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Class 2: Theories, Concepts, Collaboration

Chapter 2: Pedagogy of the Oppressed by Frein

Relationship between student-teacher reveals narrative character of a
Narrating subject is the teacher & the listening objects are the
Content is often being narrated in a way that is irrelevant to students
therefore petrifying them & leaving them lifeless
Content is alien to experiences of students & teacher talks about
reality as if its static & predictable (disconnect from students realitytherefore insignificant to them)
Students remember words through memory but dont associate
significance to them
Students are considered better by knowing more *filling their heads
with meaningless information
Banking Process
o Teacher deposits info into a students head *Thats what
education has become (students receive info, memorize it and
repeat the process) banking process of education receive,
file and store info/deposits this creates a body of students that
lack creativity, transformation & knowledge
o Banking concept: knowledgeable ones transfer knowledge to
those that are considered to know notion negates education &
negates knowledge as process of inquiry
o Teacher alienates students since he is deemed as the only
knowledgeable ones & they are considered ignorant (students
accept ignorance instead of realizing they educate the teacher)
o Teacher teachers, students are mindless listeners that are taught
o Teacher centred approach to learning
o Teacher chooses content, students adapt to it
o Teacher is subject of learning process, students are objects
o Since knowledge is deposited to students, they dont develop
critical thinking skills (adapt to the world)
o Oppressors are content with this system bcz they dont want to
see the world revealed or transformed instead they mask reality
by linking one point to another/one problem to another
*change the consciousness of the oppressed, not the
situation which oppresses them
o The oppressed are integrated & incorporated into society
solution though is to transform the structure which made
them beings for others so that they can become beings for

o this approach serves only to dehumanize (contradicts reality)present way of life is irreconcilable with the vocation to be fully
o dichotomy btw human beings & world (person I merely in the
world, not with the world or othersindividual is spectator not
o human being is not conscious; he just possesses consciousness
an empty mind passive to deposits of reality from the world
o teachers task is to regulate the way the world enters into the
students, fill students with deposits of info which she constitutes
to be true knowledge
o children are taught to adapt to the world, fit into it without
questioning it-lack purpose
o live with others in solidarity-distance between teachers & the
o verbalistic lessons & methods of evaluation are bad
o produces necrophily: love for things that do not grow
(mechanical)-as if all living person were things, memory rather
than experience, having not being is what counts, relates to
items that he possesses (loses a possession-loses contact with
the world), loves control thus kills life)
o controls thinking & action
o identify themselves with charismatic leaders to feel that they are
active & effective
o threatened by the specter of reaction
o transferrals of information
o students dont need to know, just memorize contents narrated
by teacher
o students do practice acts of cognition (no critical reflection)
-dont achieve true knowledge or culture
o education = practice of freedom
Raison detre of libertarian education
Knowledge emerges through invention & re-invention & through
inquiry with the world & each other
Solution of teacher-student contractionteachers &students form
education simultaneously
Children intervent in the world & are aware that they can transform it,
develop critical consciousness
Reality is really a process undergoing constant
transformationif people undergo existential experiences they will
realize that banking system keeps them from reality thus they will
struggle for liberation

Engage in critical thinking & quest for mutual humanization (trust

people & their creative power thus there needs to be a partnership
between students and teachers)
Only through communication can human life hold meaning
Authentic thinking only takes place in communication (thinking
concerned about reality)
Thought has meaning only when generated by action upon the world
Liberation isnt created through alienation, rather it is a praxisaction
& reflection of men & women upon their world in order to transform it
Adopts the concept of women & men as conscious beings &
consciousness intent upon the world
Educational goal must be the posing of problems of human beings
in relation with the worldresponds to essence of consciousnessembodies communication
Acts of cognitionlearning situation where the teachers and
students cooperate through dialogue
Change from teacher-of-the-students to teacher-student & studentteacher bc teacher is also taught through dialogue with students while
teaching (both responsible for learning & thats how you grow as a
People teach each other, facilitated by the world & objects that
surround them
Teacher and students are always cognitive
Cognitive objects are not regarded as teachers private property
instead they are objects of reflection by him & the students
Educator reforms his reflections in the reflection of the students
Students are critical co-investigators in dialogue w the teacher
Teacher presents material to students so that they can reflect on it &
then students are encouraged to express their considerations
Educator creates w the students (constant unveiling of reality)

Why Art Education is Important to the Development of Children and Youth?

