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A Report on

A study of MIS(Management Information System) of


the Spencer’s Retail L.T.D (RPG GROUP)

Partial fulfillment of the degree of MBA Programme

Faculty Guide: Under the guidance of:

Mr. Yogeshver Rai


HR manager (U.P.EST)
Lucknow Lucknow

SPENCER’S RETAIL LTD.

College name
(Affiliated to Uttar Pradesh Technical University, Lucknow)

Submitted By:
Anchal Agrawal
Summer training project report

Part- I

♥ Company Profile

♥About HR

Part- II

♥ Introduction to the Project.

♥ Objective of the Study

♥ Research Methodology:
‫ ٭‬Types of Research.
‫ ٭‬What is R.M

♥ Findings:
‫ ٭‬Data Analysis
‫ ٭‬Interpretation
‫ ٭‬Limitations

♥ Conclusion and Recommendations.

♥ Bibliography
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

First of all I thank God for giving me this wonderful opportunity

to undertake this research which is a part of my MBA program.

I would like to thank Prof. for rendering their help to me in

this research.

I would also like to sincerely thank Mr. Yogeshver Rai (HR-

managar) & Shekher Sharma(Asst.HR-managar)for giving me

the wonderful opportunity to work under his able guidance and

support throughout my research.

I also thank persons working at Spencer’s corporate office and

retail stores for giving me their valuable time and vital

information which forms a part of this report.

Last but not the least, I thank my parents for their prayers, help

and advice which helped me a lot to complete this project report.


Anchal agrawal
PART-I

• Spencer’s Industries Limited

• History

• Management Board

• About RPG

• Spencer’s Retail Format

• Spencer’s Retail Store In Lko

• Growth & Future of Retail


SPENCER’S RETAIL LTD.
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COMPANY PROFILE

Overview of RPG Group


RPG Enterprises, established in 1979, is one of India’s fastest growing
business groups with a turnover touching USD $3 billion. The group has more
than twenty companies managing diverse business interests in the areas of
Power, Transmission, Technology, Retail and Entertainment.
Wide-ranging businesses, growing returns and a reputation to reckon, makes
working with RPG an enriching experience. Where entrepreneurial skills are
valued, excellence is the by-word, and performance is a pre-requisite.

Management
The RPG Management Board is the backbone of the conglomerate. Its
members are highly qualified professionals, well experienced in their
respective fields.

Values
RPG’s business ethics promote higher levels of excellence. The group’s values
of Customer Sovereignty, People Orientation, Innovation & Entrepreneurship,
Transparency & Integrity, and Passion for Superior Performance, Anticipation,
Speed and Flexibility propel it to perform and excel in all spheres of the
business.

Quality
For RPG quality determines success. Continuous process improvements are
carried out to ensure complete satisfaction of customer and market
requirements.
8

History
The history of RPG began in 1820 when Ramdutt Goenka, from a small town
in Rajasthan, came to Calcutta to do business with the British East India
Company. The following milestones speak of his enterprising efforts, and the
subsequent growth of the RPG group.
By the 1900s the Goenkas establish themselves in diverse business sectors
like banking, textiles, jute and tea.

Sir Hariram Goenka and Sir Badridas Goenka are conferred knighthood
by the British for outstanding contribution to business and the community. In
1933, Sir Badridas Goenka becomes the first Indian to be appointed
Chairman of the Imperial Bank of India (now the State Bank of India). He is
elected President of the Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and
Industry (FICCI) in 1945.

Keshav Prasad Goenka (son of Sir Badridas Goenka) continues the


successful trait of entrepreneurship. In 1950 Goenka’s acquire two British
trading houses - Duncan Brothers and Octavius Steel. After successful
acquisitions in the areas of tea, automobile, tyre, jute, cotton textile and
electric cables, Keshav Prasad Goenka retires in the 70s. His business is
taken over by his three sons.

One of the sons, Rama Prasad Goenka (better known as RP Goenka), starts
RPG Enterprises in 1979 with Phillips Carbon Black, Asian Cables, Agarpara
Jute and Murphy India.
The 80s see further acquisitions by the RPG group, the first being CEAT Tyres
of India in 1981. The group then went on to acquire KEC (1982); Searle
India, now RPG Life Sciences (1983); Dunlop (1984); HMV (1988); and
finally CESC, Harrisons Malayalam, Spencer & Co. and ICIM in 1989.

RP Goenka’s sons Harsh (Chairman) and Sanjeev (Vice-Chairman) spearhead


the group’s management from 1990.
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Management Board
The Management Board comprises of highly qualified and experienced
professionals from different business areas.
10

Quality

RPG Organizational Excellence

RPG Organizational Excellence is an effort toward achieving excellence by


enhancing performances through clarity of purpose, meticulous planning,
tenacious execution and passion to excel.
11

RPG Organizational Approach

RPG Organizational Approach translates the group’s organizational excellence


strategy through an effective 3-point program:
• Six Sigma
• TPM
• Continuous Improvement
12
13

About RPG

RPG Enterprises is not only one of the biggest, but also one of the most

respected names in the industry. A US$ 3.4 billion business conglomerate,

RPG is one of the powerhouses that drive Indian Industry. With more than 20

companies, it spans 7 business sectors, Retail, Technology, Entertainment,

Power, Transmission, Tyres and Specialties- all under the RPG banner. Even

with such a diverse portfolio, the fact that RPG Enterprises has had nothing

but only unrivalled success in all these sectors, speak very highly of the

efficiency and vision with which the company is run. Over the years RPG

Enterprises has built a huge reservoir of trust and goodwill among the people

of India. People at Spencer’s are truly proud to be a part of the RPG

Their Heritage

Spencer’s quality’ is a time-tested phrase, which has been ingrained in the

minds of the Indian consumer for over 100 years now. And it still continues

to evoke a warm aura of trust and goodness. In 1863, since we first opened

our gates to the Indian consumer, we have like all successful businesses, re-

invented ourselves with the times. But our endeavor, by which we still stand

firm, has always been to provide a pleasant and delightful shopping

experience for you, our valued customer. As RPG, when we took over

Spencer’s, we pioneered the retail revolution in India, by introducing the

concept of specialty stores like Food World, Health and Glow and Music

World. And this pioneering spirit still burns strong. We feel proud to share the
14

fact that in 2000, we introduced the Indian consumer to the first ever

Hypermarket.

RPG Values

Customer Sovereignty
People Orientation
Innovation and Entrepreneurship
Transparency and Integrity
Anticipation, Speed and Flexibility
Passion for Superior Performance

Vision
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Harsh Goenka, Chairman, RPG Enterprises

We shall be a leading Indian group with a focus on market

capitalization through

• Leadership in profitability and revenue growth

in our chosen business

• Being a customer centric organization

• Being the most exciting work place

DIVERCIFICATION IN DIFFERENT SECTOR


16
17

RETAIL MACRO
ENVIRONMENT

RETAIL MACRO ENVIRONMENT

Favorable Demographics

Large & burgeoning middle class, to increase to

32% by 2010
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• 53% of population below 25 years of age

RPG RETAIL - VISION

 To be a customer focused, differentiated, Foods

intensive Retail Company with clusters of destination

and convenience stores (Hyper ,Supers & Dailies)

 To establish Spencer’s Express & mass proliferate

 To set up Retail chains in focused Verticals like Music,

Books, Mobility Solutions, Apparel, Footwear, Luxury

Brands and Life Style Brands where domain knowledge

exists or is acquired through partnerships

 To achieve Pan India presence with 2000 Stores

through current verticals by 2009 & 5000 stores by

2011
19

The Journey
RPG RETAIL 1995-2005

Grocery – Super markets.

GIANT HYPERMARKETS Hypermarket with extended range

Music
Music

Health & Beauty


20

History…
• 1995 – JV between RPG and DFI to set up retail Stores in
grocery
• 1996-2003- All is well – rapid expansion 95 stores across
south & Pune
• 2001- FDI withdrawn in retail
• 2002- MOU expires with DFI .cracks in the JV. No store
opened till 2005.
• JV Broke up 2005 Sept.

RPG Retail – 2005 onwards

 September 2005 -Spencer’s Retail was born- A


revitalized organization with new hopes and
challenges.
 Group re-dedicates itself to the industry
 New store opening plans made and first store
opened in October
 Addition of new Formats : Books n Beyond, Cellucom
in sector portfolio in 2007

Spencer’s Retail : Current View


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 Aggressive plans for Spencer’s

 Exited March ’08 with 400 stores including

16 Hypers with T/O Rs 800 Cr.

 Propose to add >500 stores including 26

Hypers by March ’09 with T/O > 2000 Cr.

