater dirt holding capacity and disease, our steam-sterilizable separators are
the CrossFlowMF1.0 has been contamination interaction for especially gentle on them during separation. The
developed to filter below 1.0 the Zeta potential of the media result is efficiency, optimum separation, high yields,
to remove the finer particulates
micron reliably, achieving down high concentrations and economy.
to 0.45 micron to ensure cleaner down to 0.45 micron.
process water, therefore helping By reducing the load on the
a business reduce its carbon filter the cycle between cleaning Take the Best – Separate the Rest
footprint. is increased and the amount of
times the process has to stop for
This filter system utilises a
the membranes to be cleaned
patented vortex bed stabiliser
is reduced. The company also
which maintains flat bed
adds, that the need for chemical
filtration with high surface
filtration is decreased, reducing
turbulence. This ensures that no
the impact on the environment.
bio-fouling can be seeded whilst
holding filtered contamination www.industrial-purification.co.uk

Compact liquid dosing system

Bronkhorst has introduced a Each liquid dosing system consists
series of fully integrated liquid of a mass flowmeter from either
dosing systems, covering a flow Bronkhorst’s thermal mass Liqui-
range from a few nanolitres to flow or Coriolis-type Cori-flow
1000 kg/h. Factory assembled series, with onboard controlling
and tested, the company says the function, a liquid filter of the Mechanical Separation
systems are delivered are easy- correct mesh type and size, and a
Westfalia Separator Industry GmbH
to-use, and compact systems, check valve to avoid backflow.
capable of accuracy and virtually Werner-Habig-Straße 1 · 59302 Oelde (Germany)
pulsation-free flow patterns. www.bronkhorst.co.uk

Phone +49 2522 77-0 · Fax +49 2522 77-2828

ws.industry@geagroup.com · www.westfalia-separator.com
16 Technology news
Filtration+Separation October 2008

Vent filter for laboratory

and research applications
Meissner has expanded its family
Meissner has expanded its
of Ultradyne® 50 PTFE vent
family of Ultradyne® 50 PTFE
filters with the addition of the vent filters.
Steridyne® 50 filter. This 50 mm,
PVDF, 0.2 μm-rated vent filter has
a stepped hose barb inlet/outlet
and is suited for low volume
venting, gas and solvent filtration.
Although solely designed to be
used as a vent filter, it can also
be used to filter up to one litre of
solvent or solvent-based liquids,
and when pre-wet with alcohol,
it can be used to filter aqueous
Steridyne® 50 filters are designed
for use in laboratory and
research applications and can
be gamma irradiated. Meissner
says the Steridyne® 50 filters
are ideal for venting TepoFlex™

Centrifuge for laboratories using Dow

tubes and plates membranes
Eppendorf has introduced
the Centrifuge 5430, which
spins at up to 30,130 x g and
accommodates virtually any The Centrifuge Dow Water Solutions has
tube or plate in eight different 5430 from announced the approval of its
rotors. ultrafiltration membrane modules
for drinking water applications.
According to Eppendorf, the The modules are now certified
Centrifuge 5430 is the world’s as an alternative filtration
first microcentrifuge offering the technology for treating drinking
option to use a swing-bucket water and can be used as the
rotor for spinning MTP and PCR core of a filtration system for
plates. converting surface waters into
safe drinking water.
The company says the aerosol-
tight standard rotor improves Dow UF has been tested and
safety, while rotor options cover certified under the California
tubes from 0.2 ml up to 50 Surface Water Treatment Rule,
ml, including CryoTubes® and as well as the federal Long Term
Falcon® tubes, microtest plates, 1 and Long Term 2 Enhanced
deepwell plates (200 or 500 Surface Water Treatment Rules.
μl) and slides, and a kit rotor Testing demonstrated the
for open spin columns. The effectiveness of modules in
Centrifuge 5430 is most ideal removing harmful pathogens
for laboratories using both tubes from water and the operational
and plates. integrity of the modules.
www.eppendorf.com www.dow.com
Technology news 17
Filtration+Separation October 2008

Solid phase extraction range expanded

Agilent Technologies has
announced the availability of
Agilent SampliQ SPE, a solid The SampliQ SPE product line, which
phase extraction (SPE) product expands the previous AccuBONDII
line for the purification of extracts SPE line.
that improves the accuracy and
reproducibility of analytical
results. A new line of polymer
SPE products complement the
silica and other sorbents such as
carbon and Florisil PR.
The SampliQ SPE product
line expands upon the previous
AccuBONDII SPE product line.
Formats ranging from the most
popular cartridge sizes to 96-well
plates are available to meet a range
of solid phase extraction needs.
According to Agilent,
solid phase extraction is a
cornerstone technique in the
analytical workflow of complex
samples because it reduces
the number and amount of
potential interferences that
can jeopardise a separation, pharmaceutical, environmental, the growing importance of to help with food safety
detection and quantification. and forensic industries use food safety presents a need for analysis.
Researchers in the food safety, solid phase extractions and effective solid phase extraction www.agilent.com
18 Feature
Filtration+Separation October 2008

Membranes and filtration:

filtration in the
biopharm industry
andar Dixit of Sartorius Stedim explains the usage and
M importance of membranes as a sterile form of filter media
in the biopharmaceutical industries, with an overview of the
general process and a look at recent developments in this
sector of the filtration industry.

Introduction unit operations thereafter are termed as rated filter is also used to sterilise the final
“downstream” processes. See Figure 1 for a purified bulk drug substance into vials.
Normal flow or dead-end filters using
generic block diagram of the process for better
micro-porous membranes of synthetic For a filter to qualify as sterilising grade, it
appreciation of the various stages in upstream
polymers are used extensively in a wide needs to provide a “sterile” filtrate when
and downstream processing.
variety of biopharmaceutical liquid filtration challenged with Brevundimonas Diminuta
applications. A typical bioprocess consists Media filtration typically involves membranes bacteria at a minimum challenge level of 1
of various unit operations beginning with with retention ratings ranging from 0.45-μm x107 CFU/cm2 of filter area. This Bacterial
media preparation and sterile media addition for prefilters and 0.2-μm and 0.1-μm as final Challenge Testing (BCT) has to be performed
into a bioreactor or a fermenter followed by filters. The membrane filters are also used in in strict accordance with ASTM F838-05
several stages of clarification of cell harvest cell harvest clarification post-cellulosic DE standard. Most major filter manufactures
post-fermentation, followed by three to clarification filters. The primary goal of these perform this testing in-house and correlate
four stages of purification using a series of filters is to reduce bioburden in the filtrate, the BCT to a non-destructive Integrity Test
chromatography columns and ultrafiltration/ thereby reducing the chance of bacterial with limit values of diffusive flow and bubble
diafiltration (UF/DF) steps for concentration contamination in the product. In downstream point reported, within which the membrane
and buffer exchange, prior to formulation, processing, sterilising grade 0.2-μm rated filter can be construed as “integral” for
fill and finish. The processing steps prior membrane filters are commonly used for bacterial retention. These Integrity Test values
to the first chromatography column in the reducing bioburden as well as maintaining are reported in the validation literature of
purification suite are generally referred sterility of pooled downstream purified the filter manufacturer and the customers
to as “upstream” processes, whereas the intermediates. A sterilising grade 0.2/0.22-μm routinely use these non-destructive Integrity

Figure 1: Typical bioprocess block diagram showing various stages of upstream and downstream processes.
Feature 19
Filtration+Separation October 2008


Have a bath with a friend

30 Sep - 3 O
STAND 07.313

18 - 22 Oct
STAND 2220

The goal of membrane filtration is to reduce the potential of bacterial contamination of the product as well as provide
a method for cold sterilisation.

Tests to ensure filter integrity pre- and post- downstream and the concentration of
use. Automated Integrity Testers are used to target protein increases.
carry out diffusive flow and bubble point tests. Typical comparison charts of various
Membrane filtration is also routinely used in membrane materials in terms of flow rate,
traditional pharmaceutical applications such as total throughput and adsorption/yield loss are
blood fractionation, processing of sera and Large seen in Figures 2, 3 and 4, which highlight
Volume Parenterals (LVP). The goal here is significant differences between various
the same as in biopharmaceutical processes, i.e. membranes in performance including the same
reduce the potential of bacterial contamination membrane material composites (PESU and
of the product as well as provide a method for PVDF) from different manufacturers.
cold sterilisation. A right choice of the prefilter
A variety of tests are usually conducted with
and final membrane filter combination strikes an
the fluid of interest on a bench scale using
optimum balance between flow rates, filtration
small-scale 47 mm disc filters to determine
time and overall filtration costs.
what type and grade of membrane filters
Important membrane filter work well for flow rate and throughput 7>D"8:Aœ
performance. If the flow rate and throughput hjWbZg\ZYBZbWgVcZBdYjaZ
characteristics [dgW^dad\^XValVhiZlViZgigZVibZci
for the membrane filters yield reasonable sizes
Since the primary goal for membrane filtration for the full-scale, only a membrane filter is
is to reduce bacterial contamination in the specified in the process. If the throughput
filtrate and provide “sterile” filtrate for 0.2-μm is not high enough from different grades of
rated filters; they are evaluated based on the membrane composites selected; a range of
following criteria: prefilters are tested for throughputs as well as
their ability to protect the final filter If the
• Effective retention of bacteria
final filter throughput is also in an acceptable
to significantly reduce bacterial
range; such a combination is recommended
contamination risk;
for further larger scale testing. The flat disc Wiesbaden / Germany
• High total throughput performance trials only provide an indication of filter Phone + 49 611 962 6001
resulting in the low filtration area and train performance. It is absolutely essential
hence reduced filtration costs; to verify the filter train selection by running Raleigh, NC / USA
trials on a larger scale using pleated capsules. Phone + 1 919 341 5936
• Acceptable flow rate range to ensure that
Sometimes, a confirmation filterability trial is
the entire batch is filtered in a reasonable Xiamen China
also conducted using all the filters in a train
time-frame; Phone: + 86 592 6775500
at the full, process scale. Such a test provides
• Low degree of absorption/adsorption of a definitive assurance of sizing of each filter in
target protein, especially as one moves the train. WWW.MICRODYN-NADIR.COM
20 Feature
Filtration+Separation October 2008

ready-to-use by the customer. It is critical to

choose a membrane as well as all other filter
capsule components that are compatible with
Gamma Irradiation.

Types of membrane filters

A variety of polymers are used by different
manufacturers for casting membranes. Cellulose
Acetate, Polyethersulfone (PES/PESU),
Polyvinylidene Fluoride (PVDF) and Nylon
are some of the common polymers used in
manufacturing pleated membrane filters for
liquid service. These membranes are typically
100-150-μm thick and consist of a highly
porous structure with a narrow particle size
distribution. The retention of particles and
microorganisms is mainly achieved on the
Figure 2: Flow rate comparison for various membranes per 10” element at 15 psig ΔP. “surface” of the filter matrix by sieve retention.
Particles and microorganisms larger than the
actual pore size of the membrane are effectively
removed. Membrane filters are predominantly
used in the final filtration step because they
ensure the most reliable retention of particles
and specific microorganisms, sacrificing
throughput capability for most applications.
The main advantage of these filters is their high
degree of bacterial retention. There are also
more open (> 0.2 μm) membranes available,
which are used as an in-built prefilter layer,
providing enhanced throughput performance.
Many of the commercially available membrane
filter devices are generally pleated from two
heterogeneous membrane layers. The upstream
membrane layer is coarser for larger particulate
removal, whereas the downstream membrane
is finer to reduce colloidal content and
Figure 3: Total throughput comparison per 10” element at 15 psig ΔP constant pressure. bioburden. Such 0.45- μm rated membrane
Prefilters are usually used as chromatography
column protection filters or as a bioburden
reduction step in downstream processing.
Many manufacturers also pleat together the
micro-glass fibre fleece as the upstream layer
in combination with a membrane as the
downstream layer. The Micro-GF provides
depth filtration as well as high clarification
capabilities, while the membrane provides
finer particulate removal and higher bacterial
retention. Such micro-glass(GF)/membrane
combination filters are popular in serum-
containing media filtration, small-scale cell
harvest and diagnostic solutions.
Chemical compatibility of membranes is
another important aspect that needs to be
considered for some applications. Most of the
biologic solutions are aqueous-based and are at
near-neutral pH conditions. However, caustics
Figure 4: IgG unspecific adsorption comparison (mg./10” element).
as well as acid solutions are routinely used
during Cleaning-in-Place (CIP) processes.
Most of the membrane filters are offered in a medium scale applications. The filter capsules The filters thus get exposed to a very wide pH
variety of sizes beginning with 150 cm2 effective are designed such that they can be sterilised range from 1 to 14. Polypropylene works best
filtration area (EFA) through 18,000 cm2 EFA. using Gamma Irradiation. These capsules are for such applications, which is why it is widely
Availability of such a wide range of pleated assembled with tubing on to the inlet ports of used for manufacturing all accessories of the
devices is critical, especially with the recent the bags with the filter capsule attached and cartridge or capsule filters including core,
move to completely disposable bag plus filter the entire assembly is then subjected to Gamma cage, adapters and support and drainage layers.
assemblies becoming quite common in small-to- Irradiation. This “sterilised” assembly is then In terms of membrane materials themselves,
Feature 21
Filtration+Separation October 2008

except PES which is good over the entire element. The 0.2-μm final filter layer Most of these filters have heterogeneous
pH range, all other liquid-service membranes is the same as the current Sartopore 2 double layer construction with an in-built
have pH limitation. As an example, cellulose 0.45/0.2 combination, providing highly more open membrane prefilter layer. Each
acetate can be used in the pH range of 4-8, reliable bacterial retention. This new membrane material has its strengths and is
while PVDF is not recommended for solutions development promises a quantum leap selected appropriately for a certain stage in a
with very high pH values. in membrane filtration compared to the bioprocess.
current commercially available double layer
Sterilisation is also commonly performed in Membrane filtration is absolutely necessary
membrane filters. These filters have reduced
biotech applications with saturated steam in many biopharmaceutical applications for
with temperatures reaching as high as 134 total membrane filters surface area by more
bioburden reduction as well as a method
°C for 30 minutes minimum. Complete filter than half in some large-scale applications
for cold sterilisation. Some of the latest
cartridge construction (outer cage, inner core, while eliminating the need for prefilters.
developments in membrane filters include
and adapter) needs to withstand these harsh application-specific filter composites
process conditions for short time intervals. Summary
manufactured out of asymmetric PES
Once again, polypropylene is an optimal Dead-end nembrane filtration has wide use membranes exhibiting very high flow rates
choice for the materials of construction. Filter in bioprocessing and they are primarily relied and total throughputs, coupled with optimised
manufacturers also have to test a filter’s ability upon for reducing bacterial contamination as
to withstand multiple steaming cycles. well as ensuring sterility of the process fluids.
pleat pack designs. •
There are also new, innovative application An optimally designed membrane filter has
Mandar Dixit is the Product Manager for
specific approaches in membrane filtration to provide excellent balance in all of the Sterilising Grade Filters at Sartorius Stedim
like the Sartopore® 2 XLG 0.8/0.2 and following criteria: North America Inc. located in Edgewood, NY.
Sartopore® 2 XLI 0.35/0.2 PES filters from • Highest total throughput performance, He has over 14 years of experience in filtration
Sartorius Stedim Biotech. Both of these directly resulting in lower filtration costs; and separation technologies. He currently
filters have different prefilter membrane supports the North American Biopharmaceutical
retention ratings designed for specific • High Flow rate; market for Filtration Technologies with special
particle size distribution characteristics in focus on Sterilising Grade Filters and Prefilters.
• High degree of bacterial retention; He is a member of PDA and ISPE. Mr. Dixit
fluids commonly encountered in biotech
as well as pharmaceutical industries. The has co-authored papers in trade journals on
• Low unspecific adsorption of target protein.
Prefiltration as well as Filter Optimisation and
Prefilter layers in XLG and XLI are effective
A wide range of membrane materials are Scale-up studies. He received his Bachelor’s
in different applications, achieving very Degree in Chemical Engineering from IIT-
available from all the major suppliers.
high throughputs combined with optimised Bombay in India and his Master’s Degree in
pleat pack construction, resulting in 30% Some of the widely used polymers are: Chemical Engineering from Louisiana State
higher effective filtration area per 10” Cellulose Acetate, PES, PVDF and Nylon. University in Baton Rouge, Louisiana.
22 Feature
Filtration+Separation October 2008

Filtration industry overview:

World pharma and
market 2008 his article addresses the markets, technologies and processes
T surrounding filtration methods in these two important
industries, focusing on fluid and water filtration.
Cleanliness and avoidance of contamination not contain pyrogens. Because of its low ion used in the pharmaceutical and biotechnology
are critically important factors in the content, WFI must be made isotonic before industry to purify the water used in the
pharmaceutical and biotech industries because injection. Isotonic solutions are those that processes and also wastewater, either for
many of the products are eventually consumed have the same salt concentration as blood. discharge to waterways or for reclamation.
by humans. Sterile water for injection meets all of the One of the largest uses of crossflow membrane
above requirements but must also be free of technology in this segment is in process
The US EPA recognises four distinct
any microbial agent or any chemical additive separations. Purification of water for injection
subcategories within the pharmaceutical
and must be produced so that it is sterile. into patients (WFI) is another major
manufacturing industry: Subcategory A
application. The complete range of RO, UF,
(Fermentation); Subcategory B (Extraction); In order to achieve the various levels of
and MF systems are employed.
Subcategory C (Chemical Synthesis); and required cleanliness, different technologies
Subcategory D (Mixing, Compounding, are used. Reverse osmosis, ultrafiltration, Microfiltration (MF) is a membrane filtration
and Formulating). By the nature of the microfiltration, cartridges, and macro filtration process allowing molecules of the size of
manufacturing operations, it is to be expected processes such as filter presses, sedimentation salts, sugars, and proteins to pass through the
that the majority of the pollutants discharged and centrifugation are all utilised. The market membrane pores, while molecules of the size
are non-toxic in the amounts discharged. size and brief summary of each method will be of bacteria are rejected. MF is commonly used
For Subcategory D operations, the use of described. to sterilise liquid reagents such as cell culture
food grade (or FDA approved) materials is media. Microfiltration can also be used as
emphasised, which implies limited toxicity of Reverse Osmosis/ Ultrafiltration/ pretreatment to reverse osmosis.
the potential waste products. However, the Microfiltration
industry is still required to meet conventional The MF equipment and membrane markets
wastewater treatment limits, which may have Reverse Osmosis, Ultrafiltration, and hold the largest market share of the three
little relationship to the chemistry of its Microfiltration (RO, UF, and MF) processes, at over $300 million and $123
individual wastewater components. technologies are cross flow membrane systems million respectively for 2008.

