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- -; -; a-; amorphous adj , .

, -

- -; ()-; bipolar adj ; ,

-ese ( , ); journalese ;
computerese .

, ,
:

-gap . ( -); communicationgap .


-gate . ( ); Irangate
.
-holic . ( () -); -
; alcoholic ; workaholic .
- ( ; -); no-nonsense
adj ; ; nobrainer .
para-1. ( -); paramilitary adj :
; 2. -; parajournalism .
,

.
(), , , Irangate.
,
Watergate , -
.
,
,
.

, . ,
,
.
, take-away
() , a take
away restaurant : ,
.
, ,
. , .

bringdown adj ,
crackdown , ,
drop-in , ,
hands-on adj .
make-up 1. ; 2. ; 3. ; ; ,
off-license .
off-line adj ( ) ,
off-the-shelf adj ; ,
on-line ( ) ,
rip-off .
throwaway ; ,
walkover ( ) .
-, ,
.
, : crackdown
,
; : off-the-shelf
, , , ,
off-the-shelf ,
(
)

, ..
, ,
. , , / hate her
new off-the-shelf coat? ,
, ,
: . - 11 - 4 1 0 4

162

2.

8.


, ,
:

walkover

, , ,
,
The Moscow Times*,
2003 .
() .
...one-third of voters chose President Vladimir Putin's -party [the
party United Russia ( )], according to our exit poll. If this
figure is added to the roughly 20 per cent that voted for LDPR and Home
land, two puppet parties created to out-communist ( . . )
the Communists, and the additional seats all three will likely pick up in the
single-mandate contests, Putin will come close to having the two-thirds
majority needed to change the Constitution (something many say he secretly
desires to do).
communist
,
( ,
),
out. ,
,
out-communist Communists ( ,

,
, ) ,

,
,
.
.
()
.
,
, ,
.
.

163

.
, , ,
, -
.
,
.

,
,
,
.
:
all-or-none adj .
apple-pie-virtues ,
coffee-table-book (, ).
do's and don't's .
hit-and-miss adj ; ,
least-worst adj .
once-over-lightly 1. ; 2. ,
peace-and-order officers ,
small-tooth-comb , ,
wannabee (. want to be) adj ,
warts-and-all adv ; ; ,
whatchamacallit interj / ; ?..; ?.,
would-be adj (, -); .
warts-and-all.
,
. , , ,
,
: Warts and all ( ). ,
, ,
, .
.
,
( ;

; )

.
( ) ,
,
().
1

164

8.

3.

165


(), , ,
.

()

small-tooth-comb,
, .
( ) .

3.

,
. :
1) ; 2) ,
; 3) ; 4)
( ).
- :

, .


, ,
,
.
, ,
.. ,
,
,

AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) (


).

; ,
, ,

A.S.A.P. (as soon as possible) .


celeb (celebrity) .

email (electronic mail) .

, ,

GI (General Issue) ( ).

GiGo (garbage in garbage out) .


limo (limousin) .

- ( )

magalog (magazine catalog)


.
narcodollars (narcotic dollars) , ,
teen (teenager) .
U-turn ( ).
VIP (very important person) ; -.
WASP (white Anglo-Saxon protestant)
.

, . ,
, ,
,
.
,
.
, , ,

.
, , ..


, ,
. ,
( ),
.
-
. . , -
, , -
, .. . ,
-

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,
. ,
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.
,
, ,
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- -

166

8.

, , [. . 9394).
, (-
) ,
(- ) .;
,
.
,
, .. ,
. , ,
, . ,

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,
. ,

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-;
.
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; ). , -;
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.

: -

.
,
- .
-

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.

3.

167

,
.
, , .. .
. (John Bayley): ...
- ,
:
,
, ,
[.:
Readings in Criticism. P. 6). , ,
, ,

.
P.O. [. 397] :

, , ,
, ,


, ..

, ..
,
.
.. [1980. . 180] ,
, ,

.
,

.
,
. ,
, ,
, ,
aspect'a , ,
,
.
,
,
.

168

169

4.

8.

, , . (W. Styron. Sophie's Choice),


:
,
, []. :

TREE

1. A tall plant with a long trunk made of


wood, which usually has leaves and branch
es, and which can live for many years. In the
middle of the lawn was a great cedar tree...
The trees and shrubs were in full leaf

I. !

, .
,

, , , -
. , , ,
. <...>
, , .