 Exit ‘09 with >1000 Spencer’s stores

 Investment plan - Rs 1100 Cr for Spencer’s

expansion.

 May ’08 : Pan India presence in 65 cities

with 400 stores - 16 Hypers,12 Supers,197

Dailies,135 express.

RPG Retail – Current Portfolio


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Food and Home Needs Stores Flagship

Brand

60 stores by March’08 Music & Books

60 stores by March’08 60 stores by March’08

ic & Books

60 stores by Mar

1000 Stores by March ’08 Mobility Products

1000 Stores by March ‘08

Spencer’s Retail
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Spencer’s Retail is the largest supermarket chain in India. At Spencer’s

we have for you an extensive range of products and durables,

designed to satisfy all your shopping needs. We are proud today of

our 350 stores across 50 cities covering a retail trading area of 1.3

million square feet and an astonishing 3.5 million customers a month.

However, all these figures and statistics would mean nothing if we

couldn’t put a smile on your face. It has been and will always be our

constant effort. No wonder, after more than 100 years, people

continue to trust the name Spencer’s. And this trust has been the

outcome of a consistent high-quality service.

For every want, for every need:

We at Spencer’s are glad that we are able to provide all that you need,

and all that you wish you had. From an endless choice of foods and

exotic fruits & vegetables to household needs, home décor and

consumer durables. Whether you are designing your home or plan to

have a party, we have your basket ready with us. So come and

discover the joy of shopping at Spencer’s.

RETAIL FORMATS OF SPENCER’S RETAIL


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Spencer’s Express

Spencer’s express is your store next door for your fresh needs at arms

length. These stores are around 1000 sq ft in size. They are open from

7 am to 9 pm and also provide you with home delivery. Our Express

stores stock dairy, fruit and vegetable, bread and bread products, cut

vegetables/ ready to cook, fruit juices, fresh batter, fresh coffee/tea,

fresh masalas, fresh pickles, fresh Ghee, fresh fish and meat.

Spencer’s Daily

The Spencer’s Daily store is your friendly neighbourhood store, which

caters to your entire daily shopping needs - from regular groceries to

fresh food and also weekly top-up shopping. About 2000-4000 sq ft in

size and with a bright and friendly atmosphere, Spencer’s Daily saves

you the hassle of bargaining with the local Kirana shop owners

(because we offer the lowest possible prices).


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Spencer’s Super

The Spencer’s Super is the place to go for your monthly shopping.

About 5000-15,000 sq. ft. in size the Spencer’s Super not only caters

to your daily needs but also stocks home care products; personal care

products, Bakery, Chilled and frozen food; Baby care besides groceries

& staples, fresh fruits and vegetables. In effect we have everything to

make sure your household runs smoothly all month long.

Spencer’s Hypermarkets

The Spencer’s Hypermarkets are huge destination stores, more than

28000sq. ft. in trading area. Shoppers come here looking for fantastic

deals across all categories. Our Hypermarkets ensure a comfortable,

clean, bright and functional ambience to shop along with the

convenience of finding everything under one roof at the best value for

mone
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LIST OF SPENCER’S RETAIL STORES IN LUCKNOW

S.No. Format Area


ALI
1 Spencer's Daily GANJ

FAIZ
2 Spencer's Daily ABAD ROAD

G
3 Spencer's Hyper OMTI NAGAR

HAZRA
4 Spencer's Super TGANJ

K
5 Spencer's Express ANPUR ROAD

RAJAJIP
6 Spencer's Daily URAM

RAJE
7 Spencer's Daily NDRA NAGAR

8 Spencer's Express RING ROAD

VI
9 Spencer's Daily KAS NAGAR

V
10 Spencer's Daily IVEK KHAND
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Competitive Landscape

The Players

Current stores,

Key Players Revenue(Rs) Plans

Reliance 150 1600 stores by March '08


100 BB stores,4700 Cr

Big Bazaar 50 Revenues by end'07

Subhiksha 600, 400 Cr 1000 by end '07

Food World 60 stores, 200 Cr N.A.

Nilgiris 36,200 Cr 50 stores , 400 Cr exit'07- '08

Trinethra ( Aditya Birla) 172 ,170 Cr 220 stores, 300 Cr end '07

Vishal Megamart 50 stores,280 Cr 220 stores , 500 Cr by 2010

D-Mart 6 Stores , 35 Cr N.A.

Fab Mall 28 stores, 190 Cr N.A.


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Retail Industry Scenario

An overview

 Retailing
 World’s largest private industry
 US$ 6.6 trillion sales annually

 Indian retailing
 Largest employer after agriculture - 8%* of population
 Highest outlet density in world Around 12 mn outlets.
96% of the 12 Million stores are less than 500 Sq. ft.
 Still evolving as an industry

Retail Industry Scenario : India

Market size

 Current market size is roughly US$ 300 bn*


 3% organized.Set to double by 2010 .
 Sales from large format stores would rise by 24-49%**
 Formal and modern format retailing would enjoy rapid
growth
 Experiments across the country in metros, smaller
towns and even villages.
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Structure of the Quality Council

 Core Committee

 President – Spencers Retail

 Sr. VP - HR

 Sr. VP - Operations

 VP - Merchandise

 VP - Marketing

 VP - Private Label

 Chief Quality Officer

The Core Committee provides overall guidance to the Quality

Initiatives

 Working Committee

 Chief Quality Off/ QA Rep

 Operation Representative

 Merchandising representative

 Logistics

 Private Label Representative

 Product Development

 HR Representative
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Leads the process development and implementation in the respective

area

RETAIL

INTRODUCTION

“Retailing today is not only about selling at the shop, but also

about surveying the market, offering choice and experience to

consumers, competitive prices and retaining consumers as

well”

Retailing is the final step in the distribution of merchandise - the last

link in the Supply Chain - connecting the bulk producers of

commodities to the final consumers. Retailing covers diverse products

such as foot apparels, consumer goods, financial services and leisure.

A retailer, typically, is someone who does not effect any significant

change in the product except breaking the bulk. He/ She are also the

final stock point who makes products or services available to the

consumer whenever require. Hence, the value proposition a retailer


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offers to a consumer is easy availabilities of the desired product in the

desired sizes at the desired times.

In the developed countries, the retail industry has developed into a

full-fledged industry where more than three-fourths of the total retail

trade is done by the organized sector. Huge retail chains like Wal-Mart,

Carr four Group, Sears, K-Mart, McDonalds, etc. have now replaced

the individual small stores. Large retail formats, with high quality

ambiance and courteous, and well-trained sales staff are regular

features of these retailers.

Type of Retail

Organized Retail- 3%

Unorganized Retail- 97%

Organized vs. unorganized Retail

Organized Unorganized

Owner usually not the operator Owner usually the operator

Supply chain management No SCM dependent on distributors &

suppliers
Automation Virtually no automation

Presence of store brand Absence of store brand

Wider assortment &range of Lesser range & assortment of products

products
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Large scale operations Small scale operations

Growth of organized retailing in India

Retailing- one of the largest sectors in the global economy is going through a

transition phase not only in India but the world over. For a long time, the

corner grocery store was the only choice available to the consumer,

especially in the urban areas. This is slowly giving way to international

formats of retailing.

The Indian Retail market, rated as the second most attractive destination

among emerging markets globally, is in the midst of a gigantic

transformation, thanks to a plethora of changes within the segment and

outside, with mounting international and domestic pressure to open up the

economy, with Indian corporate houses and investors taking active interest in

retailing, and with the Government realizing the importance of modernizing

the sector, Organized Retail could well become a major driver of the economy
33

in the years ahead. The sector can greatly induce consumer spending in the

domestic market .

INDIAN RETAIL SCENARIO

Although retailing in India is not a new concept, the system of


organized retailing is still in a nascent stage. Retailing industry in India
is estimated to be US$ 200 billion, of which organized retailing makes
up 3 percent or US$ 6.4 billion. Organized retail is expected to grow at
25-30 percent p.a., and is projected to attain US$ 23 billion by 2010.
At this rate organized retail would constitute up to 9% of overall retail
sales.