Filtration applications include water for

injection (WFI), container washing,
processing including drying and separation
to formulate tablets or broth, and wastewater
There are several levels of severity in the
water requirements for pharmaceutical and
biotech applications. First, there is purified
water in its general form. It must meet
requirements for chemical and bacteriological
purity, but is not intended for parenteral
use. Water for injection (WFI) has to meet
more stringent requirements. It must meet
all of the above requirements but does not
necessarily need to be sterile, however, it must Figure 1: The 2008 market share for reverse osmosis, ultrafiltration and microfiltration.
Feature 23
Filtration+Separation October 2008

RO, MF and UF will see continued growth

at about 9 percent per year for the next few
Figure 1 shows the market share of each
process for 2008.

Cartridge filters
Cartridge filtration is the technology
most in use in the pharmaceutical and
biotechnology industries, holding a total
market size of over $2 billion for these
Cartridge filters are normally used for fluid
Figure 2: The 2008 market share for each type of cartridge filter. polishing, with particle size to be separated
smaller than about 50 microns. Surface
filtration takes place in pleated filters
while depth filtration is the mechanism
in string wound, resin impregnated and
molded cartridges. Depth filters have
traditionally had a lower cost than surface
filters. Cartridge filters are typically installed
prior to the RO units. Cartridge filter types
include membrane, nonwoven, carbon,
string wound and metal.
Membrane cartridge filters are ideal for the
critical filtration needed in pharmaceutical
and biotech manufacturing, hence having
the largest market share at over $1 billion
for 2008. Membrane filter materials include
nylon, polypropylene, and PTFE.

Cartridge filtration is the

widest used technology in the
pharmaceutical and biotech
industries, followed by reverse
Figure 3: The 2008 market share of macro filtration products.
osmosis, ultrafiltration and
microfiltration systems.
The next largest market segment is for
nonwoven cartridges, at $769 million.
Nonwoven cartridges are used as a support
layer for membranes, as well as on their own
for less critical filtration applications.
Carbon filters, used to achieve organic
purity, hold a market share of $137 million.
Metal and string wound segments are
smaller, at $77 million and almost $48
million respectively.
Figure 2 shows the market share by cartridge
type for 2008.

Figure 4: The market share for sedimentation and centrifugation.

Macro filtration
Macro filtration, also known as liquid
Reverse osmosis produces the finest level The ultrafiltration process typically rejects filtration, is characterised by particle
of filtration of all the membrane processes. organics over 1,000 molecular weight (MW) removal between l and 100 micrometers in
Application of RO most often is to provide while passing ions and small organics. In diameter. This segment includes leaf filters,
water which is almost free of solids, salts, the pharmaceutical industry, it is being bag filters and filter presses.
organics and colloids to subsequent final used as a final filter in some pharmaceutical A filter press is used for solid-liquid
polishing processes, such as ion exchange. water purification systems. In 2008, the separation of pharmaceutical solutions.
The reverse osmosis equipment market for ultrafiltration equipment market is $241 The solution to be filtered is made to pass
2008 is close to $135 million, with the RO million, and the membrane market is over through a thin membrane until the solid
membrane market at almost $73 million. $105 million. material is split from the liquid.
24 Feature
Filtration+Separation October 2008

The pharmaceutical industry is one of the

smaller segments, but it is the highest growth
segment. This is in part due to the critical role
that disk separators play in the production
of biotechnology products. The total world
market in the pharmaceutical/ biotech
industry for sedimentation & centrifugation
products in 2008 is $325 million.
Figure 4 shows the disk separators market for
2008 is the largest segment, at $115 million,
followed by basket centrifuges at almost $108

Ultrapure Water Systems

New applications, new technology and new
ways to operate are providing dynamic change
to the ultrapure water industry. Power plants
were early users of the technology. The
semiconductor and pharmaceutical industries
have been the biggest recent investors.
Figure 5: 2008 market shares by filtration type.
The pharmaceutical purchases of ultrapure
water systems (UPW) continue to grow at
These specialised equipments are also because the filter cake is not affected by a steady rate of 6 percent to 7 percent per
used to remove suspended particles from a pressure variations. year and will exceed $267 million worldwide
solution and process water and wastewater in 2008 and $345 million per year by 2012.
Bag filters are widely used for the capture of
treatment. Within this sector, biotech is growing much
solids and purification of liquids. The solid
Automatic pressure filters are designed for retaining capacity gives them advantages over faster than the total pharmaceutical UPW
foods, pharmaceuticals and solvent-wetted cartridges. A wide variety of media can be market, with strong growth especially in
products. Some features allow double-sided selected for bag filter applications including India.
filtration for multiple cake washing and rayon viscose, polypropylene, polyester and
A summary of the market shares by technology
cake drying options. Automatic pressure nylon. Bag filter vessels can be furnished in a
are illustrated in Figure 5. Cartridge
filters can be seen in penicillin production variety of corrosion resistant alloys as well as
filtration is the widest used technology in
to help increase recovery of the penicillin- carbon, steel and FRP.
the pharmaceutical and biotech industries,
active ingredient. The process involves followed by RO/UF/MF systems.
making a fermentation, which contains
Cartridge filtration is the
the penicillin, and solid mycelia waste. technology most in use in Disposable process equipment – a
The solids and the liquids are separated, the pharmaceutical and growing trend
and the liquid is extracted with solvents to biotechnology industries, holding
remove the penicillin. The manufacturer can Disposable process equipment is a fast
a total market size of over $2 growing industry trend, as drug manufacturers
separate the solids and liquids in rotary drum
vacuum filters, and dispose of the mycelia
billion for these industries. adopt single-use systems to reduce cleaning,
in the wastewater, but the vacuum filters Leaf, tubular and belt filtration holds a large sterilisation and their associated validation costs.
can produce a fairly wet cake containing market share of the macro filtration systems for According to single use system manufacturer
a significant amount of penicillin, which the pharmaceutical and biotech industries. New Pall, disposables are in use over 90 percent of
is lost. Replacing the vacuum filters with equipment for these devices is near $108 million, pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies’
automatic pressure filters will give it a drier with the media used at almost $44 million. The manufacturing processes. Pall states that the
filter cake and clearer filtrate, as well as lower next largest segment in 2008 is bag filters, at $52 systems reduce possibilities for FDA non-
penicillin loss. million for new equipment and $53 million for compliance, and also enable faster, more cost
the bags. The 2008 market for macro filtration effective product changeovers.
Leaf filters employ a nest of filter discs products is shown in Figure 3.
spaced on a common shaft and fully enclosed However, some drug makers who haven’t
within a pressure-resistant casing. Overall Sedimentation and centrifugation made the switch to disposables are concerned
configuration may be vertical or horizontal. about the plastic materials leaching into
Separators used in the production and product or contaminating solvent, and want
The filter nest is normally static for filtration,
processing of, for example, human blood, to avoid getting locked into one source of the
the suspension being passed through the nest
vaccines, bacteria, algae and pigments, must materials. To address these concerns, single
under positive or negative (vacuum) pressure.
meet stringent requirements. In certain use manufacturers have created The Bio-
Filtrate is withdrawn separately, with solids
situations, the process must run under sterile Process Systems Alliance (BPSA), an industry
remaining on the filter disks as cake. Leaf
conditions, be fully automated and ensure organisation to promote single-use technology
design varies widely, from simple to complex
economy and efficiency. worldwide through education, industry guides,
mesh forms, with or without filter cloths
fitted, and for use with or without precoat.
A precoat is normally employed where fine
Designs include a suspended bowl concept, and support of standards development. •
completely segregated process and drive areas, Contact:
filtering is required. Particular advantages of and fully automatic operation to provide the Karen Vacura
vertical leaf filters are good cake consistency sterile treatment of the product with highest Email: kvacura@mcilvainecompany.com
with freedom from cracking or channeling possible efficiency. McIlvaine Company
Feature 25
Filtration+Separation October 2008

Filtration overview:
A closer look at
depth filtration
en Sutherland looks at the characteristics of depth filtration, at
K the range of equipment used to implement it, and at how it is
used, with a special look at biotechnological applications.

Depth filtration, as its name implies, involves

the separation of a suspended particle or liquid Moving bed filters are also coming
droplet from its carrying fluid within the depth into use for the treatment of hot,
dust-laden exhaust gases.
(thickness) of the filter medium. Elsevier’s
Handbook of Filter Media1 describes four
different mechanisms of filtration:
• surface straining;
• depth straining;
• depth filtration; and
• cake filtration (which is a development of
surface filtration);
according to the way in which the suspended
material is trapped by the filter medium. (To
these there should now, of course, be added
cross-flow filtration, in which the separating
medium endeavours to hold no suspended
material at all.)
In surface straining any particle that is larger in
size than the pores of the medium deposits on
the surface, and stays there until it is removed.
Particles that are smaller in size than the pores
pass quickly through the medium. This is the
main operating mechanism for bar screens, and
plain woven monofilament plastic or wire mesh.
Depth straining is also entirely governed by
particle size or shape. For filter media that
are relatively thick by comparison with their
pore diameters, particles will travel along
the pore until they reach a point where the
pore narrows down to a size too small for the
particle to go any further, so that it becomes
trapped. Strictly speaking, depth straining is
to be differentiated from depth filtration, which
also occurs somewhere along the length of
a pore. Now, however, the particle becomes
trapped in the depth of the medium, even
though it is smaller in diameter, and possibly
much smaller, than the pore at that point.
Such behaviour involves a complex mixture of
physical mechanisms.
26 Feature
Filtration+Separation October 2008

Deep bed filters are used in the polishing of waste waters before discharge, both in municipal treatment works, and on industrial sites.

Particles are first brought into contact with the Clarification at which point the filter must be cleaned, by
pore wall (or very close to it), by inertial or backwashing or chemically – or replaced.
hydraulic forces, or by Brownian (molecular) There are two prime purposes for filtration:
motion. They then become attached to the either to recover the solids suspended in Depth filtration equipment
pore wall, or to another particle already held, the fluid being filtered, in as concentrated a
form as possible, or to remove any suspended There are the two types of depth filter just
by means of van der Waals and other surface mentioned, which are very different in
forces. The magnitude and efficacy of these solid from a fluid, as completely as possible
(although it is frequently desirable to construction, and hence in application, and in
forces may be affected by changes in factors means of cleaning.
such as the concentration and species of ions in combine both purposes). The recovery process
an aqueous solution, or the humidity of a gas. usually deals with fairly concentrated feed
Deep bed filter
This mechanism is important for most media, suspensions, and proceeds by means of cake
but especially for high efficiency air filters and filtration. The clarification process, on the The deep bed filter, as its name implies,
in deep bed (sand) filters. other hand, usually involves the removal of involves filtration vertically through a packed
contaminants from the feed liquid, with the bed of granular or fibrous material, whose
The process that is to be cake filtration begins suspended solids in fairly low concentrations. height is considerably greater than even
with the formation of a layer of particles on the the thickest of continuous filter media. It is
surface of the filter medium, with larger pores It is clarification that is the main function of
typified by the conventional sand filter, which
bridged by a group of smaller particles. On this depth filtration, for which its mechanism is
clarifies water by depth filtration mechanisms
layer, a cake of particles accumulates to act as well suited, with its ability to remove particles
as it flows through a bed of graded sand that
considerably smaller than the average pore
the filter medium for subsequent filtration. may be up to one metre in depth.
diameter in the filter medium. An important
These definitions emphasise that the feature of clarification filters is their ability to Many different granular and crushed materials
mechanisms of filtration may result in the hold a significant quantity of trapped solids have been used to form the deep beds
trapping of far smaller particles than might before they become blocked and must be employed in the large gravity and pressure
be expected from the size of the pores in cleaned or replaced. With the very common filters common to the water purification and
the medium. The actual mechanism or flat sheet filter media this aim is achieved by sewage treatment industries. In addition to
combination of mechanisms pertaining in pleating the sheet, or arranging in some other sand, which is the classic and most common
any specific instance is dependent on the way, that the largest possible area of medium material, others used include garnet, ilmenite,
characteristics both of the medium and of the can be packed into the volume of the filter alumina, magnetite, anthracite and quartz;
suspension being filtered. housing. coke and pumice have also been used but,
because of their porosity, they are troublesome
If the filter medium is thick, with respect Depth filters, by contrast, achieve their dirt-
to clean and consequently give rise to the
to the diameters of the fibres or particles of holding capability by means of the thickness of
danger of uncontrolled breeding of bacteria.
which it is comprised, then the separation their media, frequently with pore sizes that are
of the suspended particles from the fluid graded to be smaller in the direction of fluid Conventionally, there are two main types that
will occur by both depth straining and flow, so that coarser particles are trapped first. operate with gravity flow downwards through a
depth filtration, and it will not be possible This is achieved in two very different types 0.6-1.0m deep bed – the “slow” and “rapid” sand
to distinguish between them. Accordingly, of depth filter: the deep bed (or sand) filter, filters. Slow sand filters operate with a velocity of
the term “depth filtration” is applied to the and the thick medium filter. Any clarification 0.1-0.2m/h down through the bed. They actually
combined mechanism, and is the sense in filter (other than the self-cleaning types) function largely by straining through a biological
which it is used in this article. will eventually become full of trapped solid, layer that forms on the surface of the bed. They
Feature 27
Filtration+Separation October 2008

are cleaned occasionally by the reasonably

complete removal of this layer, without
disturbing the rest of the bed.
Rapid sand filters utilise a velocity of 5-15m/h
and function by depth filtration within the
bed. They are cleaned frequently by cessation
of process flow, followed by a reverse upward
flow of wash water at such a rate that the bed
expands and releases the trapped dirt particles;
this cleaning flow may be augmented by some
form of agitation, such as injecting compressed
air below the bed or hydraulic jets impinging
on the surface. This cleaning process has
an important secondary effect, which is to
reclassify the granules of the bed based on
the combined influence of their size and their
density, so that the washed bed is graded from
finest at the top to coarsest at the bottom.
A variety of other types of filter has been
developed from the rapid sand filter,
including pressurised versions, and the use of In biochemical manufacturing processes, larger fragments are removed by centrifugation. There is a vital
upward flow so that the incoming raw water clarification task to be performed, on extremely costly suspensions. Depth filters are proving adept at this.
encounters the coarsest granules first and the
finest last. These beds are also washed by an places the finer, denser particles on top of the filtration plants in the removal of such
expanding upward flow, with the dirty effluent coarser, less dense particles. pathogens as Cryptosporidia and Giardia from
withdrawn separately. water intended for drinking.
The most modern version of the rapid sand
Multi-layer filters with conventional filter is that which uses a moving bed of sand, The deep bed filter is mainly used for large flows
downward filtration achieve the same results whereby both filtration and cleaning proceed of contaminated water, but moving bed filters
by means of beds comprising two or more continuously and simultaneously. Recent are also coming into use for the treatment of hot,
materials of different densities so that the evidence (from the US EPA) suggests that dust-laden exhaust gases, for which purpose they
hydraulic classification resulting from cleaning such filters can be as effective as membrane are a strong competitor to ceramic candle filters.

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Building on Pieralisi’s vast
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28 Feature
Filtration+Separation October 2008

In the case of deep bed filters, the application is almost all in the clarification of drinking and process water.

