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Friction

Introduction

In preceding chapters, it was assumed that surfaces in contact were

either frictionless (surfaces could move freely with respect to each

other) or rough (tangential forces prevent relative motion between

surfaces).

Actually, no perfectly frictionless surface exists. For two surfaces

in contact, tangential forces, called friction forces, will develop if

one attempts to move one relative to the other.

However, the friction forces are limited in magnitude and will not

prevent motion if sufficiently large forces are applied.

The distinction between frictionless and rough is, therefore, a matter

of degree.

There are two types of friction: dry or Coulomb friction and fluid

friction. Fluid friction applies to lubricated mechanisms. The

present discussion is limited to dry friction between nonlubricated

surfaces.

29-09-2014

Block of weight W placed on horizontal

surface. Forces acting on block are its weight

and reaction of surface N.

Small horizontal force P applied to block. For

block to remain stationary, in equilibrium, a

horizontal component F of the surface reaction

is required. F is a static-friction force.

As P increases, the static-friction force F

increases as well until it reaches a maximum

value Fm.

Fm = s N

to move as F drops to a smaller kinetic-friction

force Fk.

Fk = k N

Maximum static-friction force:

Fm = s N

Kinetic-friction force:

Fk = k N

k 0.75 s

Maximum static-friction force and kineticfriction force are:

- proportional to normal force

- dependent on type and condition of

contact surfaces

- independent of contact area

29-09-2014

Four situations can occur when a rigid body is in contact with

a horizontal surface:

No friction,

(Px = 0)

No motion,

(Px < Fm)

Motion impending,

(Px = Fm)

Motion,

(Px > Fm)

Angles of Friction

It is sometimes convenient to replace normal force

N and friction force F by their resultant R:

No motion

No friction

Motion impending

F

N

tan s = m = s

N

N

tan s = s

Motion

tan k =

Fk k N

=

N

N

tan k = k

29-09-2014

Angles of Friction

Consider block of weight W resting on board with

variable inclination angle .

No friction

No motion

Motion

impending

Motion

is known

Motion is impending

will remain at rest or slide

Coefficient of static

friction is known

Motion is impending

Determine value of coefficient

Determine magnitude or

of static friction.

direction of one of the

applied forces

29-09-2014

Problem-1

Determine the maximum angle which the adjustable

incline may have with the horizontal before the block of

mass m begins to slip. The coefficient of static friction

between the block and the inclined surface is s.

Problem-2

Determine the range of values which the mass m0 may

have so that the 100-kg block shown in the figure will

neither start moving up the plane nor slip down the plane.

The coefficient of static friction for the contact surface is

0.30.

Case-I

The maximum value of m0 will be given by the

requirement for motion impending up the plane.

Case-II

The maximum value of m0 will be given by the

requirement for motion impending down the plane.

29-09-2014

Problem-3

Determine the magnitude and direction of the friction force

acting on the 100-kG block shown if, first, P = 500 N and,

second, P = 100 N. the coefficient of static friction is 0.20 and

the coefficient of kinetic friction is 0.17. The forces are

applied with the block initially at rest.

exist, and we obtain the correct value of the friction force by using the kinetic coefficient

of friction accompanying the motion down the plane. Hence, the answer is

29-09-2014

Problem-4

The homogeneous rectangular block of mass m, width b and

height H is placed on the horizontal surface and subjected to

a horizontal force P which moves the block along the

surface with a constant velocity . The coefficient of kinetic

friction between the block and the surface is k. Determine

(a) The greatest value which h may have so that the block

will slide down without tipping over

(b) The location of a point C on the bottom face of the

block through which the resultant of the friction and

the normal forces acts if h = H/2.

Solution (a)

OR

Problem-4 continued

Solution (b)

29-09-2014

Problem-5

The uniform 10-kg ladder rests against the

smooth wall at B. and the end A rests on the

rough horizontal plane for which the coefficient

of static friction is s= 0.3. Determine the angle

of inclination (If the ladder and the normal

reaction at B if the ladder is on the verge of

slipping.