Various reasons are responsible for the growth of Indian retail:

1. Increased per capita income of the Indian consumer


• Increase in disposable income of middle class households.
• 20.9% growth in real disposable income in ’99’-03.

2. Growing high and middle income population at a pace of over


10% per annum over last decade.

3. Affordability growth:
• Falling interest rates
• Easier consumer credits
• Greater variety and quality at all price points.
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4. Improvement in infrastructure are enlarging consumer markets


and accelerating the convergence of consumer tastes.

5. Liberalization of market for consumer goods, this has helped the


MNC brand to make in roads into Indian markets by offering
wide range of choices to Indian consumers.

6.Changing mindset of Indian consumer


• Increasing tendency to spend
• Post Liberalization youth population is nearly 100 million

7. Greater levels of education.

8. Shift in the consumer demand for higher brand

9. Internet is making consumers more accessible

10. Reach of satellite TV channels, which are helping in creating


awareness about global products for local markets.

11. Reduction of custom duties of CE, personal care Dairy


Products .

12. The urban customer:


• Getting exposed to international lifestyle
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Harsh Goenka, Chairman, RPG


Enterprises

RPG HR Vision

“ Creating an exciting workplace which inspires


superior people performance”

• Being the most exciting work place


36

HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT ( H R M )

Integration

Influencing

o Applicabilit

MEANING OF HRM: -

HRM is management function that helps managers to recruit,


select, train and develop members for an organization.
Obviously HRM is concerned with the people’s dimensions in
organizations. HRM refers to set of programs, functions, and
activities designed and carried out .

Core elements of HRM

• People: Organizations mean people. It is the people who


staff and manage organizations.

• Management: HRM involves application of management


functions and principles for acquisitioning, developing,
maintaining and remunerating employees in
organizations.
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• Integration & Consistency: Decisions regarding


people must be integrated and consistent.

• Influence: Decisions must influence the effectiveness of


organization resulting into betterment of services to
customers in the form of high quality products supplied at
reasonable cost.

• Applicability: HRM principles are applicable to business as well


as non-business organizations too, such as education, health,
recreation and the like.

OBJECTIVES OF HRM: -

1. Societal Objectives : To be ethically and socially responsible to


the needs and challenges of the society while minimizing the
negative impact of such demands upon the organization.

2. Organizational Objectives : To recognize the role of HRM in


bringing about organizational effectiveness. HRM is only means to
achieve to assist the organization with its primary objectives.

3. Functional Objectives : To maintain department’s contribution


and level of services at a level appropriate to the organization’s
needs.

4. Personal Objectives : To assist employees in achieving their


personal goals, at least in so far as these goals enhance the
individual’s contribution to the organization. This is necessary to
maintain employee performance and satisfaction for the purpose of
maintaining, retaining and motivating the employees in the
organization

HRM Activities –

1. HR Planning
2. Job Analysis
3. Job Design
4. Recruitment & Selection
5. Orientation & Placement
6. Training & Development
7. Performance Appraisals
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8. Job Evaluation
9. Employee and Executive Remuneration
10. Motivation
11. Communication
12. Welfare
13. Safety & Health
14. Industrial Relations

7 Categories of Scope of HRM

1. Introduction to HRM

2. Employee Hiring

3. Employee and Executive Remuneration

4. Employee Motivation

5. Employee Maintenance

6. Industrial Relations

7. Prospects of HRM

ROLE OF HRM

1. Advisory Role: HRM advises management on the solutions to


any problems affecting people, personnel policies and
procedures.

• Personnel Policies

• Personnel Procedures

2. Functional Role: The personnel function interprets and helps to


communicate personnel policies. It provides guidance to
39

managers, which will ensure that agreed policies are


implemented.

3. Service Role: Personnel function provides services that need to


be carried out by full time specialists. These services constitute
the main activities carried out by personnel departments and
involve the implementation of the policies and procedures
described above.

Role of HR Managers (Today)

1. Counselor: Consultations to employees about marital, health,


mental, physical and career problems.

2. Mediator: Playing the role of a peacemaker during disputes,


conflicts between individuals and groups and management.

3. Problem Solver: Solving problems of overall human resource


management and long-term organizational planning.

4. Management of Manpower Resources: Broadly concerned with


leadership both in the group and individual relationships and labor-
management relations.

FUNCTIONS OF HRM ALONG WITH OBJECTIVES

HRM Objectives Supporting HRM Functions


Legal Compliance
Social Objectives Benefits
Union Management Relations
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Human Resource Planning


Organizational Objectives Employee Relations
Recruitment & Selection
Training & Development
Performance Appraisals
Placement & Orientation
Employee Assessment
Fun Performance Appraisals
ctional Objectives Placement & Orientation
Employee Assessment
Training & Development
Personal Objectives Performance Appraisals
Placement & Orientation
Compensation
Employee Assessment

Managerial Functions of HRM

1. Planning

2. Organizing

3. Staffing

4. Directing:

5. Controlling:

Operational Functions of HRM

1. Procurement: Planning, Recruitment and Selection, Induction and


Placement

2. Development: Training, Development, Career planning and


counseling.
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3. Compensation: Wage and Salary determination and administration

4. Integration: Integration of human resources with organization.

5. Maintenance: Sustaining and improving working conditions, ret


entions, employee communication

6. Separations: Managing separations caused by resignations,


terminations, lay offs, death, medical sickness etc.

CHALLENGES OF HRM IN INDIAN ECONOMY

1. Globalization.

Corporate Re-organizations.

New Organizational forms.

2. Changing Demographics of Workforce.

3. Changed employee expectations.

New Industrial Relations Approach.

Renewed People Focus.

4. Managing the Managers.


42

5. Weaker Society interests.

6. Contribution to the success of organizations.

PART-II

PROJECT INTRODUCTION
A STUDAY OF MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM
SPENCER’S RETAIL LIMITED( RPG GROUP )

Definition
'MIS' is a planned system of collecting, processing, storing and
disseminating data in the form of information needed to carry out the
functions of management. According to Phillip Kotler "A marketing
information system consists of people, equipment, and procedures to
gather, sort, analyse, evaluate, and distribute needed, timely, and
accurate information to marketing decision makers." (Kotler, Phillip
and Keller, Kevin Lane; Marketing Management, Pearson Education, 12
Ed, 2006).

Management Information System (MIS)

It is a subset of the overall internal controls of a business covering the


application of people, documents, technologies, and procedures by
management accountants to solving business problems such as costing
a product, service or a business-wide strategy. Management
Information Systems are distinct from regular information systems in
that they are used to analyze other information systems applied in
43

operational activities in the organization. Academically, the term is


commonly used to refer to the group of information management
methods tied to the automation or support of human decision making,
e.g. Decision Support Systems, Expert systems, and Executive
information systems

Management:
Effectiveness – how well a firm is pursuing a goal or objective of its
business; for instance, providing quality product/service can be a
business goal that is usuallystated in a firm's mission statement;
Management by objective (MBO), etc.

Efficiency – best use of resources, a synonym is productivity = output


divided by input. Productivity is measured in general by a ratio
output indicates revenue, market share, etc., while input indicates
labor, rawmaterials, administrative costs, operations costs, and IT
related costs.

Profitability - The empirical studies in the IS literature have reported


that on the contrary to the management's belief, there exists no
significant difference in the profitability between before and after the
new IS implementation. In other words,the new IS does not make
significant profitability increase whatsoever. Ingeneral, the bottom line
in any business is the profitability.

Information

• Relates to the computer; refers to knowledge.


44

• Data are a source for the information. If the data are processed
in a meaningful way, they become "information." Here, IT can
contribute. Information can be extracted easily through IT (e.g.
computer) if data are properly processed.Therefore, the second
word in M.I.S. indicates IT or computer.

• Of course, information can be obtained by a primitive way such


as manual sorting, etc. by a clerk. Using IT definitely outperform
any other mean of history, in terms of processing data.

Systems

• If a nice system is made, it is self running which leads to


reducing the people necessary to the business process.

• Systems Theory, Systems approach

• Systematically doing business

• Systems comes from systems theory that stresses the


importance of system approach to problem-solving and a
structured way to control and adjust Automatically. Computer
programmers and software engineers/developers realized it was
only way to reduce a possibility of encountering errors later in
the systems development process.