Thick media filters Applications cell during the reaction, or retained in the cell
after the reaction. When the larger fragments
The alternative form of depth filter is As has already been implied, the job of the are removed, usually by centrifugation, before
predominately composed of a replacement filter depth filter is very largely that of the removal or after the cell wall is broken, there is a vital
cartridge, in a generally cylindrical shape (to of small quantities of unwanted suspended clarification task to be performed, on extremely
fit in to a cylindrical containment vessel). This material from a fluid flow – where that fluid costly suspensions. Depth filters are proving
cartridge may either be an actual, self-supporting may be the product of a process, or a feed adept at this task2,3, enabling the fermentation
cylinder of thick porous material, or a similar to a process, or a waste stream that must be products to be prepared quickly, cleanly and
shape created by the laying down of a thick cleaned before it may be discharged into the with high production rates. They are also
layer of porous material on a cylindrical core, or environment. It is rare that the separated important in the provision of the various feed
the quite different format created by clamping solid is anything other than a waste material media for bioreactors, the range of depth filters
together a set of lenticular discs, each made from (whose quantity has hopefully been minimised used as prefilters being very wide.
two circular layers of thick material, bonded before arrival at the depth filter), so that any
together at their outside edge. cleaning process for the filter element will An important development in this sector is
be designed to restore its original filtration the move towards single-use filters, to avoid
The substance from which such cartridges
characteristics as far as possible, rather than to any risk of cross-contamination. This greatly
may be made includes a very wide range of
retrieve the accumulated solids. helps with process validation costs, as it
materials, both natural and synthetic. These
ensures that sterile filters are used every time.
may be natural or artificial fibres or filaments, In the case of the deep bed filters, the
The economics of biotechnology are such that
self-bonded as in a felt, thermally bonded as application is almost all in the clarification
the costs of using disposable filters are small
in a nonwoven fleece, or resin bonded into of drinking and process water, where they are
a moulded cylinder. The basic fibre may be very widely used, and in the polishing of waste
compared with the process savings. •
metallic, glass or ceramic as well as organic, and waters before discharge, both in municipal Contact:
all of these materials may be used as granules treatment works, and on industrial sites. The Ken Sutherland
before thermal bonding (sintering) or resin potentially important use for cleaning hot Tel: +44 (0)1737 218868
bonding. Increasingly the important modern exhaust gases is well worthy of note, but is Email: ken.suth@ntlworld.com
varieties of nonwoven materials made from nowhere at the scale of deep bed use for water. Ken Sutherland has managed Northdoe
extruded thermoplastics are being applied Limited, his process engineering and marketing
directly from the extrusion process onto a take- Thick media filters are used in almost every consultancy, for over 30 years. Northdoe is
up core, to make a layer of any desired thickness. industrial process, mainly, but by no means largely concerned with filtration and related
entirely, in the cleaning of liquids. They are separation processes. He has written numerous
The cartridge may also be made from a used for maintaining the integrity of hydraulic articles for Filtration+Separation and four books
continuous multi-filament yarn wound at and pneumatic systems, and for cleaning on separation processes, most recently an A to
an angle around a core, to give a spirally Z of Filtration and the fifth edition of the Filters
machine tool coolant. In a vastly numerous
wound medium. Alternatively, thick sheets of & Filtration Handbook, both for Elsevier.
range of individual applications, thick media
material, woven, nonwoven or bonded, may filters provide the required liquid clarity as References
be cut, wrapped around a core and joined at feed to membrane processes, as products in 1. Derek B Purchas & Ken Sutherland (2002),
the long edge. the food and beverage, and fine chemicals and Handbook of Filter Media, Elsevier Advanced
However the depth filter medium is made, toiletries sectors. Technology, 2nd Edition.
there is considerable scope for building in
Biotechnology 2. Mahesh Prashad & Klaus Tarrach (2006),
to the resultant filter element the required
Filtration+Separation, 43, September, 28-30.
filtration efficiency, flow resistance and dirt- In the majority of biochemical manufacturing
holding capacity, by the proper choice of basic processes, a fermentation process either 3. Mandar Dixit & Ulrich Bräutigam (2007),
fibre or granule size and shape. produces a valuable product secreted from the Filtration+Separation, 44, July/August, 24-6.
Feature 29
Filtration+Separation October 2008

Biopharmaceutical technology:
Cell harvesting –
getting cultural
eter Rose of Alfa Laval takes a look at one of the growth areas
P of biopharmaceutical filtration and separation: the harvesting
of mammalian cells to produce new drugs and medicines. The
article examines the origines of the technology used in this
sector of the industry, and considers recent developments.
We – mammals that is – are composed of cells. filtration and filtration through absolute pore Naturally, it is not quite as simple as
The reflection that faces you in a mirror may size membranes. Of the different techniques, it appears. Mammalian cells are very
look solid enough but what you are really seeing centrifugation is the one most commonly scaled fragile organisms so, although a disc stack
are approximately 10 trillion cells split into up from laboratory to factory production levels. centrifuge makes the job of separation
about 200 different types. These cell groups are relatively easy, the trick is to do so
Centrifugation uses the density difference
quite specialised: livers are made of liver cells, with minimal damage to the product.
between solids and the surrounding fluid and
muscles of specialist muscle cells and so on. Acceleration of the protein rich feed
accelerates the settling that would normally
Growing and harvesting mammalian cells occur during sedimentation. Most industrial material takes a fraction of a second. But
outside of the body and in the laboratory or applications use disk stack centrifuges to remove although speed is of the essence, it must not
factory to produce new drugs and medicines is cells and cell debris from the nutrient broth. be at expense of destroying the highly shear-
one of the most exciting arms of the modern Disk stack centrifuges offer continuous operation, sensitive cell wall membrane which would
life science industry. Yet, far-fetched as it may making their throughput consistent with the release undesirable, intracellular proteins
seem, these enormous advances in medical desire to limit the time for harvest operations. into the broth – a process known as lysis.
science can be traced back to a chicken
which was dissected some time late in the
19th Century; 1885 to be precise. That was
when Wilhelm Roux managed to maintain the
medullary plate of the said embryonic chicken
in a warm saline solution for a number of days
and thus first established the principle of tissue
His work was taken on several stages further
by scientists at John Hopkins Medical School
and Yale University during the first decade
of the 20th Century. In the 1940s and 1950s
viruses grown in cell cultures were used in the
manufacture of vaccines. The polio vaccines
that finally eliminated the threat of the disease
were grown in cell cultures from monkey
These days, of course, drug production based on
cell culture is one of the fastest-growing areas
of biotechnology. Its rapid success owes much
to the parallel development of technologies
for the three key stages in cell culture growth:
fermentation, harvesting and purification.
Harvesting is performed by separating the cell
culture from the growing medium and several
techniques are used to perform this delicate
operation; centrifugation, microfiltration, depth Alfa Laval’s Culterfuge 100 cell separation system.
30 Feature
Filtration+Separation October 2008

By preventing additional lysis during

acceleration it is possible to increase the
separator’s capacity while still achieving
the required separation result. Downstream
purification of target proteins is also simplified
and can be carried out using more compact
equipment, thus generating significant savings in
the process. The challenge, then, is to achieve
maximum separation efficiency with minimal
product disruption.
Just as cell culture has developed from relatively
humble origins so has the equipment used to
harvest it. In fact, from the earliest stages of
cell culture science when Alfa Laval worked
with industry leaders in the development of
large scale cell culture fermentations, it soon
became obvious that cell culture characteristics
called for extremely gentle separator designs.
What they turned to was the hollow spindle
which owed its origins to concepts originally
developed for the dairy industry where the
gentle touch was used to prevent fat particles
in milk from shearing apart during acceleration.
Decades later, the same technology is a corner
stone in modern cell culture processing.
Like many innovations, the initial impetus had
little to do with the eventual outcome. When
Alfa Laval engineers originally decided to study During the development of large scale cell culture fermentations, it soon became obvious that cell culture
characteristics called for extremely gentle separator designs
the feasibility of a separator which provided
liquid discharge under pressure, it was beer, not that Alfa Laval then produced a number of of the overall design, the entire free space in the
milk, which they had in mind. The target was the new separators for display at the 1933 bowl was filled with liquid.
to purify beer by separating it without air ingress Deutche Landwirt-schaftlische Gesellschaft
and under sufficient pressure to prevent the loss exhibition in Berlin. This first hermetic Besides achieving the main objective – cream
of carbon dioxide. separator radically changed dairy and brewery and skim milk free from foam – the hermetic
technology from that point onwards. separator provided several other advantages;
The only rational way in which to achieve the most important of which was its clean
a closed system was to feed the liquid to the As befitted a radically different piece of skimming capability which was better than
bowl from underneath, through a tubular bowl equipment, the hollow spindle hermetic any other separator. Two factors contributed
spindle, and discharge it at the bowl neck. separator looked totally different to earlier to this improved level of performance. Firstly,
An experimental machine for clarifying beer centrifuges. The frame was designed so that the milk was accelerated very gently in the
was built but also tested on milk as it was felt the inlets for whole milk at the bottom of the long hollow spindle, minimising the splitting
that the machine might solve the milk froth machine were readily accessible. of fat globules. Secondly, the Alfa-discs were
problem: Which it did. given a smaller inner radius, increasing the
Neither the traditional two-piece bowl spindle
nor the newer Baltic type spindle could be separation area available in a given bowl
The milk process then seemed to be the more
used. Consequently, the hermetic separator volume.
commercially viable. The engineers modified
the original machine to provide two outlets so had to incorporate an entirely new spindle The same hollow spindle hermetic design
that it could also be used as a cream separator. design. The solution was to adapt the spindle is central to Culturefuge which was the
Trials in a Swedish dairy proved so successful from the largest Alfa Laval yeast separator at world’s first fully hermetic purpose-built cell
the time, the OVK 5. culture centrifuge, developed principally for
At the top end of the spindle, just beneath the applications involving mammalian cell cultures
bowl, the flexible top bearing – a radial ball and precipitated protein. Its use was intended
bearing – supported the weight of the bowl, to provide the gentlest acceleration possible
and at the bottom end, a spherical ball bearing in a centrifugal disc stack separator designed
allowed for the precision movement of the specifically for cell culture harvesting.
spindle. Whole milk was fed under pressure
through the spindle into the bottom of the The smooth acceleration imposes minimal shear
bowl. The seal between the stationary inlet strains on the cells. As importantly, the hollow
pipe and the rotating spindle consisted of a spindle creates a truly hermetic design that
U-shaped rubber gasket reinforced with fabric. completely eliminates air-liquid interfaces within
Milk entered the bowl via the central chamber the centrifuge and thus also eliminates the
at its bottom, from where it was distributed in foaming, a major cause of protein degradation.
the disc stack in the usual way. As a bonus, the design also allows centrate
Since it did not have a hole through its centre discharge at small radius which reduces both
its diameter was considerably reduced when power consumption and keeps temperature pick
The Culterfuge cell harvesting module. compared to machines with top feed. As a result up to a minimum during separation.
Feature 31
Filtration+Separation October 2008

In a mathematical model for feed zone identical. The group found a hollow spindle How it works
breakage of shear sensitive particles in type centrifuge provided a 2.5-fold increase
Feed material enters the Culturefuge 100
centrifugal separators, the breakage was found in throughput for the same clarification
through a hollow spindle feed inlet and
to be independent of flow-rate. A study by performance when compared to the other
accelerates gradually as it moves upwards,
Boychyn et al. simulated the flow-field in the separator.
thereby minimising the shear forces on
acceleration zone of a traditional centrifuge,
The modern Culturefuge system the liquids and preventing cell lysis. To
using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). In
prevent the risk of it mixing with air, the
this study two cases were compared, one classic
Translated into a modern cell culture feed zone is completely filled with rotating
with air present in the feed zone, and one
harvesting system such as the Culturefuge, this liquid. The provision of this completely
gently liquid filled, i.e. with no air present.
hollow spindle technology made it possible hermetic outlet eliminates the possibility of
This modelling technique confirmed that, to provide a method of continuous cell materials coming into contact with the air
during acceleration with air present, the harvesting, under hermetic conditions. The or the external environment; thus avoiding
maximum energy dissipation rate is up to two skid-mounted Culturefuge consists of a disk- foaming and denaturisation of the product.
times higher than in air free acceleration. stack, high-speed separator with piping for During normal production the operating
Higher energy dissipation leads to a service liquids and process liquids. It includes water keeps the sliding bowl bottom closed
considerably higher particle breakage in an integrated electrical system with starter, against the bowl hood. During discharge
the protein precipitate suspension and PLC control and pneumatic unit. A motor the sliding bowl bottom drops for a short
consequently less successful clarification. A with an integrated VFD is standard. As an time (less than a second) and the solids are
later study by Boychyn, used a similar CFD option the system can also include a steam- ejected through the discharge ports. The high
tool to model the acceleration forces in the sterilisable pump for transport of the solids velocity of the ejected solids is reduced in the
acceleration zone of a multi-chamber bowl. In phase. Culturefuge’s design is in accordance cyclone.
this study, the group was able to make accurate with most major Pressure Vessel specifications
Harvesting cells to develop new vaccines and
predictions of centrifuge performance. including ASME and PED.
medicines has moved from the realm of science
Finally, there is a comparative study by the All product contact parts are made of high- fiction to fact, partly thanks to a slice of chicken
same research group on Cell Culture processed grade stainless steel. Various grades of surface and a separator that started life skimming milk
in two small production/pilot scale disc stack finish are available 1.2 μm Ra, 0.8 μm Ra from cream, and now helps harvest the most
centrifuges. One separator had a classic non- or 0.5 μm Ra with electro-polish. The skid- precious commodity of all, good health. •
filled acceleration zone and the other a hollow mounted modular design can be delivered Contact:
spindle hermetic inlet for gently accelerating for open operation, contained running, Peter Rose, Alfa Laval
the feed. In every other important aspect steam sterilisable aseptic operation or steam Email: peter.rose@alfalaval.com
(equivalent area, rpm etc), the machines were decontamination-only operation. www.alfalaval.com

Understand. Develop. Solve.

Our range of services: BWF needlona - Filter
media for industrial dedusting, product recovery,
solid / liquid filtration. We offer you product infor-
mation, technical advice on the product and
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dards from the normal to the High-Tec solution.


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Bahnhofstraße 20
89362 Offingen, Germany
Telephone +49-82 24 -71-0
Telefax +49-82 24 -71-21 44
32 Feature
Filtration+Separation October 2008

Developments in filtration:
What is
relatively recent development in membrane processes, Ken
A Sutherland looks at the rapidly expanding field of nanofiltration,
its characteristics and its applications.

The background to nanofiltration materials that are dissolved in a liquid, and sulphate. Robert Peterson, in his Foreword
not with distinct particles suspended in the to Elsevier’s Nanofiltration – principles and
The burst of filtration and filtration-related
liquid. The separation between solute and applications(1), describes reverse osmosis
activity that followed the development
solvent occurs by diffusion of the molecules (especially in the water treatment business)
of the phase-inversion process for the
of the solvent through the mass of the as the main course, the steak perhaps, of a
manufacture of polymeric membranes, in
membrane material, driven mainly by a high meal, whereas nanofiltration “is like the wine
the early 1960s, led to the establishment
transmembrane pressure, and not through menu ... an opportunity for creativity and
of three membrane separation processes:
any physical hole (pore) in the membrane. exploration”.
reverse osmosis, ultrafiltration and, more
Some of the solute molecules may also
recently, microfiltration. These processes How nanofiltration has developed
diffuse through the membrane, either by
took the separation spectrum from the
the process designer’s intent, or because the
traditional cut point limit of standard The preceding paragraphs have described
solute has a finite (although very small)
filtration of around 0.01 mm (10 μm) to the the origins and nature of the generally
diffusion coefficient in the membrane
very finest distinct solids, a few nanometres accepted process called nanofiltration,
in size, and enabled the separation of which is a liquid-phase separation removing
large molecules from solution. The actual The key difference between nanofiltration dissolved solids, carried out by means
size ranges vary somewhat from source to and reverse osmosis is that the latter retains of membranes, with a relatively high
source, but there is general agreement that monovalent salts (such as sodium chloride), transmembrane pressure. However, the
microfiltration covers the range 10 μm down whereas nanofiltration allows them to pass, progress of much of the filtration business is
to 0.1 μm, while ultrafiltration covered 0.1 and then retains divalent salts such as sodium being driven by demands for finer and finer
μm down to 0.005 μm (5 nm) in terms of
discrete particles or Molecular Weight Cut-
Off (MWCO) figures of 300,000 down to
around 300 Daltons for dissolved materials.
Reverse osmosis, of course, was designed
to retain the very small sodium chloride
molecule, which meant passing nothing else
but water.
These intended size ranges actually still left
a gap in their coverage at the lower end of
that for ultrafiltration (at around 100 to 300
Daltons). Membrane development was fairly
rapid during the 1970s and 1980s, leading to
a “loose RO” membrane process, which was
given the name “nanofiltration” at the end of
the 1980s.
In this sense, then, nanofiltration is a
fairly recent development in the range
of membrane separation processes, which
takes in the upper end (in separation size
terms) of reverse osmosis, and the lower
end of ultrafiltration, covering MWCO The paper pulp industry is striving to reduce the amount of water it uses, mainly by “closing the water cycle” – a
values of 100 to 1000 Daltons. It deals with system in which the purification properties of NF have a major role.
Feature 33
Filtration+Separation October 2008

2 >5
23rd Edition

An SEM view of Ahlstrom’s Disruptor nanofiltration membrane. Contact:

Promosalons (UK) Ltd
cutpoints, in both liquid and gas filtration, and these demands Tel: 020 8216 3100
are now being met by the use of correspondingly finer fibres to Email: enquiries@promosalons.co.uk
make the filter media. Increasingly, these fibres have diameters of
significantly less than one micrometre, and are therefore measured
in nanometres, and are becoming commonly known as nanofibres.
These are used to make composite filter media, with a web of
nanofibres supported on a coarser substrate.
The very fine filtration that can be achieved with these nanoweb
media is taking the separation process that is effectively
microfiltration to much lower cutpoints. The materials are also
being referred to as membranes, even though they are very
different in format from the semipermeable plastic sheet still
most commonly thought of when membranes are mentioned. It
is worthy of note that, at the 10th World Filtration Congress (in
2007), out of a total of almost 250 separate papers and 85 poster
presentations, there were 12 that featured nanofiltration, and 14
concerning nanofibres as filter media.
Whilst it is hoped that the two systems – nanofiltration and filtration
with nanofibres – are sufficiently different so as to avoid their
confusion, both are covered in the rest of this article.
It is worth noting that the term “nanotechnology” is now very
widely used, referring to a whole range of scientific, engineering
and manufacturing activities involving very small things.
Unfortunately the term has entered the public consciousness
with a component of “fear of the unknown” attached to it. The key global
This does not concern nanofiltration, since the media involved meeting for envi-
in it are mostly continuous and indistinguishable from RO or ronment professionals,
UF membranes. It does concern nanofibre production and use, Pollutec Lyon provides a
however, and the makers and users of nanofibres will have to take stage for the full range of
care not to magnify the concern. pollution prevention and
treatment technologies and,
Nanofiltration more generally, for the protection
of the environment and the promo-
The membrane separation process known as nanofiltration is tion of sustainable development. For
essentially a liquid phase one, because it separates a range of 4 days the 23rd show will bring
inorganic and organic substances from solution in a liquid – mainly, together 2,500 exhibitors displaying
but by no means entirely, water. This is done by diffusion through a a unique array of innovative
membrane, under pressure differentials that are considerable less than equipment, technologies and service
those for reverse osmosis, but still significantly greater than those across a range of sectors and 70,000
for ultrafiltration. It was the development of a thin film composite manufacturers, local authority
membrane that gave the real impetus to nanofiltration as a recognised officials and specifiers in search of
process, and its remarkable growth since then is largely because of
its unique ability to separate and fractionate ionic and relatively low In association with

molecular weight organic species.

