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ANOTHER QUALITY PRODUCT FROM NLRC SPOKEN ENGLISH

COGNITIVE SPOKEN ENGLISH


Cognitive Spoken English
In Sentence Patterns
% to
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Main Features:
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Spoken English in Tamil & Without Grammar


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@ Comprehensive Self-study Spoken English Training in
Tamil and without Grammar.
@ 1500 Spoken English Words Meanings in Tamil with
Spoken English in Tamil & Without
Sentence Patterns. Grammar
@ PowerPoint Slides for Easy Understanding.
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To read sample pages of this book and to purchase,
please visit www.nlrc.in
By
Dr. K. S. JAYAKUMAR, B.E, M.Tech, M.S, PhD.
About the Author Natural Language Research Center(NLRC),
Salem.
Dr. K. S. Jayakumar was born and brought up in
Selliamman Nagar, Salem, Tamil Nadu. He is a
Mechanical Engineering graduate. He completed M.Tech
Target Learners: Engineers, Teachers,
and MS degrees in IIT-Delhi and Singapore-MIT Alliance
(SMA) respectively. He completed PhD degree in Professors, Graduates, Research Scholars,
Nanyang Technological University, Singapore. He is Nurses, IAS & TNPSC Aspirants,
currently working as a researcher in Natural Language Tamil & English Medium Students
Research Center (NLRC). His main research areas are
Language Research, Machine Intelligence and Farm
and All
Machineries. Previously, he worked as an assistant
professor at Department of Mechanical Engineering in
Sona College of Technology, Salem.

A Product of NLRC Spoken English


Rs. 150/- www.nlrc.in
Cognitive Spoken English
In Sentence Patterns

ÜFè Fø¬ñ, ÜP¾, è®ù à¬öŠ¹, M죺òŸC


ÝAò¬õèœ Þ¼‰¶‹, å¼ CPò ݃AôˆFù£™
î¡Â¬ìò º¡«ùŸø«ñ ð£F‚èŠð´Aø¶ â¡Á
⇎ðõ˜èÀ‚° ÞŠ¹ˆî般î
êñ˜ŠH‚A«ø¡.

Ü¡¹ì¡

Dr. K. S. Jayakumar, B.E, M.Tech, M.S, PhD.


Natural Language Research Center (NLRC)
Salem-636111
Mob: +91 9894854413
Web: www.nlrc.in

A Product of NLRC Spoken English

Head Office:
Selliamman Nagar, M. Perumapalayam (PO),
Salem (DT), Tamil Nadu, India – 636 111.
Web: www.nlrc.in,
Email: spokenenglish@nlrc.in
Mob: +91 9994809099
Copyright @ NLRC Spoken English, 2010.

First Edition 2010

Cognitive Spoken English in Sentence Patterns is copyright


protected under the Copyright Act, 1957.

All rights reserved worldwide. ݃Aôˆ¬î


No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a
retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form, or by any means,
electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording otherwise, èŸÁ‚ªè£‡´
without prior permission, in writing, of the publisher.

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Price Rs. 150
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Þ¼Šð, ܬõè¬÷ ¹K‰¶‚ªè£œõ  ݃Aô
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Ýó‹H‚èŠð†®¼‚Aø¶.
. ð£¬îò Å›G¬ôJ™ ªð¼‹ð£ô£ù ñ£íõ˜èœ
݃AôˆF™ «ð²õ I辋 îòƒ°Aø£˜èœ. Þ Iè
º‚Aò è£óíƒèœ: ñ£íõ˜èœ ݃AôˆF™ «ð²‹«ð£¶
¹ˆîèˆF™ Þ¼‚°‹ ݃Aô õ£‚Aòƒè¬÷ ÜŠð®«ò «ðê
G¬ùŠð¶ ñŸÁ‹ ݃Aôˆ¬î Þô‚èí H¬öJ™ô£ñ™ «ðê
G¬ùŠð¶ Ý°‹.
Þ‰î ¹ˆîèñ£ù¶ àƒèÀ‚° ݃Aô Þô‚èí‹
Þ™ô£ñ™ îI› õNò£è v«ð£‚è¡ Þƒ‚L¬ú
èŸÁ‚ªè£´‚Aø¶.  àð«ò£A‚°‹ ݃Aô õ£‚Aò
ܬñŠ¹ º¬øò£ù¶ (Sentence Pattern Method) cƒèœ
݃AôˆF™ êó÷ñ£è «ð²õ I辋 àÁ¶¬íò£è
Þ¼‚°‹. Þ¶ å¼ ¹¶¬ñò£ù ݃Aô ðJŸC º¬ø Ý°‹.
Þ‰î ¹¶¬ñò£ù ݃Aô ðJŸC º¬ø¬ò ºî¡
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¹K‰¶ªè£‡ì£™, cƒè÷£è«õ ݃AôˆF™ êó÷ñ£è «ðê
Ýó‹Hˆ¶M´i˜èœ.

݃Aôˆ¬î èŸÁ‚ªè£‡´ ï‹ î£Œªñ£Nò£‹


îI¬ö ð£¶è£Š«ð£‹
ð£¶è£Š«ð£‹.
Ü¡¹ì¡
죂ì˜. «è. âv. ªüò‚°ñ£˜
ÞŠ¹ˆî般î 𮂰‹«ð£¶ àƒèÀ‚° â¿‹
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ꉫîèƒèœ ñŸÁ‹ 輈¶è¬÷ W›è‡ì
ߪñJ½‚° ÜŠH ¬õ»ƒèœ. (Table of Contents)
àƒèÀ¬ìò ꉫîèƒè¬÷ èœ
1. v«ð£‚è¡ Þƒ‚L¬ú ðŸPò
Gõ˜ˆF ªêŒA«ø£‹. å¼ è‡«í£†ì‹
(Spoken English – A Glance) ……........ 1

2. v«ð£‚è¡ Þƒ‚Lv èŸø½‚è£ù


â¡.â™.ݘ.C-J¡ MFº¬øèœ
spokenenglish@nlrc.in (NLRC Rules for
Spoken English Learning) ....…........... 21

(OR) 3. õ£‚Aò ܬñŠ¹èœ


(Sentence Patterns) .....…....…............ 33
www.nlrc.in
4. ñQî˜è¬÷Š ðŸPò HóF ªðò˜ªê£Ÿèœ
(Pronouns of Humans) ....…....…......... 49

5. º‚Aòñ£ù ¹ô¡ê£˜‰î õ£˜ˆ¬îèœ


(Important Cognitive Words) .........… 63

è™M, «õ¬ô õ£ŒŠ¹ ñŸÁ‹ ªî£N™ 6. 500 îI› õ£‚AòƒèO¡


݃Aô õ£‚Aò ܬñŠ¹èœ
ê‹ð‰îñ£ù Ý«ô£ê¬ùè¬÷»‹ (500 Tamil Situations into English
õöƒ°A«ø£‹. Sentence Patterns) ....…..................… 171
1

ð£ì‹ - 1

v«ð£‚è¡ Þƒ‚L¬ú ðŸPò


å¼ è‡«í£†ì‹

Chapter – 1

Spoken English – A Glance


2 Chapter 1: Spoken English - A Glance Natural Language Research Center (NLRC) - www.nlrc.in 3

1. Cognitive Spoken English - in Sentence Patterns


â¡ø ¹ˆîèˆFL¼‰¶ cƒèœ â¡ù èŸÁ‚ªè£œ÷
«ð£Al˜èœ? ñŸÁ‹ ÞŠ¹ˆîè‹ àƒèO¡ âšõ¬èò£ù
Fø¬ñ¬ò õ÷˜‚°‹?
â¡ø
Cognitive Spoken English - in Sentence Patterns
¹ˆîè‹ cƒèœ ݃AôˆF™ êó÷ñ£è «ðê
èŸÁ‚ªè£´‚Aø¶. Þ¶ ݃Aô Þô‚è투î
ðò¡ð´ˆî£ñ™ îIN™ v«ð£‚è¡ Þƒ‚L¬ú
àƒèÀ‚° èŸÁ‚ªè£´‚Aø¶.
Þ‰î ¹ˆîè‹ v«ð£‚è¡ Þƒ‚LR¡
Ü®Šð¬ì «è£†ð£´è¬÷ M÷‚A, àƒèÀ‚°
ªîK‰î ݃Aô õ£˜ˆ¬îè¬÷ ªè£‡«ì, àƒè¬÷
݃AôˆF™ «ðê ¬õ‚°‹.
àƒèÀ‚° ªîK‰î 輈¶è¬÷ cƒèœ
âO¬ñò£ù ݃AôˆF™ ñŸøõ¼‚° ªê£™L ¹Kò
¬õ‚èîò Fø¬ñ¬ò Þ‰î ¹ˆîè‹ õ÷˜‚°‹.

2. Spoken English â¡ø£™ â¡ù?


â¡ð¶ âO¬ñò£ù ݃Aô
Spoken English
õ£‚Aòƒè¬÷ (Simple Sentences) ªè£‡ì‹.
݃A«ôò˜èœ ݃AôˆF™ «ð²‹«ð£¶
ªð¼‹ð£½‹ âO¬ñò£ù ݃Aô
õ£‚Aòƒè¬÷ ðò¡ð´ˆ¶Aø£˜èœ.