• When you construct a new/better system for the current


business operations/decision-making process, you don't want to
make computer program based on the current business way.
Instead, you develop a new model after serious analysis of the
current system, so later can save resource in terms of time and
money by avoiding a possible mistake/error. Therefore, business
process reengineering (BPR) is unthinkable without a sound
understanding of systems
45

• theory/concepts

The management information system manager must clearly


understand the record- keeping and reporting requirements before
designing the system. Though the requirements of each employer
vary, some common report can be prepared. They are:

• Personal profile: Name, sex.community, age, martial status,


address, phone number, service date.

• Career profile: performaqnce appraisal, job title change, job


classification change, salary change, promotion, transfers,
career paths.

• Skill profile: Education, training, certificates, skills, degrees,


licenses, hobbies, requested training, interests.

• Benefits profile: Insurance coverage, disability, provision,


pensions, profit sharing, vacation, holidays, sick leave.

Data for personal

• Descriptive Data: Name, address, date of birth, marital


status and other data describe a person.

• Skills Inventory: A specialized application of descriptive


data, such as skills, abilities, job experience and interests

• Organizational status: Date of hire, organization location,


job title and other job-related data indicating where a person
is situated and what work he is doing in the organization.

• Work History: A compilation of past organization position,


performance and status change, including raises and change
in location and budget center

• Performance Appraisal.
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• Wage and salary: All information necessary for wage and


salary and benefits administration, as well as that necessary
for calculation of gross pay role and gross to net pay

• Labor Reporting Data: Time-Keeping, absence, production


and labor cost
information; work location; supervisor to whom charged; and
so forth.

• Recruitment: Application in process, application on file,


status of recruiting activity, data about schools, and follow-up
information.

Objective of MIS:

1. To offer an adequate, comprehensive and on going


information system about people and jobs.

2. To supply up-to date information at a reasonable cost.

3. To offer data security and personal privacy. Data security is


a technical problem that can be dealt with in several ways,
including passwords and elaborate codes. In the information
age personal privacy is both an ethical and moral issue

Benefits of MIS:

• MIS can process, store and retrieve enormous quantities


of data in a economical way.

• The record can be update quickly.

• There is improved accuracy.


47

• MIS can greatly reduce fragmentation and duplication of


data.

Information System

An information system is a set of organized procedures


which when executed provides information to support decision-making.
Information can be define as a tangible or intangible entity which
serves to reduce uncertainty about some future state or event.

Type of information

1. Recruitment information: It includes advertisement


module, applicant’ profile, appointment and placement
data.

2. Personnel Administration Information: It consists of


personal needs of an employee concerning leaves,
transfer promotion, increment, etc.

3. Manpower Planning Information: It offers data that


could help human resource mobilization, career planning,
succession planning and inputs for skill development.

4. Training Information: It provides information for


designing course material, arranging need-based training
and appraising the training programme, etc

5. Health information: It consists of data relating to


health, safety and welfare of employee.
48

6. Appraisal Information: It consists of performance


appraisal information that serves as input for per motion,
career and succession planning.

7. Payroll information: It provides data regarding wages,


salaries, incentives, allowances, fringe benefits,
deductions for provident fund, etc.

Prepare the MIS Report of the Spencer’s Retail

Type of store:
Destination Discount Store 25000

Sft SUPER + Full range apparels/fashion Houseware, White


Goods, Electronics,Food Courts,Café

Neighbourhood home needs Store

4000- 7000Sft
DAILY +Apparels/Fashion, Liquor, Brown Goods, General Merchandise

Neighborhood Food Store. 2000-

4000 Sft

FRESH + Staples, Processed Food, Beverages, FMCG, Bakery,


Chilled & Frozen, basic apparels, daily need gen merch and
electrical
49

Store Next Door 1000 Sft

Dairy, F&V, Fresh fish &Meat

Types of department & Grade in Spencer’s Retail


Grade
Department
A B B+ C D E F G H
COMMERCIAL
FIN & A/CS
HR
INSTITUTIONAL SALES
IT
MARKETING
MERCHANDISING
OPERATIONS
PROJECTS
WARE HOUSE
TRAINING

TYPE OF GRADE AND DESIGNATION

GRADE DESIGNATION
A CEO , BOARD OF DIRACTOR
B VP , NATIONAL HEAD
50

B+ SENIOR MANAGER , BUSINESS HEAD


C SENIOR MANAGER
D HYPER MANAGER & AREA & OTHER MANAGER
E CATOGERY MANAGER
F ASST. MANAGER ALL

G SECTION HEAD , REP. OFFICER , MARKECTING


EXECUTIVE , MANTINANCE SUPERVISOR
H CSA ,ELECTRICIAN , MARKET OFFICER

Senior Management Profile:

SENIOR V.P OPERATIONS

RAMESH MENON

SR. VP HR

NIHAR RANJAN GHOSH

CHIEF QUALITY ADVISOR

KUNAL BANERJEE

CFO

SATYA K SRIVASTAVA

PROJECT OFFICER

RAJKUMAR TIWARICHIEF
51

VP PRIVATE LABEL

NANDINI SETHURAMAN

VP MARKETING

SAMAR SINGH SHEIKHAWAT

VP SYSTEMS

AMIT MUKHERJEE

VP MERCHANDISING (FMCG & BFS)

SANJAY MISHRA

V.P. SUPPLY CHAIN

VENKATA REDDY

VP MERCHANDISING
(General Merchandise / E&E)

SANJAY GUPTA

V.P APPAREL

ANURAG RAJPAL

VP RETAIL OPERATIONS

NIMISH SHAH
52

ZONAL VP

SATYAKI GHOSH

PRAVEEN DALAL

SARANG KANADE

ATANU BATABYAL

Organization charat

BUSINESS HEAD

HR MGR CAT MER HYP HEAD AREA MGR DC MGR OFFICER


COMMGR
MKT
MGRPROJ
PROPT
MGR

ASST.HR FLOOR ASST.MGR ASST DC MGR SR.EXECUTIVE


REPLENISHMENT ASST MGR
MGR MGR OPS. MARKT
OFFICER PROJ

OFFICER MARKT
HR OFFICER PROJ
EXECUTIVE

SECTION HEAD STOCK COM. EXECUTIVE


CONTROLER
53

SR. LP OFFICER
RST

LP OFFICER

CSA

FORMUALE OF FUNCTIONS BY- SUNIL KUMAR

North
South 2 East South 2

South 1

Scrutiny of Documents / Issues / Drafts


by Corporate Legal Team

Approval by
Head Legal

Approvals of decision making body /


competent authority

Approval to Regional legal along with necessary drafts / documents /


payments / etc as applicable
54

Selection Process

Initiate recruitment
request
55

Review & approval


by level 5 and
above managers
Approv
Intimation to the
al
No Original
requester
A receive
Yes d

Advertise/
References
Agencies

Screening
Profiles

Eligibl
e N
Profile o
s
foundYes
Is
written Yes Conduct
A Written
test
require test
d
No

Arrange & Yes Qualified/


conduct Short
Interviews listed

NO
Yes
Qualified/
A Short Intimate to the
No candidate about not
listed
short listed/selected
Yes

Final selection

Select
A No
ed
Yes

Send offer
letter
56

Employee
Conditions
&
Benefits
57

Attendance & Leave

Work Timings-HO/RO/Stores
Opening
Days Time Closing Time

Head Office Monday-Friday 9:30 AM 6:00 PM

Monday-Friday 9:30 AM 6:00 PM


Regional Office Saturday 9:30 AM 1:30 PM
Stores/Major stores
located in important Monday-
place Sunday 9:30 AM 9:00 PM
Monday-
Thursday 9:00 AM 8:30 PM