Fachmesse für Umweltkonzepte
und erneuerbare Energien www.pollutec.com
The membranes are key to the performance of nanofiltration systems.
They are produced in plate and frame form, spiral wound, tubular,
34 Feature
Filtration+Separation October 2008

Nanofiltration membranes are also used for the removal of natural organic matter from water, especially tastes, odours and colours, and in the removal of trace herbicides
from large water flows.

capillary and hollow fibre formats, from there are some specialised uses for MBRs in quantity that the industry is striving to reduce,
a range of materials, including cellulose which NF is finding a place. Smith’s review(2) mainly by “closing the water cycle” – a system
derivatives and synthetic polymers, from covers the whole field of nanotechnology in which the purification properties of NF
inorganic materials, ceramics especially, and well, including reference to Argonide’s have a major role.
from organic/inorganic hybrids. NanoCeram fibres of 2 nm alumina, used
for the filtration of 99.9999% of bacteria, All of these specifically mentioned
Recent developments of membranes for NF applications have been water-based, but
viruses and protozoan cysts (now available as
have greatly extended their capabilities in nanofiltration is not restricted to the
Ahlstrom’s Disruptor technology).
very high or low pH environments, and in treatment of aqueous suspensions. Indeed
their application to non-aqueous liquids. NF membranes are also used for the removal of one of the largest NF plants was installed at
The plastic media are highly cross-linked, natural organic matter from water, especially a petroleum refinery for the dewaxing of oils.
to give long-term stability and a practical tastes, odours and colours, and in the removal Boam and Nozari, in their review(3) of organic
lifetime in more aggressive environments. NF of trace herbicides from large water flows. solvent nanofiltration, point out that many
membranes tend to have a slightly charged They can also be used for the removal of organic system separation processes are quite
surface, with a negative charge at neutral pH. residual quantities of disinfectants in drinking highly energy intensive, and that, by contrast,
This surface charge plays an important role in water. OSN can be quite an energy saving alternative
the transportation mechanism and separation (for example, by comparison with distillation).
Food industry applications are quite
properties of the membrane.
numerous. In the dairy sector, NF is used In aqueous systems, nanofiltration uses
As with any other membrane process, to concentrate whey, and permeates from hydrophilic polymeric materials, such as
nanofiltration is susceptible to fouling, and other whey treatments, and in the recycle of polyether-sulphone, polyamides and cellulose
so nanofiltration systems must be designed clean-in-place solutions. In the processing derivatives. These materials, in contact
to minimise its likelihood – with proper of sugar, dextrose syrup and thin sugar with organic solvents, quickly lose their
pretreatment, with the right membrane juice are concentrated by NF, while ion stability. Special membranes have therefore
material, with adequate cross-flow velocities exchange brines are demineralised. NF is been developed to provide the same kind of
to scour the membrane surface clear of used for degumming of solutions in the performance as in aqueous systems, and they
accumulated slime, and by use of rotating or edible oil processing sector, for continuous are now used for solvent exchange, solvent
vibrating membrane holders. cheese production, and in the production of recovery and separation, for catalyst recovery
alternative sweeteners. and for heavy metal removal.
There are probably as many different Nanofibre media
Industrial applications of nanofiltration are applications in the whole chemical sector
quite common in the food and dairy sector, (including petrochemicals and pharmaceuticals) The synthetic materials, both organic and
in chemical processing, in the pulp and paper as in the rest of industry put together. Many inorganic, that are nowadays being spun from
industry, and in textiles, although the chief more are still at the conceptual stage than are the molten state into ever finer fibres, are no
application continues to be in the treatment in plant use, but NF is a valuable contributor different from the materials that have been
of fresh, process and waste waters. to the totality of the chemicals industry. The used for decades for this purpose (except for
production of salt from natural brines uses NF the ever widening range of thermoplastic
In the treatment of water, NF finds use in polymers that are available). What has
as a purification process, while most chemical
the polishing at the end of conventional changed has been the equipment downstream
processes produce quite vicious wastes, from
processes. It cannot be used for water of the spinaret, which enables a wide range of
which valuable chemicals can usually be
desalination, but it is an effective means fibre diameters to be produced. Starting over
recovered by processes including NF. The
of water softening, as the main hardness 40 years ago with spun bonded media, whose
high value of many of the products of the
chemicals are divalent. At first sight, NF fibre diameter was 10 μm or more, the list runs
pharmaceutical and biotechnical sectors allows
would not seem to have much place in MBR through flash spun and melt blown (at just
the use of NF in their purification processes.
processes, because the higher transmembrane over 1 μm), to electrospun materials, which
pressure differentials needed for NF are not The paper pulp industry uses a very great are approaching 100 nm in fibre diameter
available in most bioreactor systems, but quantity of water in its production processes, a capability.
Feature 35
Filtration+Separation October 2008

contaminants to below 0.1 μm, they are going

to be counted as membranes – and certainly
known as nanomembranes. •
Ken Sutherland
Tel: +44 (0)1737 218868
Email: ken.suth@ntlworld.com
Ken Sutherland has managed Northdoe
Limited, his process engineering and marketing
consultancy, for over 30 years. Northdoe is
largely concerned with filtration and related
separation processes. He has written numerous
articles for Filtration & Separation and for FIA,
and four books on separation processes, most
recently an A to Z of Filtration and the fifth
edition of the Filters & Filtration Handbook, both
for Elsevier.
1. A I Schäfer, A G Fane, & T D Waite
(Eds) (2005), Nanofiltration – Principles and
Applications, Elsevier Advanced Technology
Industrial applications of nanofiltration are quite common in the food and dairy sector.
2. A Smith (2006), “Nanotech – the way
forward for clean water?”, Filtration+Separation
Each of these materials can be produced as dust removal, as has Donaldson with its Ultra- 43, No 8, 32-3
a random array of fibres as a web, which, in Web media.
3. A Boam & A Nozari (2006), “OSN – a
itself, makes a very good filter medium, so The fine spinning techniques have proved lower energy alternative”, Filtration+Separation
long as it is adequately supported on a stronger amenable to the production of carbon and 43, No 3, 46-8
substrate. Tucker gives a good review(4) of ceramic fibres, and are obviously going
these materials in introducing du Pont’s new to result in a major segment of the filter 4. T Norton (2007), “Hybrid membrane
HMT media for liquid or gas filtration. United media business, especially for air filtration. technology: A new nanofibre media platform”,
Air Specialists has developed nanofibres for Because these media are capable of removing Filtration+Separation 44, No 2, 28-30


Filtration Innovation
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is a need for flexible, forward thinking suppliers
who can deliver value for money, quality
components. We now offer an increased
portfolio of filtration products and services.
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Telephone: 01429 867 388 Fax: 01429 866 795 Email: sales@exmesh.co.uk
Web: www.expandedmetalcompany.co.uk
36 Events
Filtration+Separation October 2008

Show preview:
eld in Chicago, USA from 18-22 October, the WEFTEC event is
H the largest water quality event in the world. Filtration+Separation
spoke to the organisers and exhibitors to find out what to expect
from the 81st technical exhibition and conference.
The conference What new developments are you working on?
WEF’s 81st annual technical exhibition and Alfa Laval’s product technology solutions have
conference offers the best water quality become significantly more power efficient,
training and education available, and offering the industry high efficiency solutions,
unparalleled access to the latest in water while reducing overall power consumption.
quality developments, research, regulations, Alfa Laval’s technology solutions offer more
solutions, and cutting-edge technologies. throughput and better performance with less
impact on the environment.
Designed to address a diverse and
comprehensive array of contemporary What products and services are you
water and wastewater issues, this year’s showcasing at WEFTEC?
technical program of 115 technical Alfa Laval Spiral Heat Exchanger is for
sessions, 31 workshops and 10 facility heating of sewage sludge in digesters. Its
tours are categorised into more than 20 counter-current flow gives the most efficient
technical education focus areas ranging from heat transfer and makes the unit compact.
collection systems and leading-edge research
to sustainable water resources management ALSYS is a plug-and-play centrifuge solution
and water reclamation and reuse. To keep for reducing sludge volumes at municipal, ITT Goulds Pumps will exhibit its new line of double-
attendees up-to-date on the most pressing industrial and potable water treatment suction, base-mounted pumps.
water quality challenges and solutions, the plants. Its compact layout reduces floor space
Alfa Laval is a market leader and will continue
program also includes several “hot topic” requirements and ensures easy maintenance.
to develop innovative product solutions that
workshops and “featured” technical sessions ALDRUM is an efficient, cost effective address the industry’s demands and needs.
throughout the five-day event. method of thickening sludge. Its design What are you looking forward to at WEFTEC?
enables an extremely gentle sludge handling,
The exhibition resulting in an extremely high recovery for We are looking forward to promoting our
In 2007, WEFTEC drew almost 20,000 attendees most sludge types. message: A Global Call for Water Recovery
and showcased 1,017 exhibiting companies. 88% and reinforce the benefits of our product
OCTOPUS is our autopilot for decanter technology solutions to the end user and the
of WEFTEC attendees are the buyers and final
centrifuges in sludge dewatering. We will market. We want to continue to set the bar
decision makers and 55% plan to buy one or
also highlight our Parts and Service offerings, as the market leader in the biosolids handling
more products displayed in the next 12 months.
including equipment audits and upgrades to process marketplace.
Attendees spend an average of 9.4 hours visiting
training classes and around the clock service
the exhibits. Filtration+Separation spoke to some Amiad – Stand 28163, Hall B
support, also known as Nonstop Performance.
of the exhibitors at the event to see what they
have planned. What is driving the water marketplace?
What applications are these suitable for?
We are seeing a tremendous amount of interest
Alfa Laval – Stand 29017, Hall B Biosolids handling and treatment.
in membrane technologies, which require
What is driving the water marketplace? What makes these products more suited to pre-filtration. Our automatic self-cleaning
applications than past products? screen and microfibre thread filters are playing
Today’s industry is extremely environmentally- key roles in pre-filtration before membranes
conscious. Reducing the amount of energy Our solutions are more efficient and require less around the world.
used during wastewater and biosolids energy. In response to the global energy-related
issues, we have invested in Research and Another trend we are seeing is increasing
treatment processes has become a critical awareness of what we’re calling a system’s
Development to develop innovative, power-
issue. Customers are looking for higher “environmental footprint.” That takes into
conscious solutions for the industry. We are
efficiency solutions that offer better account carbon footprint – basically, the
committed to contributing to a better future.
performance, while reducing their overall energy demand of the system – water footprint,
environmental footprint. What does the future hold for Alfa Laval? chemical use, and even its physical footprint,
Events 37
Filtration+Separation October 2008

which impacts the amount of structural resources

needed to house and maintain the system. We’re
focusing on technologies that demand little
power, require less water for back-wash, reduce
or eliminate the need for chemicals and cartridge
disposal, and fit in compact spaces.
The two trends tie together where we examine
environmental footprint. Pre-filtration
equipment with a smaller environmental
footprint can help membrane technology be
more efficient and more cost-effective, as well
as more environmentally friendly.
What new developments are you working on?
Our Automatic Microfibre (AMF) filtration
systems are especially exciting right now. We’re
seeing interest in them to pre-treat water for
RO systems as well as for fine filtration – down
to 2 microns – before injecting produced water
into buried deposits such as oil production wells
and brine disposal wells.
What products are you showcasing?
We will have an Automatic Microfibre (AMF)
filtration system in our booth, as well as Alfa Laval will showcase ALSYS, a centrifuge solution for reducing sludge volumes at municipal, industrial and
examples of our automatic self-cleaning ABF potable water treatment plants.
and EBS screen filtration systems.
These are very exciting times for all of us in The 3408A features internally self-flushing
What applications are these suitable for? the filtration and separation industry. Amiad is mechanical seals for maximum lubrication,
Amiad filters have been used for decades in a prepared to grow and innovate, helping water debris removal and heat dissipation. Up to 25%
wide variety of applications, from filtration of treatment professionals deliver clean water of the total pump flow continuously flushes
irrigation water to filtration for drinking water, with clean technology. the seal faces. The internally flushed seals also
wastewater treatment, and treating industrial allow for a shorter shaft reducing deflection
What are you looking forward to at WEFTEC?
water – both before and after use. thereby extending seal life. Closed-end steel
It’s always exciting to see the new innovations baseplates with full seam welds are used for
What makes these products more suited to
applications than past products? across the industry, to run into old friends strength. An open top allows easy grouting.
and colleagues, and to gain some insight on The pump bearings and mechanical seals can
We have continually improved our automatic how we can work to provide tools that fit into be serviced without disturbing the upper casing
self-cleaning screen filters in terms of efficiency, today’s systems – and tomorrow’s. half, piping connections or electrical motor
effectiveness and capacity. For instance, our connections. An ANSI-OSHA-compliant
largest EBS system has a filtration area of ITT – Stand 24121, Hall B coupling guard shields the flexible coupler.
6200 square inches and can accommodate a
maximum flow rate of 23,350 gpm. We are also What products are you showcasing? Microdyn-Nadir – Stand 22208, Hall B
seeing more use of our systems in oil and gas ITT Goulds Pumps has introduced a new What is driving the water and
production – which requires specific materials line of double-suction, base-mounted pumps filtration marketplace currently?
and customised control/electrical designs. for municipal and industrial water service.
The new Model 3408A pumps are available As the population continues to grow, less
As far as our AMF systems go, they have allowed
in 2’’ through 10’’ sizes, up to 300 HP. people have access to quality drinking
us to offer automatic self-cleaning filtration down
Capacities range to 6500 GPM with heads water. People are becoming more aware
to 2 microns – a tremendous accomplishment.
to 400 feet. These pumps are cast iron, of environmental problems, with many
The automatic self-cleaning functionality means
bronze-fitted construction with a maximum governments worldwide starting programs
that there is very minimal maintenance required,
to strengthen the efforts in drinking water
and no replacement or disposal of consumables working pressure of 175 psig.
treatment and waste water treatment.
such as cartridges, bags or filter aids.
What makes these products more suited to Membrane technology requiring low energy
What does the future hold for you? applications than past products? demand, is one of the key technologies in

Coming soon.......


Buyers’ Guide to
Leading the world of Filtration+Separation
38 Events
Filtration+Separation October 2008

of new products will help make that happen. In Each product being exhibited offers a unique
the last two years we have invested more than innovation for the targeted application. The
4 million to develop new products and build Radial Cartridge is a backwashable/cleanable
up new production equipment. media in the range of 5 – 50 micron, bringing
backwash technology down from the typical
What are you looking forward to at WEFTEC? 25 – 50 micron low end range. The Tubular
We always expect to be challenged at the Membrane is also able to be backwashed/
WEFTEC with difficult questions from backpulsed during operation, making it relatively
attendees and from competitors. Our newest unique among tubular membranes. The
MBR will have a large effect on the show and MacroFlow PTFE product is a unique skived
we look forward to the responses generated. PTFE membrane in the range of 1 – 10 micron,
which is above most conventional expanded
Porex – Stand 13069, Hall C PTFE membranes.

What is driving the water marketplace? What does the future hold for Porex?

EPA and other standards continue to get more The Filtration group has had good growth
Microdyn-Nadir will present BIO-CEL, a module based
restrictive resulting in previously unfiltered rates since its inception in 2005 and this is
on a self supporting flat membrane.
materials now having to be filtered, or having forecasted to continue for the next few years.
to improve contamination removal from This will continue to fund our expansion and
that market. With these new technologies the
current discharges. These are generally higher continues development of unique technologies
bacteria and viruses found in water can be
solids applications for which there is no simple based around sintered porous plastic.
treated to a high and consistent quality.
answer. Increasing costs of fuel, labour and What are you looking forward to at WEFTEC?
What new developments are you working on? materials pushes the need for cost management
which result in the need for new technologies Porex continues to develop and expand
To address the future potential for submerged
to offer a practical way to reduce these the product lines for key applications, and
modules, we have developed the BIO-
costs. Also, the “green” movement is forcing WEFTEC provides for an ideal opportunity
CEL Module. This is the first module in
industries to begin looking at ways of reducing to present these products to the industry.
the world combining the advantages of all
waste, further promoting reusable technologies. In addition, Porex Filtration is just starting
existing submerged modules, without their
to expand its market into Europe and Asia
disadvantages. BIO-CEL is a module based on What new developments are you working on? and since WEFTEC draws a global audience,
a self supporting flat membrane, providing an
While sintered porous plastic is not new to this provides a good forum for developing
extremely high packing density, but with open
the market, utilising it in industrial filter distribution and OEM partnerships.
channels for a perfect hydraulic behavior and
back washable like a hollow fibre module. configurations and as tubular membrane is
somewhat unique. The three product lines SPX Corporation – Stand 28211, Hall B
This Module can be delivered in different sizes will continue to be expanded into a variety of What is driving the water marketplace?
up to 400m² per module. It is easy to handle additional configurations to address the broad
and install due to our unique cassette system. range of application requirements. Additional Infrastructure expansion, replacement of
materials of construction and membranes equipment and new water quality regulations.
What applications is this suitable for?
will be developed to expand beyond current What new developments are you working on?
The module is developed for membrane temperature and chemical limitations as well
bioreactors. It can be used for municipal or creating ultrafiltration membranes. Enhanced products to provide higher levels of
industrial waste water. treatment more economically.
What products are you showcasing?
What makes these products innovative? What products are you showcasing?
Porex will be exhibiting three product lines,
Installation and the maintenance of the new the Tubular Membrane, the Radial Cartridge SPX/Marley Biomedia Treatment products.
BIO-CEL module is much easier. For the first Filter and the MacroFlow PTFE Filter
time the aeration and the frame support are cartridge. All the products are based upon What applications are these suitable for?
independent of the membrane unit. This is Porex’s core technology of sintered porous Wastewater treatment including nutrient
an important advantage, especially for larger plastic. We will highlight the newest addition removal.
treatment plants, in that it makes exchanging to the Tubular Membrane line which is a 37
portions of the membranes simple to perform. tube stainless steel module. What makes these products more suited to
applications than past products?
The modules are rapidly being implemented What applications are these suitable for?
worldwide. The unique advantage of the new SPX/Marley has developed Biomedia with
All of our technologies are suited to high solids innovative design features which provide
module is the continuation of an open plate
applications due in large part to the ability enhanced BOD and nutrient removal with
system to avoid braiding and sludge deposition.
to backwash or backpulse the media during reduced plugging of the media.
it is also possible to back flush the module,
operation. Focusing in microfiltration, these
maintaining high throughput. What does the future hold for SPX?
products address a broad range of industrial
What does the future hold for your company? and process water and wastewater applications Sales for the SPX/Marley Biomedia continues
including pre-treatment for difficult water
Looking to the future, we will continue to to grow as we address the need for products
sources, cooling water and wide range of
focus on membranes and modules for liquid to meet higher water quality standards in an
manufacturing waste process streams. In
separations in the area of Micro, Ultra and economical manner.
addition, the technologies are used in a range
Nanofiltration. Our goal is to become one of the What are you looking forward to at
of manufacturing applications in chemical,
leading membrane and module suppliers in our pharmaceutical and food & beverage markets. WEFTEC?
segment. We want to support our clients in being
successful and we hope that the improvement What makes these products more suited to Seeing our many satisfied customers and
our existing product portfolio and development applications than past products? meeting potential new clients as well. •
Next-generation NANOWEB®: Performance you can see. H&V’s advanced
nanofiber technology breathes new life into filtration media design. Use it as a high-
performance coating or stand-alone substrate. NANOWEB’s large number of microscopic pores deliver
superior fine-particle filtration with appreciably increased efficiency. Its innovative design and enhanced
pulse cleanability provide up to 5 times longer filter life. And the durable NANOWEB layer can
add up to 10 times more dust-holding capacity than standard cellulose materials, while again
greatly increasing filtration efficiency. That’s why NANOWEB raises the bar on applications
from heavy-duty air, gas turbine, and auto air to HVAC and liquid filtration.