. (
,
).
. .
!

. , ,
, .
(. . ).
, -,
-, ,

, , -
, , , ,
(-):
.

4.

, ,
.
-
, ,
.

, , . , ,
tree ^.
, , tree ,
,
.
1

English

Language

Dictionary,

The

Advanceft

Learner's

Dictionary

of Current

et al.; . .

English

by

Collins

Cobuild

A.S.

Hornby

III.
2. Family tree a chart that shows all the
people in your family over many generations

and their relationships with one another
3. Christmas tree a fir tree, or an artificial
tree that looks like a fir tree, which people
put in their houses at Christmas and decot-atA with rr.1mir*H liohts and bfllls
4. Shoetree a long piece of metal, plastic,
or wood which is put into shoe or boot so
that the shoe or boot will keep its shape
when it is not beins worn
5. Barking up the wrong tree doing some
thing without realizing that there is no
chance of success

6. Up a gum tree in a difficult situation


which is difficult to get out of

7. Tree-lined streets or roads that have


trees on either side of them. ...A pleasant
tree-lined avenue in Bristol

8. Axle-tree a piece of wood for connect


ing two opposite wheels
9. Tree (a verb) cause to take refuge up
tree. 77ie hunter was treed by the bear. The
dog treed the cat

(a tall plant with a long


trunk made of wood, which usually has leaves and branches, and which can live
for many years =
, ) ( chart that shows
all the people in your family over many generations and their relationships with

170

8.

4.

171

one another = ).
,
tree , ,
, II
. wood.
: I -
I I , \:
(.. )
. ,
tree - wood.


,
tree;

tree. ,
,
tree (trees, treeing, treed
..). tree
, ,
,
.



.
,
,
.
, .
( .
) , .. ,
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. ( ),

, , ..
,
( ) , ,
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, ,

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-

, ( ).

,
( , ).
.
, , ,
, .

, ,
, circumstance
circumstantia,
circumstare, ,
circum () stare ().
,

-.
circonstance,
,
,
, , (
).

, - circum-, a -} -sta-K
,
, . -
,
, .
,
.
(,
) (),
, , .
, ,
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i

, ,

Umstand XVIII .
(.: . . 3011-

172

8.

, ,

.

4.

173

, , ,
,
.

,
,
.
( - ) ,
1960-, 1970- .
. , ,
,
.

,
-.
, ..
, /
.

) weak point, tender point,


.
,
, . ,
,
, .
. Errare humanum est.

- , ,

,
, ,
.
, . ,
()
. ,
. , ,
, ,
, , . ,
.
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, ,
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, . ,
ripe () rape (),
,

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.
, ,
.
, , .
,
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, ,
.

, ,
. (, ,
.)

:
(give up, put up with), ( cop ), ,
( ; ,
), ( ).
.
.. ,
,
.
, ,
.
?
much of a muchness? ,

174

8.


,
-.
, , ,
. , , ,
, ,
.
- -
.

,
, .
.
, ,
,
,
.
. , -'
get on like a house on fire ,
:
1) ; ;
; 2) ;
[.: ]. - . ,
,
. ,
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.. ,
,
,
. , ,
,
(, , ,
), ,
, -
, .
,
(
, ,
, ),
.

175

5.

5.

,
, , .

.
,
-

Had

this

happened

all

would have

been

different

, .
:
, ,
, .


. ,
,
, .
,
. ,
,
,
.

. ,
, (
, ).
, , .
( ) (, -
-)
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.

, . , ,

, .
-

176

5.

8.

, :
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.
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.
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.

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,
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,
.

177


()
().

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.

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:
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,
: .
-
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,
, .
12-4104

178

8.

( ..). , ,
(
, , , , ),
-
.

()

: A n old man sat

on the bench The old man sat on the bench.


(an) ,
,

. .


( )
old man.

, . ,
.

: ? ,

XX . ,

: ( ) ? , -

: .

:
, .

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1.

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12-

180

9 ()

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181

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182

9. ()

| . : . . 7, 15] ,
, , .

.

1.

, ,
. . , 1950 .

.
(1953) .. .

,
. , . .
,
.. , . .