Emergence of consciousness & critical intervention in reality bc

students understand that problems emerge bc of other problems within
a total context students respond to this challenge which creates new
challenges thus new understandings & then students become
Education = practice of freedom, considers people in relations with
the world in these relations consciousness & world are simultaneous
As people reflect on themselves & on the world, they increase scope of
their perception & begin observing

People being singling out elements of their background awareness &

reflect upon themthus the objects become parts of their action &
Problem-posing education-we develop power to perceive critically the
way they exist in the world with which & in which they find themselves,
world isnt a static reality but as a reality in process/transformation
Develop thought through reflection of themselves and action is then
adopted from how they perceive themselves
Dialogue consists of using cognition thus unveiling reality
Task is of demythologizing problems in the world
Makes students critical thinkers
Based on creativity& stimulates true-reflection and action upon
reality (making people beings who are authentic only when engaged in
inquiry & creative transformation)
Takes peoples history as their starting point
Affirms people as beings in process of becoming (uncompleted,
unfinished reality)since human beings have an unfinished life ahead
of them & are constantly transforming-education must be an ongoing
Rooted in the present & is revolutionary
Look at the past only to understand what and who we are so we can
build and focus on the future
Aware of our incompletion
Departure of the movement must start from where we are/a situation
from which we can move forward from since we have a perception of it,
our state is limiting therefore challenging (presents the situation as a
problem) but yet transformative
Human beings must have rights to decision making if not they are like
Teachers & students are subjects of their educational process since
they have overcome authoritarianism & an alienating intellectualism &
overcoming false perception of reality
Must be revolutionary question why

Jackson reading: Inside the gray of gang: Reflections on the arts and
youth violence
What do the elements and principles of design have to do with development?

Visual literacy begins with elements & principles of design

o Elements: shape, colour, value, texture, line, space
o Principals: balance, rhythm, movement, pattern, contrast, unity,
emphasis (help us understand how the elements work together
so we can see the big picture)

Visuals are manipulative & help us organize/navigate the world while

empowering us
Visual literacy helps us build our understanding of the world
World is not simple, it is multidimensional with countless shades of
Problems with problem seeing noticing/responding to problems that
people think came out of nowhere
Visiting grey zones are where details lie & within these details are
solutions to large problems (people that see black/white do not see
details in grey)
People in black & white mistake symptoms for causes leading us to find
cold water solutions that are ineffective
Real solution: go back in time, look for healthy signs of
imagination & creativity
enjoy life in an open, playful, instinctual, curious, energetic &
imaginative way
kids are plunged into the system, as they reach adulthood they are
depleted & accept a world of shadows
Other kids have kept their spirits but have difficult nourishing it, they
are emptied from the resistance
Most of energy of most people is diverted into a system which
destroys them
Facilitate development of healthy self we need the arts process relies
on active experience (not passive existence)
Job as teacher: rekindle & maintain childish sense of wonder by
teaching lessons in form of stories/games
Antidote to our energy-drained system: development of self process
of becoming
o Model:
perception/paying attention through interactive
experiences that touch upon fives senses
e.g.: begin by encouraging students to ask questions
that encourage depth of thought necessary to
creation of self & to make sense of world
Teach students to pay active attention to the world
by changing classroom around & ask them to point
out changes
Perception opens door to cognition (once we engage
w world we can start reflecting upon it
insight (invisible components): imagination, conception,
judgement, emotion
Affect: experiences we take in affect us-they remain in our
mind where we form new constellations of awareness

We are affected by the world thus we can affect it

right back
Education system: kids leave with a mind full of isolated/meaningless
facts-doesnt know who she is, she she is, how she got there & has no
concept of where shes going, how to arrive there or what shell do
when she gets there & doesnt know what she wants, what she has or
how to develop it = a type of robot that lives in the past, confused by
present & frightened by future
Beauty, imagination & visual imagery expresses themselves in midst of
culture of violence e.g.: gangs that use imaginative visual coding
systems as displays of membership through clothing, graffiti,
gesture/language for self preservation, maintenance & promotion
We need to start the process of becoming by beginning to
question & pay attention to world around us
Well developed selves have tools to engage w world: experience world
openly & playfully, wisdom to read it, question it, criticize it, celebrate

Class 3:
Theories, concepts and collaboration
Intervention Art
Monday, September 21, 2015
2:49 PM

Art that intervenes in our daily life

Appeared in mid 90's

Examples: graffiti,

Tools to use: sidewalk chalk

Surfaces to work on: tiles, cement things, t-shirts, shopping bags,

umbrellas (iron stuff on)
Local groups:
o En Masse
Unity is created by sticking with black & white
o Banskey: created Dismaland
Pop-up art show
Do workshops with kids, stick with black & white
Yarn bombing (this artist fills cracks with bright colors)->on metro's/public spaces
Taking an image and changing it/altering it-altering signs in
the road
Kids could make figurines (help them make mini sculptures
of people) *Make them make their own thing/own version
Garbage beautification exercise: let's try this