www.hollingsworth-vose.com e-mail nanoweb@hovo.com 508-850-2000

Hollingsworth & Vose Company, 112 Washington Street, East Walpole, MA 02032 U.S.A. The H&V logo is a registered trademark of Hollingsworth & Vose Company.
40 Application
Filtration+Separation October 2008

Sieving metal powders:

Using ultrasonic
deblinding to
sieve powders
oth an international producer of materials for the chemistry and
B metallurgy industry and a titanium and alloy powders supplier for the
medical industry were in need of a system to sieve metal powders.
Looking to remove contaminants and reduce particle sizes through
sieving, they turned to filtration and separation specialists Russell
Finex for the ultrasonic deblinding equipment to do this.
Treibacher Industrie AG, an international frame, reducing sieving efficiency and
producer of materials for the chemistry damaging the equipment.
and metallurgy industry, produces
ingredients such as Tungsten, Tantal, Continual development
Niobium, Titanium and mixed carbides, Ti- Looking to find a solution to this, in 1989
carbonitrides and special carbides for high Treibacher installed filtration and separation
wear-resistant tools and parts. Used across specialists, Russell Finex’s, ultrasonic deblinding
the world, these ingredients are needed for a technology on its sieving machines, and was one
diverse range of products such as car paint, of the first companies to do so. Since then, this
dental fillings, steel and casting products, technology has proved indispensable in allowing
hard metals, functional ceramics, coatings, Treibacher to manufacture its specialised metal
catalysts and detergents. powders. The company has upgraded Russell
With so many ingredients being manufactured Finex’s ultrasonic equipment each time it has
on a high scale, Treibacher is committed to undergone considerable developments. One such Russell Finex Vibrasonic® Deblinding System.
attaining the highest quality standards. With development was the Vibrasonic® Deblinding
ISO 9001 and ISO 14001 accreditation, System, ultrasonic vibration technology which
Treibacher aims to maintain the quality of its ensures the sieve mesh stays free of clogging,
products, environment and staff. even at the finest sizes. The result is consistently
high throughput, enabling for finer and more
Sieving fine powders precise sieving than many other deblinding
methods currently available.
In order to ensure high product quality,
Treibacher try to use the best processing Treibacher has also successfully used Russell
methods available. One quality assurance Finex sieves and separators for its high
step is sieving its powders. This enables valued powders as they achieve the same
the company to remove contaminants and level of quality. Russell machines and the
supply particle sizes as specified by its end Vibrasonic® Deblinding System can also adapt
customers. However, as is common with to different products, and therefore companies
many fine powders, Treibacher noticed using a range of products range are able to
that sieving at fine mesh sizes posed a use the technology. The latest Vibrasonic®
challenge to supplying high volumes at 2000 Deblinding System, allows for the
repeatable qualities. Due to the nature and settings of the ultrasonics and base machine
characteristics of the particulates of many to be adjusted, and tuning the system can The Finex Separator™ with Vibrasonic® Deblinding
powders, particles can often clog the mesh accommodate the characteristics of particular System.
Application 41
Filtration+Separation October 2008

powders. With this feature Treibacher can

maintain product quality for very fine particle
sizes, essential for sieving materials such as
nitrides used as coatings for cutting tools and
medical technologies.
Treibacher have recently invested in the
expansion of its production line manufacturing
Tungsten Carbide, and operations manager
Jürgen Eckhart, wanted to ensure the company
selected Finex SeparatorsTM and Vibrasonic®
Deblinding Systems to help meet its new
In addition to providing technology to sieve
metal powders, Russell Finex products have
helped fine raw powder producers optimise
particle size distribution, throughput and
material recoverability.

Producing fine grade powders

As an aging population requires more hip,
knee and teeth replacements, suppliers to
the growing medical implant industry are
noticing an increased demand for fine grade
titanium. Whereas powders in the range The Russell Vibrasonic® Deblinding System being used at the Reading Alloy plant, with one of the company’s
of 150 μm/100 mesh are suitable for many existing screener.
industries, the medical field requires even
finer material, and many suppliers, such as undersized powder, so it could not be used.” requirements in virtually a single
Reading Alloys, a provider of high purity Screening multiple times lengthened the screening pass, while improving material
titanium and specialty alloy powders, is company’s manufacturing process, which recoverability.”
responding to demand. hindered its high production, 24 hour/ seven Motchenbacher highlights the ultrasonic
“Medical customers such as plasma spray days a week operation. screener deblinding system’s ease of
coaters increasingly require unique particle In search of a solution, Reading Alloys operation and its ability to provide precise
size distributions (PSD) below 75 μm/ decided to install an ultrasonic screening control over the production process. “By
above 200 mesh because they are looking deblinding system from Russell Finex attuning the system’s controls to meet
to produce very fine coatings to help join of Pineville, North Carolina, USA. the different setups of our material and
bone to the implant surface,” explained Dr. The Vibrasonic 2000® system has been equipment, this has enabled us to match
Colin McCracken, development manager of designed to enhance screening efficiency speed and feeding parameters to our
powder products at Reading Alloys. “This is and is ATEX certified to operate within processes,” commented Motchenbacher. “As
often the case for fine grade powders where areas designated as zone 20, 21, 22, 0, 1 a result, we have optimised production.”
laser PSD measurement is preferred.” and 2. The system uses a combination of
“With the Vibrasonic system, we have been
According to Dr. McCracken, different ultrasonics and conventional vibration and
able to work with medical customers to
coating process equipment and process can be retrofitted onto any new or existing
vibrating separator or screener. achieve their specifications for fine powders
routes require, exceptionally narrow PSD and tight particle size distributions,” added
for fine powder to correctly bond with the By using an acoustically developed Dr. McCracken. “Any manufacturing process
implant surface. Medical coating users often transducer, an ultrasonic frequency is requiring precise, efficient screening below
choose five or more PSD specifications applied directly to the screener mesh to 150 μm or above 100 mesh should consider
depending on the medical device treated. break down surface tension, effectively such a system.”
To satisfy this need, Reading Alloys sought rendering the stainless steel wires friction
to ramp up its capacity to produce titanium free. This eliminates mesh blinding and After inventing ultrasonic deblinding
and alloy powders from 300 μm/50 mesh to enables accurate separation down to 20μm of meshes over 30 years ago, Russell
45 μm/325 mesh. However, the company on even difficult powders, while maintaining Finex’s Vibrasonic technology is now
noticed its existing vibratory screeners product consistency. Downtime is also used in the processing of metal powders,
were experiencing problems attaining reduced and screen life prolonged as the pharmaceuticals, food, chemical powders,
the necessary particle size distributions, machine does not have to be stopped for toner powders, electrostatic powder paints,
throughput, and material recoverability. operators to manually clean and handle the ceramics and in a variety of industries. •
mesh. Contact:
Achieving particle size Russell Finex Ltd
“The Vibrasonic system has helped
Russell House
“It was difficult to prevent the screeners from eliminate blinding at the fine mesh sizes/ Browells Lane
blinding, especially at the finer mesh sizes,” narrow particle size distributions required Feltham
said Charles Motchenbacher, technology by the medical market, all the way to 45 Middlesex, UK
manager for Reading Alloys. “We tried μm/325 mesh,” said Motchenbacher. “It TW13 7EW
using a ball deck to agitate the bottom has enhanced our material throughput to E-mail: sales@russellfinex.com
of the screens, but this contaminated the the point where we can meet specified www.russellfinex.com
42 Application
Filtration+Separation October 2008

Decontaminating wastewater:
in wastewater
Mexican power plant was in need of a system that could
A effectively and efficiently treat its secondary wastewater stream.
The plant turned to a manufacturer of water purification and
chemical recovery equipment for a new system which could find
a more economical and efficient method of tertiary treatment,
primary demineralisation, and polishing.
Recovery of wastewater for industrial use presents required frequent cleanings and the EDI a high density media, significantly finer than
many challenges for the design and operation system was not consistently producing water of the fine media used in most designs which has
of water treatment equipment. Wastewater sufficient quality. After extensive evaluation, an effective size of about 0.35 mm.
has high levels of dissolved solids, and higher the system supplied by manufacturer of water
Since the lower layer removes the residual
metals content than in natural water sources purification and chemical recovery equipment
quantity of suspended solids not retained in the
and potentially high levels of organic matter, Eco-Tec consisted of the following elements:
upper layer, it effectively defines the filtration
both natural and manmade. At a power plant in
• Pretreatment using a single high efficiency efficiency. While the higher service flow and
Mexico, the wastewater treatment system was
micro media filter; finer media result in larger initial pressure
fed with secondary water used in the production
of boiler water makeup water. This is a gas-fired drops across the filter, the pressure drops are
• Upgraded RO;
combined cycle plant with a generating capacity manageable. Due to the higher flow rate, the
of 600 MW and has been in operation since • Compressed short bed IX demineraliser. diameter of the filter vessel required to treat a
2002. The plant obtains its water from municipal given flow of water can be reduced. The single
Pretreatment micro media vessel is 5.5 ft in diameter and has
primary treatment lagoons/settling ponds. The
main source of water entering the lagoons is Secondary water sources cannot be used a design service flow rate of 15 gal/min/ft2.
municipal sewage. directly as feed to RO systems because they To maximise the cleaning efficiency of the
contain high levels of suspended solids, backwash, the micro media filter operates with
Secondary treatment of the water is provided organics, colloids and biological material a simultaneous air scour/backwash cleaning
at the power plant itself. The sewage treatment even after clarification. A tertiary treatment cycle. Water is drained to the top of the media.
plant uses a biological treatment process to process is required to prevent fouling of Air and water are then passed simultaneously
first oxidise organic matter and NH3 in an the RO membranes. The original system up through the media bed. The water flow
aerobic step and then remove nitrates, formed consisted of two trains of two-stage media expands the media and allows the air to agitate
by NH3 oxidation, by bacterial action under filters. Performance of this filtration system the media much more violently and uniformly
anaerobic conditions. This eliminates biological was poor and showed frequent spikes in the than with water alone. The vessel is then
contaminants and reduces other contaminants solids content of the filtrate. Cartridge filters refilled with water, the air is turned off and a
in the water. The water is then treated with following the media filters, were overtaxed, water backwash flushes dirt from the filter in
lime, which raises the pH of the water, which and solids leaked through to the RO having an the usual manner.
causes the precipitation of dissolved minerals adverse effect on performance, and increased
such as calcium and magnesium and reduces the need for membrane cleaning. Comparing performance
the overall dissolved solids content.
The two-train system of primary and secondary A performance comparison was carried out
The water treatment plant originally consisted media filters was been replaced with a single between the existing sand filter trains and a
of sand filtration, cartridge filtration, two-pass micro media’ dual-media filter, which differs pilot-scale micro media filter (6 inch diameter
reverse osmosis (RO) and electrodeionisation from typical dual media designs. While the column). The feed to the system was the
(EDI). The plant needed additional capacity top media layer consists of coarse anthracite same as that to the sand filters, the feed
and was also experiencing operational similar to that used in many conventional dual stream being split after the point of coagulant
difficulties. RO units fouled rapidly and media filters, the lower ‘micro media’ layer is addition.
Application 43
Filtration+Separation October 2008

Effluent turbidities over a short period and the

inconsistent performance of the sand filters
was apparent. The initial point of upset for the
sand filters coincided roughly with the time
when one filter was brought back into service
after being backwashed. It is also important to
note that the coagulant dosage was not at the
point required for optimal performance, and
this is most probably the reason for the filtrate
turbidities never falling below 0.2 NTU.

Reverse osmosis
The existing RO system was configured into two
trains, each including three stages and producing
14.2 m3/h. A sample of permeate from the
RO taken just prior to the upgrade indicated a
conductivity of 392 μS/cm. At the time of the
analysis the RO membranes were approximately
three years old. The poor permeate quality was
attributed in part to leaky seals between the
membrane elements and membrane degradation The previous two stage media filter trains.
due to fouling of the membrane.
The upgrade involved replacing the existing regeneration at the bottom of the column. The Upgrade successful
membranes with higher surface area membrane cleanest resin is the last to contact the product
elements. The permeate flow rate per train was Altogether, an upgraded and expanded water
water ensuring the lowest contaminant levels.
increased to 28.4 m3/h per train. The original treatment plant was supplied to treat a secondary
membrane configuration used membrane A further refinement to this technology is the wastewater stream. A high purity product
elements with a 7% lower surface area and a compressed short bed system,2 with a short water with a conductivity <= 0.6 μmho/cm was
flux rate of 7.5 gal/ft2/day, whereas the upgraded bed height of 3 inch or 6 inch. Other features produced and supplied as boiler make-up water.
system operates at a flux of 14 gal/ft2/day. Despite include a much smaller resin bead and complete Tertiary treatment is provided by a high efficiency
the increase in fluxes the membranes have elimination of internal freeboard. The smaller media filter replacing existing sand filters and was
experienced less fouling since commissioning bead size greatly improves the kinetics of the found to be more economic than ultrafiltration.
and the upgraded system produced permeate exchange process, which allows operation at This filter typically produced filtrate with a
with a conductivity ranging from 30-70 μS/cm. higher flo w rates and reduces the depth of the turbidity 0.1 NTU and SDI values of <3. Primary
active exchange zone. Eliminating freeboard demineralisation is provided by a single pass RO
Compressed short bed ion exchange and operating the resin in a slightly compressed system using low fouling composite membranes.
state ensures that flow is uniformly distributed Permeate quality ranges from 30 – 75 μmho/
The original system utilised EDI stacks, and that the resin position is maintained during cm when treating feed water with a TDS of
typically used to treat double pass RO regeneration in order to obtain full benefit
permeate. The plant decided to replace the 700 – 1,000 mg/L. Polishing is provided by a
of the counter-current operation. One of the
EDI cells and expand capacity using a packed compressed short bed IX system, which replaced
main concerns when using packed bed systems
bed ion exhange (IX) system. The technical existing EDI cells. The new system is able to
is resin fouling. Since resin is not backwashed
considerations for this decision were the operate on a feed with a much higher TDS
during regeneration, any accumulated dirt will
rapid start-up after shut down provided by eliminating the need for second pass RO. The
not be removed, hence the need for highly
the packed bed system, elimination of the efficient pretreatment. With this in mind, problem of slow EDI start-up after shut down was
second pass RO requirement, and operating/ treatment of RO permeate by packed bed also addressed. All performance objectives were
maintaining a single type of polishing system. systems is an ideal application. achieved and the system has now been in service

Standard onsite mixed bed systems have a long When using separate beds of cation and anion
for over a year without any problems. •
and proven history of successful performance. Contact:
resin the limiting factor with regards to product
Michael Sheedy
Relative to newer EDI and packed bed water quality is generally sodium leakage from
Vice President - Technology Development
technologies, operation and regeneration can the cation bed or from residual caustic left Eco-Tec Inc.
be much more complicated, particularly when on the anion resin after regeneration. This Tel: +1 905 427 0077
resins age. Many of these problems are related to becomes problematic when trying to produce E-mail: msheedy@eco-tec.com
resin separation and uniform re-mixing before high quality water (<0.1 μmho/cm) and with www.eco-tec.com
and after regeneration.1 Another disadvantage higher feed TDS (>25 mg/L).
of mixed bed technology is the high regenerant
Given the feed composition and product water
consumption and wastewater production. 1. Smith, J.H, Renouf, P.W. and Crossen,
quality target a cation/anion bed combination is
M. – 50 Years in Separate Beds, Technical
Packed resin bed technology reduces these not sufficient even with a compressed short bed
Paper presented at the International Water
problems by using separate beds of cation system, a third polishing bed of cation resin is
Conference 1984.
and anion resin that are counter-currently added to remove low levels of sodium. This low
regenerated. Separating the resins eliminates level allows the use of a bed only three inches 2. Sheedy, M. and Kutzora, P. – The Use of
the separation and mixing problem. Counter- deep, operated at an even higher flux with very Short Bed Ion Exchange Technology for the
current regeneration minimises regenerant infrequent regeneration. A single train skid- Product of High Purity Water at WE Energies
consumption and produces high quality mounted compressed bed system with cation/ PPPP, Technical Paper presented at the
water by ensuring the highest degree of resin anion/polishing cation beds was supplied. International Water Conference 2004.
44 Product finder
Filtration+Separation October 2008

