MINI UNIT PLAN PROJECT AND COURSE
RATIONALES
Name of submitter: Alyssa Alcazar
Name of other Group Members: Kailee Lipiec, Alyssa
Winkelaar
GRADE OF MINI UNIT: ________4_________
TOPIC TITLE: _____Investigating Forces_________
Mini Unit Plan
(ASSESSMENT)
Teacher
Subject
Topic/Focus
Overarching
Question
Learner
Considerations
Performance Task
Ms. Alcazar, Ms. Lipiec,
Mrs. Winkelaar
Grade 4 Building Devices
and Vehicles that Move Intro
Investigating Forces
How do our vehicles take us where we need to go?
To accommodate for a variety of student need and ability, students are
placed in balanced groups (to scaffold off of one another). A variety of
learning styles are also included throughout the unit, and students are
given multiple different opportunities to show what they know through
triangulation of assessment.
Students will be taking the knowledge they developed about forces
Overview
(Lesson 1) and the data they collected through testing vehicles of their
choice (Lesson 2) to draw conclusions about what it means for how
vehicles move and everyday life applications. This performance task will
be a digital reflection of their conclusions and applications that uses a
technology software of their choice. It will be completed independently in
class, and students have the option of presenting their reflection to the
class or just to the teacher.
Learner Outcomes
General
Outcomes
(listed at
beginning of
each lesson)
ELA General
Outcome 1
(Lesson 1 & 3)
Links to
Overarching
Question/
Specific Outcomes
(listed at beginning
of each lesson)
subquestions
ELA Specific
Outcome 1 (Lesson 1
& 3)
Lesson 1 Exploring
Forces:
If it was your job
to build these
vehicles, which
would you build?
What are 3 things
you know about
forces?
Lesson 2 Testing
Moving Forces:
Which
observations
stood out to you?
Lesson 3 Analyzing
Forces
What criteria do
you think is
important for me
to see in your
reflection?
What do you
know about
structure and
Assessment Criteria
Students provide evidence of their
learning as they
Lesson 1 Exploring Forces:
Teacher circulating and
observing.
Word drawings of forces
Exit slip  3 things that
we know, 2 examples, 1
question.
Lesson 2 Testing Moving
Forces:
Entrance & exit
slips/graffiti wall
data collection sheets
teacher observation and
circulation, and
conversation while
testing
Lesson 3 Analyzing Moving
Forces:
exit slips
ELA Specific
Outcome 2 (Lesson 3)
design when
building a
vehicle? What do
you want to
know?
When designing
a vehicle, what
are some
modifications
that could be
made to help it
move more
efficiently and
safely?
Lesson 1 Exploring
Forces:
Where have you
seen examples of
these forces?
What is a
possible
difference
between the two
vehicles you and
your partner
chose?
Lesson 2 Testing
Moving Forces:
If you were to
build your
vehicle by
yourself, what
force would you
use to propel it
forward?
How does this
compare with
your hypothesis?
Lesson 3 Analyzing
Moving Forces:
Lesson 1 Exploring Forces:
Conversations between
students and the teacher
Group discussion about
findings
Lesson 2 Testing Moving
Forces:
Entrance slip/graffiti
wall
Lesson 3 Analyzing Moving
Forces:
discussion and
modification of the
rubric
Peer feedback and
suggestions
observing while students
are giving each other
feedback
Science General
Outcome 41
(Lesson 3)
Science Specific
Outcome 1 (Lesson 1)
What does this
mean for
everyday life?
When designing
a vehicle, what
are some
modifications
that could be
made to help it
move more
efficiently and
safely?
Lesson 1 Exploring
Forces:
If it was your job
to build these
vehicles, which
would you build?
What are 3 things
you know about
forces?
Provide 2
examples of
where these
forces are seen?
Have you ever
wondered what
makes the
vehicles you use
move?
Lesson 2 Testing
Moving Forces:
If you were to
build your
vehicle by
yourself, what
force would you
use to propel it
forward?
Which
observations
Lesson 1 Exploring Forces:
Graphic organizer about
practical applications,
etc.
Word drawings of forces
Exit slip  3 things that
we know, 2 examples, 1
question, something I
wonder about
Teacher circulating and
observing the students
while they work together
Lesson 2 Testing Moving
Forces:
Entrance & exit
slips/graffiti wall
data collection sheets
observation and
conversations with
students while
performing their tests
Lesson 3 Analyzing Move
Forces:
My Hypothesis and
Conclusion worksheet
Peer feedback and
suggestions about
conclusions
stood out to you?
How does this
compare with
your hypothesis?
Lesson 3 Analyzing
Forces:
ICT General
Outcome C4
(Lesson 3)
ICT Specific
Outcome 2.3 (Lesson
3)
Teacher observation and
conversations with
students while they
construct conclusions
and give peer feedback
Building Your Digital
Reflection booklet
Which vehicles
moved the
farthest?
Using these
results, what
decisions can
you make about
building a
moving vehicle?
What other
factors might
have affected the
results of your
testing?
Lesson 3 Analyzing
Forces:
What results can
you draw from
your bar graph
and how does it
compare to your
original
hypothesis?
Using these
results, what
decisions can
you make about
building a
moving vehicle?
What other
factors might
have affected the
results of your
testing?
Lesson 3 Analyzing Forces:
Worksheet with
hypothesis and
conclusion
reflection booklet
performance task/digital
reflection
Math  Statistics
& Probability
(Data Analysis)
General
Outcome 1
(Lesson 2)
Math  Statistics &
Probability (Data
Analysis)  Specific
Outcome 1 (Lesson 2)
Lesson 1 Exploring
Forces:
Lesson 2 Testing
Moving Forces:
Lesson 2 Testing Moving
Forces:
Data collection sheets
Class discussion
What do you
think it means in
terms of a
conclusion from
your data?
How does this
compare with
your hypothesis?
Was it close to
what you
originally
predicted?
Why/Why not?
Lesson 3 Analyzing
Forces:
Math Statistics &
Probability (Data
Analysis)  Specific
Outcome 2 (Lesson 2)
What results can
you draw from
your bar graph
and how does it
compare to your
original
hypothesis?
Lesson 3 Analyzing
Forces:
What results can
you draw from
your bar graph
and how does it
compare to your
original
hypothesis?
Lesson 2 Testing Moving
Forces:
Data Collection sheets
Class discussion
Level
Criteria
Insufficient /
Excellent
Proficient
Adequate
Limited *
Blank *
Data and Graph
Digital reflection
Digital reflection
Digital reflection
Digital
No score is awarded
Analysis (out of
shows accurate
shows logical
shows reasonable
reflection is
4)
because there is
insufficient evidence
interpretation of
interpretation of
interpretation of
lacking
the bar graph and
the bar graph and
the bar graph and
interpretation
shows precise
shows sufficient
shows basic
of the bar graph
the requirements of
and shows
the assessment task.
calculations.
calculations.
calculations.
of student
performance based on
limited
calculations.
Digital reflection
Digital reflection
Digital reflection
Digital
No score is awarded
Inferences and
recognizes
recognizes
recognizes
reflection
because there is
Conclusions
innovative
appropriate
limited external
recognizes
(x2  out of 8)
external factors
external factors
factors and makes
irrelevant
and makes
and makes
simplistic
factors and
the requirements of
the assessment task.
Drawing
insightful
thoughtful
conclusions in
makes
conclusions in
conclusions in
relation to their
disconnected
relation to their
relation to their
data.
conclusions in
data.
data.
insufficient evidence
of student
performance based on
relation to their
data.
Adequate use of
Digital reflection
Digital reflection
Digital reflection
Digital
No score is awarded
technology (out
is organized
is organized
is organized
reflection is
because there is
in a purposeful
in a logical
in a partially
unorganized
sequence
sequence
suitable sequence
sequence
and demonstrates
and demonstrates
and demonstrates
and
the requirements of
the assessment task.
of 4)
insightful
practical
reasonable
demonstrates
interaction with
interaction with
interaction with
minimal
technology.
technology.
technology.
interaction with
insufficient evidence
of student
performance based on
technology.
Applications to
everyday settings
(x2  out of 8)
No score is awarded
Digital reflection
Digital reflection
Digital reflection
Digital
demonstrates
demonstrates
demonstrates
reflection
creative insights
practical insights
simplistic insights
demonstrates a
and meaningful
and realistic
and basic
lack of insight
performance based on
connections to
connections to
connections to
and weak
the requirements of
because there is
insufficient evidence
of student
everyday settings.
everyday settings.
everyday settings.
connections to
the assessment task.
everyday
settings.
No score is awarded
(out of 4)
because there is
insufficient evidence
of student
performance based on
the requirements of
the assessment task.
graded on a total of 28 points. Should students meet the insufficient requirement, the teacher will work with them to scaffold
learning and complete the performance task according to standards.
Part A: Inquiry question
How do our vehicles take us where we need to go?
Part B: Focusing questions
Purpose & Relation to Key Questions
This miniunit if focused around interactive learning in a crosscurricular fashion. It was designed in
such a way that it seamlessly transitions between prior knowledge and future learning. For example, the
scientific procedure is a natural precursor, and design and modification is a natural successor. This miniunit
was designed in consideration of future learning; it acts as an introduction to design and modification which
makes up most of this units curriculum. It was intended that handson experience would allow for students to
explore deeper questions and understandings about forces and movement. The concept of forces is also an
element of physics, and physics is something that needs to be experienced to be learned and fully understood.
