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10/29/2015

ContributionofIslamtotheworldscivilizationIslamwebEnglish

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Contribution of Islam to the world\'s civilization


(Islamweb)

Let us remember our great and


glorious heritage by briefly
surveying what Islam has
already contributed to the
world's civilization, education,
culture and to scientific
development.

Unlike Christianity where


Religion and Science are two
separate elements, the study of
Science has always been
compatiblewithIslam.

ManyyoungMuslimsare
discouragedwhentheyseethe
poorstandardoflivingof
Muslimsthroughouttheworldandtheirlimitedopportunities.Theyalsoknow
theundevelopedstatusoftechnologywithintheMuslimcountriesin
comparisonwiththeWest.Fromtheseobservations,theyimmediatelyleapto
theconclusionthattheMuslimcountriesarebackward,becauseIslamcannot
adaptitselftothechangingconditionscannotassimilatenewknowledge.
SomeevengosofarastosaythatIslamisactuallyagainstprogressandagainst
scientificadvancement.However,thoseMuslimswhohavestudiedthelater
partofIslamichistorywillknowthatthisisacompletefallacyand
misconception.

LetusdoabriefreviewofthecontributionofIslamtocivilizationasweknow
it.

Trigonometry,Sine,Tangent,CoTangent

TheArabsdevelopedthesefunctionsintrigonometryandIbnMoosaa'swork
HisaabAlJabWalMuqaabala(TheCalculationofIntegrationandEquation)
presented800examplesinthe8 thcenturyCE.Hisworkwastranslatedfrom
ArabicintoLatinanduntilthe16thcenturyCE,itwasEurope'smaintextbook
onthesubject.
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AlgebraandGeometry

MuhammadbinMoosaaAlKhawaarizmiisconsideredtobeoneofthe
foundersofAlgebra.ThewordAlgorithmor'Algorizm'isacorruptionofhis
nameorthenameofthetownKhwaarizm(Kheva),inwhatisnowUzbekistan,
wherehewasborn.Headoptedtheuseofcipher(zero),thatwasdevisedin
Indiasomecenturiesearlier,anumeraloffundamentalimportance,leadingup
tothesocalledarithmeticofpositionsandthedecimalsystem.Theveryword
zeroisaderivativeoftheArabicsifrorcipher.Hispioneeringworkonthe
systemofnumeralsiswellknownas"Algorithm,"or"Algorizm."Inadditionto
introducingtheArabicnumerals,hedevelopedseveralarithmeticalprocedures,
includingoperationsonfractions.

AnothergreatmathematicianwasOmarKhayyaam,whoofferedtotheworld
geometricandalgebraicsolutionsoftheseconddegree.Naseeruddeenwrote
thetreatiseonquadrilateraltrigonometry,aswellasplainandspherical
geometry.

PhysicsandChemistry

Kamaaluddeenexaminedtherefractionofsunlightinraindropsandofferedan
explanationofthegenesisofprimaryandsecondaryrainbows.Thestoryofthe
inventionofthependulumandthepresentationofawaterclocktoEmperor
CharlemagnebyHaaroonArRasheediswellknown.

ThegreathistorianGibbonswroteinhisDeclineandFalloftheRomanEmpire
(Volume5)thatthescienceofchemistryowesitsoriginandimprovementsto
theMuslims.

ScienceofMechanics

ThedevelopmentofthescienceofmechanicsinIslamisanactofgenius.
MoosaabinShaakirdescribedonehundredpiecesofmechanicalequipmentin
hisbookofartifices.OtheroutstandingMuslimtreatisesincludedAlKitaabFi
Ma`rifatAlHiyaAlHandasiyyah(TheBookoftheKnowledgeofIngenious
GeometricalContrivances)byAbulFiazbinAlRazandAlKitaabMeezanal
Hikmah(TheBookofBalanceandWisdom)byAlKhazini.Healsodidwork
onaccurateweighing,anddeterminationofthespecificgravityofsubstances.

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CameraObscura

Inthefieldofoptics,CameraObscurawasinventedbyIbnHaythamin1038
CE.

TheoryofRelativity

QaadhiAbuBakrhaddevelopedthetheoryofrelativityinthe8 thcenturyCE
intermsoftimeandspacebymeansofmathematicalequationsand
astrophysics.Imagine,EinsteinwasnotevenbornintheWesternworld,who
propoundedthesametheoryofrelativitymuchlaterinthe20 thcenturyCE.

Geography

Asfarasgeographywasconcerned,Muslimscientistsestablishedthattheworld
wasroundinthe9 thcenturyCE,andthefirstmapoftheglobewasmadeduring
theCaliphateofMamoon.

PaperMaking

ThiswasoneoftheearliestskillsattainedbytheMuslims.Asearlyasthe8 th
centuryCE,highqualitypaperwasbeingmanufacturedinSamarqand.Egypt
wasknowntohaveitsfirstpapermillintheyear900CE.TheearliestArabic
manuscriptwrittenonpaperthathasbeendiscoveredistheGhareebAl
HadeethbyAbuUbayed,dated837CE.ItcanbeseeninHollandpreservedin
thelibraryattheUniversityofLeyden.

AdvancesinIndustry

UnderIslamicrule,Spainwasanindustrialcenter.Itwasoneofthewealthiest
andmostthicklypopulatedoftheEuropeancountries.Muslimswereleadingin
weavingwool,producingsilk,pottery,jewelry,leatherandperfumeindustry.In
theMiddleAges,worldtradewascommandedbyMuslimsandBaghdad,
BukhaaraandSamarqandremainedcentersforworldfairsuntilthe16 thcentury
CE.TheBaytAlHikmahatCairocontainedtwomillionbooks,thelibraryat
Tripolicontainedsomethreemillion,butthislibrarywasburneddownbythe
ChristiansduringthefirstCrusade.
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MiraclesoftheQuran

LetusconsiderthehundredsofscientificfactsmentionedintheHolyQuran.
Forexample,thefactthattheearthwaspreviouslyapartofthesunandafterits
separation,itbecameahabitableplaceforhumankind,asmentionedinchapter
21,verse30.Thatmatterismadeupofsubatomicparticles(chapter10,verse
61).Thattheembryointhemother'swombinenclosedbythreeepithelial
coverings(chapter39,verse6).Thateachhumanbeinghasauniquefingerprint
(chapter75,verse4)etc.Therearethousandsofotherscientificfactsinthe
HolyQuran.

Regrettably,todaytheWestisatitspeakandwehavelaggedbehindsofar.
However,ourdownfallisnotduetoIslam,astheWestwouldlikeustobelieve,
butduetooursheerneglectofIslamicprinciples.WemustrealizethatIslamis
undeniablythemostprogressivereligion,whichisinfactawayoflifewitha
verywidescope.

Ofcourse,lifeisaveryhardstruggle.However,struggleisaninbuiltinstinctof
humannature.Struggleisawaybutnotanaccomplishmentorattainmentin
itself.WeshouldmakeaneffortandstrugglebutatthesametimemakeDu'aa.
ThisiswhereTawakkul,i.e.trustinAllaahcomesbecausedestinysupersedes
thought.WemusttrustinAllaahforourbetterment,becauseifsuccess
dependedmerelyupononespersonalstruggle,thennobodyintheworld
wouldbeunsuccessful.Furthermore,struggleisitselfpredestinedbyAllaah.
Manshoulddohisbest,thenleavetheresttoAllaah,MostHigh.
20130207

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