,
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,
() .

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.
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1.

183

,
,

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,

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.

.
-, ,
.
. ,


. , , ,

.
,
.
: 1) ;
2) (
); 3) .
,
.
. , the United Na
tions .
, ,
. ,
, .
,

: ,

, ,
. ,
,
.
. , f a i r
.
f a i r s h a r e
,
:

fair deal

185

I.

9. ()

: . ,
,
.
.
,

, .. ,
.
,

. ,
, ,

,

, .. .

,
, .
,
,
,
.
, , , ( A good r i d
dance! ! ) . ,
. ,

.
.
,
, .
, . -

:
, , .

,
,
.
,

, .
,
. .
the United Nations
,

.
, .

|
, 1973. . 20]. , ( -
) computer, , ,
, ( ) .

( ).
,
f a i r
. ,
,
( ) (,
, ), ,
. , ..
: G r a n d Jury

, / /
, ,
.
, ,
,
. . , f a i r
, .
,
f a i r

186

9. ()

. , , by f a b
means, / . fair
fair hair,
.

2. ()

187

2. ()
, , ,
/ /

,
. , ,
, ,
. , ,

: Take your time ; Mind your own business He
. ,
, , ,
.

. . [2000. . 3sq.J
, , :
;
,
( , ,
, ).

, . ,
,
. ,
[.: 19996. . 176177], ,
, .


.

.

, ,
,
.

.
[2002. . 24],
.

.
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.

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(
) ,
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.
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.

188

9. ()

, ,
, ..
. ,
-.
, ,
: blue
go
, , .
,
,
,
. , , ,

: barn-storming, societal.

2. ()

189

) .
(computer), ,
(overdraft), (frustration) .
2. ()

. ,
.

,
, : Wet paint .
, , ,
, , ,
, - , :
bedroom community ( sleeping district).


, ,
. ,
, ,
.
. , bam -storming


, a societal .

- ,
(, ),

, .


.
, ,
, .

1. () .

( ).
(barnstorming societal) .


, .. ,
, : sit-in .
, ,
. ( ,
) ,
, ,
,
(

3.
,
-
.



, -

Looking back over the 1960's, the political historian might describe it as the
time when the American Government began to think of the American people as
a tiresome nuisance. ,
, , ,

[.: , . . 175].
,

.
. ,
-

190

9. ()

, . ,
, ^
,
().

, .
, .. ,
, . ,
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(, ), ,
( )
( !) [.: , 1973. . 36).
,
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, , .

.

3.
()
. .
,
,
,
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.
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(, )
(native speaker), , -

.

3.

191



.

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,

.

. .
. , . .

, XX .
.
,

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,
.

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192

3.

9. ()

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, .

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).

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.

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193

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, (,
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.
. ,
.
.
.

. , :

.

,

.
.

,
.
- ,
,

, ()
.
,
My friend's witty remark caused me to change my attitude to the problem,
: My friend made
witty remark about the problem in question / changed my attitude towards it.
,

: I changed attitude to the problem because my friend (had) made a
witty remark about it.
, ,
.
13-4104

194


,
.

,
.
,
'

.
, . ,
, ,
: "
; ;
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.

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/ .
.

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,
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.
,
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.
,
,

instant

coffee

4.


. ,
.
, -

195

4.

9. ()

,
. ,
.
,
, .
,

,

, .
,

- .

.

, .

() ( ).

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. , :
1. (. , ,
);

2.

4.

);

3.

..


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, . ,
professor,
, , , ,
.
, ,
,
. . ,
, ,
, . ,
,
,
,
13-

196

9. ()

(,
); , ,

, , ,
,
.
.
, .
.
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? <...>

, , ,
, ,
- .

Is it only d i n you notice?


D o e s the thaw not catch your glance?
As a d a p p l e - g r e y fine stallion
D o e s it not t h r o u g h d i t c h e s d a n c e ? <...>
O n l y l o o k , a n d y o u will s e e it:
F r o m the rooftops to the g r o u n d
M o s c o w , all d a y l o n g , like K i t e z h
Lies, in light-blue water d r o w n e d .