Instead of having students simply learn about forces, the intent was for students to experience forces. This
experience helps develop concrete understandings about what forces really are, in action. The miniunit
allows ample opportunity for students to become involved in their learning and become invested stakeholders
in it.
Our inquiry question for this miniunit was How do our vehicles take us where we need to go?. This
question allows for crosscurricular exploration, because the movement of vehicles involves so many different
areas of education, including math and science. This inquiry question could be explored in a multitude of
ways, but this miniunit focused on a handson approach. The key questions allow for active participation
from students, because it encourages them to apply their scaffolded learning and engage in experimental
procedures to extract results from these questions. It also encourages deeper thinking to be able to draw
accurate conclusions and be able to relate them to their importance in everyday life, possibly in ways that may
not be initially clear/obvious to students. Students can make connections to their life outside the classroom,
making their learning meaningful to them.
Why is this relevant? Why should students learn this?
People of all ages rely heavily on a variety of transportation methods. Our students are exposed to
these methods daily and an exploration into how they move enables them not only to understand their
everyday surroundings, but to gain a small amount of exposure to related knowledge that may translate into a
future career field. With STEM (science, technology, engineering and math education) being an evergrowing
presence in todays modern world, this investigation helps develop a generation of active learners who are
prepared to contribute to their society.
Seeing as many STEM fields are cross curricular, this allows students to mirror and experience
similar crosscurricular applications seen in the field (including math, science and technology).
Explaining this connection to students is intended to further engage students and have their learning model
real life contexts.
Cross Curricular Applications
The miniunit was designed to encompass areas of study such as math, science, technology, and
language arts. The front matter of the grade 4 math curriculum has strong ties to this miniunit. The
mathematics program of study places an emphasis on the fact that there can be more than one correct solution
to a problem. Within their investigation, students complete individual experiments in this miniunit that
produce different results from their peers. By doing so, students are shown that there is a variety of correct
solutions to a problem. With forces being an area of physics, this closely ties our miniunit to the science
curriculum and general outcomes. The program of study for grade 4 science is largely based upon inquiry,
problem solving, and student investigation. Allowing students to engage in their natural curiosity by having
them actively interact with forces give students given the opportunity to solve problems and develop their
own solutions and conclusions by identifying possible answers to questions through stating a hypothesis and
developing an inference based on observations.
The miniunit also gives students the opportunity to represent their experiences in a variety of ways,
which is a key element of the Language Arts curriculum. Students can respond personally to new ideas as
they discuss and receive feedback from their peers, giving students a chance to exchange new ideas that they
may not have discovered on their own. By giving students opportunity to represent their experiences, they can
do so in a way that is meaningful to them. Students are given the opportunity to strengthen their technological
skills through the use of technology in the performance task. Students also become further invested in their
learning by answering the guiding questions in a meaningful way with a technology of their choice. By
having choice, student need is accommodated for differentiated instruction. These reflective pieces can act as
documented evidence for the teacher of student learning which can be later referenced to assess what students
know and track student progress. The use of technology to create digital reflections gives opportunity to
expand what happens in the classroom beyond the walls of the school, and acts as a stepping stone in creating
a community of support for students.
Differentiation
The miniunit addresses the diverse learning needs of students in the classroom, and accommodates
for the many different ways that students learn. By having students collaborate in groups, students can
exchange and develop new and creative ideas with one another. The groups were designed to balance student
ability as well, with stronger students being able to help and be role models for students who may need more
assistance. The activities throughout the miniunit allow for students of all learning styles to have a chance to
learn. The exploration of forces in the first lesson allows for visual learning. The testing of their vehicles in
the second lesson allows for kinesthetic learning. Lastly, the technological reflections allows for auditory
learning.
Assessment & Performance Task
Throughout the three lessons of this miniunit, students are given multiple opportunities to
show what they know. The assessments were designed in such a way that the teacher could collect
triangulated evidence of student learning through collecting products, observing students, and having
conversations with students. The teacher collects evidence of student learning by collecting their
graphic organizers, word drawing posters, data collection sheets, and digital reflection. Student
learning is observed throughout each lesson as students collaborate with peers, test their vehicles,
and design their digital reflections. Class discussions and asking key questions throughout each
lesson allows the teacher to collect evidence of student learning as well. Lastly, the flexible rubric
and opportunity for student input into how they are being assessed allows for assessment to be
personalized to the needs and abilities of the class and breaks away from a rigid standardized rubric.
Part C: Lesson Plans
LESSON 1
Grade: 4
Activity: Exploring and Defining Moving Forces
Goals/Key questions:
Overarching question: How do our vehicles take us where we need to go?
Goals: What do you hope students will learn?
Students will develop an understanding of forces and apply it in a practical setting to the vehicles they interact
with in everyday settings.
Students will be able to extract information from resources and identify its connections to everyday
applications
Objective (connected to PofS, this lesson only):
ELA  General Outcome 1
Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to explore thoughts, ideas, feelings and
experiences.
ELA Specific Outcome 1
use talk, notes, personal writing and representing to record and reflect on ideas, information and experiences
Science  Specific Outcome 1 (Building Devices & Vehicles That Move)
Use simple forces to power or propel a device; e.g., direct pushes, pulls, cranking, mechanisms, moving air,
moving water and downhill motion
Note: This lesson will help students develop the foundation for this outcome
Pre lesson Considerations:
Prelearning Required:
scientific procedure (used in lesson 2&3)
Materials needed:
predetermined groups (balanced student ability, groups of 4 or 6 depending on class size)
poster boards with diagrams of boats, skis & cars/markers
books/resources centred around different types of forces & vehicles (Lethbridge Public Library/ U of L Curr
Lab):
Force & Motion by Peter Lafferty
Move It: Motion, Forces, and You by Adrienne Mason & Claudia Davila
Motion, Forces, and Energy by Anthea Maton
Forces & Motion: A Question and Answer Book by Catherine A. Welch
Super Cool Forces and Motion Activities With Max Axiom by Agnieszka Biskup
Zombies and Forces and Motion by Mark Weakland
Pushes & Pulls by Anna Claybourne
Push & Pull by Robin Nelson
Amazing Rubber Band Cars by Mike Rigsby
Forces by Peter D. Riley
Graphic Organizer (provided below)
Teacher KSAs:
E, F, I, K, M
Content:
What is the teacher doing?
Include Key questions, logistics, key
concepts that will be addressed, methods
of formative assessment
What are the students doing?
Introduction:
The teacher separates students into
Students will explore resources to
Exploration of
predetermined groups (that balance
gain an understanding of forces, for
Resources on
student ability). The teacher has already
example: pushpull/windwater,
Forces
preselected appropriate resources on
downhillslope & windup. Students
Time
forces, and distributes them to students.
are encouraged to collaborate with
estimation: 20
Students are asked to read, explore and
one another to deepen or transfer
minutes
collaborate as they develop an
their understanding. Students will be
understanding of forces.
asked complete the Where Have
Ask students if they have ever
You Seen It? column of their
wondered what makes the vehicles they
graphic organizers and write down
use move? and to think about this as
examples of vehicles they have
they explore the resources. As they work,
encountered that use the listed
the teacher formatively assesses students
forces to move forward. This
through observation and conversation, to
personally connects the learning to
determine whether students understand
students and engages them in visual
and internalize the information in the
learning. Other types of learning
resources and are able to apply the
will be explored throughout the unit
knowledge to identify examples in
to give students the opportunity to
everyday settings.
learn through different learning
styles.
Transition
Teacher asks the students to place their
Students clear their work area and
considerations
resources back in the center of their
position themselves in a way that
tables and opens class discussion.
enables a whole class discussion.
Activity 1:
1. Teacher asks students to share with the
1. Students share examples of where
Class
whole class their findings to evaluate
theyve seen each force and
Discussion
their understanding and application of
continue to add to their graphic
resources. Go through each force on the
organizers.
graphic organizer and ask students to
share what they wrote down in the
Time est: 15
Where have you Seen it? section of
minutes
their graphic organizer. (Note: Students
will just volunteer to share by raising
their hand.)
2. Teacher defines forces and fills out the
Definitions section of the graphic
organizer. The teacher has a copy of the
handout (below) on the SMARTboard (if
available) and fills in the handout along
with students (if no SMARTboard, write
on whiteboard.) This clarifies any
misunderstandings that students may
have developed while exploring the
resources.
Definitions:
Push: to move something by
exerting a force against it; a thrust or
shove, generally for the purpose of
moving.
Pull: to apply force to something
which causes motion towards the source of
the force.
Downhill motion/slope: to move
down an inclined surface.
Winding: something wound around
a centre or object.
The class discussion is a way for a
teacher to formatively assess what
information students took away from
their resource exploration, and a way to
promote collaborative learning.
2. Students fill out the Definitions
section of the graphic organizer
from the SMARTboard as the
teacher discusses what each force
does. Students are permitted to ask
questions at any time; this enables
students to utilize auditory learning,
incorporating a wider variety of
learning styles.