3. Written English â¡ø£™ â¡ù?


Written English â¡ð¶ èôŠ¹ ݃Aô
õ£‚Aòƒè¬÷ (Complex Sentences)
ªè£‡ì‹. å¼ èôŠ¹ õ£‚Aòñ£ù¶ ÜFè
Þô‚èí MFè¬÷ àœ÷ì‚A â¿îŠð†®¼‚°‹.
4 Chapter 1: Spoken English - A Glance Natural Language Research Center (NLRC) - www.nlrc.in 5

݃Aô Þô‚è투î ï¡° ªîK‰¶ ðò¡ð´ˆFù£™ õ£‚Aòˆ¬î ܬñŠðF½‹


ªè£‡ì£™î£¡ èôŠ¹ õ£‚AòˆF™ Þ¼‚°‹ ñŸÁ‹ ܬî à„êKŠðF½‹ è£ô î£ñî‹ ãŸð´‹.
輈¶è¬÷ å¼õ˜ ªîOõ£è ¹K‰¶‚ªè£œ÷ Þ‰î è£ô î£ñîˆFù£™î£¡ å¼õ˜ ݃AôˆF™
º®»‹. êó÷ñ£è «ð꺮õF™¬ô.
Þ‰î èôŠ¹ õ£‚Aòñ£ù¶ ¹ˆîèƒèœ,
ªêŒFî£œèœ «ð£¡øõŸP™ ÜFèñ£è
ðò¡ð´ˆîŠð´Aø¶. 6. ݃AôˆF™ â¿îõ ã¡ èôŠ¹ õ£‚Aòƒèœ
(Complex Sentences) ðò¡ð´ˆîŠð´Aø¶?
4. Spoken English-‹ Written English-‹ å¡ø£? èôŠ¹ õ£‚Aòƒèœ Iè ¸Ž‚èñ£ù ݃Aô
Spoken English-‹ Written English-‹ å¡ø™ô. Þô‚èí MFèÀ‚° à†ð†´ ܬñ‚èŠð´‹.
Þ¬õèœ Þó‡´‹ ªõš«õø£ù¬õ. Spoken èôŠ¹ õ£‚AòˆF™ å«ó õ£˜ˆ¬î e‡´‹ ܉î
English «ð²õ‹, Written English ⿶õ‹ õ£‚AòˆF™ F¼‹ð õó£îð® 𣘈¶‚ªè£œ÷Š
ðò¡ð´ˆîŠð´Aø¶. ð´Aø¶. Ýîô£™ °¬ø‰î õ£˜ˆ¬îè¬÷ ªè£‡´
G¬øò 輈¶è¬÷ èôŠ¹ õ£‚AòˆF¡ Íô‹
5. ݃AôˆF™ «ð²õ ã¡ âO¬ñò£ù ݃Aô
õ£‚Aòƒèœ (Simple Sentences) ðò¡ð´ˆîŠð´Aø¶?
ªê£™ô º®»‹. Þîù£™ °¬ø‰î è£AîˆF™ ÜFè
輈¶è¬÷ Ãø º®»‹.
 «ð²‹«ð£¶ «ò£Cˆî™, õ£‚Aòˆ¬î
ܬñˆî™, õ£‚Aòˆ¬î à„êKˆî™ «ð£¡ø å¼ ªêŒFî£O™ 20 ð‚èƒèO™ Þ¼‚°‹
ªêò™è¬÷ Iè °ÁAò è£ôˆF™ Ü™ô¶ «ïóˆF™ ݃Aô èôŠ¹ õ£‚Aòƒè¬÷ âO¬ñò£ù
ªêŒA«ø£‹. õ£‚AòˆF™ ñ£ŸP â¿F, Þ¬î ªêŒFî£O™
Ü„C†ì£™ °¬ø‰îð†ê‹ 40 ð‚èƒèœ
å¼õ˜ êó÷ñ£è ݃AôˆF™ «ðê «î¬õð´‹.
«õ‡´ñ£ù£™, Üõ˜ 臮Šð£è âO¬ñò£ù
݃Aô õ£‚Aòƒè¬÷ (Simple Sentences) ݃Aô Þô‚è투î ï¡° ªîK‰¶
ðò¡ð´ˆî «õ‡´‹. ÜŠªð£¿¶î£¡ Üõ˜ ªè£‡ì£™î£¡ èôŠ¹ õ£‚AòˆF™ Þ¼‚°‹
«ò£Cˆî™, õ£‚Aòˆ¬î ܬñˆî™, õ£‚Aòˆ¬î 輈¶è¬÷ å¼õ˜ ªîOõ£è ¹K‰¶‚ªè£œ÷
à„êKˆî™ «ð£¡ø ªêò™è¬÷ Iè °ÁAò º®»‹.
è£ôˆF™ Ü™ô¶ «ïóˆF™ ªêŒòº®»‹. Ýù£™ âO¬ñò£ù õ£‚Aòƒè¬÷ ¹K‰¶‚
Ýù£™ å¼õ˜ ݃AôˆF™ «ð²õ èôŠ¹ ªè£œ÷ ݃Aô Þô‚èí MFèœ «î¬õð죶.
݃Aô õ£‚Aòƒè¬÷ (Complex Sentences) W›è‡ì â´ˆ¶‚裆´è¬÷ èõQ‚辋.
6 Chapter 1: Spoken English - A Glance Natural Language Research Center (NLRC) - www.nlrc.in 7
Example: Ýù£™ ݃AôˆF™ â¡ù ïì‚Aø¶? ݃Aô
Complex Sentence:
ªñ£N¬ò â¿î ñŸÁ‹ ð®‚è èŸÁ‚ªè£‡ì
I buy the bag that is very big at Delhi that is capital
of India which is democratic country. Hø°î£¡ «ðê èŸÁ‚ªè£œA«ø£‹.  ªêŒ»‹
Þ¶ å¼ èôŠ¹ õ£‚Aò‹ Ý°‹. Þ¬î Þ‰î îõ¬ø êŸÁ C‰F»ƒèœ.
¹K‰¶‚ªè£œ÷ Iè è®ùñ£è Þ¼‚Aø¶.
8. v«ð£‚è¡ Þƒ‚LR™ ªð¼‹ð£¡¬ñ«ò£˜ ªêŒ»‹
«ñ«ô ªê£¡ù 輈¬î âO¬ñò£ù
îõÁ â¡ù?
õ£‚AòˆF™ W›è‡ìõ£Á â¿îô£‹.
Simple Sentences:
݃AôˆF™ «ð²‹«ð£¶ ¹ˆîèˆF™ Þ¼‚°‹
I buy the bag; The bag is very big; I buy the bag at
݃Aô õ£‚Aòƒè¬÷ ÜŠð®«ò «ðê«õ‡´‹
Delhi; Delhi is capital of India; India is democratic â¡Á ªð¼‹ð£¡¬ñ«ò£˜ G¬ù‚Aø£˜èœ. Þ‰î
country. CPò îõÁ Üõ˜èœ ݃AôˆF™ «ð²õ¬î
Þ¬õèœ âO¬ñò£ù õ£‚Aòƒèœ Ý°‹. è®ùñ£è Ý‚°Aø¶.
Þ¬î ¹K‰¶‚ªè£œ÷ Iè âOî£è Þ¼‚Aø¶. ãŸèù«õ °PŠH†ì ñ£FK, cƒèœ
 Þƒ«è º‚Aòñ£è èõQ‚è «õ‡®ò ݃AôˆF™ «ð²õ âO¬ñò£ù
Mêò‹ â¡ùªõ¡ø£™, âO¬ñò£ù õ£‚Aòƒèœ õ£‚Aòƒè¬÷ (Simple Sentences)

âOî£è ¹KAø¶. Ýù£™ èôŠ¹ õ£‚Aòƒè¬÷ ðò¡ð´ˆ¶õF™¬ô. Ü ñ£ø£è, ðô˜


¹K‰¶ ªè£œõ è®ùñ£è Þ¼‚Aø¶. «ð²õ èôŠ¹ õ£‚Aòƒè¬÷ Üî£õ¶ ¹ˆîè‹
ñŸÁ‹ ªêŒFî£O™ Þ¼‚°‹ õ£‚Aòƒè¬÷
 «ð²õ âO¬ñò£ù õ£‚Aòƒè¬÷ ðò¡ð´ˆ¶õ ݃AôˆF™ «ð²õ
ðò¡ð´ˆFù£™î£¡, ï‹ñ£™ êó÷ñ£è¾‹ è®ùñ£è Þ¼‚Aø¶.
«ð꺮»‹, Ü«î êñòˆF™  «ð²õ¬î
ñŸøõ˜èÀ‹ âOî£è ¹K‰¶ªè£œõ£˜èœ. 9. v«ð£‚è¡ Þƒ‚Lv èŸÁ‚ªè£œ÷ ݃Aô Þô‚èí‹
«î¬õò£?
7. èì‰î 50 õ¼ì è£ôñ£è îI›ï£†®™ ݃Aô‹
èŸÁˆîóŠð´Aø¶. Ýù£™ ޡ‹ ïñ‚° ݃AôˆF™ v«ð£‚è¡ Þƒ‚Lv èŸÁ‚ªè£œ÷, Üî£õ¶
«ð²õ è®ùñ£è Þ¼Šð¶ ã¡? ݃AôˆF™ «ð²õ ݃Aô Þô‚èí‹
 å¼ ªñ£N¬ò «ðê èŸÁ‚ªè£‡ì «î¬õJ™¬ô.  ¬ìò Í¡ø£õ¶
Hø°î£¡ Ü‰î ªñ£N¬ò ð®‚è ñŸÁ‹ â¿î õòFL¼‰«î îI¬ö êó÷ñ£è «ð²A«ø£‹.
èŸÁ‚ªè£œA«ø£‹.  îI› ªñ£NJ™ Þ‰î ⡬ø‚è£õ¶ îI› Þô‚è투î ðŸP «ò£Cˆî¶
ñ£FK ªêŒA«ø£‹. à‡ì£? 臮Šð£è A¬ìò£¶.
8 Chapter 1: Spoken English - A Glance Natural Language Research Center (NLRC) - www.nlrc.in 9