Solution

29-09-2014

Problem-6

The three flat blocks are positioned on the 300 incline

as shown, and a force P parallel to the incline is applied

to the middle block. The upper block is prevented from

moving by a wire which attaches it to the fixed support.

The coefficient of static friction for each of the three

pairs of mating surfaces is shown. Determine the

maximum value which P may have before any slipping

takes place

We will assume arbitrarily that only the 50-kg block slips, so that the 40-kg block remains in

place. Thus, for impending slippage at both surfaces of the 50-kg block, we have

For 50 Kg Block

For 40 Kg Block

Thus, 468 N cannot be supported and our initial assumption was wrong.

We conclude, therefore, that slipping occurs first between the 40-kg block and the incline.

With the corrected value F3 = 459 N, equilibrium of the 40-kg block for its impending motion

requires

29-09-2014

Wedges

Wedges - simple

machines used to raise

heavy loads.

Force required to lift

block is significantly

less than block weight.

Friction prevents wedge

from sliding out.

Want to find minimum

force P to raise block.

Block as free-body

Wedge as free-body

Fx = 0 :

Fx = 0 :

N1 + s N 2 = 0

s N 2 N3 ( s cos 6 sin 6)

Fy = 0 :

W s N1 + N 2 = 0

or

r

r

v

R1 + R2 + W = 0

+P=0

Fy = 0 :

N 2 + N3 (cos 6 s sin 6) = 0

or

r r

r

P R2 + R3 = 0

29-09-2014

In most cases, screws are used as fasteners; however, in many types of machines

they are incorporated to transmit power or motion from one part of the machine

to another.

A square-threaded screw is commonly used for the latter purpose, especially

when large forces are applied along its axis.

Screw Thread

29-09-2014

remains in place under any axial load W

when the moment M is removed. For this

to occur, the direction of the frictional

force must be reversed so that R acts on

the other side of N .

If

the screw will unwind

by itself and M is the moment

required to prevent unwinding.

screw

29-09-2014

Problem-7

If the coefficient of friction between the

steel wedge and the moist fibres of the

newly cut stamp is 0.20, determine the

maximum angle which the wedge may

have and not pop out of the wood after

being driven by the sledge.

/ 2 = = tan 1

= 2 tan 1 (0.2) = 22.6 0

R

/2

Problem-8

The uniform stone has a mass of 500 kg

and is held in the horizontal position using

a wedge at B . If the coefficient of static

friction is s = 0.3 at the surfaces of

contact, determine the minimum force P

needed to remove the wedge. Assume that

the stone does not slip at A .

FBD

/2

29-09-2014

found from the equilibrium triangles of the

forces on the load and on the wedge.

2 - 28

29-09-2014

Problem-9

Determine the force P required to

force the 100 wedge under the 90kg uniform crate which rests

against the small stop at A. The

coefficient of friction for all

surfaces is 0.40.

90(9.8)N

0.6m

R2 cos( + 50 ) 1.2 = 0

0.35m

R2 = 518 N

50

R2

A

R3

2 - 29

90(9.8)N

0.6m

0.35m

50

R2

R3

On solving

R1 = 471 N and P = 449 N

R2

100

R1

29-09-2014

Problem 13

The coefficient of static friction

between the 100-lb body and the

wedge is 0.20. Determine the

magnitude of the force P required to

begin raising the 100-lb body if

(a) rollers of negligible friction are

present under the wedge, as illustrated,

(b) the rollers are removed and the

coefficient of static friction applies at

this surface as well.

100 lb

R3

R2

150

R2

150

R1

2 - 31

a)

Block:

=0

100 lb

R3

R2 = 111.6 lb

R2

150

Wedge:

R2

=0

150

R2 sin(150 + 11.310 ) P = 0

R1

P2 = 49.4 lb

y

2 - 32

29-09-2014

100 lb body is unchanged.

=0

0

R2

0

150

R1

P = 69.4 lb

Problem 10

SOLUTION

Calculate lead angle .

Using block and plane analogy with

impending motion up the plane, calculate

the clamping force with a force triangle.