Transition
Before the students begin the next
Students set their graphic organizers
considerations
activity, the teacher asks them to consider
aside. They should place it
which of their scenarios from the Where
somewhere where they can easily
Have You Seen It column theyd like to
access it for future lessons. Students
explore.
should transition back into groups
from original resource exploration,
Inquiry question: If it was your job to
build these vehicles, which would you
build (after 3rd lesson, this miniunit
would tie into the design of the students
selected vehicle, after data has been
and further split into pairs (eg.
original groups of 4 split into 2
pairs). Students should be somewhat
balanced in ability and should have
different force than their partner.
analyzed)
Students select a scenario to explore in
future lessons (try to select a vehicle that
is able to float, wind up, or able to slide)
Activity 2:
Teacher distributes poster boards (one per
Students work collaboratively in
Poster Board
pair). Students are asked to draw 2
pairs to accurately draw and label
Diagrams/
vehicles on the board. They then label the
their vehicle diagrams; this enables
Word Drawings
force that is responsible for forward
them to utilize kinesthetic learning
Time Est:
motion to their vehicle diagram using a
(accommodate multiple learning
15 minutes
word drawing.
styles). Students will later use
Example (students create their own):
kinesthetic learning as they
experience the forces through testing
in lesson 2.
Here, students are focusing on
labelling the primary acting force
responsible for forward motion on
each diagram.
http://thesciencepenguin.com/2013/12/sci
encesolutionsvocabulary.html
Teacher circulates classroom to solidify
understandings, assist students and
ensure that students are making accurate
connections between the forces and
associated vehicles. These posters will be
displayed throughout the classroom for
future student reference. The poster
boards will be used as evidence of
student learning for formative assessment
(application of knowledge to individual
experiences).
Conclusion:
During this time, the teacher will have
Students complete exit slip
Exit Slip
students individually complete an exit
individually before the end of class.
slip with the following questions
For the next lesson, students are
What are 3 things that we now know
Time est: 10
minutes
encouraged to bring a vehicle that
about forces?
Give 2 examples of where these
must be able to float, wind up, or be
forces are seen?
What is a possible difference
be moved forward by wind, water,
between you and your partners forces?
Something I still wonder about...
bring something from home.
able to slide and is light enough to
or gravity. They are welcome to
This helps students solidify their new
However, if they are unable to, they
knowledge and acts as a method of
will have access to teacherprovided
formative assessment for the teacher.
resources.
The teacher will then relate the lessons
exploration to future learning; students
will experience these forces through
testing with their partner and explore the
benefits/limits of the forces that apply to
their (& their partners) vehicle.
LESSON 1 WORKSHEET (adjust cell size as needed)
Grade 4  Different Types of Forces
Type of Force Where have you
Definition
seen it?
Push & Pull
Downhill Motion
& Slope
Windup
LESSON 2
Grade ______4__________
Activity TESTING MOVING FORCES
Created By Kailee Lipiec, Alyssa Winkelaar, Alyssa Alcazar
Goals/Key questions
Overarching Question: How do our vehicles take us where we need to go?
Goals:
Students will develop an understanding of forces and apply it in a practical setting to the vehicles they interact
with in everyday settings.
Students will collect data from trials and present it in a meaningful visual way.
Objective (connected to PofS, this lesson only):
Science  Specific Outcome 2
Use simple forces to power or propel a device; e.g., direct pushes, pulls, cranking mechanisms, moving air,
moving water and downhill motion.
Math 4 Specific Outcome
Demonstrate an understanding of manytoone correspondence. [C, R, T, V] [ICT: C62.2, C62.3]
Math 4 Specific Outcome
Construct and interpret pictographs and bar graphs involving manytoone correspondence to draw conclusions. [C, PS,
R, V]
Pre lesson Considerations
Lesson overview of main ideas to be learned and prelearning required:
Knowledge of forces and related vehicles
Scientific procedure (testing, conclusions)
types of variables involved in a scientific procedure (example: controlled, manipulated, responding)
Students know how to add and divide using a calculator
Students know how to round numbers with decimals up and down to whole numbers
Should students be unable to complete their experiments within the given time frame, a teacher may allow
them extra time and complete the bar graph/calculations (activity 2) in a future, separate lesson.
Materials needed/preset up required/logistical considerations needed (seating arrangement):
A sheet of paper large enough for every student to write a maximum of two sentences on
Markers
toy cars, toy boats, wind up toys (or the small object that students have brought from home), enough so that
each pair has 2 different vehicles
Three to Five (depending on the class size) of the following:
3inch binders that will act as ramps
large tubs halffilled with water
a small electrical fan
data collection sheet (one for every student, provided below)
rulers (one for every pair)
school gymnasium needs to be booked for this lesson, or a space large enough to have multiple areas to test
different devices (must fit ramps, water tubs, the students, etc)
masking tape
basic calculators (students should already have one of their own, but be prepared to provide extras)
KSAs
D, E, F, G, K
Content:
What is the teacher doing?
What are the students doing?
Introduction
Teacher connects learning to previous
As an entrance slip, students each
lesson by asking students to create a class
write one thing they took away from the
SLIP / GRAFFITI
graffiti wall (students each write one thing
previous lesson on a large piece of paper
WALL
they learned from the previous lesson). This
(creating a graffiti wall). Students can
reintroduces the topic, connects prior learning
write key words, sentences, or even
and excites the students. The teacher then asks
draw pictures connected to concepts
students to gather their vehicles; if students
from the previous lesson. After they
have not brought a vehicle from home, they
have finished, the students may quietly
are encouraged to select one that uses the same
collect their vehicle that they brought
forward force. The students are asked to place
from home, if they did so. If not, they
their vehicles at the center of their tables.
may collect a vehicle provided by the
Teacher will then bring up how students
teacher (they are encouraged to select a
thought about what vehicles they would
provided vehicle with the same forward
choose to build, which was discussed in the
motion force as their original selection
last lesson. The teacher will then ask the
from the previous lesson).
following question:
Students are then encouraged to place
ENTRANCE
Time estimation: 10
minutes
Inquiry Question  If you were to build
your vehicle by yourself, what moving force
their vehicle at the centre of their tables
to avoid distraction.
would you use to propel it forward?
The teacher then explains that during the
lesson, students will be exploring and
experiencing these forces by testing their
vehicles with their partners (partners that were
determined in the previous lesson).
Transition
considerations
The teacher distributes the data sheets for
Students individually write
the upcoming experiments (one per student).
hypotheses centered on the comparison
The teacher asks the students to create
of distance between the two vehicles,
hypotheses, and to consider the inquiry
but are encouraged to collaborate with
question on the data sheet (which vehicle will
their partner.
move the farthest, and which forces will allow
it to do so?) when writing them.
Because the students have already learned
the different types of variables, the teacher
asks students to identify the variables as
students complete the distance trials.
Activity 1
Depending on which forces relate to the
After listening to directions, each pair
TESTING
students vehicles, each pair will test both
is asked to move to one of the
DIFFERENT
vehicles 3 times at their corresponding force
appropriate stations and begin their
VEHICLES USING
station. Stations will be explained to students
trials. While completing their trials,
DIFFERENT
before they begin their tests (Explanations
students are to fill out their data
FORCES
are listed below). Students are asked not to
collection sheet with the information
fill out the average distance or bar graph
they collect. Students are reminded to
sections of their data sheet.
identify the different types of variables
Time est:
20 minutes
for their stations as they complete the
Station 1: Pushpull
trials and also state them on the data
Note Vehicles being used at this station must
collection sheet; this can also be done
float
while waiting to use other stations.
Teacher has set up 35 water tubs (depending
on the class size) with electrical fans set on
Note : Extra time will be allotted in the
the side. Students are to place their vehicle at
case that pairs need to wait till another
one end of the water tub. Their partner will
pair is done to use a station.
use the fan to act as the push force for a total
of 5 seconds. The student will then measure
After each pair is finished, they are
the distance (in centimeters) from the final
asked to return to the classroom with
position of the vehicle to the start of the
their data sheets and vehicles.
water tub, and record the information their
data sheet. This process will be repeated 3
times.
Station 2: Downhill motionslope
Note  Vehicles being used at this station
must either have wheels or be able to slide.
The teacher lays out 35 (depending on
class size) 3 binders to act as downhill slopes.
One student from the pair will release the
vehicle from the top edge of the binder.
Students then
measure the distance from the position of the
vehicle to the bottom edge of the binder
(where the vehicle first meets the ground to
where it stops moving forward). Students
record the information on their data sheets
and repeat the entire process 3 times.
Station 3: Wind Up
Note  Vehicles being used at this station
must be able to wind up or have some sort of
crank.
The teacher lays down a start line of
masking tape. The partner winds up the toy 3
times, places it at the start line, and releases
the toy. The students measures the distance
from the final position of the vehicle to the
start line, and records this information on their
data sheet. This process must be repeated 3
times.
Once the class is in the gym, ask students to
line up at the stations they want to use first.
Remind the students that if the station they
want to go to is currently in use, they must
patiently wait until it is free, or move on to a
different station if they can.
Transition
considerations
Once the students have completed their tests,
Students will complete their tests, gather
the teacher asks the students to collect their
their materials, and make their way back
materials and make their way back to the
to the classroom. Students are then
classroom. Once in the classroom, the teacher
asked to gather a basic calculator and
explains that to compare the forces, the
pencil.
students will be calculating and visually
representing the average distance of each
vehicle.
Activity 2:
The teacher introduces the concept of
After receiving instruction regarding
Averages & Bar
averages and explains how they are useful for
averages, students then work in pairs to
Graphs
comparisons. Teacher will explain the steps of
calculate the average distance for each
Time Est:
calculating averages through the following
of their tested vehicles. Students then
20 minutes
example. For this lesson, students will be
receive instruction in how to build a bar
asked to round their results to the nearest
graph.
whole number.