Ýù£™ ݃AôˆF™ «ð²õ ñ†´‹ ã¡ 12. îIN™  G¬ù‚°‹ å¼ è¼ˆ¬î õ£‚Aò ܬñŠ¹
 ݃Aô Þô‚è투î I辋 A«ø£‹? º¬øJ¡ (Sentence Pattern Method) Íô‹ âŠð®
݃AôˆF™ ÃÁõ¶?
ãŸèù«õ ªê£¡ùñ£FK, Written English-™
 îIN™ å¼ è¼ˆ¬î â´ˆ¶‚ªè£œ«õ£‹.
Þ¼‚°‹ èôŠ¹ õ£‚Aòƒè¬÷ ¹K‰¶‚ªè£œõ
輈¶ ޶, “ ê ˜ ‚ è ¬ ó ã î £ õ ¶ e F
݃Aô Þô‚èí‹ è‡®Šð£è «î¬õ. Ýù£™
Þ¼‚Aøî£?” Þ¬î ݃AôˆF™ âŠð® ªê£™õ¶?
Spoken English- ™ Þ¼‚°‹ âO¬ñò£ù
õ£‚Aòƒè¬÷ ¹K‰¶ªè£œ÷ ñŸÁ‹ «ðê ݃Aô Þ¬î ݃AôˆF™ ªê£™ô, ªð¼ð£¡¬ñ«ò£˜
Þô‚èí‹ «î¬õ Þ™¬ô. ðò¡ð´ˆ¶‹ º¬ø ªñ£Nªðò˜ˆî™ Ý°‹.
Üî£õ¶ îI› õ£‚AòˆF™ Þ¼‚°‹ 嚪õ£¼
10.  îI¬ö êó÷ñ£è «ðê èŸÁ‚ªè£œÀ‹«ð£¶ îI›
îI› õ£˜ˆ¬î‚°‹ Ü‡ì£ù ݃Aô
Þô‚è투î èŸøF™¬ô. Ü«î«ð£™ ݃Aô
Þô‚è투î èŸè£ñ™ ݃AôˆF™ âŠð® êó÷ñ£è «ðê õ£˜ˆ¬î¬ò ðò¡ð´ˆF õ£‚Aòˆ¬î ܬñˆî™
èŸÁ‚ªè£œõ¶? Ý°‹. å¼õ˜ ªñ£Nªðò˜‚°‹«ð£¶ ãî£õ¶ å¼
îI› õ£˜ˆ¬î‚°‡ì£ù ݃Aô õ£˜ˆ¬î
݃Aô Þô‚è투î èŸè£ñ™ ݃AôˆF™
ªîKòM™¬ô â¡ø£™ Üõó¶ ñùF™ ðìð승
êó÷ñ£è «ðê¬õ‚°‹ º¬ø‚° õ£‚Aò ܬñŠ¹
ãŸð†´ Üõó£™ ÝƒAôˆF™ õ£‚Aòˆ¬î
º¬ø (Sentence Pattern Method) â¡Á ªðò˜. Þ‰î
ܬñ‚è º®ò£¶.
àôèˆF«ô«ò ºî¡ º¬øò£è õ£‚Aò ܬñŠ¹
º¬ø¬ò ðò¡ð´ˆF ݃AôˆF™ «ðê Ü´ˆ¶ àƒèOì‹ ï£¡ «è†°‹ Iè
èŸÁ‚ªè£´‚°‹ å«ó ¹ˆîè‹ Þ¶î£¡. º‚Aòñ£ù «èœM: ªñ£N ªðò˜‚è£ñ™
݃AôˆF™ õ£‚Aòˆ¬î ܬñ‚è º®»ñ£?
11. õ£‚Aò ܬñŠ¹ º¬ø (Sentence Pattern Method) M¬ì: 臮Šð£è º®»‹.
â¡ð¶ â¡ù?
“ꘂè¬ó ãî£õ¶ eF Þ¼‚Aøî£?” â¡ø
õ£‚Aò ܬñŠ¹ º¬ø â¡ð¶  G¬ù‚°‹
輈F¡ õ£‚Aò ܬñŠ¹: “Is there any sth left?”.
輈¬î îINL¼‰¶ ªñ£N ªðò˜‚è£ñ™
Þî¡ îI› ܘˆî‹: sth-â¡ø ªð£¼œ ãî£õ¶
݃AôˆF™ ÃÁõ‹.
eF Þ¼‚Aøî£?
Ýù£™ ªð¼‹ð£¡¬ñ«ò£˜  G¬ù‚°‹
õ£‚Aò ܬñŠH™ sth â¡ø õ£˜ˆ¬î‚°
輈¬î îINL¼‰¶ ªñ£N ªðò˜ˆ¶î£¡
ðFô£è ïñ‚° «î¬õò£ù ªðò˜ªê£™¬ô ̘ˆF
݃AôˆF™ õ£‚Aòˆ¬î ܬñ‚Aø£˜èœ.
ªêŒ»‹«ð£¶ â‡íŸø ݃Aô õ£‚Aòƒè¬÷
݃AôˆF™ êó÷ñ£è «ð꺮ò£¬ñ‚° Þ¶¾‹
à¼õ£‚èô£‹.
å¼ è£óí‹ Ý°‹.
10 Chapter 1: Spoken English - A Glance Natural Language Research Center (NLRC) - www.nlrc.in 11

輈¶: ꘂè¬ó ãî£õ¶ eF Þ¼‚Aøî£? Ü«î«ð£™ www.nlrc.in â¡ø ªõŠ¬ê†®L¼‚°‹


õ£‚Aò ܬñŠ¹: Cognitive Spoken English â¡ø ¹ˆîèˆFL¼‰¶ 1500
“Is there any sth left?”
݃Aô õ£˜ˆ¬îèÀ‚° îI› Íôñ£è ݃Aô
݃Aô õ£‚Aò‹: â¡Á õ£‚Aò
sth = Sugar
õ£‚Aò ܬñŠ¹è¬÷ ªðøô£‹.
ܬñŠH™ ̘ˆF ªêŒî£™
A¬ì‚°‹ õ£‚Aò‹: ð£ì‹ 3-™ õ£‚Aò ܬñŠ¹è¬÷ ðŸP
“Is there any Sugar left?” ªîOõ£è 𣘊«ð£‹.
ÞŠªð£¿¶ ïñ‚° ªñ£Nªðò˜‚è£ñ™ 14. Þ‰î ¹ˆîèˆF™ ݃Aô Þô‚èí‹ Þ™ô£ñ™
݃Aô õ£‚Aò‹ A¬ìˆ¶ M†ì¶. v«ð£‚è¡ Þƒ‚Lv â¡Á â¿îŠð†®¼‚Aø¶.
ÞŠ¹ˆîè‹ Íô‹ ݃Aô‹ èŸÁ‚ªè£‡ì£™ âù‚°
“ÜKC ãî£õ¶ eF Þ¼‚Aøî£?” â¡ð¬î Written English õó£¶ â¡Á ðô˜ G¬ù‚Aø£˜èœ. Þ‰î
âŠð® ݃AôˆF™ Ãøô£‹? ßÁ êKò£?
sth = Rice â¡Á õ£‚Aò ܬñŠH™ ̘ˆF cƒèœ Þšõ£Á G¬ùŠð¶ îõÁ. Tense ñŸÁ‹
ªêŒî£™ A¬ì‚°‹ õ£‚Aò‹ “Is there any Rice Conjunction- è¬÷ ªîK‰¶‚ªè£œõ¶,
left?”.
õ£‚Aòƒè¬÷ H¬öJ™ô£ñ™ ⿶‹ ðJŸC
“î‚è£O ãî£õ¶ eF Þ¼‚Aøî£?” â¡ð¬î «ð£¡ø¬õèœî£¡ Written English â¡Á ðô˜
݃AôˆF™ Ãø “Is there any Tomato left?” G¬ù‚Aø£˜èœ. Þ¶ îõø£ù ßÁ Ý°‹.
õ£‚Aò ܬñŠ¹ º¬ø¬ò ðò¡ð´ˆF Þ¬õèœ à‡¬ñJ™ Written English‚°‡ì£ù
݃AôˆF™ õ£‚Aòˆ¬î ܬñŠð¶ âšõ÷¾ 輈¶è«÷ A¬ìò£¶. Þ¬îMì ޡ‹ 99
âO¶ â¡Á 𣼃èœ. êîMî ¹¶¬ñò£ù 輈¶èœ Written English-™
݃Aô Þô‚è투î ñ ÜPò£ñ«ô«ò Þ¼‚Aø¶.
 õ£‚Aò ܬñŠ¹ Íô‹ èŸÁ‚ªè£œA«ø£‹. õ£‚Aò ܬñŠ¹èœ Íô‹ ݃Aô õ£‚Aòˆ¬î
޶ à‡¬ñ. ܬñ‚°‹ º¬ø¬ò ªîK‰¶‚ªè£‡ì£™î£¡
cƒèœ Written English-™ ¹ô¬ñ ªðøº®»‹.
13. îI› 輈¶èÀ‚° à‡ì£ù ݃Aô õ£‚Aò
ܬñŠ¬ðè¬÷ âŠð® ªîK‰¶‚ªè£œõ¶?
õ£‚Aò ܬñŠH™ ݃Aô Þô‚èí‹
 G¬ù‚°‹ 嚪õ£¼ îI› 輈¶èÀ‚°‹ ñ¬ø‰F¼‚Aø¶.
݃Aô õ£‚Aò ܬñŠ¹èœ Þ¼‚Aø¶. ݃Aô ݃Aô Þô‚è투î ñ ÜPò£ñ«ô«ò
õ£‚Aò ܬñŠ¹è¬÷ www.ldoceonline.com â¡ø  õ£‚Aò ܬñŠ¹ Íô‹ èŸÁ‚ªè£œA«ø£‹.
ªõŠ¬ê†®L¼‰¶ Þôõêñ£è ªðøô£‹. ޶ à‡¬ñ.
12 Chapter 1: Spoken English - A Glance Natural Language Research Center (NLRC) - www.nlrc.in 13