, ,
: 2-
2-
.
,
.
.
( A Way You'll Never Be) . .
T h e attack had gone across t h e field,
been held up by m a c h i n e - g u n fire from
t h e s u n k e n road a n d from t h e g r o u p o f
farm-houses, e n c o u n t e r e d n o resistance
in the town, and reached the bank of the
r i v e r . C o m i n g a l o n g t h e r o a d o n a bicy
c l e , g e t t i n g off t o

push the

machine

w h e n t h e surface o f t h e r o a d b e c a m e t o o
b r o k e n , N i c h o l a s A d a m s saw w h a t h a d
happened by the position of the dead.

,


,

.
,
,
,
, , .

4.

197

,
, , ,
, .
Past Perfect.
,
.

. . .
,
. .
U n t h r i f t y loveliness w h y d o s t t h o u s p e n d ,
U p o n t h y self t h y b e a u t y ' s legacy? < . . . >
T h e n b e a u t e o u s niggard w h y dost t h o u
abuse.
T h e b o u n t e o u s largeness given t h e e t o

,

.<...>
,
, .<...>

give?<...>

, ,
( ),
. ,
,
. .

.


.

, ,
.
:
( ).


, ,
.
, .


.

198

5.

9. ()

, , (
, , :
) (,
, :
).
, .. ,
.

,
.

199

, ,
-
. ,
[1973. . 6061) , , -,
,
. -,
,

. .
-,

50 22
.

, , ,
:
,
,
.
-
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, , ..
- ,
.
.

, .
.

.. -,

, [1973. . 60)
, , ,
,
,
;
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,
, .
, , ,

,
.
[1973. . 54) ,

.

,
, ,
.
.

5.



.
, ()
.
,
1970- .
,
,
,
.
,
.
,
, .
,
(
) . - ,
, ,
, .

200

9. ()

, , )
, . -,
, ,
: You are preaching to the choir.
, ,
: * . ,
, :
() ,
, .
,
, , , ,
,

(saved/'regenerated/'bom
again
Christians)^.
,
. , ,
.
.
, , , :
( ) .
.
.
,
.
,
,

.
.

.
,
, ..

.
, -
,
. , ,
,
:
1

5.

201

...he was slightly disturbed by t h e cashier, a y o u n g a n d giggling W i s c o n s i n


s c h o o l - t e a c h e r with ankles...(5. Lewis) / . . .
, ,

. . . (. . ).

ankles
. ,
[.: , 1973. . 147).
.
, ,
.
,
, ..
. ,
,
, ,
, .

.
,
() ,
, ( lives in Moscow ) .
, ,
.


.
, ..
.

, ,
, .
,
:
. ,
, , ^

( ) .

, , - p r e a c h t o t h e convened {

).

,
.

202

S.

9. ()

203


.
.
,
.


,
,
,
, ,
, .

,

, , , .

.
, . ,
,
, , " " .
,
,
, ,
- (
[ 1973. . 66). ,
, , .
,
, , ,
[ . . 121].
,
.
. :
(
).
[ .
. 136].
,
.
,
,
,

.
,
, ,
,
,

,
,
.
,
,

.

I

2 . ( )
.

1.

1.

10

On peut dire que la culture generale, c'est ce qui permet a Hndividu


de saisir pleinement sa solidarite avec les autres hommes,
dans I'espace et dans le temps...
P. Langevin^


.

( )
.
,
, .
-
, ,
. ,
, . ,
, , , .

.

,
,
.
,
.
.

205

J?ZZJTZ1
"
^ -

... ( . , .).

'

**


,
-, 1970- .
skopos.
,

.

, ,
[.: Handbuch Trans
lation. S. 104107; Stolze. S. 1 8 8 - 1 9 3 ; Vermeer; . . 5].
, skopos,
. , . ( . A m m a n ) , .
( H . Kussmaul), . , . , . .
5:/- ,

.
, ,

, .., , -
, .
skopos , ,

. skopos
( ).
Skopos
: ,
.

. , ( )
, , /
.
,
(). . ,
, ,
, .
.
(skopos).

206

10. :

, ,
, , , ,
, .
.
.
,
,
().
,
. , ,
, .
, skopos
,
. ,

.
. ,
(.: Vermeer.
. 13], , :
, ..
, skopos,
,
, ,
( )
,
.
( )
,
- ,
. ,
,
,
.


, ,

,
, ,
.