Students then complete their bar
Calculate the average of these numbers:
graphs individually (although
5, 3, 8, 2
collaboration is encouraged).
Step 1: Calculate the sum (add the
numbers)
5+3+8+2=18
Step 2: Divide the total sum by the number
of items in the set (total number of numbers
originally added).
18 (Sum)/4 (Number of items in the set)
= 4.5
Step 3. Round the average to the nearest
whole number.
4.5 5
After students have calculated their
averages, they will be asked to graph each
average (from their trial data) on one bar
graph. The teacher will explain that bar graphs
are one of many important ways to both
interpret and visually represent data. The
teacher will show how to construct bar graphs
using the following steps.
Step 1: Building and labelling the axis. The
axis are set up in an L shape. The vertical axis
will represent the responding variable (should
be labelled in uniform increments), while the
horizontal axis will represent the different
items tested (or the manipulated variables.
These should be the same width on the graph).
Both axis must be clearly labelled.
Step 2: Filling in data into the bar graph.
Each bar is only manipulated vertically. The
average distances for each vehicle calculated
by the students corresponds to the height of
each bar.
Step 3: Titling the bar graph. The title must
be descriptive and directly related to the
information presented in the graph.
The teacher circulates throughout the
classroom after each step is explained,
answering questions and formatively assessing
through observation to determine whether
students have grasped an understanding of
how to construct bar graphs.
Conclusion:
The teacher will collect data sheets as a
Students share their observations and
method of formative assessment at the end of
begin to form the connection to the
DISCUSSION &
the lesson (these sheets will be returned to
scientific procedure through the class
GRAFFITI WALL
students at the beginning of the next lesson).
discussion. Prior to the end of the lesson,
The teacher opens a class discussion (debrief,
students are asked to again contribute to
also formative assessment), where pairs of
the graffiti wall by writing something
CLASS
Time estimation: 10
minutes
students are asked to volunteer their responses
that they took away from the lesson.
to the following inquiry questions:
This allows students to have a visual
Which observation stood out to you? What do
representation of their learning from all
you think it means in terms of a conclusion
lessons.
from your data? How does this compare with
your hypothesis? It should be noted that some
students can simply state that they dont know
what it means (this will be explored and
answered in the next lesson). At the end of the
lesson, the teacher will ask every student to
contribute to the graffiti wall by writing
something they took away from the lesson.
LESSON 2 WORKSHEET (Device 2 on back)
Grade 4 Data Collection Sheet
Name: _____________________
Partners Name: _____________________
Hypothesis:
_______________________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________________
(When writing your hypothesis, think: which vehicle will move the farthest, and which force will allow it to
do so?)
Device 1. ___________________________ Forward Motion Force:_______________________________
Controlled Variable(s):
_______________________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________________
Manipulated Variable(s):
_______________________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________________
Responding Variable(s):
_______________________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________________
Trial 1
Trial 2
Trial 3
Distance (in
centimeters)
Average Distance (in centimeters): _____________________
Device 2. ____________________________ Forward Motion Force:___________________________
Controlled Variable(s):
_______________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________
Manipulated Variable(s):
_______________________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________________
Responding Variable(s):
_______________________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________________
Trial 1
Trial 2
Distance (in
centimeters)
Average Distance (in centimeters): ______________________
Bar Graph:
Trial 3
LESSON 3
Grade:
Activity: ANALYZING MOVING FORCES
Goals/Key questions
Students will demonstrate a comprehensive understanding of data analysis
Students will demonstrate their ability to draw appropriate inferences from data
Students will demonstrate the ability to provide appropriate suggestions and feedback when constructing
criteria
Objective (connected to PofS):
ELA General Outcome 1 Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to explore thoughts,
ideas, feelings and experiences.
ELA Specific Outcome 1
use talk, notes, personal writing and representing to record and reflect on ideas, information and experiences
ELO Specific Outcome 2  comprehend new ideas and information by responding personally and discussing
ideas with others
Science General Outcome 41  Investigate the nature of things, demonstrating purposeful action that leads to
inferences supported by observations.
ICT General Outcome C4  Students will use organizational processes and tools to manage inquiry.
ICT Specific Outcome 2.3  Reflect on and describe the processes involved in completing a project
Prelesson Considerations
Lesson overview of main ideas to be learned and prelearning required:
Scientific procedure (What is the hypothesis? procedure? results? conclusion?)
Experience with technology and knowledge of general software programs such as PowerPoint, iMovie, and
Youtube.
Materials needed:
Students will be grouped with the same people they were paired with for lesson one of this mini unit (to
balance student ability)
Laptops and iPads (if available)
SMARTboard (if available)
My hypothesis and conclusion worksheet (one for every student, see a copy below)
Building your digital reflection booklet (one for every student, and a copy for the teacher, see a copy
below). If a SMARTboard is available, the teacher will also need an online copy of this booklet. This booklet
will include:
instructions on what needs to be done for this digital reflection
a copy of the rubric that will be used to grade this assignment
a sheet/paper titled: What needs to be evident for excellent?
Teacher KSAs
E, F, J, K, P
Content:
Introduction :
What is the teacher doing?
What are the students doing?
Teacher hands back to students the
Students begin by reviewing their
PassAround
data sheet that was collected in the
hypothesis (prior learning) and use the
Activity
previous lesson and distribute the
provided data sheet to develop and create
Time
My Hypothesis & Conclusion
the resulting conclusion. They record both
estimation: 15
worksheet (provided below). The
their hypothesis and conclusion on the
minutes
teacher asks students to review their
worksheet (provided below). This allows
hypothesis and develop and record the
students to connect the lesson to their
conclusion from their results
previous knowledge. After receiving
(emphasize to students that this is a
instruction, the students work on the pass
rough sketch of their ideas, so there is
around sheet activity. During this time,
no need to feel worried about being
students may ask the teacher for help
wrong. Peer feedback will help
should they become stuck and unsure of
them develop their conclusions). Ask
what to suggest. Students who are unable
students to consider the guiding
to read/write their suggestions may ask the
questions provided on their
original student to read them their
worksheet:
hypothesis, and then verbally communicate
Which vehicle moved the
farthest? Was it close to what you
originally predicted?
Why/why not?
Once students have completed the
Hypothesis and Conclusion
sections of the worksheet, the teacher
asks the students to arrange
themselves back in their previous
groups from lesson 1. Once the
students are settled, the teacher will
give the following instructions for the
students to do a passaround activity.
1.Pass the sheet to the student to
their right.
2.Review your peers hypothesis
and conclusion.
3.Write a piece of information
under the Peer Suggestions section of
their comment (this accommodates for a
diverse range of student ability and need).
the worksheet. This may be a
suggestion about the hypothesis, a piece
of information about the force, a
comment about the conclusion, etc.
4.Once all students in the group
have finished writing a peer suggestion,
they will pass the sheet again to the
right.
5.This continues until the sheet has
rotated back around to the student.
(Please allow approximately 2 minutes
for each round/rotation)
During this time, the teacher will
circulate and offer possible
suggestions for comments to students
who are struggling to contribute. The
teacher will then ask the students to
consider these peer suggestions as
they move to work on building their
reflection (instruction to follow).
Transition
The teacher explains that the
Students select the format they wish to
considerations
students will be creating a digital
use for their digital reflection. Any formats
reflection of their experiences with
students wish to use that have not already
forces. The teacher gives students
been mentioned by the teacher, must be
many different options to
approved by the teacher.
accommodate for a variety of student
ability and need, including a video,
animation, audio recording,
powerPoint, mindmap or digital
book/magazine. Should students wish
to complete their reflection using a
different format, the format must be
preapproved by the teacher (in case
of a substitute, the students will
submit their ideas to the substitute
who would then email the teacher for
their approval).
Activity 1:
The teacher distributes the
After receiving the Building Your
Introducing
Building Your Digital Reflection
Digital Reflection booklet, students
and
booklet to students. The teacher
review the instructions with their teacher,
Developing
reviews the instructions provided in
making sure to clarify any confusions or
Your Digital
the booklet what students are required
misunderstandings. Afterwards, students
Reflection
to do for this assignment. This will
brainstorm and record their ideas in their
include reviewing the following
booklet in the manner most suitable to
guiding questions:
them (this may include verbal
Time est: 15
minutes
What was your original
transcription). Once students have
hypothesis?
What does this mean for
answered the guiding questions, they
everyday life?
What results can you draw from
and begin building their digital reflection,
your bar graph and how does it
compare to your original hypothesis?
Using these results, what
should attain a laptop or ipad (if available)
displaying their ideas and answering the
guiding questions.
decisions can you make about building
a moving vehicle?
What other factors might have
affected the results of your testing?
After the teacher is finished
reviewing the instructions, the teacher
will give students time to further
develop their answers to these
questions, drawing upon the ideas
presented to them in the passaround
activity. Students are encouraged to
record their thoughts in a manner that
is suitable to their needs and learning
style.
Transition
Approximately halfway through
Students save and set aside their work,
considerations
the total work time, the teacher asks
and direct their attention to the teacher for a
students to set aside their work and
class discussion to review and modify the
gather as a class to review the
reflection rubric.
reflection rubric. The teacher displays
the reflection rubric on the
SMARTboard (if available) or an
overhead projector.