Product Finder
ACTIVATED CARBON AIR FILTERS Germany Fax: + 1 845 226 8565 Tel: +49 (0)681 5001 460
Tel: +49 8321 802 200 Email: infousa@bopp.com Fax:: +49 (0)681 5001 499
Blücher GmbH Freudenberg Vliesstoffe KG Fax: +49 8321 802 220 Website: www.bopp.com Email: filtration@itn-nanovation.com
Mettmanner Str. 25 Filter Division Email: info@bhs-sonthofen.de Website: www.itn-nanovation.com
D-40699 Erkrath Weinheim, D-69465, Germany World-leading wire mesh producer/
Tel: +49 6201 80 6264 manufacturer offers the largest
Tel.: + 49 211 92 44 0
Fax: +49 6201 88 6299 BELT (DEWATERING specifications & alloys available CERAMIC
Fax: + 49 211 92 44 211 Email: PRESSING & DRYING) including fabricated components. MEMBRANES
Email: info@bluecher.com filter-service@freudenberg-nw.com DFARS / ISO 9001:2000
Website: www.bluecher.com Website: www.viledon-filter.com Ashbrook Simon-Hartley Ltd Novasep Process
10/11 Brindley Court G. Bopp & Co., AG Novasep Process
Lymedale Business Park Site Saint Maurice de Beynost
Carbon Filter Technology Ltd Zurich, Switzerland
Gairie Works AIR MEDIA FILTER Newcastle-under-Lyme Tel: +41 (0) 44 377 66 66 5 Chemin du Pilon
Staffordshire Email: info@bopp.com Miribel Cedex
Kirriemuir, Angus Hollingsworth & Vose F-01708, France
Scotland, DD8 4BL ST5 9QH
Corporate Headquarters Tel: +33 (4)72 01 2727
Tel: +44 (0)1575 570218 Tel. +44 (0) 1782 578650 Paul GmbH & Co
112 Washington Street Fax: +33 (4)78 55 38 33
Fax:: +44 (0)575 574333 Fax. +44 (0) 1782 260534 Metallgewebe-u. Filterfabriken
East Walpole Email: novasep-process@novasep.com
Email: sales@carbfilt.co.uk Email: enquiries@as-h.com Industriegebiet West
MA 02032, USA Website: www.novasep.com
Website: www.carbfilt.co.uk www.ashbrooksimonhartley.co.uk D-36396 Steinau, Germany
Tel: +1 508 850 2000
Fax: +1 508 668 3557 Tel: +49 666 397 80
Euroby Limited Tami Industries
Charcoal Cloth International Email: info@hovo.com Fax: +49 666 397 8190
F - 26110, Les Laurons, Nyons
Rainton Bridge Industrial Estate Website: www.hollingsworth-vose. Columbia House Email: info@paco-online.com
Houghton-Le-Spring com Columbia Drive, Worthing Website: www.paco-online.com
Tel: +33 475 264 769
Tyne & Wear, DH4 5PP, UK Sussex, BN13 3HD Fax: +33 475 264 787
Tel: +44 (0) 191 584 6962 Filtration Applications:
Fax: +44 (0) 191 584 6793 Asia: +86 512 6283 8918
Tel: +44 1903 694400 CENTRIFUGES (FGD) Email:
Fax: +44 1903 694477 tami-info@tami-industries.com
Email: cci@calgoncarbon-eu.com Europe: + 49 6467 801 4125 Andritz Ltd Website: www.tami-industries.com
Website: www.chemvironcarbon. Email: sales@euroby.com
(Engine Filtration) Speedwell Road
com Brussels: + 32 2 725 6260 Website: www.itn-nanovation.com Parkhouse East
Americas: +1 508 850 Newcastle-Under-Lyme COMPRESSED AIR
Lydall Filtration/Separation, Veolia Water Solutions & Staffordshire, ST5 7RG FILTERS
Inc. Lydall Filtration/Separation, Technologies Tel: +44 1782 565656
Headquarters Inc. Whittle Road, Meir, Stoke-on-Trent, Fax: +44 1782 566130 Airfilter Engineering (M) Sdn
P.O. Box 1960 Headquarters Staffordshire, ST3 7QD, UK Email: welcome@andritzltd.com Bhd
Rochester P.O. Box 1960 Tel: +44 (0) 1782 599000 Website: www.andritz.com No. 20, Jalan Anggerik Mokara
NH 03866-1960, USA Rochester Fax: +44 (0) 1782 599001 31/47
Tel: +1 603 332 4600 NH 03866-1960, USA Email: enquiries@veoliawaterst. Euroby Limited Section 31, Kota Kemuning
Fax: +1 603 332 3734 Tel: +1 603 332 4600 co.uk Columbia House 40460 Shah Alam, Selangor
Fax: +1 603 332 3734 Website: www.veoliawaterst.co.uk Columbia Drive, Worthing Malaysia
Europe Sussex, BN13 3HD Tel: +603 5122 4975
Saint Rivalain Europe Fax+: +603 5121 2069
56310 Melrand, France
BOLTING CLOTH Tel: +44 1903 694400
Email: enquiries@airfilterengineer
Saint Rivalain Fax: +44 1903 694477
Tel; +33 2 97 28 53 00 56310 Melrand, France Saati S.p.A. Email: sales@euroby.com ing.com
Fax: +33 2 97 39 58 90 Tel; +33 2 97 28 53 00 Via Milano14 Website: www.itn-nanovation.com Website: www.airfilterengineering.
Email: info@lydall.com Fax: +33 2 97 39 58 90 22070 Appiano Gentile (Como) com
Website: www.lydallfiltration.com Email: info@lydall.com Italy Gruppo Pieralisi
Website: www.lydallfiltration.com Tel: +39 031 9711 1 Via Don Battistoni Europe
Molecular Products Inc. Fax: +39 031 933392 I-60035 Jesi, Ancona, Italy (Marketing & Distribution Center)
PO Box 640 Email: info.it@saatitech.com Tel: +39 0731 2311 AFE Airfilter Europe GmbH
Lafayette Colorado AUTOMATIC FILTER Website: www.saati.com Fax: +39 0731 231 239 Lueddigstrasse 8,
80026, USA D-53332 Bornheim,
Tel: +1 303 666 4400 MEDIA FOLDING/ Email: info@pieralisi.com
Website: www.pieralisi.com
Fax: +1 303 665 0563 SPACER INSERTION CABIN AIR / GAS MASK Tel: +49 (0) 2227 921 0130
Email: salesusa@molprod.com MACHINE FILTER PRODUCTION Fax: +49 (0) 2227 921 0132
Website: www.molecularproducts. LINES CENTRIFUGES Email: sales@airfilter-europe.com
com/?userlocation=usa A2Z Filtration Specialities (CHEMICALS & vertrieb@airfilter-europe.com
Pvt. Ltd. A2Z Filtration Specialities PHARMACEUTICALS) Website: www.airfilter-europe.com
Molecular Products Ltd. (Designers & Engineers) Pvt. Ltd.
Europe, Middle East and Africa Design Centre & Manufacturing (Designers & Engineers) Euroby Limited COMPRESSED AIR
Tel: +44 (0) 1371 830676 Facility Design Centre & Manufacturing Columbia House
Email: sales@molprod.com D-1, Infocity, Phase -II, Sector - 33, Facility Columbia Drive, Worthing FILTERS + DRYERS
Gurgaon 122 001 INDIA D-1, Infocity, Phase -II, Sector - 33, Sussex, BN13 3HD
Molecular Products Asia Ltd. Tel: +44 1903 694400
HI-Line Industries Ltd
Tel: +91 (124) 478 8700, Gurgaon 122 001 INDIA 5 Crown Industrial Estate
Tel: +852 2819 5238 + 91 (124) 221 2841 Tel: +91 (124) 478 8700, Fax: +44 1903 694477
Oxford Street
Email: sales@molprod.com Fax: +91 (124) 400 1388, + 91 (124) 221 2841 Email: sales@euroby.com
+91 (124) 221 2840, Fax: +91 (124) 400 1388, Website: www.itn-nanovation.com
Staffordshire, England
+91 (11) 4166 0134 +91 (124) 221 2840, DE14 3PG
ACTIVATED CARBON E-Mail: marketing@a2zfiltration.com +91 (11) 4166 0134
a2zfiltration@vsnl.net E-Mail: marketing@a2zfiltration.com CENTRIFUGES Tel: +44 (0)1283 533377
FILTERS info@a2zfiltration.com a2zfiltration@vsnl.net (STARCH & FOOD Fax: +44 (0)1283 533367
Email: enquiries@hilineindustries.com
Purification Products Website: www.a2zfiltration.com info@a2zfiltration.com PROCESSING) Website: www.hilineindustries.com
Reliance Works, Saltaire Road Website: www.a2zfiltration.com
Contact Persons: Mr. Digvijai Singh Contact Persons: Mr. Digvijai Singh Euroby Limited
Shipley, West Yorkshire
BD18 3HL, UK and Mr. Anoop Singh. and Mr. Anoop Singh. Columbia House CONSULTANTS FOR
Columbia Drive, Worthing
Tel: +44 1274 530 155 Sussex, BN13 3HD
Fax: +44 1274 580 453 For manufacture of Hepa Filters A2Z has introduced an automated
line that is flexible, fit to purpose Tel: +44 1903 694400 Bokela GmbH,
Email: sales@purification.co.uk with aluminium spacer formation Fax: +44 1903 694477
Website: www.purification.co.uk and insertion to required sizes and cost effective for filter Gottesauer Strasse 28
manufacturers. Email: sales@euroby.com Karlsruhe, D-76131, Germany
depending on customers Website: www.itn-nanovation.com
Activated carbon filter media. Tel: +49 721 9 64 56 0
Other active powders can be Fax: +49 721 9 64 56 10
incorporated. Custom medias
manufactured. BELT FILTERS Website: www.bokela.com
G. Bopp USA Inc
One Commerce Court, Suite 1 ItN Nanovation AG
BHS-Sonthofen GmbH Wappingers Falls, Untertürkheimer Straße 25
Hans-Boeckler Strasse 7 NY12590, USA 66117 Saarbrücken
Sonthofen, D-87527 Tel: +1 845 226 3839 Germany

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Product finder 45
Filtration+Separation October 2008

DECANTERS FILTER BAGS & FILTER EQUIPMENT Tel: +39 031 9711 Presswell FiIters Pvt Ltd
Fax: +39 031 933392 146-147, Macche Industrial Estate
Euroby Limited SLEEVES MAINTENANACE & Email: info.it@saatitech.com Macche
Columbia House BWF Tec GmbH & Co. KG SERVICING Website: www.saati.com Belgaum 590014
Columbia Drive, Worthing BWF Envirotec Euroby Limited India
Tel: +91 (0) 831 241 1054/5/6
Sussex, BN13 3HD Bahnhofstrasse 20 Columbia House FILTER MEDIA, Fax: +91 (0) 831 241 1057
D-89362 Offingen, Germany Columbia Drive, Worthing
Tel: +44 1903 694400
Tel: +49 8224 71 0 Sussex, BN13 3HD
NONWOVENS Email: presswell@sify.com
Fax: +44 1903 694477
Fax: +49 8224 71 21 44 Tel: +44 1903 694400 Hollingsworth & Vose
Email: sales@euroby.com Email: BWF-Envirotec@bwf-group. Fax: +44 1903 694477 Corporate Headquarters
Website: www.itn-nanovation.com de Email: sales@euroby.com
Veolia Water Solutions &
112 Washington Street
Website: www.bwf-group.de Website: www.itn-nanovation.com East Walpole
Gruppo Pieralisi BWF Envirotec provides filter bags, Whittle Road, Meir, Stoke-on-Trent,
MA 02032, USA
1 Via Don Battistoni filter elements and filter pockets Staffordshire, ST3 7QD, UK
Tel: +1 508 850 2000
I-60035, Jesi, Ancona, Italy made of synthetic fibres and scrims FILTER MEDIA Fax: +1 508 668 3557
Tel: +44 (0) 1782 599000
Tel: +39 0731 2311 for industrial flue gas cleaning, Fax: +44 (0) 1782 599001
A Kayser GmbH u. Co. KG Email: info@hovo.com
Fax: +39 0731 231 239 product recovery, separation of Email:
Textile Filtermedien Website: www.hollingsworth-vose.
Email: info@pieralisi.com solids from liquids enquiries@veoliawaterst.co.uk
Baustraße, 38 com
Website: www.pieralisi.com Website: www.veoliawaterst.co.uk
D-37574, Einbeck Filtration Applications:
Khosla Profil Pvt Ltd Tel: +49 (0)55 61 79020 Asia: +86 512 6283 8918
DEWATERING 2 Laxmi Towers, 8th Floor, B Wing
Bandra-Kurla Complex
Fax: +49 (0)55 61 7902/2870 Europe: + 49 6467 801 4125 FILTER PLEATING
(Engine Filtration) MACHINES
Email: info@kayser-textil.com
Brussels: + 32 2 725 6260
Website: www.kayser-textil.de
India Americas: +1 508 850 A2Z Filtration Specialities
Euroby Limited Tel +91 22 3061 3061
Columbia House Blücher GmbH Pvt. Ltd.
Tel + 91 22 3061 3062 Lydall Filtration/Separation, (Designers & Engineers)
Columbia Drive, Worthing Email: kppfilters@puritytex.com/ Mettmanner Str. 25
D-40699 Erkrath Inc. Design Centre & Manufacturing
Sussex, BN13 3HD purity@vsnl.com Headquarters
Tel.: + 49 211 92 44 0 Facility
Tel: +44 1903 694400 Website: www.puritytex.com P.O. Box 1960 D-1, Infocity, Phase -II, Sector - 33,
Fax: + 49 211 92 44 211
Fax: +44 1903 694477 Email: info@bluecher.com Rochester Gurgaon 122 001 INDIA
Email: sales@euroby.com ICT FILTRACIÓN, S.L. Website: www.bluecher.com NH 03866-1960, USA Tel: +91 (124) 478 8700,
Website: www.itn-nanovation.com Psje. Pare Claret, 15 - 25 Based on spherical adsorbers. Tel: +1 603 332 4600 + 91 (124) 221 2841
08390 MONTGAT (Barcelona) Fax: +1 603 332 3734 Fax: +91 (124) 400 1388,
Tel + 34 902 999 433 +91 (124) 221 2840,
Gruppo Pieralisi Fax + 34 934 642 763
FINSA – Filtros Industriales,
1 Via Don Battistoni S.L. Europe +91 (11) 4166 0134
Email: ict@ictfiltracion.com Saint Rivalain E-Mail: marketing@a2zfiltration.com
I-60035 Jesi, Ancona Italy Web: www.ictfiltracion.com Joan Monpeo 144
Tel: +39 0731 2311 08223 Terrassa (Barcelona) 56310 Melrand, France a2zfiltration@vsnl.net
Fax: +39 0731 231 239 SPAIN Tel; +33 2 97 28 53 00
Email: info@pieralisi.com
Saati S.p.A. Tel + 34 93 786 18 61 Fax: +33 2 97 39 58 90 Contact Persons: Mr. Digvijai Singh
Via Milano14 Email: info@lydall.com and Mr. Anoop Singh.
Website: www.pieralisi.com Fax + 34 93 785 83 59
22070 Appiano Gentile (Como) Website: www.lydallfiltration.com
Email: finsa@finsaspain.com
Italy A variety of pleating equipment
Veolia Water Solutions Tel: +39 031 9711
Website: www.finsaspain.com
& Technologies Fax: +39 031 933392 FILTER PAPER including Blade, Rotary, Star
Whittle Road, Meir, Stoke-on-Trent, Haver & Boecker Pleaters and special configuration
Email: info.it@saatitech.com Hollingsworth & Vose
Staffordshire, ST3 7QD, UK Wire Weaving Division pleating equipment
Website: www.saati.com Corporate Headquarters
Tel: +44 (0) 1782 599000 Ennigerloher St. 64
Fax: +44 (0) 1782 599001 Oelde, D-59302 112 Washington Street
East Walpole JCEM GmbH, headquarters
Email: FILTER CLOTHS, Germany
MA 02032, USA engineering & manufacturing
enquiries@veoliawaterst.co.uk MONOFILAMENT Tel: +49 2522 300
Tel: +1 508 850 2000 Industrie Allmend 27 / CH – 4629
Website: www.veoliawaterst.co.uk Fax: +49 2522 304 04 Fulenbach
Euroby Limited Email: dw@haverboecker.com Fax: +1 508 668 3557
Email: info@hovo.com t: + 41 62 926 44 80 /
Columbia House Website: www.weavingideas.com
DISC FILTERS Columbia Drive, Worthing
Website: www.hollingsworth-vose. f: + 41 62 926 44 81
Email: info@jcem.ch
Hollingsworth & Vose com
Veolia Water Solutions & Sussex, BN13 3HD www.jcem.ch
Technologies Tel: +44 1903 694400 Company Filtration Applications: Contact Person: Vesna Mladenovic-
Whittle Road, Meir, Stoke-on-Trent, Corporate Headquarters Christakos
Fax: +44 1903 694477 Asia: +86 512 6283 8918
Staffordshire, ST3 7QD, UK 112 Washington Street Sales & Marketing Manager
Email: sales@euroby.com Europe: + 49 6467 801 4125
Tel: +44 (0) 1782 599000 East Walpole, Email: vesna@jcem.ch
Website: www.itn-nanovation.com (Engine Filtration)
Fax: +44 (0) 1782 599001 MA 02032, USA
Brussels: + 32 2 725 6260
Email: Tel: +1 508 850 2000
Americas: +1 508 850 JCEM usa
enquiries@veoliawaterst.co.uk Saati S.p.A. Fax: +1 508 668 3557 exclusive distribution
Website: www.veoliawaterst.co.uk Via Milano14 Email: info@hovo.com 11201 ampere court / louisville, ky
22070 Appiano Gentile (Como) Website: FILTER PAPER AND 40299
Italy www.hollingsworth-vose.com PULP TESTING T: + 1 502 261 8222 / f: + 1 502
DROPLET Tel: +39 031 9711 Filtration Applications:
EQUIPMENT 261 8225
GENERATORS Fax: +39 031 933392 Asia: +86 512 6283 8918 Email: info@jcemusa.com
Email: info.it@saatitech.com Europe: +49 646 78010 (Engine A2Z Filtration Specialities Pvt www.jcemusa.com
PALAS GmbH Website: www.saati.com Filtratration) Ltd (Designers & Engineers) Contact Person: Chris Lyons
Greschbachstr 3b Europe: +32 2 725 6260 Corporate Office : Sales Technician
Karlsruhe, D-76229 Americas: +1 508 850 2000 11, Poorvi Marg, Email: chris.lyons@jcemusa.com
Germany FILTER COMPONENTS Vasant Vihar
Tel: +49 721 962 130 & END CAPS ICT FILTRACIÓN, S.L. New Delhi - 110 057, India Karl Rabofsky GmbH
Fax: +49 721 962 1333 Psje. Pare Claret, 15 - 25 Tel: +91 (11) 4166 0133 Motzener Str 10a, Berlin,
Email: mail@palas.de A2Z Filtration Specialities 08390 MONTGAT (Barcelona) Fax: +91 (11) 4166 0134 D-12277, Germany
Website: www.palas.de Pvt. Ltd. Tel + 34 902 999 433 Email: corporate@a2zfiltration.com Tel: +49 30 713 0260
(Designers & Engineers) Fax + 34 934 642 763 Website : www.a2zfiltration.com Fax: +49 30 713 02613
Design Centre & Manufacturing Email: ict@ictfiltracion.com Email: rabofsky@rabofsky.de
DRYING AND DRYERS Facility Web: www.ictfiltracion.com Design Centre & Manufacturing Website: www.rabofsky.de
D-1, Infocity, Phase -II, Sector - 33, Facility
Euroby Limited Gurgaon 122 001 INDIA
Columbia House Khosla Profil Pvt Ltd D-1, Infocity, Phase -II, Sector - 33, Karl Rabofsky American
Tel: +91 (124) 478 8700, 2 Laxmi Towers, 8th Floor, B Wing Gurgaon 122 001 INDIA
Columbia Drive, Worthing
+ 91 (124) 221 2841
Sussex, BN13 3HD Bandra-Kurla Complex Tel: +91 (124) 478 8700, 20 Hampden Drive, S. Easton,
Fax: +91 (124) 400 1388, Mumbai 400051 + 91 (124) 221 2841
Tel: +44 1903 694400 MA 02375, USA
+91 (124) 221 2840, India Fax: +91 (124) 400 1388,
Fax: +44 1903 694477 Tel: +1 508 238 34 44
+91 (11) 4166 0134 Tel +91 22 3061 3061 +91 (124) 221 2840,
Email: sales@euroby.com Fax: +1 508 238 01 44
E-Mail: marketing@a2zfiltration.com Tel + 91 22 3061 3062 +91 (11) 4166 0134
Website: www.itn-nanovation.com Email: rabofsky@rabofsky-america.
a2zfiltration@vsnl.net Email: kppfilters@puritytex.com/ E-Mail: marketing@a2zfiltration.com com
info@a2zfiltration.com purity@vsnl.com a2zfiltration@vsnl.net
DUST GENERATORS Website: www.a2zfiltration.com Website: www.puritytex.com
Contact persons : Mr. Digvijai FILTER PRESSES
PALAS GmbH Contact Persons: Mr. Digvijai Singh Lydall Filtration/Separation, Singh and Mr. Anoop Singh
Greschbachstr 3b and Mr. Anoop Singh. Andritz Ltd
Karlsruhe , D-76229, Germany
Inc. Speedwell Road
Headquarters A large variety of test equipment
Tel: +49 721 962130 A2Z offers over 700 part numbers of used by the paper and Parkhouse East
P.O. Box 1960 Newcastle-Under-Lyme
Fax: +49 721 962133 pressed sheet metal and machined pulp industry, and also filter
Rochester Staffordshire, ST5 7RG
Email: mail@palas.de parts, aluminium cast caps Nylon6 manufacturers is available.
NH 03866-1960, USA Tel: +44 1782 565656
Website: www.palas.de glass filled components. Tel: +1 603 332 4600 Fax: +44 1782 566130
Fax: +1 603 332 3734
FABRICS, WOVEN The Expanded Metal FILTER PLATES Email: welcome@andritzltd.com
Website: www.andritz.com
Company Europe Euroby Limited
Saati S.p.A. Longhill Industrial Estate Saint Rivalain Columbia House
Via Milano14 Hartlepool, TS25 1PR, UK 56310 Melrand, France
Arai Machinery Corporation
22070 Appiano Gentile (Como) Tel: +44 (0)1429 867388 Columbia Drive, Worthing 2-7-19 Okata
Tel; +33 2 97 28 53 00
Italy Fax: +44 (0)1429 866795 Sussex, BN13 3HD Atsugi-shi
Fax: +33 2 97 39 58 90
Tel: +39 031 9711 Email: sales@exmesh.co.uk Tel: +44 1903 694400 Kanagawa-ken
Email: info@lydall.com
Fax: +39 031 933392 Website: Fax: +44 1903 694477 243-0021
Website: www.lydallfiltration.com
Email: info.it@saatitech.com www.expandedmetalcompany.co.uk Japan
Email: sales@euroby.com Tel: +81 (0) 46 227 0461
Website: www.saati.com Saati S.p.A. Website: www.itn-nanovation.com Fax: +81 (0) 46 227 0463
Via Milano14 Email: arai@arai-machinery.co.jp
22070 Appiano Gentile (Como) Web: http:// www.arai-machinery.co.jp
46 Product finder
Filtration+Separation October 2008