What to put in our "resource website?
Class notes in creative way


Reading notes
Inspiring artists
Good ideas from Pinterest for projects
Photos from class work
Art lessons
Art inspirations
Class concepts/conversations

Key Concepts
What is the QEP actually all about?
Seeing potential, invisible implications/every detail matters
Stay in motion/surfaces & purposes
Themes & prompts
Theme (prompt/providing question) + materials/tools/gestures + art
appreciation + VA language = Meaningful art project

Lexicons: elements of design (line, shape, texture, colour, value,


Seeing Potential

Why is art education important?

Develop identity
Think critically
Understand world around them

Use materials in interesting ways

o Disabilities dolls: sense of belonging with kids (no such things as
disability but we all have different abilities/strengths *create
portraits out of old fabric & write words that describe their own
Tools: pop cans,
o Ornaments celebrating animals in our park *make puppets and
put on a show

Surfaces & purposes (staying in motion):

paying patterns on rocks
Community charms/stick insolation
Art interruption: thought provoking questions to make you think
in a new way *make magnets
Postcards in response to what do u love about your city/what
would u change?
Folk art: celebrates everyday things in our lives (nature)
Chess & hierarchies: students challenged to come up with their
own hierarchies
Intervention piece: playing instruments in subway


Repurposed materials/non fancy materials, each project is

meaningful because you take a thought providing theme/prompt & make
students use that
Every LES needs to focus on theme & guiding question
Theme: Going green, prompting question: how can we take care
of our park?
Theme: Safety, Prompt: Where is a place you feel safe?
What is an example of a hierarchy in your life?
Theme: celebrating animal, prompting question: can you come
up with your favourite animal by combining your top 3?
River is unpredictable, has its own cycles related to weather or
River is not dependent on water
Andy Goldsworthy is based on process, not product which is
important because product ends up getting destroyed
Experience is what matters
Shows about artist perseverance

1 Brainstorm-->what can be learned about each element -consult internet

2 1 pin/group member total
3 1 label/pin "children can learn that there are many types of lines

Principles of design
Candy Sushi

Class 4: Theories, Concepts, Collaboration

Capturing Student Imagination: The Art of lesson planning
Szekely Article

Art teaching should be planned so that students can respond visually

to elements and principles of design

Art is defined by visual performance

Creation of performances & doing art --> teacher demonstrates


Visual experience for students

Surprise, humor, timing & concern for audience reaction is important &

Creative entrances that are inventive, challenges the expected &

search for new solutions

Make content relate to idea being presented but be creative

Set expectations, responses, encourage students to gain new

perspectives & attitudes

Variety through teacher's movement, unusual objects, what teacher is

wearing and timing

Pay attention to color, schemes & patterns

Planning for visuals

Carefully select & sequence visuals

Each class presentation should bring best of the environment & art
world to children

Make students inspect objects closely so that the objects communicate

to them more profoundly

Slide presentations = effective

Time & patience is needed so students can closely examine, handle

and see materials

Objects & artworks can have rich personal messages for students (intro
the lesson, rich memories & impressions

planning is important: what will be shown, what order, what length of

time & when to move from a slide presentation to the actual object

Space & movement is important -pay attention to gestures & rhythms

Materials: pay attention to shape, size, color, smoothness, hardness->must be touched, manipulated & rearranged

Planning, space and furnishings is important (color openings, lighting,

light control, surface covering, nature of furnishings

Use visuals by patterning them, grouping them, lighting, removing,

covering, wrapping and repainting them, forms, lines, sounds, objects

Artroom: flexible malleable canvas w surfaces that may be

freely altered

Room space: open & uncluttered

Subtle things set up personal "finds" for our students

Multisensory communication

Mood: created by lighting/shade, sounds, privacy/publicness,


Planned sounds: teacher's voice, recordings, use of school's public

address system


Lights create interest, focus attention on specific forms, colors,


Lighting: help change feeling of space in a room

Plan art lesson through sketches & diagrams: previsualize lesson

Visual plan: experience that shows process of thought that artist went
through in making it

Lesson planning in art should be dynamic process

Teaching: artistic expression

Sketchbooks and collector contraptions: Thinking visually
Visual journals in elementary classroom by Grauer

Visual journals help kids record & reflect on their thinking

Use thought expressed through images & words-expands students'