Activity 2:
Teacher begins to discuss with the
As the class reviews the rubric, students
Discussion and
class the criteria presented in the
are encouraged to make appropriate
Improvement
rubric for their digital reflection. The
suggestions on how to modify the rubric to
of Rubric
rubric (provided) contains 4
better suit the class. Reasonable
classifications of student
modifications will be made (or recorded) as
performance, but concentrates on
the discussion progresses. Students are also
what students need to achieve to
encouraged to volunteer an additional piece
receive an excellent standing. These
of criteria that they believe improves the
include:
rubric. Depending on the results of a class
Time Est: 20
minutes
Digital reflection shows accurate
vote (majority rules), the additional criteria
interpretation of the bar graph and shows
will be added. Students are then
precise calculations.
Digital reflection recognizes innovative
encouraged to volunteer descriptor words
external factors and makes insightful
conclusions in relation to their data.
Digital reflection is organized in a
purposeful sequence and demonstrates
insightful interaction with technology.
Digital reflection demonstrates creative
insights and meaningful connections to
everyday settings.
Teacher will guide the class
discussion of the rubric with the
question: What criteria do you think
is important for me to see in your
reflection? For each section of the
rubric, the teacher asks students to
display thumbsup if they agree
with the present state of the criteria,
or thumbsdown if they think it
needs any modification. Should any
students display thumbsdown, the
teacher will ask volunteers from those
students to share their suggestion for
improvement. Should the suggestion
be reasonable and preapproved by
the teacher, the class votes on the
modification (majority rules).
Should a substitute teacher be
present, all student suggestions should
be emailed to the teacher for approval.
for each performance level, for the new
criteria they just added. The words will be
voted on in a similar style, and added to the
rubric.
The rubric will also have an empty
row at the bottom for students to
contribute criteria that will make the
rubric more suitable. After each
section has been reviewed, students
will be asked if they have any
suggestions. The suggestions that are
appropriate will be recorded and
displayed by the teacher on the
whiteboard. After all suggestions have
been made, the students will vote on
one to include in the rubric (majority
rules).
This activity is to allow the students
to become familiar with the
expectations as well as allowing them
to individualize the expectations.
Conclusion:
The teacher asks students to
After students review the rubric, they
What Needs
complete the What Needs to be
complete the What Needs to be Evident
To Be Evident
Evident for Excellent section of their
for Excellent section of their booklet. This
For
booklets. The teacher explains that
can include ideas of what needs to be
students will be given time in future
modified in their reflection to achieve a
lessons to make the necessary
high standard of performance.
Excellent?
modifications and complete their
TIME EST: 10
minutes
To briefly introduce students to the next
digital reflections. These reflections
miniunit (structure and design of devices
can either then be presented to the
and vehicles), they are asked to complete
class or kept for private assessment by
an exit slip with the following questions:
the teacher. The teacher explains that
after the reflections are complete, the
What do you know about structure
students will be exploring how
and design when building vehicles?
What do you want to know about
structure and design modifications
structure and design when building
can help vehicles move efficiently.
vehicles?
This future exploration will be guided
by the question: When designing a
vehicle, what are some modifications
that could be made to help it move
more efficiently and safely?
The teacher asks students to com
plete an exit slip with the following
questions
What do you know about
structure and design when building
vehicles?
What do you want to know
about structure and design when
building vehicles?
LESSON 3 WORKSHEET (adjust cell size as needed)
My Hypothesis and Conclusion
Name:______________
Questions to consider: Which vehicle moves the farthest? Was it close to what you originally
predicted? Why or why not?
My Hypothesis:
My Conclusion:
Peer Suggestions:
LESSON 3 PERFORMANCE TASK BOOKLET
Building Your Digital Reflection
You are required to use technology to answer the following questions in a
way that is meaningful to you:
1. What was your original hypothesis?
2. What results can you draw from your bar graph? How does it compare to
your original hypothesis?
3. Using these results, what decisions can you make about building a moving
vehicle?
4. What does this mean for everyday life?
5. What other factors might have affected the results of your testing?
This task is to be done individually and will be completed in class. You
may choose the type of technology that you will use for this task. Some
examples include:

Video
Animation
Audio recording
PowerPoint
MindMap
Digital book/magazine
If you have another idea for a way in which you can represent the answers
to these questions, you must speak to me first in order for it to be
approved. Your digital reflection can either be presented to the class, or
just to the me individually. If you are comfortable with presenting, please
talk to me and we can set up a time for you to present when you feel ready
to do so.
This Digital Reflection will be due one week from now, and you will have
plenty of class time to work on it. If you feel like the class time provided
will not be enough, dont be afraid to ask for more time to work on it.
Building Your Digital Reflection: Guiding Questions (Rough Draft)
1. What was your original hypothesis?
2. What does this mean for everyday life?
3. What results can you draw from your bar graph? How does it compare to
your original hypothesis?
4. Using these results, what decisions can you make about building a moving
vehicle?
5. What other factors might have affected the results of your testing?
Building Your Digital Reflection Rubric
Insufficient /
Blank *
Excellent
Proficient
Adequate
Limited *
Data and
Graph
Analysis
(out of 4)
Digital
reflection shows
accurate
interpretation of
the bar graph
and shows
precise
calculations.
Digital
reflection shows
logical
interpretation of
the bar graph
and shows
sufficient
calculations.
Digital
reflection
shows
reasonable
interpretation
of the bar
graph and
shows basic
calculations.
Digital reflection
is lacking
interpretation of
the bar graph and
shows limited
calculations.
No score is awarded
because there is
insufficient evidence of
student performance
based on the
requirements of the
assessment task.
Drawing
Inferences
and
Conclusion
s
(x2 out of
8)
Digital reflection
recognizes
innovative
external factors
and makes
insightful
conclusions in
relation to their
data.
Digital
reflection
recognizes
appropriate
external factors
and makes
thoughtful
conclusions in
relation to their
data.
Digital
reflection
recognizes
limited
external factors
and makes
simplistic
conclusions in
relation to their
data.
Digital reflection
recognizes
irrelevant factors
and makes
disconnected
conclusions in
relation to their
data.
No score is awarded
because there is
insufficient evidence of
student performance
based on the
requirements of the
assessment task.
Adequate
use of
technology
(out of 4)
Digital reflection
is organized
in a purposeful
sequence
and demonstrates
insightful
interaction with
technology.
Digital
reflection is
organized
in a logical
sequence
and
demonstrates
practical
interaction with
technology.
Digital
reflection is
organized
in a partially
suitable
sequence
and
demonstrates
reasonable
interaction
with
technology.
Digital reflection
is unorganized
sequence
and demonstrates
a basic interaction
with technology.
No score is awarded
because there is
insufficient evidence of
student performance
based on the
requirements of the
assessment task.
Application
s to
everyday
settings
(x2 out of
8)
Digital reflection
demonstrates
creative insights
and meaningful
connections to
everyday
settings.
Digital
reflection
demonstrates
practical
insights and
realistic
connections to
everyday
settings.
Digital
reflection
demonstrates
simplistic
insights and
basic
connections to
everyday
settings.
Digital reflection
demonstrates a
lack of insight
and weak
connections to
everyday settings.
No score is awarded
because there is
insufficient evidence of
student performance
based on the
requirements of the
assessment task.
Level
Criteria
No score is awarded
because there is
insufficient evidence of
student performance
based on the
requirements of the
assessment task.
What needs to be evident for excellent (in your own words)?
Part D: Personal reflections (rationale)(Individual reflection) ALYSSA
ALCAZAR
Our mini unit lesson plans are designed to explore the overarching question by exploring how the
vehicles we see in our every day lives move in regards to moving forces. By giving students the opportunity
to think about moving forces in a context that they can understand and relate to, we hope that it will engage
them into what forces are and discover its importance when designing and building a vehicle, in a way that
is meaningful for each student. It was also intended that crosscurricular application of building and
designing a vehicle would create a classroom environment that supported differentiated learning and offered
students multiple perspectives to view the topic from (language, math, science, ICT).
The activities and tasks that students are required to complete throughout the mini unit were
thoughtfully chosen so that the learning was scaffolded. By skillfully sequencing the lessons in a way that has
students build upon their knowledge from previous lessons (defining forcesidentifying and comparing
forcesanalyzing forces), we prevent students from disengaging from learning because they wont be asked
to do something that is perhaps completely out of their current reach.
Moreover, the mini unit enhances student engagement by posing questions to the students that have
them begin with the end in mind. For example, the inquiry question If you were to build your vehicle by
yourself, what moving force would you use to propel it forward? is posed to the students in lesson 2 so they
begin to think about the purpose of identifying and testing different moving forces. Since the students are
aware that they will be constructing a vehicle in future lessons (although not in this miniunit), we hoped the
inquiry questions motivate them to fully understand what moving forces are, and present them with a problem
where they would have to use this knowledge.
The mini unit is also intended to create a positive learning environment and support differentiated
learning by using a variety of instructional strategies to accommodate for a variety of learning styles. In the
first lesson, we accommodate for visual and auditory learners by engaging the class into discussions about
moving forces and having students create diagrams that label and identify different moving forces. In the
second lesson, kinesthetic learners are accommodated for as students identify different moving forces through
experimentation. Additionally, the mini unit creates a positive learning environment by giving students the
opportunity to work in groups and balance student ability. This gives students the chance to learn from their
peers, teach their peers, and promotes collaborative learning.