Other Stores Friday-Sunday 9:00 AM 9:30 PM


58

Leave Rules

E n t it le m e n t G e n e r a l R u le s f o r a v a ilin g le a v e

C a n 'tb et a k e inn > 3in s t a llm e n t ds e. Av niayt io n s


A f t ecr o m p le toiof 1n2m o n t oh fsn e e d a p p r o v a l o f C E O / a u t h o r iz e d p e r s o n .
s e r v ic we it ht h e c o m p a n y ;APprpo lic - a t io
o bnes u b m it t eo rde s p e c tDive ep t t .
P r iv ile g e L e a v e
r a t ac r e d fito re m p lo y ej oeins inHge a d a t le a s t 1 5 d a y s in a d v a n c e
in m id d le o f F Y L e a v we illin c lu dine t e r v e nhino glid a ye sx c e p t
d e c la r e d p a id h o lid a y s o f t h e c o m p a n y
D e p t t H e a d / a u t h o r iz e d p e r s o n w ill g r a n t C L
A lle m p lo y ea es ps e re n t it le m e n t
C L s h o u ld n 't b e p r e f ix e d / s u f f ix e d b y S L / P L
C a s u a l L e paevr Fe Y & r u le sa p p lic a bt ole
r e s p e c t iv e r e g io n s C a lc u la t e d f r o m 1 s t A p r o n a p r o - r a t a b a s is
C L c a n 't b e g r a n t e d f o r > 3 d a y s
A ll e m p lo y e e s a s p e r e n t it le m e n t
W illn o t b e g r a n t ewd it h o ua t v a lidM e d ic a l
S ic k L e a vp e r F Y & r u le s a p p lic a b le t o
c e r t if ic a t e f r o m a r e g d . M e d P r a c t it io n e r
r e s p e c t iv e r e g io n s
M a y b e g ra n t e d 4 w e e k s b e fo re e x p e c t e d d a t e
c o n f in e m e n t s u b je c t t o r e c o m m e n d a t io n s o f a
q u a lif ie d g y n e c o lo g is t
M a t e r n it Ay ll f e m a lee m p lo y e e st-ht eo
A n y le a v e p e r io d b e y o n d 1 2 w e e k s t o b e
L e a v e e x t e n t o f 1 2 W e e k s a d j u s t e d a g a in s t P L / S L d e p e n d in g o n m e r it o f
c a s e o r t r e a t e d a s lo s s o f p a y a t s o le d is c r e t io n
of management
59

General guidelines

Encashment
of Leave
At time of cessation of service/time of retirement.
PL to the credit of employees subject to max
permissible limit of accumulation will be reimbursable.
For the purpose of encashment, salary includes Basic,
last drawn by the employee

Weekly Mandatory to give a full day holiday to employees who


Holidays have worked for a period of 6 days continuously
In case of exigencies, if employee works on a weekly
holiday, he/she should be given off 3 days before/after
the scheduled day.
60

Late Working

Applicability Employees in G and H grade

Authorization Floor managers to authorize for working beyond


normal working hours

Payout Twice the basic salary + DA

Exceptions Not applicable during new store openings and


Stocktaking; where company makes transport
arrangements
61

Transfer Policy

 Procedures for inter-company transfer


 Can happen only after company presidents give their
consent/initiated by them/seek assistance of group HRD
to bring transfers about
 Receiving presidents will negotiate terms of service
directly with the candidate (with assistance from group
HRD)
 Group HRD to be informed of any transfer above the
level of GM to ensure correct records at group HO

Transfer within a Zone

 Zonal HR Head will authorize the same after obtaining


approval from the zonal business head for all grades
 Transfer letter to be issued to the employee with a copy in
the personal file

Transfer between zones


 For grade F & above, Zonal HR may initiate transfer process
after getting approval from the respective business heads
 Releasing HR will issue the transfer letter with changes as
applicable
 For grades E & above, transfer will be initiated after resp.
business heads give their approval. Senior VP-HR will issue
the transfer letter
 All emoluments relating to transfer to be paid to employee
irrespective of whether it was requested by employee or
otherwise
62

Compensation Policy

Objective: To maintain compensation & benefits at such a level so


as to attract and retain most suitable and competent professionals

C o m po nents
Salary Basic
Spec ialallow anc e,HRA, c onveyanc e,individual
Allowance s
pay
LT A,Medic al,Medic laimCover, Group ac c ident
Annual be nefits
c over, T elephone reimbursement ,Mobile
reimbursement
Valued be nefits
F urnit ure and Applianc es,Company Car
Re tirals Provident F und,Grat uit y,Superannuat ion
Risk allow anc e,Break Shift Allow anc e,Holiday
Othe rs
w age, Nat ional & F est ival Holidays, W eekly offs

Leave Travel Allowance

 Employees can avail LTA when they become eligible for PL


(1 year of service)
 Employees will get pro-rata LTA if he/she resigns from
service within 1 year
 Pro-rata LTA (employees joining in mid year
63

Medical Reimbursement

 Eligibility- employees who do not fall under ESI scheme


 Amount-1 month basic
 Can be claimed on submission of bills as proof of
expenses
 Restricted to a maximum of Rs 15000 per year, beyond
this, the same can be claimed as a personal allowance

Salary Advance

 Objective- To help employees meet their monetary needs


 Eligibility- Min 1 year of service
 Restricted to 3 month’s of employees net home pay
(cash compensation)
 To be recovered within the same FY (1-12 months

Telephone Facilities and Limits

Provided on the basis of need/level limits

Mobile Reimbursement

 Employee will settle bills & claim reimbursement


 Monthly excess/deficit will not be reimbursed
 Permitted average expense/month
64

Local Conveyance

Employee prepares Local conveyance statement declaring


their expenses

Same has to be passed by resp. deptt mgr and sent to HR


for approval.

After sanction, HR submits statement to commercial for


reimbursement

Reimbursement of local conveyance to employee

Two eligibility conditions are important for claiming local


conveyance by any employee (F grade & above)-
 The registration of the vehicle should be in the employees
name and the same should be certified by the HR
Department.
 All claims should be as per business requirements
65

Performance Management

 Appraisal cycle (April-March)-


 For grade G & H, appraisal process happens by april
 For grades F & above, appraisal process & BBSC to be
completed by June 30
 Rewards are implemented from 1 July for assessment of last FY
 Eligibility for appraisal-
 Employees joining before 30 Sep eligible for appraisal in that
FY
 Employees joining after 30 Sep, appraisal period can be
anytime between 12-21 months (increment/bonus to be
enhanced/reduced by an amount proportionate to the period
that person has put in)

Performance Rewards

 Awards based on perf. assessment of employee reflected by


his rating
 Two categories of awards-
 Salary increments
 Annual performance bonus

Annual Performance bonus

 Is not a part of guaranteed compensation & is given as a one


time bonus
 Based on employee’s achievement against objectives as
reflected in BBSC rating
 Perf reward is linked to both individual rating as well as
company’s performance. In a year, where the company has
had very poor results, the perf. award will not be paid out
66

Salary Increments

 Awarded as a % of employee’s current gross compensation


(gross compensation defined as monetary compensation of
the employee basic salary & cash allowances but excluding
valued benefits, HRA, conveyance, LTA & Medical
 Based on Cost of living, an avg % increase is arrived at by
the group and communicated to group companies in april
each year
 Appraisal rating forms the basis for salary decisions & is
communicated to employees after the process of
normalization

Promotion policy

 Promotions will be based on-


 Open positions being made available
 When a employee is found suitable to move onto the
next role
 Normally done in April/Oct each year

Travel Policy

Objective- To enable employees to undertake business travel to


perform company duties in a convenient, comfortable & cost-
effective manner

Entitlements

Grade Mode of Travel


A+, A Business class travel
B+ to E Air (Y class)/ I Class AC/ II Class AC

F & Below I Class/ II Class AC/ III AC


67

Accommodation

 All persons traveling on business should stay at the guest


houses wherever applicable.
 In case of unavailability of guest houses, employees can stay
at hotels as per the indicative list in travel booklet/hotels
within the tariff limit

General Guidelines

 Employees staying at company guest house


 Fixed allowance of Rs. 200 (inclusive of incidentals &
NOT in addition to the same)
 In addition to the expenses incurred on food either
outside or taken at guest house
 Employees to settle their bills as per tariff and submit
bills at base location for reimbursement
 Other Expenses during hotel stay
 Max 1 STD except emergencies
 All reasonable boarding expenses reimbursed at actuals
 Business entertainment needs prior approval of division
head
 Laundry bills (allowed for stay 2 days & above)
 No reimbursement of personal expenses i.e. magazines,
liquor etc
68

Incidental Expenses

To cover any miscellaneous expenses like portage, laundry,tips etc


S r. M a n a g e m e n t (G ra d e C & a b o v e )
Rs . 200 per day

M a n a g e ria l g ra d e (G ra d e E & D ) Rs . 125 per day

E x e cu tiv e & S u p e rv iso ry G ra d e (G ra d e F & RGs) . 1 0 0 p e r d a y

J r. S u p e rvi so ry G ra d e (G ra d e H /I) R s . 7 5 p er d a y

Per Diem

When employee stays on his own without


availing
Applicability the guest house facility/hotel accommodation;
the
Employee makes boarding & lodging
arrangement
On his own; payment on per day basis
69