15. Ý ƒ A ô ˆ F ™ ê ó ÷ ñ £ è « ð ² õ î Ÿ ° ª ê Œ F î £ ¬ ÷ ï‹ â™«ô£¼‚°‹ îI› ï¡ø£è ªîK»‹.


ð®‚èô£ñ£? Ýîô£™ ïñ‚° ªîKò£î ݃Aôˆ¬î  ïñ‚°
݃AôˆF™ êó÷ñ£è «ð²õ ªêŒF÷ ªîK‰î îI› ªñ£N Íôñ£è àƒèÀ‚°
ð®‚è Ã죶. ãªù¡ø£™ ªêŒFî£O™ Þ¼‚°‹ èŸÁˆî¼A«ø¡.
õ£‚Aòƒèœ èôŠ¹ õ£‚Aòƒèœ Ý°‹. 18. Noun ñŸÁ‹ Adjective â¡ð¶ â¡ù?
cƒèœ ݃AôˆF™ êó÷ñ£è «ð²õ Noun â¡ð¶
ªðò˜ªê£™ Ý°‹. å¼ ªð£¼O¡
°ö‰¬îèœ ï®ˆî ݃Aô ý£L¾† ªðò˜î£¡ ªðò˜ªê£™ Ý°‹. Adjective â¡ð¶
F¬óðìƒè¬÷ ݃Aô ꊬ솮½ì¡ ð‡¹„ªê£™ Ý°‹. 嚪õ£¼ ªð£¼œèÀ‚°‹
𣼃èœ. ãªù¡ø£™ ÞˆF¬óðìƒèO™ Þ¼‚°‹ ð‡¹èœ (Properties) Þ¼‚Aø¶. Þ‰î ð‡¹èO¡
õ£ƒAòƒèœ Iè âO¬ñò£è Þ¼‚°‹. ªðò˜î£¡ ð‡¹„ªê£™ Ý°‹.
16. ݃AôˆF™ êó÷ñ£è «ðê èŸÁ‚ªè£œðõ˜ ⊫𣶋 Üöè£ù, «õèñ£ù, M¬óõ£ù «ð£¡ø
݃AôˆF™î£¡ «ò£C‚è «õ‡´‹. îIN™ «ò£C‚è õ£˜ˆ¬îèœ Adjective‚° â´ˆ¶‚裆´èœ Ý°‹.
Ã죶 â¡Á ÜP¾ÁˆîŠð´Aø£˜èœ. Þ‰î ßÁ êKò£? îIN™ “ù” â¡Á º®»‹ õ£˜ˆ¬îèœ
臮Šð£è îõÁ.  îIN«ô£ Ü™ô¶ ªð¼‹ð£½‹ AdjectiveÝè õ¼‹.
݃AôˆF«ô£ «ò£CŠð¶ A¬ìò£¶.  19. Verb ñŸÁ‹ Adverb â¡ð¶ â¡ù?
«ò£Cˆî™ â¡ø ªêò¬ô ¬ìò ͬ÷J¡
Verb â¡ð¶
M¬ùªê£™ Ý°‹. Þ‰î àôèˆF™
Physical Memory-J¡ Íôñ£è ªêŒA«ø£‹.
àœ÷ ªð£¼œèœ ⶾ‹ G¬ôò£è Þ¼ŠðF™¬ô.
Physical Memory- Ýù¶ ¬ìò Þ‰î ªð£¼œèœ å¼ ÞìˆF™ Þ¼‰¶ ñŸªø£¼
䋹ô¡èO¡ C‚ù™èOù£™ à¼õ£‚èŠ ÞìˆFŸ° ïè¼Aø¶. Þ‰î ïè¼î™ Ü™ô¶
ð†®¼‚Aø¶. Physical Memory-J™ à¼õ£‚Aò Þ슪ðò˜„C¬ò ªêò™ â¡Á ÃøŠð´Aø¶. å¼
輈¬î  îIN«ô£ Ü™ô¶ ݃AôˆF«ô£ ªêòL¡ ªðò˜î£¡ M¬ù„ªê£™ Ý°‹. ïè¼,
õ£‚Aòñ£è ܬñˆ¶ «ð²A«ø£‹. «ð£, ÜŠ¹ «ð£¡ø õ£˜ˆ¬îèœ
M¬ù„ªê£™½‚° â´ˆ¶‚裆´èœ Ý°‹.
17. 㡠݃Aô ªñ£N îIN™ èŸÁˆîóŠð´Aø¶?
â¡ð¶ ªêòL¡ ð‡¹„ªê£™ Ý°‹.
Adverb
å¼ ¹¶‚輈¬î  ñŸøõ¼‚° 嚪õ£¼ ªêò½‚°‹ ð‡¹èœ (Properties)
ªê£™½‹«ð£¶ Ü‰î ¹¶‚輈¬î Üõ¼‚° Þ¼‚Aø¶. Þ‰î ªêò™èO¡ ð‡¹î£¡ Adverb
ªîK‰î å¼ è¼ˆ¶ Íôñ£è ªê£™½‹«ð£¶î£¡ Ý°‹. Üöè£è, «õèñ£è, M¬óõ£è «ð£¡ø
Üõ˜ ï¡ø£è ¹K‰¶‚ªè£œõ£˜. õ£˜ˆ¬îèœ Adverb‚° â´ˆ¶‚裆´èœ Ý°‹.
14 Chapter 1: Spoken English - A Glance Natural Language Research Center (NLRC) - www.nlrc.in 15