The performance task was also designed so that students can demonstrate their understanding of
forces in a way they feel is most suitable for them (within a technological framework). By providing students
with more choices, I am hopeful that it will create an environment where students feel more comfortable and
safe to take risks in their learning. Furthermore, the questions posed to students in the performance task are
intended for students to reflect on what they have learned so far and the purpose of why they learned it. I also
hoped that the third lesson would engage students into assessing their own learning and reflect on what is
important in creating an excellent demonstration of understanding. By involving students in the assessment
process, students will be able to take ownership of their learning and practice being independent learners.
Website link: http://alyssaalcazar.weebly.com/miniunit.html
Individually Completed BY ALYSSA ALCAZAR
Rationale: Assessment
Lesson 1: DEFINING MOVING FORCES
Lesson Description:
Students will be using different resources to explore the definition of
moving forces. They will learn the definition of forces, and the definition of
different types of forces. On the provided worksheet (See Lesson 1), they
will write down examples where they have seen these different types of
forces. In partners, they will create diagrams of two vehicles that use
different forces that propel those vehicles forward, and will use word
drawings to label these diagrams.
How does your lesson
scaffold to your
performance task?
This lesson scaffolds to the performance task by first having students
define what moving forces are. This lesson intends to first introduce the
topic, so that future lessons (lesson 2 & 3) can further students
understanding of forces by having them apply the definition to real life
settings. It is intended to provide students with the tools they need in order
to problem solve within the context of building devices and vehicles that
move.
What core assessment
concepts inform your
I believe the biggest influence on our design choice is the concept of
triangulation. Davies (2011) suggests that when evidence is collected
through a balance of observation, conversation, and collection of
design choice?
products, assessment practice becomes more reliable and valid as trends
and patterns of student learning become more apparent. That being said,
we attempted to implement activities that enable the teacher to observe
what the students are doing as they do it, talk to the students about what
they are learning, and collect products (graphic organizers and diagrams)
so that the teacher may plan the next lesson according to what the
students need.
I also believe this lesson begins with the end in mind (Davies, 2011) as
students are initially posed with the question Have you ever wondered
what makes the vehicles you use move? Later in the lesson, students are
posed with the question If you were to build these vehicles, which one
would you build so that students begin to reflect on the decisions they
would make in reference to forces, when designing a vehicle.
Lesson Outcome:
Goals: What do you hope students will learn?
Students will develop an understanding of forces and apply it in a
practical setting to the vehicles they interact with in everyday
settings.
Students will be able to extract information from resources and
identify its connections to everyday applications
Objective (connected to PofS, this lesson only):
ELA  General Outcome 1
o Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to
explore thoughts, ideas, feelings and experiences.
ELA Specific Outcome 1
o use talk, notes, personal writing and representing to record
and reflect on ideas, information and experiences
Science  Specific Outcome 1 (Building Devices & Vehicles That
Move)
o Use simple forces to power or propel a device; e.g., direct
pushes, pulls, cranking, mechanisms, moving air, moving
water and downhill motion
o Note: This lesson will help students develop the foundation
for this outcome
What formative
assessment techniques
will you be using? What
information will you be
collecting? How will you
use that information?
Throughout this lesson, the teacher will be observing students as they
explore different resources on forces. It is intended that the teacher will
look for cues that imply that particular students need more assistance
(perhaps they are having trouble reading, or do not know the definition of
some words, etc.) During this time (and afterwards) the teacher will be
asking students where they have seen the forces listed on their
worksheet. This discussion is intended not only for students to share their
findings with their classmates, but also so the teacher can formatively
assess what students took away from their resource exploration, and
clarify any misunderstandings.
The teacher will also be collecting the poster boards as evidence that
students can apply the knowledge they have just attained to individual
experiences. If students are unable to identify accurate forces that are
being used by the vehicles they choose to draw, then this should inform
the teacher that further instruction is needed on definitions of forces.
Students will also be asked to complete an exit slip before they leave the
class to ensure that students are ready to test moving forces in the next
lesson.
How does your use of
formative assessment
reflect key assessment
concepts?
Description of what
teacher is doing:
We attempted to implement activities that enable the teacher to observe
what the students are doing as they do it, talk to the students about what
they are learning, and collect products (worksheets) so that the teacher
may plan the next lesson according to what the students need. This way,
evidence of learning is triangulated, and the teacher is better equipped to
identify patterns in the way students learn and what they learn in a reliable
and valid way (Davies, 2011).
The teacher will observe students as they explore the provided
resources about forces. The teacher will then guide a discussion
where students will share their findings and fill out the remaining
sections in their graphic organizers. The teacher will also provide
students with proper definitions of the forces listed in their organizers
so students can complete the definitions column.
After the discussion, the teacher will provide students with poster boards and
give instructions for creating diagrams of vehicles that label different moving
forces.
The teacher will then ask the students to complete an exit slip with the following
questions,
What are 3 things that we now know about forces?
Give 2 examples of where these forces are seen?
What is a possible difference between you and your partners
forces?
Description of what
students are doing:
Something I still wonder about...
Students will be researching moving forces by exploring the provided
resources (see materials in lesson 1). They will be completing the
Where have you seen it? column of their graphic organizers as
they go through these resources.
Students will then share their findings in a class discussion and will
fill out the definitions column of their graphic organizers as the
teacher goes through each definition.
Students, with a partner, will create diagrams of two vehicles that
use different forces that propel those vehicles forward, and will label
which forces are being used on these vehicles.
Students will then complete an exit slip with the following questions
What are 3 things that we now know about forces?
Give 2 examples of where these forces are seen?
What is a possible difference between you and your partners
forces?
Something I still wonder about...
Sequence of key
questions:
Evidence of Lesson
Components (opening,
closing, content, timeline)
Overarching question: How do our vehicles take us where we need to go?
Have you ever wondered what makes the vehicles they use move?
Where have you Seen it? (Where have you seen these forces?)
If it was your job to build these vehicles, which would you build (after 3rd
lesson, this miniunit would tie into the design of the students selected
vehicle, after data has been analyzed)
What are 3 things that we now know about forces?
Give 2 examples of where these forces are seen?
What is a possible difference between you and your partners
forces?
Something I still wonder about...
Opening: Students are introduced to the concept of forces as they go
through the different resources provided. As they explore these
resources, they will fill out the Where Have You Seen It column of
the provided worksheet.
Content: Students will share their findings from their resources, and
the teacher will define the different types of resources listed on the
provided worksheet, so students may fill out the definition column
of their worksheet.
Students will also create diagrams of two vehicles that use different
moving forces that propel those vehicles forward.
Closing: Students complete an exit slip answering three questions
(see lesson 1) that will assist the teacher in planning the next lesson.
Timeline: This lesson was designed to be done within a onehour
time frame (see lesson 1 for specific time estimations of activities). It
is intended to have enough time for students to be thoroughly
introduced to the concept of moving forces, as it will be further
explored in future lessons.
Rationale Assessment
Lesson 2: TESTING MOVING FORCES
Lesson Description:
Students will be further exploring the concept of forces on moving vehicles by
testing two vehicles (3 times each) that use different primary forces to propel it
forward.
After recording their results, students will learn how to calculate averages and
properly construct bar graphs in relation to their results.
How does your lesson
scaffold to your
performance task?
Students are building upon their prior knowledge on forces (see lesson 1)
as they move on from defining forces to comparing forces. Testing and
comparing forces in this lesson is intended to prepare students to further
analyze moving forces and decide on which force they would use when
building and designing vehicles.
Students will also be given instructions on how to construct bar graphs so
they can show they understand on how to analyze one in their
performance task.
What core assessment
concepts inform your
design choice?
Like lesson 1(or all lessons), it is important that evidence of learning is
balanced between observation, conversation, and collection of products
(triangulation).
Furthermore, we aim to ask questions that are directly related to the
intended learning outcomes to make sure the evidence we collect during
conversations is valid.
Students were also able to choose the type of vehicle and moving force
they want to test so they are given an opportunity to show their
understanding in a way that is meaningful to them.
Lesson outcome:
Goals:
Students will develop an understanding of forces and apply it in a practical setting
to the vehicles they interact with in everyday settings.
Students will collect data from trials and present it in a meaningful visual way.
Objective (connected to PofS, this lesson only):
Science  Specific Outcome 2:
Use simple forces to power or propel a device; e.g., direct pushes, pulls, cranking
mechanisms, moving air, moving water and downhill motion.
Math 4 Specific Outcome :
Demonstrate an understanding of manytoone correspondence. [C, R, T, V] [ICT: C62.2,
C62.3]
Math 4 Specific Outcome:
Construct and interpret pictographs and bar graphs involving manytoone correspondence
to draw conclusions. [C, PS, R, V]
What formative
assessment techniques
will you be using? What
information will you be
collecting? How will you
use that information?
A graffiti wall is used so that teacher can collect information on what students
learned took away from the lesson prior to this one. Based on what students
write on the wall, the teacher can assess students on what they think is
important, and if there are any important concepts missing from the wall, the
teacher can take the time to go over these concepts.
I believe the focus during activity 2 in terms of assessment is collection of
products and observation. As students will be required to analyze bar graphs and
averages in their performance task, it is important that students know how to
calculate averages and construct bar graphs. That being said, the teacher will
assess the students by collecting their data sheets to ensure they know how to
make accurate calculations from their data, and will observe students through
each step of instruction (on bar graphs) to ensure they understand how to make
one, and clarify misunderstandings if any.