General Guidelines Where over night travel is involved, it can be


claimed for only 1 leg of travel
When per diem is claimed, no separate food or
Incidentals can be claimed
Applicable only in case of short duration travel.
For travel >1 week on a single loc and duration,
Rates applicable will differ

General Guidelines

 Claim for reimbursement to be submitted in prescribed form


duly authorized by concerned Deptt. Head and traveling
advances to be settled within 7 days from date of completion
of travel
 Where an employee travels with his supervisor, claim to be
raised by supervisor and approved by the next level
 The travel statement should be complete in all respects and
accompanied by relevant bills
 Employees having a company paid credit card should charge
off all hotel expenses on the card and pay by cash

Superannuation

 Non contributory in nature


 Applicable to employees in grade E & above
 Benefits-
 1/3 commutation of pension & interest on balance
amount to be paid by LIC to the employee throughout
his lifetime
70

 After lifetime of employee, capital returned to nominee


as per nomination submitted by employee

Retirement & Separation

Provident fund

Extended to all employees under the employees


General
PF Act

Employee to become a member from joining


date
Membership &
By filling up form-2 & nominate his family
Nomination
members
for receiving any benefits posthumously

Employee contribution Employer contribution


Contributions
12% of basic-EPS
12% of basic
contribution
PF
8.33% of basic/Rs. 417
EPS - Whichever is lower

Gratuity
71

5 years or more (waived on grounds of death,


Qualifying service Disablement due to accident/occupational
disease

Basic Salary Х 15 Х No. of years of cont. service


Payment rate
26

Gratuity received by an employee is taxable in


Tax implications accordance with tax laws (exemption upto 3.5
lakhs)

Resignation

 Any permanent employee desirous of leaving company’s


services shall give requisite notice to the company
 Wages due to such employee must (if possible) be paid
/recovered on the day the notice expires within reasonable
time
 If a permanent employee leaves without notice, he shall be
liable to pay to the company his wages in lieu of notice
 All resignations to be attested by the department head/
functional head & forwarded to Zonal HR Head with the
proposed relieving date
 HR deptt. initiates release process on receipt of attested
resignation letter
 All dues cleared form must be signed off by Commercial
,HR, supervisor & departmental head
 On submission of resignation by employee, employer is
authorized to relieve employee prior to notice period by
settling his dues

Termination
72

Can be effected in cases of gross misconduct, unauthorized


absence form work & sexual harassment

1. Employee absent >3 days, supervisor informs HR

2. Issue of show cause notice by HR to employee to


Termination letter sent to employee if he doesn’t

3. Termination letter sent to employee if he doesn’t turn up

4. In cases of misconduct, employee to be given a written


memo by functional head (copy to personal file)

5. HR to take initiative to counsel employee

6. Employee unwilling to adhere to co. policy, written


Complaint letter issued by functional head

7. On enquiry & validation of facts mentioned, Zonal HR


Head may terminate the services immediately

8. In cases of sexual harassment, action initiated after


Written complaint from affected employee

9.On validation of charges, process of full & final settlement


Is initiated.

10.For termination cases, payment of notice pay by company


as per grade eligibility.

11.All recoveries on loans & advances to be done as for


resignation cases
73

Procedure to initiate full & final settlement

 Employee submits resignation letter Verification by


concerned Deptt. Head submitted to HR Dept.
 HR informs actual date of resignation to payroll for preparing
‘statement of settlement’
 Entitlements like gratuity, PF and SA are sent to HR. If
employee hasn’t cleared his dues, HR instructs the same to be
done
 Employee sends PF settlement letter to HR for verification &
authorization & the employer sends it to PF office
 PF Deptt. Directly pays to the employee
 Gratuity & SA papers to be forwarded to LIC by payroll deptt. & paid
to employee on receipt of same from LIC

 Any increments made on salary will be payable only if employee has


completed 30 days of service after receipt of increment letter

Notice Pay Recovery

 Recovery in lieu of notice board will be calculated on the basic salary


for every day of notice period not served
 In the event employee resigns & is willing to serve the notice period
but the co. chooses to relieve him/her immediately, then this can be
done on approval from senior VP-HR. In such cases, payout will be
calculated on basis that employee has served whole notice period

Rules for calculating the final settlement

 Identity card to be returned failing which Rs. 150 recovered at time of


final settlement
 Notice pay payable/recoverable on Basic Salary
74

 Privilege leave only on basic salary


 All reimbursements payable/recoverable on submission of bills on
pro-rata basis & employee should have worked for a min of 15 days in
a month for pro-rata continuing
 Hard furnishing-Employee leaves before 5 years block, he/she needs
to settle resp. amount which is 20% of the depreciated value as on date
of leaving & can’t return the appliance
 All loans/advances to be recovered along with settlement
 PF/Gratuity/Superannuation-Employee needs to apply to concerned
authority for settlement
 Relieving letter to be issued after F & F settlement is completed

Exit Interview Policy


75

To ensure any loss of staff is handled in a


professional
Philosophy & sensitive manner. The idea is to retain talent
within
the organization & initiate appropriate action with a
sense of urgency, wherever possible.

To use the opportunity to elicit the employees


objective
Purpose feedback on his/her experience of working with the
company & understand the strengths as well as that
of the employees.

Factual information about the employee


Focus Reasons for leaving/immediate triggers
Strengths of the organization as perceived by
areas
employee
Areas of improvement
Confidentiality of data will be ensured and corrective
action will be at the discretion of management

Farewell to retiring employees

 Objective-To appreciate their association & bid a


warm farewell
76

Below asst. managers


(Officers & Executives)

• Memento with company name & logo


• Certificate of appreciation
• Gift worth Rs 2000
• Party for the retiring member along with staff from the
department
• Party to be arranged by
HOD

Assistant Manager to senior manager

• Memento with company name & logo


• Certificate of appreciation
• Gift worth Rs 3000
• Party for the retiring member along with staff
from the department, HOD & location head
• Party to be arranged by HOD

GM & above

• Memento with company name & logo


• Certificate of appreciation
• Gift worth Rs 5000
• Party for the retiring member along with staff from the department,
MC Members & reporting members
• Party to be arranged by HOD

Farewell to resigning employees

 Minimum 5 years of service & above


77

Below asst. managers


(Officers & Executives)

• Gift worth Rs 1000


• Party for the resigning member along with staff
from the department
• Party to be arranged by HOD

Assistant Manager to Senior manager

• Gift worth Rs 1500


• Party for the retiring member along with staff from the department,
HOD & location head
• Party to be arranged by HOD/Location HR

GM & above

• Gift worth Rs 2000


• Dinner for the retiring member along with staff from the department,
MC Members & reporting members
• Party to be arranged
78
79

RESEARCH

“Research is a systematized effort to gain new knowledge.”

-Redman & Mory

“Research is a careful investigation or inquiry especially

through search for new facts in any branch of knowledge.”

-Advanced Learner’s Dictionary of Current English

“Research is the manipulation of things, concepts or symbols

for the purpose of generalizing to extend, correct or verify

knowledge, whether that knowledge aids in construction of

theory or in the practice of an art.”

D.Slesinge & M. Stephenson


80

OBJECTIVES OF RESEARCH

The purpose of research is to discover answers to questions through the

application of scientific procedures. The main aim of research is to find out

the truth which is hidden and which has not been discovered as yet.

1. To gain familiarity with a phenomenon or to achieve new

insights into it (studies with this object in view are termed as

EXPLORATORY or FORMULATIVE research studies);

2. To portray accurately the characteristics of a particular

individual, situation or a group (studies with this object in view

are known as DESCRIPTIVE research studies);

3. To determine the frequency with which something occurs or

with which it is associated with something else (studies with

this object in view are known as DIAGNOSTIC research

studies);

4. To test a hypothesis of a casual relationship between variables

(such studies are known as HYPOTHESIS-TESTING research

studies).
81

“Research has its special significance in solving various operational

and planning problems of business and industry.”

Operations research and market research, along with motivational research,

are considered crucial and their results assist, in more than one way, in

taking business decisions.

Market research is the investigation of the structure and development of a

market for the purpose of formulating efficient policies for purchasing,

production and sales.

Operations research refers to the application of mathematical, logical and

analytical techniques to the solution of business problems of cost

minimization or of profit maximization or what can be termed as optimization

problems.