Ashbrook Simon-Hartley Ltd GLASS FIBRE MEDIA MEMBRANES +91 (124) 221 2840, Lydall Filtration/Separation,
10/11 Brindley Court +91 (11) 4166 0134 Inc.
Lymedale Business Park Lydall Filtration/Separation, Alfa Laval Nakskov A.S. E-Mail: marketing@a2zfiltration.com Headquarters
Newcastle-under-Lyme Inc. Stavangervej 10 a2zfiltration@vsnl.net P.O. Box 1960
Staffordshire Headquarters Nakskov 4900, Denmark Rochester
ST5 9QH P.O. Box 1960 Tel +45 70 204 900 Contact persons : Mr. Digvijai Singh NH 03866-1960, USA
Tel. +44 (0) 1782 578650 Rochester Fax +45 70 204 910 and Mr. Anoop Singh Tel: +1 603 332 4600
Fax. +44 (0) 1782 260534 NH 03866-1960, USA Email: nakskov.alfalaval@alfalaval. Fax: +1 603 332 3734
Email: enquiries@as-h.com Tel: +1 603 332 4600 com Manufacturers should be aware of
www.ashbrooksimonhartley.co.uk Fax: +1 603 332 3734 Website: www.alfalaval.com the advantages of using expanded Europe
metal as opposed to perforated Saint Rivalain
Diemme SpA Europe Donaldson Advanced sheet due to rising steel costs. 56310 Melrand, France
Via Bedazzo 19, 48022, Saint Rivalain Filtration Tel; +33 2 97 28 53 00
Lugo (RA), Italy 56310 Melrand, France 7 The Parks
Tel: +39 0545 20611 Tel; +33 2 97 28 53 00 Newton Le Willows
MICROFILTRATION Fax: +33 2 97 39 58 90
Email: info@lydall.com
Fax: +39 0545 30358 Fax: +33 2 97 39 58 90 WA12 0JQ Alfa Laval Nakskov A.S. Website: www.lydallfiltration.com
Email: filterdiv@diemme-spa.com Email: info@lydall.com England Stravangervej 10
Website: www.diemme-spa.com/ Website: www.lydallfiltration.com Tel: +44 (0) 1942 711 711 Nakskov, DK-4900, Denmark PGI Nordlys SAS
filtration Fax: +44 (0) 1942 711 571 Tel: +45 70 204 900 ZI de la Blanche Maison
Email: advanced-filtration@emea. Fax: +45 70 204 910 Avenues des Nations Unies
Dinshaw Filtration Systems LIQUID FILTER MEDIA donaldson.com Email: nakskov.alfalaval@alfalaval. BP 109 - 59270
Pvt Ltd Hollingsworth & Vose Website: www.donaldson.com com Bailleul, France
265, M.S. Road, Corporate Headquarters Website: www.alfalaval.com Tel: +33 (0) 3 28 43 74 74
Grant Road Corner 112 Washington Street Euroby Limited Arai Machinery Corporation Fax: +33 (0) 3 28 43 74 72
Near Royal Cinema East Walpole Columbia House 2-7-19 Okata Email: bdesurmont@pginw.com
Mumbai 400 008 MA 02032, USA Columbia Drive, Worthing Atsugi-shi Website: www.pgi-industrial-europe.
India Tel: +1 508 850 2000 Sussex, BN13 3HD Kanagawa-ken com
Tel: 0091 22 23864782/3/9 Fax: +1 508 668 3557 Tel: +44 1903 694400 243-0021
Fax: 0091 22 23 807 439 Email: info@hovo.com Fax: +44 1903 694477 Japan
Email: info@dinshaw.com Website: www.hollingsworth-vose. Email: sales@euroby.com Tel: +81 (0) 46 227 0461 OIL / WATER
dinshaw@bom3.vsnl.net.in com Website: www.itn-nanovation.com Fax: +81 (0) 46 227 0463 SEPARATORS
Website: www.dinshaw.com/net Filtration Applications: Email: arai@arai-machinery.co.jp
Novasep Process Web: Euroby Limited
Asia: +86 512 6283 8918 Columbia House
Euroby Limited Europe: + 49 6467 801 4125 Novasep Process http:// www.arai-machinery.co.jp
Site Saint Maurice de Beynost Columbia Drive, Worthing
Columbia House (Engine Filtration) Sussex, BN13 3HD
Columbia Drive, Worthing Brussels: + 32 2 725 6260 5 Chemin du Pilon Bokela GmbH
Miribel Cedex Tel: +44 1903 694400
Sussex, BN13 3HD Americas: +1 508 850 Gottesauer Strasse 28
F-01708, France Fax: +44 1903 694477
Karlsruhe, D-76131, Germany
Tel: +44 1903 694400 Tel: +33 (4)72 01 2727 Email: sales@euroby.com
Lydall Filtration/Separation, Tel: +49 721 964 56 0
Fax: +44 1903 694477 Fax: +33 (4)78 55 38 33 Fax: +49 721 9 64 56 10 Website: www.itn-nanovation.com
Email: sales@euroby.com
Inc. Email: novasep-process@novasep.
Headquarters Email: bokela@bokela.com
Website: www.itn-nanovation.com P.O. Box 1960
com Website: www.bokela.com Saati S.p.A.
Website: www.novasep.com Via Milano14
ICT FILTRACIÓN, S.L. Tecan Ltd. 22070 Appiano Gentile (Como)
NH 03866-1960, USA
Psje. Pare Claret, 15 - 25 Tecan Way Italy
08390 MONTGAT (Barcelona)
Tel: +1 603 332 4600 MEMBRANE PRESSES Granby Industrial Estate Tel: +39 031 9711
Fax: +1 603 332 3734
Tel + 34 902 999 433 Weymouth Fax: +39 031 933392
Euroby Limited Email: info.it@saatitech.com
Fax + 34 934 642 763 Europe Columbia House Dorset
Email: ict@ictfiltracion.com DT4 9TU, UK Website: www.saati.com
Saint Rivalain Columbia Drive, Worthing
Web: www.ictfiltracion.com 56310 Melrand, France Sussex, BN13 3HD Tel: +44 (0)1305 765432
Tel; +33 2 97 28 53 00 Tel: +44 1903 694400 Fax: +44 (0)1305 780194 PAPER MEDIA,
'Progress' Berdichev Fax: +44 1903 694477 Email: d.worsdell@tecan.co.uk
Machine Building Plant', JSC
Fax: +33 2 97 39 58 90
Email: sales@euroby.com Website: www.tecan.co.uk TREATED
Email: info@lydall.com
5 Leontovicha Street, Website: www.lydallfiltration.com Website: www.itn-nanovation.com Hollingsworth & Vose
Kiev, 01030
Ukraine MINIATURE PUMPS Corporate Headquarters
112 Washington Street
Tel: +38 044 490 3888 MAGNETIC MESH, SYNTHETIC Gardner Denver Thomas East Walpole
Fax: +38 044 490 3899 EQUIPMENT Netten GmbH MA 02032, USA
Email: katie@progress.ua Siemensstrasse 4 Tel: +1 508 850 2000
Website: www.progress.ua Goudsmit Magnetic Systems 149 Avenue de Bretagne
59000 Lille Puchheim, D-82178 Fax: +1 508 668 3557
BV Germany Email: info@hovo.com
Veolia Water Solutions & PO box 18, Petunialaan 19, France
Tel: +33 3 20 08 05 99 Tel: +49 89 809 00 0 Website:
Technologies 5580 AA Waalre, Netherlands, www.hollingsworth-vose.com
Fax: + 33 3 20 08 05 71 Fax: +49 89 808 36 8
Whittle Road, Meir, Stoke-on-Trent, Tel: +31 (0) 40 2213283 Filtration Applications:
Email: emmanuel.denjean@netten.fr Email: info.puc@rtpumps.com
Staffordshire, ST3 7QD, UK Fax: +31 (0) 40 2217325 Asia: +86 512 6283 8918
Website: www.netten.fr Website: www.rtpumps.com/puc
Tel: +44 (0) 1782 599000 Email: info@goudsmit-magnetics.nl Europe: + 49 6467 801 4125
Website: Specialists in extruded plastic
Fax: +44 (0) 1782 599001 (Engine Filtration)
Email: enquiries@veoliawaterst. www.goudsmit-magnetics.nl NANOFILTRATION Brussels: + 32 2 725 6260
co.uk Americas: +1 508 850
Website: www.veoliawaterst.co.uk Saati S.p.A. Alfa Laval Nakskov A.S.
MEDIA, PAPER - Via Milano14 Stravangervej 10
TREATED 22070 Appiano Gentile (Como) Nakskov, DK-4900, Denmark PARTICLE SIZING
FILTER PRESSES Italy Tel: +45 70 204 900 EQUIPMENT
(SERVICES AND Hollingsworth & Vose Tel: +39 031 9711 Fax: +45 70 204 910
Company Fax: +39 031 933392 Email: nakskov.alfalaval@alfalaval. PALAS GmbH,
SPARES) Corporate Headquarters Email: info.it@saatitech.com com Greschbachstr 3b
Andritz Ltd 112 Washington Street Website: www.saati.com Website: www.alfalaval.com Karlsruhe, D-76229
Speedwell Road East Walpole, Germany
Parkhouse East MA 02032, USA
METAL CLOTH Novasep Process Tel: +49 721 962130
Newcastle-Under-Lyme Tel: +1 508 850 2000 Novasep Process Fax: +49 721 9621333
Staffordshire, ST5 7RG Fax: +1 508 668 3557 Paul GmbH & Co Site Saint Maurice de Beynost Email: mail@palas.de
Tel: +44 1782 565656 Email: info@hovo.com Metallgewebe-u. Filterfabriken 5 Chemin du Pilon Website: www.palas.de
Fax: +44 1782 566130 Website: Industriegebiet West Miribel Cedex
Email: welcome@andritzltd.com www.hollingsworth-vose.com D-36396 Steinau, Germany F-01708, France
Website: www.andritz.com Tel: +49 666 397 80 Tel: +33 (4)72 01 2727 PLEATED CARTRIDGES
Filtration Applications: Fax: +49 666 397 8190 Fax: +33 (4)78 55 38 33 Saati S.p.A.
Euroby Limited Asia: +86 512 6283 8918 Email: info@paco-online.com Email: novasep-process@novasep. Via Milano14
Columbia House Europe: +49 646 78010 (Engine Website: www.paco-online.com com 22070 Appiano Gentile (Como)
Filtratration) Website: www.novasep.com Italy
Columbia Drive, Worthing
Europe: +32 2 725 6260 Tel: +39 031 9711
Sussex, BN13 3HD
Americas: +1 508 850 2000 METAL EXPANDER Fax: +39 031 933392
Tel: +44 1903 694400 LINE FROM DECOILER NONWOVEN MEDIA Email: info.it@saatitech.com
Fax: +44 1903 694477 Lydall Filtration/Separation, TO RECOILER Website: www.saati.com
Hollingsworth & Vose
Email: sales@euroby.com Inc. Corporate Headquarters
Website: www.itn-nanovation.com Headquarters A2Z Filtration Specialities Pvt 112 Washington Street
P.O. Box 1960 Ltd (Designers & Engineers) East Walpole PLEATING MACHINERY
Rochester Corporate Office : MA 02032, USA
FILTER TESTING NH 03866-1960, USA 11, Poorvi Marg, Tel: +1 508 850 2000 JCEM GmbH, headquarters
EQUIPMENT Tel: +1 603 332 4600 Vasant Vihar Fax: +1 508 668 3557 engineering & manufacturing
Fax: +1 603 332 3734 New Delhi - 110 057, India Industrie Allmend 27 / CH – 4629
Email: info@hovo.com
PALAS GmbH Tel: +91 (11) 4166 0133
Website: www.hollingsworth-vose. Fulenbach
Greschbachstr 3b Europe Fax: +91 (11) 4166 0134 t: + 41 62 926 44 80 /
Karlsruhe, D 76229 Saint Rivalain Email: corporate@a2zfiltration.com f: + 41 62 926 44 81
Germany 56310 Melrand, France Website : www.a2zfiltration.com Email: info@jcem.ch
Filtration Applications:
Tel: +49 721 962130 Tel; +33 2 97 28 53 00 www.jcem.ch
Design Centre & Manufacturing Asia: +86 512 6283 8918
Fax: +49 721 962133 Fax: +33 2 97 39 58 90 Contact Person: Vesna Mladenovic-
Facility Europe: + 49 6467 801 4125
Email: mail@palas.de Email: info@lydall.com Christakos
D-1, Infocity, Phase -II, Sector - 33, (Engine Filtration)
Website: www.palas.de Website: www.lydallfiltration.com Sales & Marketing Manager
Gurgaon 122 001 INDIA Brussels: + 32 2 725 6260
Americas: +1 508 850 Email: vesna@jcem.ch
Tel: +91 (124) 478 8700,
+ 91 (124) 221 2841
Fax: +91 (124) 400 1388,
Product finder 47
Filtration+Separation October 2008