îIN™ “è” â¡Á º®»‹ õ£˜ˆ¬îèœ Ü™ô¶ «ò£Cˆb˜è«÷£ ܬõè¬÷ å¼ î£O™


ªð¼‹ð£½‹ AdverbÝè õ¼‹. â¿î¾‹. °¬ø‰î¶ 1000 îI› õ£‚Aòƒèœ â¿î
«õ‡´‹. Hø°, cƒèœ â¿Fò îI›
20. Cognitive Words â¡ð¶ â¡ù?  ¹Fî£è å¼
輈¬î à¼õ£‚°õ‹ ñŸÁ‹ ܬî
õ£‚AòƒèÀ‚° ݃Aô õ£‚Aò ܬñŠ¹è¬÷
ªõOŠð´ˆ¶õ‹ â‰î Ü÷¾‚° Þ‰î Cognitive (݃Aô õ£‚Aòƒèœ Ü™ô) ªîK‰¶ ªè£‡ì£™
Words ïñ‚° àÁ¶¬íò£è Þ¼‚Aø¶? cƒèœ êó÷ñ£è ݃AôˆF™ «ðê Ýó‹Hˆ¶
â¡ð¬î îIN™ ¹ô¡ ꣘‰î
Cognitive Words
M´i˜èœ.
õ£˜ˆ¬îèœ â¡Á ܬö‚A«ø£‹. ݃Aô õ£‚Aò ܬñŠ¹èœî£¡ àƒè¬÷
¹ô¡ ꣘‰î õ£˜ˆ¬îèÀ‚° à¼õƒèœ ݃AôˆF™ «ðê ɇ´Aø¶.
A¬ìò£¶. Ýù£™ Noun, Verb «ð£¡ø¬õèÀ‚°
22. ݃AôˆF™ «ð²ðõK¡ ñùG¬ô ñŸÁ‹ «è†ðõK¡
à¼õƒèœ Þ¼‚Aø¶. ªñ£ˆî‹ 260 ¹ô¡ ꣘‰î
ñùG¬ô âŠð® Þ¼‚°‹?
õ£˜ˆ¬îèœ ÝƒAôˆF™ Þ¼‚Aø¶. Þ‰î
õ£˜ˆ¬îèœ è£ôƒèœ, Þìƒèœ, 輈¶èÀ‚° «ð²ðõK¡ ñùG¬ô:
Þ¬ì«ò Þ¼‚°‹ ê‹ð‰îƒèœ «ð£¡ø¬õŸ¬ø ¾ ¹ˆîèˆF™ Þ¼‚°‹ ݃Aô õ£‚Aòˆ¬î
M÷‚°Aø¶. Þ‰î õ£˜ˆ¬îèO¡ ªð£¼œè¬÷ ÜŠð®«ò «ðê «õ‡´‹.
ªîOõ£è ªîK‰¶‚ ªè£‡ì£™, ¹Fî£è å¼
輈¬î à¼õ£‚°õ‹ ñŸÁ‹ Ü¬î ¾ Þô‚èíŠ H¬öJ¡P «ðê «õ‡´‹.
ªõOŠð´ˆ¶õ‹ Þ¬õèœ ïñ‚° I辋 ¾ «õèñ£è «ðê «õ‡´‹.
àÁ¶¬íò£è Þ¼‚°‹.
«è†ðõK¡ ñùG¬ô:
àƒèÀ‚° 1000 ݃Aô õ£˜ˆ¬îèœ
ªîK‰F¼‰¶‹, ¹ô¡ ꣘‰î õ£˜ˆ¬îèœ ¾ «è†ðõ˜ ݃Aô õ£‚AòˆF¡ ªð£¼¬÷
ªîKòM™¬ô â¡ø£™ àƒè÷£™ ݃AôˆF™ ñ†´‹î£¡ èõQŠð£˜. cƒèœ Þô‚èí
¹ô¬ñ ªðø º®ò£¶. H¬ö«ò£´ «ð²Al˜è÷£ Þ™¬ôò£ â¡Á
21.  ñŸøõ˜èOì‹ ÝƒAôˆF™ «ðê£ñ«ô«ò, ï‹ñ£™
èõQ‚èñ£†ì£˜.
݃Aô‹ «ðê‚èŸÁ‚ªè£œ÷ º®»ñ£? ¾ «ð²ðõ˜ M†´ M†´ ªñ¶õ£è «ðCù£™ Ãì,
臮Šð£è º®»‹. Þ¶ âŠð® â¡Á MKõ£è «è†ðõ˜ ªð£Á¬ñ»ì¡ Þ¼Šð£˜. «ð²ðõK¡
𣘊«ð£‹. cƒèœ èì‰î ÝÁ ñ£îƒèœ 輈¬î‚ «è†ðF™ ñ†´‹î£¡ °Pò£è
⡪ù¡ù îI› õ£‚Aòƒè¬÷ «ðCm˜è«÷£ Þ¼Šð£˜.
16 Chapter 1: Spoken English - A Glance Natural Language Research Center (NLRC) - www.nlrc.in 17

¾ «ð²ðõ˜ Þ‰î ñ£FK «ðCù£™ Ãì «è†ðõ˜ 25. Communication Skill â¡ðî¡ à‡¬ñò£ù ªð£¼œ
ï¡ø£è ¹K‰¶‚ ªè£œõ£˜. “I walk road thief â¡ù?
hit fell”, Þ‰î ݃Aô õ£‚Aòˆ¬î ♫ô£¼‹ â¡ð¶ cƒèœ ªê£™ô
Communication Skill
¹K‰¶‚ ªè£œõ£˜èœ. ÞFL¼‰¶  â¡ù G¬ù‚°‹ 輈¬î ñŸøõ¼‚° âOî£è
¹K‰¶ ªè£‡«ì£‹ â¡ø£™, «ð²‹«ð£¶ ¹Kò¬õŠð‹.
Þô‚èí H¬öJ™ô£ñ™ «ðê «õ‡´‹ â¡ø cƒèœ å¼õKì‹ å¼ ¹¶ Mêòˆ¬î
ÜõCò‹ Þ™¬ô. ªê£™½‹«ð£¶, Ü‰î ¹¶ Mêòˆ¬î «è†ðõ¼‚°
ãŸèù«õ ªîK‰î Mêò‹ Íôñ£è ªê£™½‹
23. ݃AôˆF™ «ð²‹«ð£¶ îI¬ö«ð£™ «õèñ£è «ð£¶î£¡ «è†ðõ˜ ï¡ø£è ¹K‰¶‚ªè£œõ£˜.
«ðêôñ£?
cƒèœ å¼ Mêòˆ¬î 𮂰‹«ð£¶,
݃AôˆF™ «ð²‹«ð£¶ îI¬ö«ð£™ «õèñ£è «è†°‹«ð£¶ Ü™ô¶ 𣘂°‹«ð£¶, ܬî
«ðê‚Ã죶. ݃AôˆF™ «ð²‹«ð£¶ ªñ¶õ£è ºîL™ cƒèœ ¹K‰¶‚ªè£œ÷ «õ‡´‹. Hø°
«ðê«õ‡´‹. ªñ¶õ£è 嚪õ£¼ õ£˜ˆ¬îò£è cƒèœ Þ‰î ¹K‰î ªè£‡ì Mêòˆ¬î â‰î
«ðCù£™ Ãì îõÁ 㶋 A¬ìò£¶. «ïóˆF½‹ ñŸøõ˜èÀ‚° âOî£è ¹Kò¬õ‚è
«õ‡´‹ Ü™ô¶ ñŸøõ˜èÀ‚° ¹KAø ñ£FK
ªê£™ô«õ‡´‹. Þ‰î Fø¬ñ àƒèOì‹
24. Cognitive Spoken English â¡ð¶ â¡ù?
Þ™¬ôªò¡ø£™, cƒèœ â¡ù
 ¬ìò Í¡ø£õ¶ õòF™ îI¬ö ð®ˆF¼‰î£½‹ Þ‰î àôèˆF™ â¬î»‹
êó÷ñ£è «ð²A«ø£‹. Þ º‚Aò è£óí‹ ê£F‚躮ò£¶. Þ¶  Communication Skill-¡
ñ ²ŸP Þ¼Šðõ˜èœ ܬùõ¼‹ îIN™ º‚Aò «ï£‚è‹ Ý°‹.
«ð²õ¶ Ý°‹.  îI¬ö ¬ìò 䋹ô¡èœ 26. ݃AôˆF™ 𮂰‹«ð£¶ ¹K‰¶‚ªè£œÀ‹ Cô˜ ܬî
Íôñ£è èŸÁªè£œA«ø£‹. Ü«î«ð£™, «ð²‹«ð£¶ Üõ˜èœ ã¡ î´ñ£ÁAø£˜èœ?
݃Aôˆ¬î ¬ìò 䋹ô¡èœ Íôñ£è Cô˜ ݃Aô‹ 蟰‹«ð£¶ ݃Aô
èŸÁ‚ªè£´‚°‹ º¬ø‚° Cognitive Spoken English õ£˜ˆ¬î‚°‡ì£ù îI› ܘˆî¬î ñ†´‹
â¡Á ܬö‚èŠð´Aø¶. ªîK‰¶‚ªè£œAø£˜èœ. Ýù£™ Üõ˜èœ ܉î
õ£‚Aò ܬñŠ¹ º¬ø  ݃Aô ªñ£N¬ò ݃Aô õ£˜ˆ¬îJ¡ ݃Aô õ£‚Aò
¬ìò 䋹ô¡èœ Íôñ£è èŸÁ‚ªè£œ÷ ܬñŠ¹è¬÷ èŸÁªè£œõF™¬ô. Þîù£™î£¡,
I辋 àÁ¶¬íò£è Þ¼‚Aø¶. Üõ˜è÷£™ ¹K‰¶ªè£‡ì ݃Aôˆ¬î «ðê
º®òM™¬ô.
18 Chapter 1: Spoken English - A Glance Natural Language Research Center (NLRC) - www.nlrc.in 19