All these are of great help to people in business and industry who are

responsible for taking business decisions. Research with regard to demand

and market factors has great utility in business. Given knowledge of future

demand, it is generally not difficult for a firm, or for an industry to adjust its

supply schedule within the limits of its projected capacity


82

DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH

Descriptive research includes surveys and fact-finding enquiries of different

kinds. The major purpose of descriptive research is description of the state of

affairs as it exists at present.

In social science and business research we quite often use the term Ex

post facto research for descriptive research studies. The main

characteristic of this method is that the researcher has no control over the

variables; he can only report what has happened or what is

happening.

Most ex post facto research projects are used for descriptive

studies in which the researcher seeks to measure such items as, for example,

frequency of shopping, preferences of people, or similar data. Ex post facto

studies also include attempts by researchers to discover causes even when

they cannot control the variables.

The methods of research utilized in descriptive research are survey

methods of all kinds, including comparative and co relational methods


83

METHODS OF DATA COLLECTION

Survey

Statistical surveys are used to collect quantitative information about items

in a population. Surveys of human populations and institutions are common

in political polling and government, health, social science and marketing

research. A survey may focus on opinions or factual information depending

on its purpose, and many surveys involve administering questions to

individuals. When the questions are administered by a researcher, the survey

is called a structured interview or a researcher-administered survey. When

the questions are administered by the respondent, the survey is referred to

as a questionnaire or a self-administered survey.

The questions are usually structured and standardized. The structure is

intended to reduce bias (see questionnaire construction). For example,

questions should be ordered in such a way that a question does not influence

the response to subsequent questions. Surveys are standardized to ensure

reliability, generalizability, and validity (see quantitative marketing research).

Every respondent should be presented with the same questions and in the

same order as other respondents.


84

Questionnaires

Questionnaires are a popular means of collecting data, but are difficult to

design and often require many rewrites before an acceptable questionnaire is

produced.

Advantages:

• Can be used as a method in its own right or as a basis for interviewing

or a telephone survey.

• Can be posted, e-mailed or faxed.

• Can cover a large number of people or organizations.

• Wide geographic coverage.

• Relatively cheap.

• No prior arrangements are needed.

• Avoids embarrassment on the part of the respondent.

• Respondent can consider responses.

• Possible anonymity of respondent.

• No interviewer bias.
85

Disadvantages:

• Design problems.

• Questions have to be relatively simple.

• Historically low response rate (although inducements may help).

• Time delay whilst waiting for responses to be returned.

• Require a return deadline.

• Several reminders may be required.

• Assumes no literacy problems.

• No control over who completes it.

• Not possible to give assistance if required.

• Problems with incomplete questionnaires.

• Replies not spontaneous and independent of each other.

• Respondent can read all questions beforehand and then decide

whether to complete or not. For example, perhaps because it is too

long, too complex, uninteresting, or too personal.


86

Questions

• Keep the questions short, simple and to the point; avoid all

unnecessary words.

• Use words and phrases that are unambiguous and familiar to the

respondent. For example, ‘dinner’ has a number of different

interpretations; use an alternative expression such as ‘evening meal’.

• Only ask questions that the respondent can answer. Hypothetical

questions should be avoided. Avoid calculations and questions that

require a lot of memory work, for example, ‘How many people stayed

in your hotel last year?’

• Avoid loaded or leading questions that imply a certain answer. For

example, by mentioning one particular item in the question, ‘Do you

agree that Colgate toothpaste is the best toothpaste?’

• Vacuous words or phrases should be avoided. ‘Generally’, ‘usually’, or

‘normally’ are imprecise terms with various meanings. They should be

replaced with quantitative statements, for example, ‘at least once a

week’.

• Questions should only address a single issue.


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Interviews

Interviewing is a technique that is primarily used to gain an understanding of

the underlying reasons and motivations for people’s attitudes, preferences or

behaviour. Interviews can be undertaken on a personal one-to-one basis or

in a group. They can be conducted at work, at home, in the street or in a

shopping centre, or some other agreed location.

Personal interview

Advantages:

• Serious approach by respondent resulting in accurate information.

• Good response rate.

• Completed and immediate.

• Possible in-depth questions.

• Interviewer in control and can give help if there is a problem.

• Can investigate motives and feelings.

• Characteristics of respondent assessed–tone of voice, facial

expression.
88

Disadvantages:

• Need to set up interviews.

• Time consuming.

• Geographic limitations.

• Can be expensive.

• Normally need a set of questions.

• Respondent bias – tendency to please or impress, create false personal

image, or end interview quick.

Planning an interview:

• List the areas in which you require information.

• Decide on type of interview.

• Transform areas into actual questions.

• Try them out on a friend or relative.

• Make an appointment with respondent(s) – discussing details of why

and how long.


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Conducting an interview:

 Personally Arrive on time be smart smile employ good manners find a balance

between friendliness and objectivity.

 At the start Introduce yourself re-confirm the purpose assure confidentiality – if

relevant specify what will happen to the data.

 The questions Speak slowly in a soft, yet audible tone of voice control your body

languages know the questions and topic ask all the questions.

 Responses Recorded as you go on questionnaire written verbatim, but slow and

time-consuming summarized by you taped – agree beforehand –

have alternative method if not acceptable consider effect on

respondent’s answers proper equipment in good working order

sufficient tapes and batteries minimum of background noise.

Ask if the respondent would like to give further details about

 At the end anything or any questions about the research thank them.
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Observation

Observation involves recording the behavioural patterns of people, objects

and events in a systematic manner. Observational methods may be:

• structured or unstructured

• disguised or undisguised

• natural or contrived

• personal

• mechanical

• non-participant

• Participant, with the participant taking a number of

different roles.
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Structured or unstructured

In structured observation, the researcher specifies in detail what is to be

observed and how the measurements are to be recorded. It is appropriate

when the problem is clearly defined and the information needed is specified.

In unstructured observation, the researcher monitors all aspects of the

phenomenon that seem relevant. It is appropriate when the problem has yet

to be formulated precisely and flexibility is needed in observation to identify

key components of the problem and to develop hypotheses.

Disguised or undisguised

In disguised observation, respondents are unaware they are being observed


and thus behave naturally. Disguise is achieved, for example, by hiding, or
using hidden equipment or people disguised as shoppers.

In undisguised observation, respondents are aware they are being


observed. There is a danger of the Hawthorne effect – people behave
differently when being observed.
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Natural or contrived

Natural observation involves observing behaviour as it takes place in the

environment, for example, eating hamburgers in a fast food outlet.

In contrived observation, the respondents’ behavior is observed in an


artificial environment, for example, a food tasting session.

Personal

In personal observation, a researcher observes actual behaviour as it occurs.


The observer may or may not normally attempt to control or manipulate the
phenomenon being observed. The observer merely records what takes place.

Non-participant

The observer does not normally question or communicate with the people
being observed. He or she does not participate.

Participant

In participant observation, the researcher becomes, or is, part of the group


that is being investigated.

In this study, Convenience Sampling has been used because I knew

that the where the sample units are and in what numbers.
93

METHODOLOGY

The survey is based on interviewing grocery store consumers at


various Catchments areas in Lucknow were selected based on number
of households & income groups in the catchments. The data is
collected using a random sample of consumers. The data and
information is collected from selected catchments. Consumers who
have significant knowledge of the topic were identified and selected at
random for questioning. As per Questionnaire, interviews were
conducted face to face on exit from grocery stores to capture the
attitude and experience of consumers who had just purchased grocery
items. The choice of face-to-face interview is to get high response rate
and reduce the response bias. Both Qualitative & Quantitative Data
analysis is done in order to get deeper insights into the consumer
behavior and store loyalty for local grocery stores.

A sample of 300 consumers in catchments making a total


of 300 grocery shopping consumers from the one (1) selected
catchments was selected. The selected sample represents the
population, where the actual result lies within ± 5% of the observed
result. It is logical that the larger the size of the sample, the greater is
the precision or reliability when research is replicated. But constraints
on time, manpower and costs have influenced decisions on sample size
in this study. The sample size represents the store population.
94

This section contains links regarding the methodological issues in


research. It focuses primarily on providing help with the tools and
techniques used in the research process.

These tools and techniques differ from discipline to discipline.


Researchers also have specific biases. Some will prefer qualitative over
quantitative approaches of vice versa. Generally speaking, an

integrated approach is advisable. A study that contains only qualitative


data or solely quantitative data misses the rich texture of
interpretation that an integrated approach makes possible.