JCEM usa Email: info@jcemusa.com Paul GmbH & Co Diemme SpA Fax: +48 15 864 62 78
exclusive distribution www.jcemusa.com Metallgewebe-u. Filterfabriken Via Bedazzo 19, 48022, Email: biuro@progress-screens.com
11201 ampere court / louisville, ky Contact Person: Chris Lyons Industriegebiet West Lugo (RA), Italy Website: www.progress-screens.
40299 Sales Technician D-36396 Steinau, Germany Tel: +39 0545 20611 com
T: + 1 502 261 8222 / f: + 1 502 Email: chris.lyons@jcemusa.com Tel: +49 666 397 80 Fax: +39 0545 30358
261 8225 Fax: +49 666 397 8190 Email: filterdiv@diemme-spa.com Trislot
Email: info@jcemusa.com Karl Rabofsky GmbH Email: info@paco-online.com Website: www.diemme-spa.com/ Roterijstraat 134
www.jcemusa.com Motzener Str 10a, Berlin, Website: www.paco-online.com filtration Waregem,
Contact Person: Chris Lyons D-12277, Germany Euroby Limited B-8790,
Sales Technician Tel: +49 30 713 0260 Columbia House Belgium
Email: chris.lyons@jcemusa.com Fax: +49 30 713 02613 SEPARATION & Columbia Drive, Worthing Tel: +32 56 62 72 22
Email: rabofsky@rabofsky.de VIBRATORY SCREENS Sussex, BN13 3HD Fax: +32 56 62 72 62
Karl Rabofsky GmbH Website: www.rabofsky.de
Paul GmbH & Co Tel: +44 1903 694400 Email: info@trislot.be
Motzener Str 10a, Berlin, Fax: +44 1903 694477 Website: www.trislot.be
Metallgewebe-u. Filterfabriken
D-12277, Germany Karl Rabofsky American Industriegebiet West Email: sales@euroby.com
Tel: +49 30 713 0260 Corp. D-36396 Steinau, Germany Website: www.itn-nanovation.com
Fax: +49 30 713 02613 20 Hampden Drive, S. Easton, Tel: +49 666 397 80
Email: rabofsky@rabofsky.de MA 02375, USA Veolia Water Solutions &
Fax: +49 666 397 8190 Fratelli Mariani S.p.A.
Website: www.rabofsky.de Tel: +1 508 238 34 44 Technologies
Email: info@paco-online.com Via Cadorna,34
Fax: +1 508 238 01 44 Website: www.paco-online.com Whittle Road, Meir, Stoke-on-Trent,
Karl Rabofsky American Email: rabofsky@rabofsky-america. 20032 CORMANO (MI)
Staffordshire, ST3 7QD, UK Italy
Corp. com Tel: +44 (0) 1782 599000 Tel.: +39 02 6103441
20 Hampden Drive, S. Easton, SEPARATORS Fax: +44 (0) 1782 599001 Fax: +39 02 61034499
MA 02375, USA
Tel: +1 508 238 34 44 ROTARY PRESSURE CENTRIFUGAL Email: E Mail: info@fratellimariani.it
FILTERS enquiries@veoliawaterst.co.uk Website: www.fratellimariani.it
Fax: +1 508 238 01 44 Euroby Limited Website: www.veoliawaterst.co.uk
Email: rabofsky@rabofsky-america. Columbia House
com BHS-Sonthofen GmbH The Expanded Metal
Hans-Boeckler Strasse 7 Columbia Drive, Worthing Company
Sonthofen D-87527, Germany Sussex, BN13 3HD
SLUDGE THICKENERS Longhill Industrial Estate
PRESSURE FILTERS Tel: +49 8321 802 200 Tel: +44 1903 694400 Euroby Limited Hartlepool, TS25 1PR, UK
Fax: +49 8321 802 220 Tel: +44 (0)1429 867388
Bokela GmbH Fax: +44 1903 694477 Columbia House
Email: info@bhs-sonthofen.de Fax: +44 (0)1429 866795
Gottesauer Strasse 28 Email: sales@euroby.com Columbia Drive, Worthing
Website: www.itn-nanovation.com Email: sales@exmesh.co.uk
Karlsruhe, D-76131, Germany Bokela GmbH, Sussex, BN13 3HD
Tel: +49 721 964 56 0 Gottesauer Strasse 28 Tel: +44 1903 694400
Fax: +49 721 9 64 56 10 www.expandedmetalcompany.co.uk
Karlsruhe, D-76131, Germany Fax: +44 1903 694477
Email: bokela@bokela.com Tel: +49 721 9 64 56 0 SEPARATORS LIQUID Email: sales@euroby.com
Website: www.bokela.com Fax: +49 721 9 64 56 10
Euroby Limited Website: www.itn-nanovation.com WIRE, WOVEN
Email: bokela@bokela.com
Website: www.bokela.com Columbia House Haver & Boecker
PRESSURE PLATE Columbia Drive, Worthing STAINERS Wire Weaving Division
FILTERS Sussex, BN13 3HD Ennigerloher St. 64
Euroby Limited
ROTARY VACUUM Tel: +44 1903 694400 Oxford Filtration Ltd. Oelde, D-59302
Columbia House FILTERS Fax: +44 1903 694477
Unit 15, Bridgewater Way, Germany
Windsor, Berks SL4 1RD Tel: +49 2522 300
Columbia Drive, Worthing Bokela GmbH, Email: sales@euroby.com Tel: +44 (0)1628 440906 Fax: +49 2522 304 04
Sussex, BN13 3HD Gottesauer Strasse 28 Website: www.itn-nanovation.com Fax: +44 (0) 1628 476667 Email: dw@haverboecker.com
Tel: +44 1903 694400 Karlsruhe, D-76131, Germany
Fax: +44 1903 694477 Tel: +49 721 9 64 56 0
SIEVES Email: info@oxfordfiltration.com
Web: www.oxfordfiltration.com
Website: www.weavingideas.com
Email: sales@euroby.com Fax: +49 721 9 64 56 10
Website: www.itn-nanovation.com
Saati S.p.A. Manufacturer and Supplier of WOVEN FILTRATION
Email: bokela@bokela.com Via Milano14 Simplex, Duplex Strainers and
Website: www.bokela.com 22070 Appiano Gentile (Como) Self Clean filters for virtually FABRICS
REVERSE OSMOSIS Italy any fluid duty. Saati S.p.A.
SCREENS Tel: +39 031 9711 Via Milano14
Alfa Laval Nakskov A.S. Fax: +39 031 933392
Stravangervej 10 Euroby Limited Email: info.it@saatitech.com ULTRAFILTRATION 22070 Appiano Gentile (Como)
Nakskov, DK-4900, Denmark Website: www.saati.com
Tel: +45 70 204 900
Columbia House Alfa Laval Nakskov A.S. Tel: +39 031 9711
Columbia Drive, Worthing Stravangervej 10 Fax: +39 031 933392
Fax: +45 70 204 910
Email: nakskov.alfalaval@alfalaval. Sussex, BN13 3HD SINTERED WIRE MESH Nakskov DK-4900 Denmark
Tel: +45 70 204 900
Email: info.it@saatitech.com
Website: www.saati.com
com Tel: +44 1903 694400
Website: www.alfalaval.com
G. Bopp USA Inc Fax: +45 70 204 910
Fax: +44 1903 694477 One Commerce Court, Suite 1 Email: nakskov.alfalaval@alfalaval.
Email: sales@euroby.com Wappingers Falls, com WOVEN WIRE CLOTH
Website: www.itn-nanovation.com NY12590, USA Website: www.alfalaval.com
ROTARY, BLADE Tel: +1 845 226 3839
G. Bopp USA Inc
PLEATERS AND OTHER Saati S.p.A. Fax: + 1 845 226 8565 ItN Nanovation AG
One Commerce Court, Suite 1
Wappingers Falls,
SPM’s Via Milano14 Email: infousa@bopp.com Untertürkheimer Straße 25 NY12590, USA
22070 Appiano Gentile (Como) Website: www.bopp.com 66117 Saarbrücken Tel: +1 845 226 3839
A2Z Filtration Specialities Italy World-leading wire mesh producer/ Germany
Pvt. Ltd. Fax: + 1 845 226 8565
Tel: +39 031 9711 manufacturer offers the largest Tel: +49 (0)681 5001 460 Email: infousa@bopp.com
(Designers & Engineers) Fax: +39 031 933392 specifications & alloys available Fax:: +49 (0)681 5001 499
Design Centre & Manufacturing Website: www.bopp.com
Email: info.it@saatitech.com including fabricated components. Email: filtration@itn-nanovation.com World-leading wire mesh producer/
Facility Website: www.saati.com DFARS / ISO 9001:2000 Website: www.itn-nanovation.com
D-1, Infocity, Phase -II, Sector - 33, manufacturer offers the largest
Gurgaon 122 001 INDIA specifications & alloys available
G. Bopp & Co., AG including fabricated components.
Tel: +91 (124) 478 8700,
SEALS, GASKETS AND Zurich, Switzerland WEDGE PROFILE DFARS / ISO 9001:2000
+ 91 (124) 221 2841
"O" RINGS Tel: +41 (0) 44 377 66 66 SCREEN & FILTRATION
Fax: +91 (124) 400 1388, Email: info@bopp.com
+91 (124) 221 2840, Hyuksan Profile Co., Ltd. G. Bopp & Co., AG
Dichtomatik Ltd Zurich, Switzerland
+91 (11) 4166 0134 Donington House, Riverside Road Haver & Boecker PLANT: 5B-1L Incheon Seo-Bu
E-Mail: marketing@a2zfiltration.com Industrial Complex, 681 Kyung-Seo Tel: +41 (0) 44 377 66 66
Pride Park, Derby Wire Weaving Division Email: info@bopp.com
a2zfiltration@vsnl.net DE24 8HX Ennigerloher St. 64 Dong, Seo-Gu, Incheon, Korea
Tel: +44 (0)1332 524401 Oelde, D-59302 Tel: 82-32-561-6437,
Contact Persons: Mr. Digvijai Singh Fax: 82-32-561-4824 Paul GmbH & Co
Fax: +44 (0)1332 524425 Germany Metallgewebe-u. Filterfabriken
and Mr. Anoop Singh. Email: mail@dichtomatik.co.uk Tel: +49 2522 300 Marketing Office : 16FL.,
Renaissance Tower, 989-1 Juan6 Industriegebiet West
Website: www.dichtomatik.co.uk Fax: +49 2522 304 04 D-36396 Steinau, Germany
A2Z specializes in all styles of Email: dw@haverboecker.com Dong, Nam-Gu, Incheon, Korea
Specialist sealing solutions for all Tel: +49 666 397 80
Pleaters – Blade, Geared and Website: www.weavingideas.com Tel : 82-32-420-0561,
filtration applications Fax: +49 666 397 8190
Rotary Pleaters with Pleat Lock, Fax : 82-32-420-0564
Dimple, Zigzag and Conventional Website: www.hyuksan.co.kr Email: info@paco-online.com
Design. SEPARATION & SLUDGE DEWATERING E-mail: hyuksan@paran.com Website: www.paco-online.com
JCEM GmbH, headquarters
G. Bopp USA Inc Speedwell Road WEDGE WIRE
engineering & manufacturing Parkhouse East SCREENS & TUBES
Industrie Allmend 27 / CH – 4629 One Commerce Court, Suite 1
Fulenbach Wappingers Falls, Arai Machinery Corporation
Staffordshire, ST5 7RG
t: + 41 62 926 44 80 / NY12590, USA 2-7-19 Okata
Tel: +44 1782 565656
f: + 41 62 926 44 81 Tel: +1 845 226 3839 Atsugi-shi
Fax: +44 1782 566130
Email: info@jcem.ch Fax: + 1 845 226 8565 Kanagawa-ken
Email: welcome@andritzltd.com
www.jcem.ch Email: gbaker@bopp.com 243-0021
Website: www.andritz.com
Contact Person: Vesna Mladenovic- Website: www.bopp.com Japan
Christakos The Art of Swiss Precision Tel: +81 (0) 46 227 0461
150 years weaving expertise, Ashbrook Simon-Hartley Ltd
Sales & Marketing Manager 10/11 Brindley Court Fax: +81 (0) 46 227 0463
Email: vesna@jcem.ch including fabricated components, Email: arai@arai-machinery.co.jp
sintered mesh and precious alloys. Lymedale Business Park
Newcastle-under-Lyme Web:
JCEM usa Staffordshire http:// www.arai-machinery.co.jp
G. Bopp & Co., AG ST5 9QH
exclusive distribution Zurich, Switzerland
11201 ampere court / louisville, ky Tel. +44 (0) 1782 578650 Progress Eco S.A.
Tel: +41 (0) 44 377 66 66 28-142 Tuczepy,
40299 Fax. +44 (0) 1782 260534
Email: info@bopp.com Email: enquiries@as-h.com Dobrów 7, Poland
T: + 1 502 261 8222 / f: + 1 502
261 8225 www.ashbrooksimonhartley.co.uk Tel.: +48 15 864 62 70
48 Advertisers’ index
Filtration+Separation October 2008

Advertisers’ Index
Advertiser Page

Ahlstrom 11
Bekaert Fibre Technologies 9
BWF Envirotech 31
Expanded Metal Company Ltd 35
Gaudfrin S.A. IBC
Leading the world of filtration
Groupe Novasep SAS 17
Hollingsworth & Vose 39
Visit our
Lydall Filtration/Separation Inc. 7
McIlvaine Company
Microdyn-Nadir GmbH
19 website at
Pieralisi Group 27
Pollutec 33
Porex Filtration
SpinTek Filtration Inc
The Hilliard Corporation OBC
Westfalia Separator Industry AG 15
X-Flow BV 5

2008 diary dates

7-8 October Tel: +44 1924 257891 28-30 October Fax: +90 212 324 3757
E-mail: rachelwilliamson@aquaenviro. E-mail: demir@artkim.com.tr
Pittsburgh, USA co.uk Raleigh, North Carolina, USA www.turkchem.net
22nd International Activated Carbon www.aqua-enviro.net New Energy Technologies and
Conference 3-5 November
18-22 October Sustainability 2008
Contact: Professional Analytical and Contact: Association of the Nonwoven Shanghai Everbright Convention and
Consulting Services Chicago, USA Fabrics Industry
Tel: +1 724 457 6576 Exhibition Centre, Shanghai, China.
WEFTEC 2008 Tel: +1 919 233 1210
Fax: +1724 457 1214 E-mail: info@inda.org Bag Filter Shanghai 2008
E-mail: barb@pacslabs.com Contact: WEF www.inda.org
www.pacslabs.com Tel: +1 703 684 2552 Contact: Dust Control Committee (under
Fax: +1 703 684 2492 China Occupational Safety and Health
28 October Association)
7-8 October E-mail: csc@wef.org
www.weftec.com Chester, England www.bagfilter.net
Cologne, Germany
Filtrex 2008 20-22 October Filter Testing and Standards 10-12 November
Contact: The Filtration Society
Contact: Edana Toulouse, France Tel: +44 1392 874398 Manchester, England
Tel: +32 2 734 93 10 www.filtsoc.com
Fax: +32 2 733 35 18 Conference on Membranes in 13th European Biosolids and Organic
E-mail: info@edana.org Resources Conference and Exhibition
www.edana.org Drinking Water Production and 29-30 October
Wastewater Treatment Tel: +44 1924 257891
Aachen, Germany Fax: +44 1924 257455
8-10 October Contact: European Desalination Society E-mail: franceseldon@aquaenviro.co.uk
12th Aachener Membran Kolloquium
Las Vegas, USA Tel: +39 0862 319954 www.european-biosolids.com
Fax: +39 0862 3475 213 (AMK)
WaterSmart Innovations Conference E-mail: balaban@desline.com Contact: RWTH Aachen University 12-14 November
and Exposition www.desline.com Tel: +49 241 809 8110
Contact: SNWA Fax: +49 241 809 2252 Beijing, China
Tel: +1 702 862 3777 22-24 October E-mail: amk@avt.rwth-aachen.de
www.watersmartinnovations.com www.amk.rwth-aachen.de China-Pharm
Suntec Singapore Contact: Messe Dusseldorf
15 October ProcessCEM Asia 2008
30 October- 2 November Tel: +86 10 66155603
Fax: +86 10 66167891
Royal Academy of Engineering, Contact: Lee Yingqi Istanbul Expo centre E-mail: chinapharm@ccpie.org
London Tel: +65 6393 0212 TURKCHEM 2008 www.chinapharmex.com/English
Fax: +65 6296 2670
Bioresources to Land: Managing the E-mail: leeyingqi@mpinetwork.com Contact: Artkim Fuarcilik Ltd.
Nutrient Cycle www.processcemasia.com Tel: +90 212 324 0000

If you are organising an event concerning filtration, separation or related disciplines,

and would like to be included in this list, please send details to:
The Editor, Filtration+Separation, Elsevier Ltd,
PO Box 150, Kidlington, Oxford OX5 1AS, UK.
Fax: +44 (0)1865 843971 or Email: filtsep@elsevier.com