Þ‰î Hó„ê¬ù¬ò «ð£‚è cƒèœ õ£‚Aò ¹K‰¶‚ªè£‡ì£™ ñ†´‹î£¡  â¬î»‹


ܬñŠ¹ º¬ø¬ò 臮Šð£è H¡ðŸø «õ‡´‹. ê£F‚è º®»‹.
27. ªð¼‹ð£½‹ ð®ˆîõ˜èœ Cô˜ â¡ù G¬ù‚Aø£˜èœ
29. «õ¬ô õ£ŒŠ¹ «ï˜è£íL™ àƒèOìI¼‰¶ â¡ù
â¡ø£™ ïñ‚° G¬øò 𮊹 î°Fèœ Þ¼‚Aø¶ (B.E,
âF˜ð£˜‚èŠð´Aø¶?
M.Sc, M.A, PhD,...) . Ýù£™ â¡ù£™ ÜFèñ£è
ê‹ð£F‚è º®òM™¬ô. Ýù£™ ⶾ‹ ð®‚è£îõ«ó£ «ï˜è£íL™ ïñ‚° ªîK‰î 輈¬î ñŸøõ¼‚°
Iè ÜFèñ£è ê‹ð£F‚Aø£˜ â¡Á ð®ˆîõ˜èœ Cô˜ ¹K»‹ð®  ªê£™A«ø£ñ£ â¡ð¶‚°î£¡ ÜFè
¹ô‹¹õ Ü®Šð¬ì è£óí‹ â¡ù? º‚Aòˆ¶õ‹ ªè£´‚èŠð´Aø¶.
ÞŠð® ð®ˆîõ˜èœ Cô˜ ¹ô‹¹õ º‚Aò
è£óí‹ Communication Skill- â¡ø Fø¬ñ 30. ݃AôˆF™ «ðê èŸÁ‚ªè£œ÷ â‰î Dictionary-¬ò
Þ™ô£ñ™ Þ¼Šð¶ Ý°‹. Üî£õ¶, å¼ è¼ˆ¬î ðò¡ð´ˆîô£‹?
¹K‰¶‚ªè£œÀî™ ñŸÁ‹ å¼ è¼ˆ¬î ñŸøõ¼‚° www.ldoceonline.com â¡ø ªõŠ¬ê†®™
¹K»‹ð® ªê£™½î™ «ð£¡ø Fø¬ñèœ Longman Dictionary- ¬ò Þôõêñ£è ªðøô£‹.
Þ™ô£ñ™ Þ¼Šð¶ Ý°‹. Ü«î«ð£™ www.nlrc.in â¡ø ªõŠ¬ê†®L¼‚°‹
Cognitive Spoken English â¡ø ¹ˆîèˆFL¼‰¶ 1500
28. ñ£íõ˜èœ ðœO, è™ÖKèO™ âŠð® ð®‚è «õ‡´‹? ݃Aô õ£˜ˆ¬îèÀ‚° îI› Íôñ£è ݃Aô
Üõ˜èœ â‰îñ£FKò£ù ÜP¬õ ªðø «õ‡´‹? õ£‚Aò ܬñŠ¹è¬÷ ªðøô£‹.
ÜFè ð£ìƒè¬÷ ñùŠð£ì‹ ªêŒ¶ ÜFè
ñFŠªð‡ â´‚°‹ ñ£íõ¬ó Mì, °¬ø‰î
ð£ìƒè¬÷ 𮈶 Ü¬î º¿¬ñò£è ******
¹K‰¶‚ªè£‡´ Ü‰î ¹K‰î‚ªè£‡ì 輈¬î
ï¬ìº¬øJ™ ªêò™ð´ˆ¶‹ ñ£íõ˜è«÷
ÞŠ«ð£¶ ®Ÿ° «î¬õ. ãªù¡ø£™ cƒèœ ݃AôˆF™ êó÷ñ£è
Þõ˜è÷£™ ñ†´‹î£¡ ®™ «õ¬ô «ð²õ àƒèÀ‚° I辋
õ£ŒŠH¬ù à¼õ£‚躮»‹. õÁ¬ñ¬ò åN‚è àÁ¶¬íò£è Þ¼‚°‹ Iè
º®»‹.
º‚Aòñ£ù è£óE õ£‚Aò ܬñŠ¹
݃Aô ªñ£N¬ò êó÷ñ£è «ðCù£™ ñ†´‹
 â¬î»‹ ê£F‚è º®ò£¶.  𮂰‹ º¬ø (Sentence Pattern Method)
ð£ìƒè¬÷ ñùŠð£ì‹ ªêŒò£ñ™ Ý°‹.
20

ð£ì‹ - 2

v«ð£‚è¡ Þƒ‚Lv
èŸø½‚è£ù â¡.â™.ݘ.C-J¡
MFº¬øèœ

Chapter - 2

NLRC Rules for Spoken


English Learning
22 Chapter 2: NLRC Rules for Spoken English Learning Natural Language Research Center (NLRC) - www.nlrc.in 23

v«ð£‚è¡ Þƒ‚L¬ú êó÷ñ£è «ð²õ â¡.â™.ݘ.C


䉶 MFº¬øè¬÷ à¼õ£‚AJ¼‚Aø¶. cƒèœ
ܬõè¬÷ èõùñ£è ¹K‰¶‚ªè£‡´ ⊪𣿶‹
ë£ðèˆF™ ¬õˆ¶‚ªè£œ÷ «õ‡´‹.

â¡.â™.ݘ.C MFº¬ø: 1

îIN™ àœ÷ 輈¬î ݃AôˆF™ õ£‚Aòñ£è ܬñ‚è


õ£‚Aò ܬñŠ¹ º¬ø¬ò (Sentence Pattern Method)
ðò¡ð´ˆî «õ‡´‹.
õ£‚Aò ܬñŠ¹ º¬øèœ Íôñ£è 
G¬ù‚°‹ 輈¬î îINL¼‰¶ ªñ£Nªðò˜‚è£ñ™
݃AôˆF™ õ£‚Aòˆ¬î ܬñ‚èô£‹. ð£ì‹ 1-™
Þ¼‚°‹ «èœM ⇠12 ݃Aô õ£‚Aò ܬñŠ¹
º¬ø¬ò ðŸP ªîOõ£è M÷‚°Aø¶. ݃Aô õ£‚Aò
ܬñŠ¹ º¬øè¬÷ ÜFèñ£è ªîK‰¶ ªè£œ÷ ð£ì‹
3-¬ò 𣘂辋.
â¡.â™.ݘ.C MFº¬ø: 2

 G¬ù‚°‹ îI› 輈¶‚° ݃Aô õ£‚Aò ܬñŠ¹


(Sentence Pattern) ªîKòM™¬ô â¡ø£™, Ü
݃AôˆF™ âŠð® õ£‚Aòˆ¬î ܬñŠð¶?
ïñ‚° ݃Aô õ£‚Aò ܬñŠ¹ ªîKò£î
ð†êˆF™ W«ö ªè£´‚èŠð†ì MFº¬øè¬÷
H¡ðŸP  ݃AôˆF™ õ£‚Aòˆ¬î ܬñ‚èô£‹.
1. ªè£´‚èŠð†ì îI› õ£‚Aòˆ¬î è£AîˆF™
â¿î¾‹.
2. îI› õ£‚AòˆF™ Þ¼‚°‹ è¬ìC õ£˜ˆ¬î¬ò
ºîL™ â¿î¾‹. Þ‰î è¬ìC õ£˜ˆ¬î M¬ù
Ü™ô¶ ªêò™ â¡Á ܬö‚èŠð´Aø¶.
32 Chapter 2: NLRC Rules for Spoken English Learning

â¡.â™.ݘ.C MFº¬ø: 5

¶Kîñ£è àƒè¬÷ ݃AôˆF™ «ðê¬õ‚°‹ º¬ø.

W«ö ªè£´‚èŠð†ì ðJŸC¬ò Þ‰î ¹ˆî般î


𮂰‹ 嚪õ£¼ ñ£íõ¼‹ 臮Šð£è ªêŒò «õ‡´‹.
݃AôˆF™ Þ¼‚°‹ â™ô£ õ£˜ˆ¬îèO¡
îI› ܘˆîƒè¬÷ ªîK‰¶ ªè£‡ì£™ 
݃AôˆF™ êó÷ñ£è «ðêô£‹ â¡Á ðô˜
G¬ù‚Aø£˜èœ. Þ¶ îõø£ù 輈¶ Ý°‹. ð£ì‹ - 3
Þƒ° õ£˜ˆ¬îè¬÷ Mì, °¬ø‰îð†ê‹ 500
õ£‚Aò ܬñŠ¹è¬÷ ªîK‰¶‚ªè£‡ì£™,
Þ¬õè¬÷ ¬õˆ¶  2000 Å›G¬ôèÀ‚° ݃Aô õ£‚Aò ܬñŠ¹èœ
õ£‚Aòƒè¬÷ ܬñ‚èô£‹.
cƒèœ Þ‰î ¹ˆî般î ð®Šð«î£´
ñ†´ñ™ô£ñ™, èì‰î 6 ñ£îƒèœ îIN™ «ðCò
ñŸÁ‹ G¬ùˆî õ£‚Aòƒè¬÷ è£AîˆF™ â¿î¾‹. Chapter - 3
cƒèœ â¿Fò îI› õ£‚AòƒèÀ‚° Üî¡ ÝƒAô
õ£‚Aò ܬñŠ¹è¬÷ 臮Šð£è ªîK‰¶‚ªè£œ÷
«õ‡´‹. Þ¬î ªêŒî£™ ñ†´‹î£¡ àƒè÷£™ Sentence Patterns
¶Kîñ£è ݃AôˆF™ «ðê º®»‹.
cƒèœ àƒèÀ¬ìò ÝCKò˜, ï‡ð˜èœ ñŸÁ‹
www.nlrc.in Íôñ£è cƒèœ â¿Fò îI›
õ£‚AòƒèÀ‚° Üî¡ ÝƒAô õ£‚Aò ܬñŠ¹è¬÷
ªîK‰¶‚ªè£œ÷ô£‹.
ð£ì‹ 6-™ 500 îI› õ£‚AòƒèÀ‚° Üî¡
݃Aô õ£‚Aò ܬñŠ¹èœ ªè£´‚èŠð†®¼‚Aø¶.