A clamp is used to hold two pieces of

wood together as shown. The clamp

has a double square thread of mean

diameter equal to 10 mm with a lead

of 4 mm. The coefficient of friction

between threads is s = 0.30.

If a maximum torque of 40 N*m is

applied in tightening the clamp,

determine (a) the force exerted on the

pieces of wood, and (b) the torque

required to loosen the clamp.

calculate the force and torque required to

loosen the clamp.

29-09-2014

tan =

L

2 r

4

= 0.1273

10

= 7.3

tan s = s = 0.30

s = 16.7

Using block and plane analogy with impending

motion up the plane, calculate clamping force with

force triangle.

40 N m

= 8 kN

5 mm

8 kN

W=

tan 24

Q r = 40 N m

tan ( + s ) =

Q=

Q

W

W = 17.97 kN

the force and torque required to loosen the clamp.

tan ( s ) =

Q

W

Q = 2.975 kN

)(

= 2.975 103 N 5 10 3 m

Torque = 14.87 N m

29-09-2014

Problem 11

The 40-mm diameter screw has a double

square thread with a pitch of 12 mm and a lead

of 24 mm. the screw and its mating threads in

the fixed block are graphite-lubricated and

have a friction coefficient of 0.15. if a torque

M = 60 N.m is applied to the right handed

portion of the shaft, determine (a) the force P

required to advance the shaft to the right and

(b) the force P which would allow the shaft to

move to the left at a constant speed.

Helix angle

= tan 1 ( 24 / 40 ) = 10.810

> so screw is not self locking.

+ = 19.34 0 ,

a)

M = Pr tan( )

60 = P(0.02) tan 2.28

= 2.28 0

b)

P = 75.3N

M = Pr tan( + )

60 = P(0.02) tan 19.340

P = 75.3 N

Problem 12

The vertical position of the 100-kg block is

adjusted by the screw-activated wedge.

Calculate the moment M which must be

applied to the handle of the screw to raise

the block. The single-thread screw has

square threads with a mean diameter of 30

mm and advances 10 mm for each complete

turn. The coefficient of friction for the

screw threads is 0.25, and the coefficient of

friction for all mating surfaces of the block

and wedge is 0.40. Neglect friction at the

ball joint A.

R1

100(9.8) N

R2

100

y

R2

R3

2 - 38

29-09-2014

x

R1

100(9.8) N

R1

90-

100(9.8) N

90-

R2

100

R2

R2

P

Block:

=0

R3

981 cos 21.800 = R2 cos 53.600

R2 = 1535N

2 - 39

Wedge:

=0

1535 cos 36.400 = P cos 21.800

P2 = 1331N

y

R2

x

P

Angle between

R2 and x axis =

90-(2+100)

R3

29-09-2014

Screw:

L

10

=

= 0.1273

2 r 2 (15)mm

tan s = s = 0.25

tan =

s = 20.090

M = P r tan( + )

M = 1331(0.015) tan 20.080

M = 7.30 N

Belt Friction

Consider the flat belt which passes over a

fixed curved surface. The total angle of

belt to surface contact in radians is , and

the coefficient of friction between the

two surfaces is .

We wish to determine the tension T2 in

the belt, which is needed to pull the belt

counterclockwise over the surface, and

thereby overcome both the frictional

forces at the surface of contact and the

tension T1 in the other end of the belt.

Obviously, T2 > T1.

29-09-2014

2 - 44

29-09-2014

Problem 13

SOLUTION:

Since angle of contact is smaller,

slippage will occur on pulley B first.

Determine belt tensions based on

pulley B.

Taking pulley A as a free-body, sum

moments about pulley center to

determine torque.

A flat belt connects pulley A to pulley B.

The coefficients of friction are s = 0.25

and k = 0.20 between both pulleys and

the belt.

Knowing that the maximum allowable

tension in the belt is 600 lb, determine

the largest torque which can be exerted

by the belt on pulley A.

Problem 13

SOLUTION:

Since angle of contact is smaller, slippage will

occur on pulley B first. Determine belt tensions

based on pulley B.

T2

= e s

T1

T1 =

600 lb

= e 0.25(2 3) = 1.688

T1

600 lb

= 355.4 lb

1.688

pulley center to determine torque.