Leonardo da Vincis journal became a manuscript
Looking at artists' journals, children can see evidence of artists'
thinking and in developing their own journals they see a record of their
own ideas over time.
the process of collecting ideas and images over time that does matter.
The journal that that emphasizes creation values process over product
and allows students to gain confidence in their own ideas
For the individual child, they are records of process, evidence of their
engagement with some aspect of their world. As teachers, we can see
how each child's thinking changes and develops over the course of a
school year
Visual journals allow the interplay between image language, forms of
expression that capture thought differences
Images strong springboards for oral and written expression and act as
a visual/linguistic record of thinking. The visual can also provide an
Using the visual journal with an art activity first, can often lead to
greater fluency in the written activity /
more personal evidence of a childs thinking
connects the viewer to the *artist' in a very personal way (Flall, 2000).
When children express their ideas through drawings and other image/
making techniques, they often express emotive as well as conceptual
Encouraging reinterpretation upon revisitation
students use drawings to integrate their personal experiences with
studies of their environment, or connect their understandings from
various subject areas
Journal: store explorations & observations
Students should customize their own journal/make them personal
Include lots of ideas & techniques
Use journal regularly
Setting up an environment where great ideas, images, techniques and
surprises are encouraged, valued and shared is
a natural and inspiring way to learn and encourages rather than
discourages creativity.
Children should learn by sharing their success and viewing their
classmates' work


Learning centres stimulate their curiosity and allow them to explore

various areas of learning: languages, the arts, mathematics, the social
sciences, and science and technology
Observation is the favoured means of evaluation: it fosters and
respects the learning process and focuses on the childrens attitudes,

behaviours, processes, strategies and productions. Observation makes it

possible to follow the childrens progress in the development of their
For children, learning and doing are inextricably linked: learning and
the development of competencies are the result of their interaction with
others and with their environment. The teachers actions allow them to
carry out increasingly complex activities, stimulate their desire to
surpass themselves and help them become aware of new realities.

Class 5
Creative act: Developing creative capacity

Make sure to put a blurb of how it can be used for kids

kids create their own little business (my blog) -with items

Make their own recipes

Rationale: why this les is meaningful to students
Surprising elements
1 large entrance
Cartooning: Indian ink
What are all the things kids need to know to successfully accomplish a
What do they need to pay close attention to? Whats a fun way
we can get them to do that? Reflection- expression
Theme + materials/tools/gestures+VA language + art
appreciation=meaningful artwork
Politics + Indian ink + emphasis + assortment of
cartoonists-same politician=political cartoon
Technique: specific way of doing something
Teacher demonstrations-modelling/scaffolding/banking education
Toolbox: make kids explore textures, make connections w
elements & principles & apply 5 marks to another art pieceway of
evaluating technique

Edward Burtynsky: famous photographer

Surfaces & purposes: walls, windows, floor --> Surface gives the wall a

Why do we have a guiding question: helps focus the LES & contributes
to a deeper meaning/meaningful learning

Guiding questions helps students figure out who they are & what their
interests are

Elements of design: balance, repetition, movement/rhythm, emphasis,

unity, variety -->like guidelines for creating art/they help us pay
attention to our environment

Visual language helps us express ourselves in other ways of using

Inside the grey of gang: learning how to shade -go from white to black
(more stuff going on when you understand the world visually)
Learning about balance in terms of lifestyle
Create whatever you want
How you feel
Use garbage to make art

Ken Robinson: Do schools kill creativity?

o Human creativity: variety of presentations, no idea whats going to
happen in the future
education takes us into the future we cannot grasp (unpredictability
& capacities for our children-we need to help students build on their
o Creativity is as important as literacy
o If you arent prepared to be wrong, you'll never come out with
anything creative (kids are squared of making mistakes
o Problem is to remain an artist as we grow up
o We get educated out of creativity
o Hierarchies of subjects: mathematic & languageat the bottom is
the arts: hierarchys arts and music get higher up then dance
o We focus on kids from waist up-mostly their heads
o Purpose of public education: produce university professors
o Schools came about when industrialization grew-thats why its
based on academic ability
o Hierarchies are built upon idea that most useful subjects are at the
top of hierarchies & academic ability
o Intelligence is diverse, we think about the world in many different
ways in all worlds we experience it (abstract, movement)
o Intelligence is dynamic, it's very interactive-creativity (original ideas
that have values) come about through interactions with different
disciplinary ways of seeing things
o Intelligence is distinct
o Adopt new conception for human ecology: try to make children
achieve their full human capacity *rethink fundamental principles
o Seeing our creative capacities for richness that they are & education
children to have the hope to achieve their capabilities
Louis C.k Hates Twitter
o Less empathy when there's discussion
o Today we will start w 3 things that start with letter B
It's messy
Choose favourite colors