******
34 Chapter 3: Sentence Patterns Natural Language Research Center (NLRC) - www.nlrc.in 35

õ£‚Aò ܬñŠ¹ ªñ£Nªðò˜‚è£ñ™ ݃AôˆF™


õ£‚Aòˆ¬î ܬñ‚è ðò¡ð´ˆîŠð´Aø¶. Þ‰î õ£‚Aò
ܬñŠH™ ݃Aô Þô‚èí‹ ñ¬ø‰F¼‚Aø¶.
Þ‰î ð£ìˆF™ å¼ ÝƒAô õ£˜ˆ¬îJ¡ îI›
ܘˆîˆ¬î âŠð® ¹K‰¶‚ªè£œ÷ «õ‡´‹ â¡Á‹, ñŸÁ‹
ï¬ìº¬øJ™  ðò¡ð´ˆ¶‹ Iè º‚Aòñ£ù õ£‚Aò
ܬñŠ¹è¬÷»‹ 𣘂èô£‹. å¼ ÝƒAô õ£˜ˆ¬î‚è£ù
õ£‚Aò ܬñŠ¹è¬÷ www.ldoceonline.com â¡ø
ªõŠ¬ê†®™ cƒèœ Þôõêñ£è ªðøô£‹.
cƒèœ W›è‡ì ݃Aô °Pf´èO¡ ܘˆîƒè¬÷
臮Šð£è ë£ðèˆF™ ¬õˆ¶‚ªè£œ÷ «õ‡´‹.

pat - õ£‚Aò ܬñŠ¹ (Pattern)

syn - å«ó ªð£¼¬÷ ªè£‡ì ñŸø õ£˜ˆ¬îèœ


( Synonym )

/ - Ü™ô¶
sb - ò£ó£õ¶ å¼ ïðK¡ ªðò˜ (Somebody)

sth - ãî£õ¶ å¼ ªð£¼O¡ ªðò˜ (Something)

do - M¬ù ( Verb )

doing - M¬ùJ¡ ing ܬñŠ¹ (Verb-ing ,i.e. eating,


trying... )

done - M¬ùJ¡ past participle ܬñŠ¹ ( Verb-pp,


i.e. eaten, gone... )

â¡ø£™ ܬìŠHÂœ ( )
pat: wrong for (doing) sth -
Þ¼‚°‹ õ£˜ˆ¬î¬ò ðò¡ð´ˆF»‹ Ü™ô¶
ðò¡ð´ˆî£ñ½‹ õ£‚Aò‹ ܬñ‚èô£‹.
Ýù¶ is, am, are, was,
pat: be able - be were
«ð£¡ø¬õèO™ ãî£õ¶ 塬ø °P‚°‹.
48 Chapter 3: Sentence Patterns

( îI› õ£‚AòˆF™ è¬ìC õ£˜ˆ¬î


ªîKòM™¬ô
ªîKòM™¬ô, Ýîô£™ ºî¡¬ñ M¬ù don’t
know Ý°‹.)

57. âƒ«è «ð£õ¶?


õ£‚Aò ܬñŠ¹: Where to verb?
݃Aô õ£‚Aò‹: Where to go?

58. ꣊H´õ âƒ«è «ð£õ¶?


õ£‚Aò ܬñŠ¹: Where to verb to do (sth)?
ð£ì‹ - 4
݃Aô õ£‚Aò‹: Where to go to eat?

59. èP ꣊H´õ âƒ«è «ð£õ¶?


õ£‚Aò ܬñŠ¹: Where to verb to do (sth)?
ñQî˜è¬÷ ðŸPò
݃Aô õ£‚Aò‹: Where to go to eat mutton? HóF ªðò˜ªê£Ÿèœ
60. ⊪𣿶 ꣊H´õ¶?
õ£‚Aò ܬñŠ¹: When to verb?
݃Aô õ£‚Aò‹: When to eat?

61. â¡ù ꣊H´õ¶?


Chapter - 4
õ£‚Aò ܬñŠ¹: What to verb?
݃Aô õ£‚Aò‹: What to eat?

62. âŠð® ꣊H´õ¶?


Pronouns of Humans
õ£‚Aò ܬñŠ¹: How to verb?
݃Aô õ£‚Aò‹: How to eat?

[ °PŠ¹: õ£‚Aò ܬñŠH™ «õÁ Mîñ£ù


ªðò˜ªê£Ÿèœ ñŸÁ‹ M¬ùè¬÷ ¬õˆ¶ ð™«õÁ
݃Aô õ£‚Aòƒè¬÷ à¼õ£‚°ƒèœ]
******
50 Chapter 4: Pronouns of Humans Natural Language Research Center (NLRC) - www.nlrc.in 51

1. I

Meaning 1: Þ¶ subject Ýè ñ†´‹ õ¼‹. Üî£õ¶ verb‚° º¡¹


õ¼‹. Þî¡ ªð£¼œèœ: , âù‚°, â¡Qì‹.
a. I walk -  ïì‚A«ø¡.
b. I want money - âù‚° ðí‹ «î¬õŠð´Aø¶.
c. I have car - â¡Qì‹ è£˜ Þ¼‚Aø¶ Ü™ô¶  裘
¬õˆF¼‚A«ø¡.

2. My

Meaning 1: â¡Â¬ìò, Þ¶ ªðò˜ªê£™½‚° (noun) º¡¹ ñ†´‹


õ¼‹.
a. This is my car - Þ¶ â¡Â¬ìò 裘 Ý°‹.
b. My car price is 6 lacs - â¡Â¬ìò è£K¡ M¬ô 6 ô†êƒèœ
Ý°‹.

3. Mine

Meaning 1: â¡Â¬ìò¶
a. The car is mine - 裘 â¡Â¬ìò¶ Ý°‹.
b. Mine is red car - â¡Â¬ìò¶ C芹Gø 裘 Ý°‹.
c. Your book is big. Mine is small - àƒèÀ¬ìò ¹ˆîè‹ ªðKò¶.
â¡Â¬ìò¶ CPò¶ Ý°‹.

4. Me

Meaning 1: ⡬ù, âù‚° (me / to me), â¡Qì‹, â¡Âì¡ (with


me)
cƒèœ ⡬ù è£òŠð´ˆî£b˜èœ Ü™ô¶
a. You don’t hurt me -
¹‡ð´ˆî£b˜èœ.
b. You give me the book - cƒèœ âù‚° Ü™ô¶ â¡Qì‹
¹ˆîè‹ ªè£´ƒèœ.
c. You come with me - cƒèœ â¡Âì¡ õ£¼ƒèœ.
52 Chapter 4: Pronouns of Humans Natural Language Research Center (NLRC) - www.nlrc.in 53

Phrase Meaning 1: It’s me / this is me / that’s me - Þ¶  / 7. Our


޶  / ܶ .
Meaning 1: âƒèÀ¬ìò / ¬ìò
[º‚Aò°PŠ¹: Phrase Meaning â¡ø£™ Þ‰î õ£‚AòˆF™
Þ¼‚°‹ õ£˜ˆ¬îè¬÷ îQîQò£è HKˆ¶ Þ‰î õ£‚AòˆF¡ a. India is our country - Þ‰Fò£ ¬ìò  Ý°‹ Ü™ô¶
ܘˆî¬î 𣘂è Ã죶.] Þ‰Fò£ ï‹ ï£´ Ý°‹
Phrase Meaning 2: me too - âù‚°‹ Ü«î G¬ô¬ñ. b. Our student passed the exam - ¬ìò ñ£íõ˜ «î˜M™
ªõŸP ªðŸø£˜.
d. I am hungry. Me too - âù‚° ðC‚Aø¶. âù‚°‹ Ü«î
G¬ô¬ñ.
8. Ours
5. Myself Meaning 1: âƒèÀ¬ìò¶ / ¬ìò¶

Meaning 1: ï£ù£è«õ, ù Ü™ô¶  îQò£è (l myself), a. The car is ours - 裘 âƒèÀ¬ìò¶ Ý°‹.
⡬ù«ò, b. Ours is big car - âƒèÀ¬ìò¶ ªðKò 裘 Ý°‹.
a. I hurt myself -  ⡬ù«ò è£òŠð´ˆF ªè£œA«ø¡.
b. l myself walked long -  îQò£è ÜFè Éó‹ ïì‰«î¡ 9. Us
Ü™ô¶ ù ÜFè Éó‹ ï쉫î¡.
Meaning 1: âƒè¬÷, âƒèÀ‚° (us / to us), âƒèOì‹, âƒèÀì¡,
Phrase Meaning 1: (all) by myself - îQò£è ( syn: alone ). ï‹ºì¡ (with us)
c. I do the work all by myself -  «õ¬ô¬ò îQò£è a. You don’t hurt us - cƒèœ âƒè¬÷ è£òŠð´ˆî£b˜èœ Ü™ô¶
ªêŒA«ø¡. ¹‡ð´ˆî£b˜èœ.
b. You give us the food - cƒèœ âƒèÀ‚° Ü™ô¶ âƒèOì‹
6. We àí¾ ªè£´ƒèœ.
Meaning 1:  / èœ, âƒèÀ‚°, âƒèOì‹. c. You come with me - cƒèœ âƒèÀì¡ õ£¼ƒèœ.
a. We go to temple - èœ
«è£M½‚° ªê™A«ø£‹ Ü™ô¶ Phrase Meaning 1: Let us do sth / Let’s do sth -  do â¡ø
 «è£M½‚° «ð£A«ø£‹. ªêò¬ô ªêŒòô£‹, all of us -  Ü™ô¶ ï£ƒèœ â™«ô£¼‹,
b. We need money - âƒèÀ‚° ðí‹ «î¬õ. ï‹I™ ♫ô£¼‹, some of us - ï‹I™ Cô˜
c. We have the car - âƒèOì‹ è£˜ Þ¼‚Aø¶. d. Let’s go -  «ð£èô£‹.
Phrase Meaning 1: we Indians / we Tamils ... - Þ‰Fò˜è÷£Aò e. All of us eat - ï£ƒèœ â™«ô£¼‹ ꣊H´A«ø£‹.
 / îIö˜è÷£Aò .
10. Ourselves
Þ‰Fò˜è÷£Aò
d. We Indians should save the national integrity -
Meaning 1: è÷£è«õ, è«÷ Ü™ô¶ ï£ƒèœ îQò£è (we
 «îCò åŸÁ¬ñ¬ò ð£¶è£‚è «õ‡´‹.
ourselves), âƒèÀ‚°œ«÷«ò,
62 Chapter 4: Pronouns of Humans