During the conclusion, students will also be asked questions based on the data
they collected during testing, to see if students are already able to begin
analyzing their data. If there are any apparent misunderstandings, then the
teacher can plan the next lesson accordingly, preparing to teach students how to
draw accurate results from their data.
The graffiti wall is then utilized once more to see what students took away from
testing different forces. I would use this information to see if students saw the
purpose of testing vehicles, and if this knowledge were not apparent, I would
directly ask students why they thought they were required to test different
moving forces.
How does your use of
formative assessment
reflect key assessment
The use of formative assessment is intended for learning (Davies, 2011),
and so we aim to implement assessment practice that will ultimate enrich
the learning experience. Evidence is triangulated so that the assessment
concepts?
practices being used is fair to the students, and so the teacher can draw
accurate inferences about students knowledge and make informed
decisions about they will teach and what they will teach in future lessons.
Observing students as they test different forces, discussing with them
what they learned from testing, and collecting their data sheets the graffiti
wall reflects triangulation of evidence, so that patterns become more
apparent, and again, so accurate inferences about students learning can
be drawn.
Description of what
teacher is doing:
(See lesson plan 2 above)
Teacher asks students to contribute to graffiti wall to reintroduce the topic,
connect their prior learning and excite the students.
The teacher then provides clear instructions, identifying how the students will
complete their experiments, afterwards circulating to provide additional
assistance.
Once students are finished, the teacher explains the connection to other subjects
(math) and the students create bar graphs based on calculated averages.
The teacher will then collect the data sheets from the experiment as a method of
formative assessment (These will be handed back to the students in the next
lesson) and opens a class discussion. This acts as a debrief, where students are
asked to volunteer their responses to answer a series of questions (allows them
to share info in a safe, nonjudgmental environment). The teacher then once
again asks the students to contribute to their graffiti wall.
Description of what
students are doing:
(See lesson plan 2 above)
To begin, students once again contribute to their graffiti wall to reintroduce the
topic, connect their prior learning and excite the students.
Students then individually write hypotheses based on their exploration of forces
and collaborate with their peers. Students then work in pairs to begin testing
their vehicles through multiple trials and record their data. Students are asked to
identify a variety of variables (this can be done while students are waiting to use
other stations). Once finished, students receive instruction regarding how to turn
their data into calculations and graphs, completing their work individually
(collaboration encouraged). Prior to the end of the lesson, students are asked to
again contribute to the graffiti wall by writing something that they took away
from the lesson.
Sequence of key
questions:
Overarching Question  How do our vehicles take us where we need to go?
Inquiry Question  If you were to build your vehicle by yourself, what moving
force would you use to propel it forward?
Questions that will be asked at the end of the lesson:
Which observation stood out to you? What do you think it means in terms of a
conclusion from your data? How does this compare with your hypothesis? It
should be noted that some students can simply state that they dont know what it
means (this will be explored and answered in the next lesson)
What was your biggest takeaway from todays lesson?
Evidence of Lesson
Components (opening,
closing, content, timeline)
Opening  entrance slip graffiti wall
Closing  exit slip on the same graffiti wall
Content  students perform their tests with their vehicles, then take the data they
collected and create a corresponding bar graph.
Rationale: Assessment
Lesson 3: ANALYZING MOVING FORCES
Lesson Description:
How does your lesson
scaffold to your
performance task?
Students work to develop their ideas regarding the scientific procedure
of their previous explorations/experiments of forces (developed in
lessons 1 & 2). These ideas will then be presented in a digital reflection
of their choice (performance task). They then assist in adjusting the
criteria for the assignment and adding their own contributions. Students
are given adequate time to complete this assignment in future lessons.
Assuming students can accurately define moving forces and compare
moving forces at this point, students should be prepared to learn how to
analyze moving forces and present the inferences they draw from their
teacher in a digital format.
The entire miniunit is intended to ask students to perform tasks that
they can do, and build upon skills they already have (defining and
comparing).
What core assessment
concepts inform your
design choice?
The core assessment concepts utilized in this particular lesson is
involving students in the assessment process. As Davies (2011)
suggests, if students are more involved in classroom assessment, they
are more like to be engaged in learning and more motivated to
succeed.
Lesson Outcome:
Lesson General Goals:
students demonstrate a comprehensive understanding of data
analysis
students demonstrate their ability to draw appropriate inferences from data
students demonstrate the ability to provide appropriate suggestions and
feedback when constructing criteria
Lesson Specific Outcomes:
ICT General Outcome C4  Students will use organizational
processes and tools to manage inquiry.
ICT Specific Outcome 2.3  Reflect on and describe the processes involved
in completing a project
What formative
assessment techniques
will you be using? What
information will you be
collecting? How will you
use that information?
The assessment techniques used in this lesson mainly are peerassessment, self assessment, observation, and exit slips.
From observing the students as they give feedback to their peers (see
introduction of lesson 3), the teacher assesses the students to see if
currently draw logical conclusions from their data, and if they can
provide helpful suggestions to their peers.
Activity 2 is intended for students to reflect on what is important to
create an excellent digital reflection, so they can later self assess
themselves on their performance as they create their reflections.
Activity 2 is also intended to involve students in the assessment
process to engage them into the performance task and motivate them
to work hard on their digital reflections.
How does your use of
formative assessment
reflect key assessment
concepts?
Although other assessment concepts and practices are not forgotten,
the focus during this lesson is involving students in the assessment
process, and providing them with multiple modalities to demonstrate
their understanding.
As one mode of a digital reflection may not be engaging for every
student, it is encouraged that students choose the method that works
best for them. The intention here is to implement an assessment
practice that is fair to the students and practice assessment that
accommodates for multiple learning styles. (See performance task).
The teacher also gives time for students to work on their digital
reflection in class (in future lessons) so they are readily available to give
necessary feedback so students have the opportunity to improve their
reflections before it is summatively assessed.
By discussing the rubric with the students and have them provide
suggestions on how the rubric can better suit their needs, students are
engaged into how they are being assessed. Students are encouraged
to provide suggestions also because we intended for students to reflect
on what aspects of the performance task they feel is important to work
on, so they can later selfassess themselves on if they are putting in
their best effort.
Furthermore, students are asked to complete an exit slip to guide the
teacher in making decisions about how they will teach the next part of
the unit Structure and Design of Moving Vehicles.
Description of what
teacher is doing:
Because the students dont actually build the digital reflection
(performance task) in this lesson, the teacher allows the students to
develop individual ideas that will later be included in the reflection. The
teacher explains that in a future lesson, the students will be creating their
choice of digital reflection (includes selections such as video, animation,
audio recording, powerPoint, mindmap or digital book/magazine.
Additional choices may be preapproved by the teacher. This engages
students by allowing them a choice, while still strengthening their
technological skills. We do not think the students will be able to
complete their sheets within the specified time constraints, but the
lesson could be adjusted so that students who have completed their idea
sheets can start working with their technology of choice.
Description of what
students are doing:
Students will be taking their analyzed and collected data and analyzing
it and creating their own conclusions. These students will be represented
in a visual and meaningful way through the use of technology in the
performance task. By using technology in this task, it allows them to
enhance their experience and skills with technology and use software to
best represent their data and conclusions in a way that is meaningful to
them. This could include: video, animation, PowerPoint, audio
recording, MindMap, or digital book/magazine
Sequence of key
questions:
Overarching Question:
How do our vehicles take us where we need to go?
Specific Inquiry Questions:
Which vehicle moves the farthest? Was it close to what you originally
predicted? Why/Why not?
What was your original hypothesis? What does this mean for everyday
life? What results can you draw from your bar graph and how does it
compare to your original hypothesis?
Using these results, what decisions can you make about building a moving
vehicle?
What other factors might have affected the results of your testing?
When designing a vehicle, what are some modifications that could be made
to help it move more efficiently and safely?
Evidence of Lesson
Components (opening,
closing, content, timeline)
Opening: Students develop conclusions from data (from lesson 2) and give/receive
feedback and suggestions. These suggestions will form an additional basis for stud
develop ideas for their reflection.
Content: The teacher provides instruction for the reflection (performance
task). Students complete worksheet, outlining their ideas and considering
the key questions for the digital reflection. Students then assist in
reviewing and modifying the subsequent criteria in the rubric, making
additions as needed.
Conclusion: Students reflect upon what they need to do to achieve an
excellent performance standard within the criteria they developed.
Teacher connects this lesson to what they will be exploring in the next
miniunit (structure and design modifications needed to make vehicles
move efficiently and safely).
Timeline: We estimated this entire lesson to take approximately one
hour, intending to give students additional time as needed within the
next miniunit to complete their reflections (as much as needed for
students to efficiently demonstrate their thoughts).
Rationale: Ed Technology
Lesson 3  Analyzing Moving Forces
Lesson
Overview:
Lesson
Outcomes &
Goals:
Instructional
Processes
Description:
Students work to develop their
ideas regarding the scientific
procedure of their previous
explorations/experiments of
forces (developed in lessons 1
& 2). These ideas will then be
presented in a digital
reflection of their choice
(performance task). They then
assist in adjusting the criteria
for the assignment and adding
their own contributions.
Students are given adequate
time to complete this
assignment in future lessons.