Sleep/rest there
Safe space
Play with toys
Best Friend
Share secrets
Play with everything together
Girl is like a tree because she is strong (similar to how their roots
are engrained in the ground)
Girl's stand tall like a tree
Girl's bloom with time like a tree
Girl's minds flourish just like the buds/leaves come out of a tree
Girl's emotions are similar to the way a tree changes with seasons
Mouse is like a lion in the sense that they both eat, they both are
quick, they are both


Juxtaposition: take two things that dont go together & put them
together to break our habitual ways of thinking & helps us reflect in new

Class 7: Art appreciation

Art as means of expression
Monday, October 26, 2015
2:45 PM

Art helps people express themselves and communicate

Comp 1: Friticalo-art for a response

Comp 2: think of queen elizabeth-propogating specific ideas for

propaganda for audience to a specific audience *message for specific

Comp 3: art critic-students and us figuring out how to talk about art, of
their own art & other artists
Art purpose: Create critical thinkers & active engaged citizens & be able to
appreciate artistic work around them (critical thinking, appreciation,

Communicating that they can follow directions, NOT GOOD

Importance for children to learn how to have freedom, fine motor skills

Lessons: materials, tools, gestures, elements & principles of design,

Theme/prompt/question+materials/art appreciation+VA language=

meaningful artwork
Art for small hands lesson 10%

Appropriate for all ages



Clear instruction

Each group decorate a ball & given a paper to glue on to the ball. (What do Water,
u think a zoo environment should have?)
love, safe

Base is the question for their ideas

Interactive: put main ideas in center, meh ideas are hanging on side

Encourage inquiry: is it important?

Useful for whole les

Class 8: Program Planning
Bob Geldorf changed the world by gathering enormous contributions
Live aidcharitable $ for helping starvation in Ethiopia/famine in Africa
Brazil focused on prevention when AIDS was bigthey reduced the
spread of AIDS quickly because they believed in liberation theology
Liberation theology: empowering the poor & creating
liberty for all
Treatment for AIDS was available to all despite whether
everyone could afford it
Advertisements were humorous enforcing the importance
of safe sexcure people through humor not fear
FIRST LIGHT OF A EVENING world where the ultimate goal can be
imagined & created
See the relationship of these elements:
o Must hold belief that: problems can be solved
o Must gather a group of people ready to act/bring about change
o Must have circumstances that allow these changes to take place
In order to see, we must change our thinking
Relationships define how parts come to work together in creating unity
Good communication & coordination among the parties involved
Every child is unique-therefore we must be understanding that they
differ in their capabilities and interests We need to foster a classroom
that supports every childs capabilities
Classroom must focus on interactions/collaborations
Engagement between, among elements is force that initiatives a life of
their own-relationships exist between things
Respond to needs & circumstances of every patient NO SIMPLE
Schools are non responsive to diversity that exists (different learning
styles & capabilities)
One size fits all approach wont work
Need: social innovation, methods, tools, approaches, mindsets to alter
education so it ensures success for all students

Control over circumstances that affect us diminish-moving at face past

& high intensity
As Eric Young states, decisions we make today will heavily
change/shape the future, our world in 20 years will be significantly
By embracing complexity, we can make transformations
Our problem: we are accepting everything around us an inevitable p.39
We need to open our eyes & be aware of the injustices around us (we
think first nations people are receiving equal treatment, its an illusion)
Lundstrom : Reverse racism through starting new clothing line- created
parkas with cards printed with name of artist & his story about
meaning of the design, beaded jewelry
o Women in business became support group-raised a collective
o Created a Kiishik fund: educate children about First Nations
heritage..guest speakers share language, art, traditions
Rusty : rebuilding community- creates a bike shop (changed the
neighborhood interactions)-people share their bike parts
Social innovation is not fixedwe need perseverance & patience,
Community: we learn from one another
Connect to the world: we engage its complexity & shift pattern around
us as we ourselves begin to shift
Social innovation begins where individual & system meet
Pay attention to how & when we engage
Engage with possibility
Adapt, understand the system, interpret the problem then reacting to
changes & adjusting our approach and actions *Not simply leading
Getting to maybe: study successful social innovations, drawing on our
experiences-social activities can use insights that arise out of
complexities to increase likelihood of success
Intentionality & complexity *ask questions, question what is going oncreate tensions & engage in them to bring about change, relationships
with people to bring about change parts of system must act as a
Tolerate perspectives & framed inquiry
Thinking as form of doing *How we think matters-shapes our actions