MA = 0:

M A + (8 in.)(355.4 lb 600 lb ) = 0

M A = 163.1lb ft

29-09-2014

Problem 13

The 180-lb rock climber is lowered over the edge

of the cliff by his two companions, who together

exert a horizontal pull T of 75-lb on the rope.

Compute the coefficient of friction between rope

and the rock.

=/3

P

P

P

= e ,

T

= 0.699

155.9

= e / 3

75

180 lb

Journal bearings provide lateral support to rotating

shafts. Thrust bearings provide axial support

Frictional resistance of fully lubricated bearings

depends on clearances, speed and lubricant viscosity.

Partially lubricated axles and bearings can be

assumed to be in direct contact along a straight line.

Forces acting on bearing are weight W of wheels and

shaft, couple M to maintain motion, and reaction R

of the bearing.

Reaction is vertical and equal in magnitude to W.

Reaction line of action does not pass through shaft

center O; R is located to the right of O, resulting in

a moment that is balanced by M.

Physically, contact point is displaced as axle

climbs in bearing.

29-09-2014

normal to bearing

surface is the angle of

kinetic friction k.

M = Rr sin k

reaction as forcecouple system.

R must be tangent to

circle of friction.

r f = r sin k

r k

Rr k

with ground has no

relative motion with

respect to ground.

Ideally, no friction.

resistance of axle bearing

requires couple produced by

equal and opposite P and F.

Without friction at rim,

wheel would slide.

ground cause resultant of

ground reaction to be

applied at B. P is required

to balance moment of W

about B.

Pr = Wb

b = coef of rolling resistance

29-09-2014

Problem 14

The two flywheels arre mounted on a common shaft

which is supported by a journal bearing between

them. Each flywheel has a mass of 40 kg and the

diameter of the shaft is 40 mm. if a 3 N.m couple M

on the shaft is required to maintain rotation of the

flywheels and shaft at a constant low speed, compute

(a) the coefficient of friction in the bearing and (b)

the radius rf of the friction circle.

M = Rr sin ,

sin =

3

M

=

Rr 2(40)(9.81)(0.040 / 2)

= 11.02 0

= tan = 0.1947

r f = r sin = 0.020 sin 11.020 = 0.00382 m = 3.82 mm

2 - 51

A pulley of diameter 4 in. can

rotate about a fixed shaft of

diameter 2 in. The coefficient of

static friction between the pulley

and shaft is 0.20.

Determine:

the smallest vertical force P

required to start raising a

500 lb load,

the smallest vertical force P

required to hold the load,

and

the smallest horizontal force

P required to start raising

the same load.

SOLUTION:

With the load on the left and force

P on the right, impending motion

is clockwise to raise load. Sum

moments about displaced contact

point B to find P.

Impending motion is counterclockwise as load is held

stationary with smallest force P.

Sum moments about C to find P.

With the load on the left and force

P acting horizontally to the right,

impending motion is clockwise to

raise load. Utilize a force triangle

to find P.

29-09-2014

SOLUTION:

With the load on the left and force P on the right,

impending motion is clockwise to raise load. Sum

moments about displaced contact point B to find P.

The perpendicular distance from center O of pulley

to line of action of R is

r f = r sin s r s r f (1 in.) 0.20 = 0.20 in.

Summing moments about B,

MB = 0:

P = 611lb

Impending motion is counter-clockwise as load is held

stationary with smallest force P. Sum moments about

C to find P.

The perpendicular distance from center O of pulley to

line of action of R is again 0.20 in. Summing

moments about C,

MC = 0 :

P = 409 lb

29-09-2014

With the load on the left and force P acting

horizontally to the right, impending motion is

clockwise to raise load. Utilize a force triangle to

find P.

Since W, P, and R are not parallel, they must be

concurrent. Line of action of R must pass through

intersection of W and P and be tangent to circle of

friction which has radius rf = 0.20 in.

OE

0.20 in.

=

= 0.0707

OD (2 in.) 2

= 4.1

sin =

P = 577 lb

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