How technology promotes
student engagement:
The use of technology for the
performance task gives students
the option to choose a mode of
technology that they are
comfortable with, want to
explore, or feel will represent
their data and conclusions in a
visual and meaningful way.
Students will use technology as a
tool to organize their
information, and allow them to
reflect upon the action of forces
in their experiments for their
performance task.
Giving students the option to
select a technology of their
choice allows for differentiation
of instruction, providing the
students with a choice to select
the technology that is most
suited to their learning style and
individual needs.
Lesson General Goals:
Lesson Specific Outcomes:
students demonstrate a
comprehensive
ICT General Outcome C4 understanding of data
Students will use
analysis
organizational processes and
students demonstrate their ability
tools to manage inquiry.
to draw appropriate inferences
ICT Specific Outcome 2.3  Reflect on
from data
and describe the processes involved in
students demonstrate the ability to
completing a project
provide appropriate suggestions
and feedback when constructing
criteria
What is the teacher doing?
Because the students dont
What are the students doing?
Students will be taking their
actually build the digital
reflection (performance task) in
this lesson, the teacher allows
the students to develop
individual ideas that will later
be included in the reflection.
The teacher explains that in a
future lesson, the students will
be creating their choice of
digital reflection (includes
selections such as video,
animation, audio recording,
powerPoint, mindmap or digital
book/magazine. Additional
choices may be preapproved
by the teacher. This engages
students by allowing them a
choice, while still strengthening
their technological skills. We
do not think the students will
be able to complete their sheets
within the specified time
constraints, but the lesson could
be adjusted so that students
who have completed their idea
sheets can start working with
their technology of choice.
Downsides to
Technology:
Key
Questions:
analyzed and collected data and
analyzing it and creating their
own conclusions. These students
will be represented in a visual
and meaningful way through the
use of technology in the
performance task. By using
technology in this task, it allows
them to enhance their experience
and skills with technology and
use software to best represent
their data and conclusions in a
way that is meaningful to them.
This could include: video,
animation, PowerPoint, audio
recording, MindMap, or digital
book/magazine
students may not be familiar with various technologies due to a lack
of previous exposure either at home or at school
the teacher cannot assume that every student has access to
technology at home, so technology for their performance tasks must
be utilized during class time.
technology may fail due to a variety of reasons; our lesson allows
for a teacher to continue instruction into the next unit should this
happen
Overarching Question:
How do our vehicles take us
where we need to go?
Specific Inquiry Questions:
Which vehicle moves the farthest?
Was it close to what you originally
predicted? Why/Why not?
What was your original hypothesis?
What does this mean for everyday
life? What results can you draw from
your bar graph and how does it
compare to your original hypothesis?
Using these results, what decisions can
you make about building a moving
vehicle?
What other factors might have affected
the results of your testing?
When designing a vehicle, what are
some modifications that could be made
to help it move more efficiently and
safely?
Lesson
Components
Students develop conclusions from data (from lesson 2) and give/receive
peer feedback and suggestions. These suggestions will form an additional
basis for students to develop ideas for their reflection.
Opening
Content:
Conclusion:
Time
estimation:
The teacher provides instruction for the reflection (performance task).
Students complete worksheet, outlining their ideas and considering the
key questions for the digital reflection. Students then assist in reviewing
and modifying the subsequent criteria in the rubric, making additions as
needed.
Students reflect upon what they need to do to achieve an excellent
performance standard within the criteria they developed. Teacher connects
this lesson to what they will be exploring in the next miniunit (structure
and design modifications needed to make vehicles move efficiently and
safely).
We estimated this entire lesson to take approximately one hour,
intending to give students additional time as needed within the next
miniunit to complete their reflections (as much as needed for
students to efficiently demonstrate their thoughts).
Rationale: Ed Psychology Defense
Lesson 2 TESTING MOVING FORCES
Connections to Learning Theories &
Demonstration of Attention to a Classroom
Structure and Climate
Lesson
Overview:
Lesson Outcome:
Goals:
Students will develop an understanding of
forces and apply it in a practical setting to
the vehicles they interact with in everyday
settings.
Students will collect data from trials and
present it in a meaningful visual way.
Objective (connected to PofS, this
lesson only):
Science  Specific Outcome 2:
Use simple forces to power or propel a
device; e.g., direct pushes, pulls, cranking
mechanisms, moving air, moving water
and downhill motion.
Math 4 Specific Outcome :
Demonstrate an understanding of manytoone
correspondence. [C, R, T, V] [ICT: C62.2,
C62.3]
Forces and movement is something that students
come into contact with on a daily basis. This topic
is meaningful to students and can be very
motivational for them to uncover and explore.
Students will take the knowledge they adopted in
Lesson 1 and apply it to Lesson 2. Vygotsky
emphasized this scaffolding of learning, where
student learning builds and grows upon each
other. By having students take this knowledge and
kinesthetically explore for themselves in a reallife setting, it can create concrete connections that
will remain in their sensory and longterm
memory (and will be easier for them to access in
the future).
Math 4 Specific Outcome:
Construct and interpret pictographs and bar
graphs involving manytoone correspondence
to draw conclusions. [C, PS, R, V]
Brief Lesson Description:
Students will be further exploring the
concept of forces on moving vehicles by
testing two vehicles (3 times each) that
use different primary forces to propel it
forward.
After recording their results, students
will learn how to calculate averages and
properly construct bar graphs in relation
to their results.
Instructiona
l Processes
Summarized description of what
teacher is doing:
(See lesson plan 2 above)
Teacher asks students to contribute to
graffiti wall to reintroduce the topic,
connect their prior learning and excite
the students.
The teacher then provides clear
instructions, identifying how the students
will complete their experiments,
afterwards circulating to provide
additional assistance.
Once students are finished, the teacher
explains the connection to other subjects
(math) and the students create bar graphs
based on calculated averages.
The teacher will then collect the data
sheets from the experiment as a method
of formative assessment (These will be
handed back to the students in the next
lesson) and opens a class discussion.
This acts as a debrief, where students are
asked to volunteer their responses to
answer a series of questions (allows them
to share info in a safe, nonjudgmental
This lesson was developed around the idea of
students constructing meaning for themselves by
exploring a topic they come into contact with on a
daily basis. The handson approach allows for
metacognitive learning and also accommodates
for kinesthetic learning styles. (To see how other
learning styles were accommodates for, please
refer to lessons 1 and 3).
This miniunit asks the teacher to place an
emphasis on balancing student ability within the
preselected groups. This helps students to scaffold
off of one another, and stay motivated and on task
while completing their explorations.
By incorporating multiple learning styles
throughout the first two lessons, the teacher is
helping to create a safe, positive, inclusive
classroom environment for students. Not only
does this allow them to engage in deeper, more
meaningful learning, it also allows for
differentiated instruction.
environment). The teacher then once
again asks the students to contribute to
their graffiti wall.
Summarized description of what
students are doing:
(See lesson plan 2 above)
To begin, students once again contribute
to their graffiti wall to reintroduce the
topic, connect their prior learning and
excite the students.
Students then individually write
hypotheses based on their exploration of
forces and collaborate with their peers.
Students then work in pairs to begin
testing their vehicles through multiple
trials and record their data. Students are
asked to identify a variety of variables
(this can be done while students are
waiting to use other stations). Once
finished, students receive instruction
regarding how to turn their data into
calculations and graphs, completing their
work individually (collaboration
encouraged). Prior to the end of the
lesson, students are asked to again
contribute to the graffiti wall by writing
something that they took away from the
lesson.
Sequence of key questions:
Overarching Question  How do our
vehicles take us where we need to go?
Inquiry Question  If you were to build
your vehicle by yourself, what moving
force would you use to propel it
forward?
Questions that will be asked at the end
of the lesson:
Which observation stood out to you?
What do you think it means in terms of a
Even though students explored the definition of
forces in the previous lesson, one lesson is not
enough to fully understand the topic or create a
meaningful response to the overarching question.
Their ability to think critically about forces must
become overlearned or relatively automatic in
order to transfer this knowledge to new situations
(Perry, Winne, Woolfolk, 2013). Vygotsky also
theorized that students learn better when their
learning is scaffolded. Therefore, students are
building upon their previous knowledge from the
first lesson so they begin to think deeper about
their prior knowledge on forces.
The inquiry questions presented to students in this
lesson emphasize the use of inquiry and problembased learning to engage students to think deeper
about their learning.This problembased approach
(a key component of math and science front
matter) helps students develop for themselves the
skills they need to create logical solutions to
problems. Students also engage in metacognitive
learning, engaging them to be active participants
in their own learning and creating a very
constructivist classroom.
conclusion from your data? How does
this compare with your hypothesis? It
should be noted that some students can
simply state that they dont know what it
means (this will be explored and
answered in the next lesson)
What was your biggest takeaway from
todays lesson?
Evidence of Lesson Components
(opening, closing, content, timeline)
(See lesson plan 2 above)
Opening  entrance slip graffiti wall
Closing  exit slip on the same graffiti
wall
Content  students perform their tests
with their vehicles, then take the data
they collected and create a
corresponding bar graph.
This lesson is designed in a way that allows for
logical scaffolding for students. The components
are presented in a way that should motivate
students as well as follow the logical ordering of
experimentation. The entrance slip gives students
the opportunity to reflect back to what they
learned in Lesson 1 and can think about how the
forces they studied can be applied to their tests.
The exit slip also gives students the opportunity to
express what they uncovered and discovered
through the course of the lesson.