While this section may be organized in a way that suggests a defined


process, this is not the intention. It provides links to resources
facilitating a broad spectrum of social science research:

• Research ethics
• Secondary data sources
• Qualitative methods
• Quantitative methods
• Research methodology textbooks
• The Internet as a medium for research
95
96

EMPLOYEE SATISFACTION SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE

How satisfied are you with your job and your organization?

Please take a few minutes to complete this survey. You are the person
who can give us fair guidance without any bias. Based on your
personal experience in this organization, please fill this form to help us
building our organization much better & professional. Share your views
by putting a  mark in the boxes against each question. To maintain
confidentiality.

1 Name
2. Age
3. Sex
4. Department
5. Designation

A – Strongly Agree B – Agree C – Disagree


D – Strongly Disagree

Sl. A B C D
No.
Particulars
1. There is a feeling of mutual trust in our organization.
2. Management takes sincere efforts to identify and utilize employee’s
full potential.
3. I receive prompt feedback to my queries from my Manager**.
4. I am encouraged to experiment and try out new / creative ideas.
5. I feel, I am paid fairly considering my qualification, experience, and
responsibilities.
6. There is good cooperation among all team members in my department.
7. I am happy to be part of this organization.

8. I feel free to express my opinions/problems to my Manager**.


9. I am paid fairly considering my dedications and performance on the job
given to me.
97

10. My Manager** take special care to appreciate any good work done or
contribution made by me.
11. My Performance Appraisal is normally against the responsibilities
assigned by my Manager**.
12. I have the freedom and authority to perform my responsibilities.

13. In the organization difference of opinions with Managers is taken


positively.

14. Personnel and administration policies here facilitate employee


development.

15. Relevant information is freely accessible and readily shared by


management with all employees.

16. I feel, the amount of pay I receive for my job is at par with others doing
similar work in our industry.

17. We have good Training and Development infrastructure and facilities.

18. I am fully aware of what is expected from me and I am informed well


in advance.
19. My work gives me a feeling of personal accomplishment.

20. There is no favoritism/biases during performance appraisals.


21. My Manager** communicate my weaknesses and help me in
overcoming them.

22. I feel, the salary and benefits are adequate to meet my needs and those
of my family.
23. My Manager** guides me and prepare me for future responsibilities.

24. Management* shows genuine interest in the well being of all


employees and even support them during personal emergencies.
25. I would like to continue working in this orgnisation as the environment
is conducive and work is challenging.
26. Where I work, day-to-day decisions demonstrate that Quality is a top
priority.

27. I think I am capable of satisfying my internal / external customers


during my interaction with them?

28. External world (our customers/ other Company’s) have good


perception about our brand products?
98

Overall Satisfaction Level:

Considering all above questions, my overall Highly Satisfied Dissatisfie


satisfaction level with ………… is? Satisfied d

* Management here means Top Management.


** Manager here means your Immediate Boss .

• Improving working condition:-

________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
__________

• Anything else you would like to share :-

Thanks for your valuable inputs.


99

QUESTIONAIRE

(PLEASE ANSWER THE QUESTIONS SO THAT THOSE READING THE


QUESTIONNAIRE WILL BE PROVIDED A CLEAR AND COMPLETE
UNDERSTANDING OF SATISFACTION LEVEL IN ENPLOYEES)

NAME____________
DESIGNATION___________
AGE_________
DEPARTMENT__________
GENDER__________

Q1)Do you feel that our HR policies are well planned &
implemented or not?
IN-%

a)Well Planned

b)Not well planned

c)Well implemented

d)Not well implemented

e) Well planned & implemented


100

Q-2)What you think which source is best for


recruitment and selection in Emcure?

IN-%
a)Employee referrals
b)Third party method
c)Campus recruitment
d)Press advertisement
e)Promotion & Transfers
f)Job Portals i.e naukri.com

Q-3)How would you rate the Performance Appraisal


System of Emcure,on the following basis-
YES/NO

a)Open and Participative

b)Built an incentive
c)Periodically reviewed & updated
d)Easy to understand
101

Q-4)According to you the following criteria’s


used in the company for assessing the
performances are sufficient-

a)Attendance
b)General behaviour towards superior&subordinate
c)Interest in work
d)Job performance
e)Capacity to work
f)Potential
g)Overall impression
h)Any positive / negative traits
Team work
Initiative

Interpersonal relationships

YES

NO
102

Q-5) How do you find the present Training process of Emcure?

a) Poor

b) Average

c) Good

d) Satisfactory

e)Needs improvement

Q-6)What are your reasons for the dissatisfaction


from the training process of Emcure?

IN-%
a)Complex procedure
b)Lack of training techniques
c)Learning period
d)Negative reinforcement
e)Lack of quality trainers
f)Unorganised material
103

Q-7)According to you what factors are to be used for


the Work Force Planning,in the company?

IN-%
a)Type & strategy of organization
b)Organization growth cycle & planning
c)Type & quality of information
d)Nature of jobs being filled
e)Off-loading the work

Q-10)What components of remuneration are more


effective for the employees in order to decide the
Remuneration Policy?

FINANCIAL COMPONENTS- IN-%


a)Hourly & Monthly rated Wages/Salaries
b)Incentives
c)Fringe Benefits(P.F,Gratuity,E.SI, Mediclaim,etc.)

d)Prerequisites(Car,Paid holidays,house,club membership


etc.)

NON-FINANCIAL- IN-%
a) Job Context (Challenging job responsibilities,
recognition, growth prospects, job sharing etc.)

Q-12)What you think about the fringes provided are more


beneficial---(Answer in %)?
104

Reframe: How beneficial are the fringes provided by the Co.?


LEGALLY REQUIRED PAYMENTS:
a)Social Securities(old age,health,insurance
Retirement benefit etc.
b)Workers compensation
c)Unemployment compensation

CONTINGENT&DEFFERED BENEFITS:
a)Pension plans
b)Group Life Insurance
c)ESIS(Employee State Insurance
Scheme):sickness,dependent,maternity benefits etc.
d)GPA(Group Personal Accident Scheme)
e)Mediclaim

PAYMENT FOR TIME NOT WORKED:


a)Vacations
b)Holidays
c)Leave Benefits

OTHER BENEFITS:
a)Travel benefits
b)Company car & subsidies
c)Transfer benefits
d)Loan benefits
e)Employee Meal benefits
f)Child Care facilities
g)Stationary expenses
105

FINDINGS

AND

Data Analysis
106

ANALYSIS

To fulfill the objective of the project, data collection was done on the
present questionnaires. The questionnaire was designed to explore
Employee behavior, present satisfaction level and factors affecting of
the employee. The analysis of the data collection done for the project.

After doing survey in my training period I have analyzed that


employee are happy and satisfy with the organization. They are doing
their job well and giving more time to the organization. They are
happily with organization environment.

Organization is providing of the employees all the benefits, they need


like incentives and fringe benefits, organization is also providing their
good feature .employee are getting per motion by their good work.

The selection procedure and recruitment procedure of the organization


is very good. They select the right position for the right job.
107

I have seen the recruitment procedure for the Gorakhpur Hyper. The
procedure was very good. the training and development procedure is
also very good. Organization follows the rule of hire not fire. The
performance appraisal is also good and provide incentives on the basis
of the performance.

The relation between employee and organization is very smellier.


The employee follow the rule and regulation of the organization.
Organization also helps the employees in solving their problem, and
also motivates them. Organization also helps the employee to devlop
their personality.
108

BIBLIOGRAPHY

BOOKS & JOURNALS

• Cite.hr.

• Spencer’s Retail LTD.

• Googal.com

• Bloemer, J. and Ruyter, K (1998), “On the Relationship


between Store Image, Store Satisfaction and Store Loyalty”,
European Journal of Marketing, Vol. 32, No. 5/6, pp. 499-513.

• Kotler, P. (1997), Marketing Management: Analysis,


Planning, Implementation and Control, Englewood Cliffs, NJ.

• Tahng, D.C., and Tan, B.L.B. (2003), “Linking Consumer


Perception to Preference of Retail Stores: An Empirical
Assessment of the Multi-Attributes of Store Image”, Journal of
Retailing and Consumer Services, Vol. 10-4, pp. 193-200.
109

• Sivadas, E., and Baker-Prewitt, J.L (2000), “An Examination


of the relationship between service quality, customer satisfaction
110