2.

207

2.

.
1930- . .
(. Morris).
(
), ( ).
.
, ,
,
, , ,
.

(.. ), ,
, (
, ,
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C e r t a i n l y m i c r o e l e c t r o n i c s d i d n o t l o o k like a m o r i b u n d t e c h n o l o g y . In 1979,

microelectronics

was a

major

industry throughout

the

industrialized

world,

a c c o u n t i n g for e i g h t y b i l l i o n d o l l a r s a n n u a l l y i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s a l o n e ; six o f
t h e t o p t w e n t y c o r p o r a t i o n s i n t h e F o r t u n e 5 0 0 w e r e d e e p l y involved i n m i c r o
electronics. T h e s e c o m p a n i e s had a history of extraordinary c o m p e t i t i o n a n d
a d v a n c e , o v e r a p e r i o d o f less t h a n t h i r t y y e a r s .


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i c o n c h i p . By 1970, it w a s possible to fit 100 units o n t o a c h i p of t h e s a m e size
a t e n f o l d i n c r e a s e i n slightly m o r e t h a n a d e c a d e .
But b y 1 9 7 2 , i t w a s p o s s i b l e t o f i t 1,000 u n i t s o n a c h i p , a n d b y 1 9 7 4 , 10.000
u n i t s . I t w a s e x p e c t e d t h a t b y 1980. t h e r e w o u l d b e o n e m i l l i o n u n i t s o n a s i n g l e
c h i p t h e size of a t h u m b n a i l , b u t , using e l e c t r o n i c p h o t o p r o j e c t i o n , t h i s goal was
actually realized in

1978.

B y t h e s p r i n g o f 1979, t h e n e w g o a l w a s t e n m i l l i o n

u n i t s or, e v e n b e t t e r , o n e b i l l i o n u n i t s o n a s i n g l e s i l i c o n c h i p b y 1980. B u t
n o b o d y e x p e c t e d t o wait past J u n e o r July o f 1979 for this d e v e l o p m e n t .


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...Almost f o u r m o n t h s a g o . t h e Soviet U n i o n h a d s t u n n e d t h e w o r l d b y send
ing u p t h e f i r s t s p a c e s a t e l l i t e , t h e Sputnik. I n all t h e c o u n t r i e s w h e r e t h e tug-ofw a r b e t w e e n c a p i t a l i s m a n d c o m m u n i s m w a s still g o i n g o n < . . . > t h e m e s s a g e w a s
heard: c o m m u n i s t science is best. A m o n t h later the Soviets h a d s e n t up a s e c o n d
s a t e l l i t e . Sputnik II, w i t h a d o g o n b o a r d . A m e r i c a n s w e r e d e v a s t a t e d . A d o g today,
a m a n tomorrow.
P r e s i d e n t E i s e n h o w e r was q u o t e d a s p r o m i s i n g a n A m e r i c a n satellite before
t h e e n d o f t h e year. O n t h e f i r s t F r i d a y i n D e c e m b e r , a t f i f t e e n m i n u t e s t o n o o n ,
the U.S.

Navy were a n n o u n c e d to l a u n c h t h e

Vanguard r o c k e t a n d t h e y d i d i n

f r o n t o f t h e w o r l d ' s p r e s s . I t r o s e a few feet i n t o t h e air, b u r s t i n t o f l a m e s , t o p p l e d


sideways, a n d s m a s h e d to pieces on the c o n c r e t e .

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. . , 2000 (2000).

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1950.

