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MODAL VERBS OF

ADVICE, NECESSITY &


PROHIBITION

MODALS
Modals are helping verbs
They are used in combination with the base form of
another verb.
For example:

We should go to the new


restaurant.
Should: modal
Go: base form of verb

MODALS
Most modals do not change their form depending on the subject.
For example:

I should go to the new restaurant.


You should go to the new restaurant.
She should go to the new restaurant.
We should go to the new restaurant.
They should go to the new restaurant.

MODALS

There are many different modals with different


meanings.

For example:

I can swim
can: modal
swim: base form of verb
Can is a modal of present ability.

MODALS OF ADVICE

Modals of advice are used to offer or ask for advice,


suggestions or recommendations.

The most common modals of advice are:

Should
Ought to
Had better

ADVICE: SHOULD & OUGHT TO

Should and ought to are used to give direct advice.

For example:

In New York City, you should visit


Central Park.
In Houston, you ought to go to NASA.
You should eat paella in Spain.
You ought to buy a souvenir during
your trip.

ASKING FOR ADVICE

Should is used to ask for advice.

For example:

Should I take off my shoes when


I enter your house?
Should I cover my shoulders
when I visit the Notre Dame
Cathedral in Paris?

ANSWERING QUESTIONS OF ADVICE


Use the modal should when answering a question of advice.
For example:

Question: Should I give a tip to a


taxi driver in Thailand?
Answer: Yes, you should.

Question: Should I give a tip to a


taxi driver in Japan?
Answer: No, you shouldnt.

ADVICE: HAD BETTER


Had better is used to give advice in a serious situation.
Had better is used when a negative consequence could
occur if the advice is not followed.
For example:

You had better have automobile


insurance when you drive a rental
car in the USA.
This is very serious advice. Driving without
insurance is illegal in the United States.

MODALS OF NECESSITY

Modals of necessity are used to talk about something


that is necessary, an obligation.

The most common modals of advice are:

Have to
Have got to
Must

NECESSITY: HAVE TO & HAVE GOT TO


Have to & have got to are used to explain that something is necessary.
They have the same meaning.
The verb have changes form depending on the subject .
For example:

I have to renew my passport before my trip.


She has to renew her passport before her
trip.
You have got to buy new luggage.
He has got to buy new luggage.

NECESSITY: HAVE TO

Have to is used for all verb tenses.

For example:

I had to apply for a visa before I


traveled to Cambodia.
I will have to apply for a visa
before I go to Vietnam.
I have had to apply for many
visas.

NECESSITY: MUST

Must is usually used in writing.

Must is often used for written rules or directions.

For example:

You must show your passport to


the customs agent.
You must be 25 years old to rent
a car.

NOT NECESSARY: DO NOT HAVE TO


Do not (dont) have to is used to explain that something is not
necessary.
For example:

You dont have to rent a car when you


visit New York City. You can take the
subway.
You dont have to pay to enter The
Fine Arts Museum on Thursday. Its
free on Thursday.

MODAL OF PROHIBITION
The modal of prohibition is used to explain that something is
not allowed or against the rules/laws.
The modal of prohibition is :

Must not
For example:

You must not carry large bottles with


liquid onto an airplane.
You must not smoke on an airplane.
These things are against the law in the USA.