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Jiayong (Vanessa) Li

1010 CH 9 Review Questions

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1. What are the differences between areas of performance, performance skills, and
client factors?
Occupations are the everyday things that people do and that are essential to one's
identity. The areas of occupation include activities of daily living (ADL), instrumental
activities of daily living (IADL), rest and sleep, education, work, play, leisure, and social
participation.
Performance skills are small units of performance. It includes motor, process,
communication/interaction skills, emotional regulation, sensory, perceptual, and cognitive skills
required to complete the occupation.
Performance skills are dependent upon client factors, activity demands, and context.
Client factors are even more specific components of performance that may need to be
addressed for clients to be successful. Client factors include values, beliefs, spirituality, body
functions, and body structures. Client factors include such things as range of motion,
strength, endurance, posture, visual acuity, and tactile functions.
2. How is the occupational therapy process described according to the OTPF?
OT practitioners are involved in evaluation, intervention, and outcome of service. The OT
is primarily responsible for the evaluation and interpretation of assessments. However, the
occupational therapy assistant (OTA) may assist the OT, and he or she contributes to
the evaluation by providing data, after service competency has been determined. Service
competency refers to verifying that the OTA is able to produce similar consistent results as
the OT. The OTA is not responsible for the interpretation of the results. The OT is responsible
for developing the intervention plan.
OTPF describes the occupation therapy process as:
1. The process outlined is dynamic and interactive in nature.
2. Context is an overarching, underlying, and embedded influence on the process of service
delivery.
3. The term client is used to name the entity who receives occupational therapy services.
4. A client-centered approach is used throughout the Framework.
5. Engagement in occupation is viewed as the overarching outcome of the occupational
therapy process.
3. What are the types of occupational therapy intervention?
There are generally 3 types of occupational therapy intervention.
Firstly, there is therapeutic use of occupations and activities, which refers to selecting
activities and occupations that will meet the therapeutic goals. There are three types of activities
or occupation OT practitioners may use, first is preparatory methods or activities that designed
to get the client ready to engage in occupations. Preparatory activities may include such
methods stretching, range of motion, exercise, and applying heat or ice; and they are
designed to get the client ready for purposeful or occupation-based activity. Preparatory
activities should be conducted as one part of the intervention session rather than making up the

Jiayong (Vanessa) Li

1010 CH 9 Review Questions

Page 2 of 2

entire session. Second one is purposeful activities which involve choice, are goal-oriented,
and do not assume meaning for the person. Purposeful activity leads to occupation and
may be a part of the occupation. For example, practicing folding towels is considered
purposeful activity for the occupation of household maintenance. Third one is occupationbased activity which refers to participation in the actual occupation, which has been
found to be motivating and which results in better motor responses and improved
generalization. Occupation-based activity requires that the activity be completed in the actual
context in which it occurs.
The second type of therapeutic intervention is to consultation, which is a type of intervention
in which practitioners use their knowledge and expertise to collaborate with the client. The
collaborative process involves identifying the problem, creating possible solutions, and altering
them as necessary for greater effectiveness. When providing consultation, the practitioner is not
responsible for the out-come of the intervention.
The third type of therapeutic intervention is education which is imparting knowledge to the
client.This intervention type involves providing clients information about the occupation,
but it may not result in actual performance of the occupation.
4. What are the five general approaches to intervention?
There are generally five types of therapy intervention:
1. Create/Promote (Health Promotion) - This approach provides opportunities for people
with and without disabilities with the hope that everybody will be benefited by enhanced
performance.
2. Establish/Restore (Remediate) - The OT practitioner uses strategies and techniques to
change client factors to establish skills that have not yet developed or to restore those that have
been lost.
3. Maintain - This intervention approach provides support to allow the client to continue to
perform in the manner in which he or she is accustomed. OT practitioners using this approach
help clients keep the same level of performance and not decline in functioning.
4. Modify (Compensation, Adaptation) - Sometimes activities are changed so that clients
may continue to perform them despite poor skill level. Compensation refers to changing the
demands of the activity or the way the client performs the activity. This is useful when client
factors are not changeable in a practical amount of time and the client wishes to engage in the
activity. In other words, changing the environment or providing assistive technologies so the
client can continue to perform an occupation despite his or her ability to perform this occupation
may not be able to improved during the therapy time.
5. Prevent - OT practitioners are interested in keeping clients well, and as such they may help
clients engage in activities to prevent or slow down disease, trauma, or poor health.