Summary

SUMMARY
Translation studies is a relatively new scientific discipline. It branched off from applied
linguistics and literary criticism only in the 20th century, but has grown rapidly since.
Translation studies aims at the construction and development of a translation theory,
which is needed among other things to educate multitudes of practising translators
and interpreters who are crucial for modern international communication.
The newness of translation studies is betrayed by certain inconsistencies, even in
its basic terminology. Among such nomenclatorial conundrums are fundamental
terms as translation itself. What does the term stand for a process or the resulting
text? Does it mean translation only, or interpreting as well, and is it also an umbrella
term for the two? The very name of the science is also a matter for debate do we
talk of translation studies, translatology, or theory of translation?
And yet, despite these (and other) terminological difficulties, translation studies
has become a fully-fledged science with its own object of study, i.e. inter-lingual and
inter-cultural communication through a translator or interpreter.
Translation can be defined as an inter-lingual and inter-cultural communicative
act made through a translator or interpreter, resulting in a text that represents the
original in the target language, and in the larger context of the target culture.
The history of translation as a human activity goes back to the very dawn of civilisation. The increasing diversity of languages at that time, and the necessity of establishing contact between neighbouring language communities, led to the use of so-called
'go-betweens'. Through the course of the history, these go-betweens have developed
from gifted multi-lingual people to highly sophisticated professional translators.
Translation studies, as an attempt to understand and explicate the phenomenon
of translation, did not come from nothing, but grew out of various empirical judgements and speculations about translation its peculiarities, limitations, and even its
apparent impossibility. To reiterate, we can speak of a science of translation only
since the 20th century, when translation studies was adopted by linguistics (as one of
its applied foci of interest) and by literary criticism (in dealing with a text not written
in the critic's own tongue), and then emancipated from the both.
Translation process is a communicative act and may be considered in terms of the
theory of communicative acts. However, compared with a mono-lingual communicative act, the act of inter-lingual communication that takes place in translation
has an additional element a transcoder.
This complication of the way the message passes from its source to the recipient
is an example of 'interference', which exists, to a greater or lesser degree, with every
communicative act. It must be remembered that however 'good' the translation, the
original message can never be delivered to the recipient perfectly intact, i.e. in its
original form. But, in spite of various kinds of interference, the informative core of a
message may be delivered to the addressee.
Translation should be carried out in such a way so as to ensure the communication of at least this informative core. But since communication is as much about the
way the facts are communicated as the facts themselves, the concept of information

331

should be enlarged to embrace not only the content plane of the message but also its
expression plane, which is most obvious and important in literary translations.
Before translation takes place, we must discover what the informative core of a
message is. This will allow us to work out the criteria for evaluating the degree of success of the translation.
The content or factual aspect of a message is made up of its communicative aim
and goal,
the stylistic colouring of the original, and the author's point of view concerning his message.
It should be emphasised this is the minimum generally applicable set of criteria.
There are two variations of this set to be taken into consideration.
The minimum set of criteria may be enlarged or adapted depending on the type
of the original text. In texts whose primary function is to convey facts (e.g. scientific,
technical texts) the minimum criteria may be considered sufficient for the evaluation
of a translation. Whereas, for the translation of a poem, the criteria should take into
account the complex expression plane of the text.
On the other hand, this minimum set of criteria can be reduced in 'preliminary
translations', whose function is to acquaint the recipient with the basic content of the
message. This sort of translation might be a first stage towards a fuller version of the
original.
Importantly, any translation should serve as a representation of its original. The
concept of representation and the minimum set of criteria or conditions needed to
ensure representation, is the main concept of the present work.
Several Chapters (VIIIXI) are devoted to defining the concept of representation in translation on various levels of the organisation of the text from its micro-level
(phonetic) to the macro-level (cultural aspects).
Another long-debated matter of translation studies is that of the unit of translation.
First of all, the unit of translation is only relevant when we consider translation
as a process, not as the result. In other words, there is no point in discussing what the
unit of translation is while looking at the final, translated text. While working on his
or her translation, the translator or interpreter starts by considering linguistic units of
one level (usually individual words), and later comes to appreciate their textual interdependence, which, in turn, leads him or her to enlarge these linguistic units to the
size of word-combinations, sentences, and even entire paragraphs and texts.
The unit of translation, though traditionally linked to linguistic units, docs not
necessarily coincide with the latter and often varies as far as its linguistic 'volume' is
concerned. The unit of translation may be a word, but it might also comprise of several words. The size of a unit of translation depends on the capacity of the target language to express the same notion that is expressed in the original.
The unit of translation is termed translateme, and is a combination of a linguistic
unit of the source language expressing a certain contextual meaning and the minimal
corresponding linguistic unit of the target language with the same meaning.
The aim of this book is to give a systematic presentation of all the major aspects
of translation and the particular problems of translation studies. The book deals with
translation both in its linguistic and inter-cultural aspects, considered within the history of translation and alongside the concerns that provoke heated discussions today.

333

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104

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104

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107

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116

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118

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Summary

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321
330


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