40. is

Meaning 1: Ý°‹, Ýõ£¡, Ýõ£˜, Þ¼‚Aø¶.


a. It is bus - Þ¶ ðv Ý°‹.
b. He is a thief - Üõ¡ å¼ F¼ì¡ Ýõ£¡.
c. He is a good man - Üõ˜ ï™ô ñQî˜ Ýõ£˜.
d. The ball is on the table - ð‰¶ «ñ¬êJ¡ «ñ™ Þ¼‚Aø¶.
ð£ì‹ - 5
º‚Aò õ£˜ˆ¬îèO¡ ܘˆîƒèœ

by me - â¡ù£™, â¡ Íôñ£è
from me - â¡QìI¼‰¶,
Íôñ£è,
º‚Aòñ£ù ¹ô¡ ꣘‰î
in me - â¡QìˆF™, õ£˜ˆ¬îèœ
to me - âù‚°,
for me - âù‚è£è,
with me - â¡Âì¡
â¡Âì¡,
through me - â¡ Íôñ£è. Chapter - 5
Þ«î ñ£FK us, you, him, her, it, them «ð£¡Á ñŸø
(Þ«î
õ£˜ˆ¬îèÀ‚°‹ ªð£¼œ ªè£œ÷ô£‹.
ªè£œ÷ô£‹.)
Important
Cognitive Words
******
64 Chapter 5: Important Cognitive Words Natural Language Research Center (NLRC) - www.nlrc.in 65

1. About

Meaning 1: ðŸP
ðŸP, å¼ ªêò¬ô Ü™ô¶ ªð£¼¬÷ ðŸP °PŠH´õ¶
Ý°‹.
¹ˆîè‹ ÜóCò¬ôŠ ðŸP
a. The book is about politics -
Þ¼‚Aø¶ Ü™ô¶ MõK‚Aø¶.
b. He lies about his age - Üõ¡ Üõ¬ìò õò¬îŠ ðŸP
ªð£Œ ªê£™Aø£¡.

Meaning 2: ãøˆî£ö. ( syn: approximately / roughly )


c. I live about 10 miles away -  ãøˆî£ö 10 ¬ñ™èÀ‚°
܊𣙠õC‚A«ø¡.
 ãøˆî£ö ñ£¬ô 10.30
d. I leave the home about 10 PM -
ñE‚° i†¬ì M†´ A÷‹¹A«ø¡.
Meaning 3: å¼ ªêò¬ô ªêŒò îò£ó£è Þ¼.
 A÷‹¹õ
e. I am about to leave ( syn: about to + verb ) -
Ü™ô¶ ¹øŠð´õ îò£ó£è Þ¼‚A«ø¡.
Phrase Meaning 1: how / what about sth / sb - cƒèœ
ñŸÁ‹ àƒèœ
ñ¬ùM Þ¼õ¼‹ àƒèœ ï‡ð˜ i†®Ÿ° õ¼õî£è ÜõKì‹
ªê£™Al˜èœ. àƒèœ ñ¬ùM‚° àì™ ïô‹ êKJ™¬ô.
Ýîô£™, cƒèœ ñ†´‹ àƒèœ ï‡ð˜ i†®Ÿ° ªê™Al˜èœ.
ÜŠ«ð£¶, àƒèœ ï‡ð˜ «è†Aø£˜, “ã¡ àƒèœ ñ¬ùM
õóM™¬ô, Üõ¼‚° â¡ù ÝJŸÁ?”. Þ ݃AôˆF™ how
about your wife / what about your wife â¡Á ܘˆî‹.
cƒèœ ñŸÁ‹ àƒèœ ï‡ð˜ Þ¼õ¼‹
Phrase Meaning 1a:
«ðC‚ªè£‡®¼‚Al˜èœ. ÜŠ«ð£¶ àƒèÀ‚° ðC‚Aø¶.
ÜŠ«ð£¶ àƒèœ ï‡ðKì‹ cƒèœ, “àƒèÀ‚°‹ ðC‚Aøî£?”
â¡Á «è†ð how about you / what about you Ý°‹.
f. I am feeling hungry, what about you - âù‚° ðC‚Aø¶.
àƒèÀ‚°?
g. I buy the house, what about you? -  i´ õ£ƒ°A«ø¡.
cƒèÀñ£?
66 Chapter 5: Important Cognitive Words Natural Language Research Center (NLRC) - www.nlrc.in 67

cƒèœ ñŸÁ‹ àƒèœ ï‡ð˜ Þ¼õ¼‹


Phrase Meaning 1b: â™ô£õŸPŸ°‹ «ñô£è, Iè
Phrase Meaning 1: above all -
«ðC‚ªè£‡®¼‚Al˜èœ. ÜŠ«ð£¶ àƒèœ Þ¼õ¼‚°‹ º‚Aòñ£è. ïñ‚° ° ªð£¼œèœ H®ˆF¼‚Aø¶. ÜF™
êLŠ¹ ãŸð´Aø¶. ÜŠ«ð£¶ àƒèœ ï‡ð˜ àƒèOì‹ ï£‹ Iè º‚Aòñ£ù¬î Ãø Þ¶ ðò¡ð´Aø¶. ( syn: most of all /
«õÁ ãî£õ¶ ªêŒòô£‹ â¡Aø£˜. Ü cƒèœ,  most importantly / particularly / primarily )
CQñ£õ‚° «ð£èô£«ñ â¡Á ªê£™Al˜èœ. Þ âù‚° ÝŠHœ,
g. I like apple, orange and above all ice cream -
݃AôˆF™ how about movie / what about movie â¡Á ܘˆî‹. Ýó…² H®‚°‹, â™ô£õŸPŸ°‹ «ñô£è ävAK‹
Phrase Meaning 2: that’s about it / that’s about all / that’s it - cƒèœ H®‚°‹.
°ö‰¬îèÀ‚° è¬î ªê£™Al˜èœ. è¬î º®‰î î¼íˆF™ â™ô£õŸPŸ°‹ «ñô£è,
h. Above all, I eat more vegetables -
“è¬î Üšõ÷¾  / è¬î º®‰¶ M†ì¶” â¡d˜èœ. Þ  ÜFè 裌èPè¬÷ ꣊H´A«ø¡.
݃AôˆF™ that’s it â¡Á ܘˆî‹.
3. According to
2. Above
Meaning 1: å¼õ¬ó ªð£Áˆîõ¬ó.
Meaning 1: «ñ«ô
«ñ«ô, å¼ ªð£¼œ Þ¡ªù£¼ ªð£¼À‚° àò«ó a. According to police, he is a thief ( pat: according to sb ) -
Þ¼Šð¶ Ý°‹. Ýù£™ Þ¼ ªð£¼œèÀ‹ 塬øªò£¡Á «ð£L¬ú ªð£Áˆîõ¬ó, Üõ¡ å¼ F¼ì¡.
ªî£ì‚Ã죶. å¼ ªð£¼O¡ M¬ô å¼ ñFŠ¹‚° «ñ«ô Þ¼Šð¶.
Meaning 2: 塬ø ªð£Áˆ¶. ( pat: according to sth )
a. The fan is above the table - I¡MCP «ñ¬ü‚° «ñ«ô
b. The students are grouped according to age - ñ£íõ˜èœ õò¬î
Þ¼‚Aø¶.
ªð£Áˆ¶ °¿‚è÷£è HK‚èŠð´Aø£˜èœ.
b. The price is above Rs 5 - M¬ô 5 Ï𣌂° «ñ«ô Þ¼‚Aø¶.
c.  MFº¬øè¬÷Š
I play the cricket according to rules -
c. You write the name above the address - cƒèœ ªðò¬ó ªð£Áˆ¶ Ü™ô¶ H¡ðŸP AK‚ªè† M¬÷ò£´A«ø¡.
ºèõK‚° «ñ«ô ⿶ƒèœ.
å¼ ªêò™ 
Phrase Meaning 1: according to plan -
Meaning 2: «ñŸªê£¡ùð® Ü™ô¶ «ñ«ô °PŠH†ì. Þ¶ è¬î G¬ùˆîŠð® Ü™ô¶ ï‹ F†ìŠð® ïì‚Aø¶.
¹ˆîèƒèO™ ÜFèñ£è õ¼‹.
d. All went according to plan - â™ô£‹  G¬ùˆîŠð®

d. As I mentioned above, there is a big room in the house -
ïì‚Aø¶.
«ñ«ô °PŠH†ì ñ£FK, i†®™ ªðKò ܬø Þ¼‚Aø¶.
4. Across
ÜFèñ£ù
e. Write to the above address for further information -
îèõ½‚° «ñ«ô °PŠH†ì ºèõK‚° â¿î¾‹. Meaning 1: °Á‚«è, å¼ ð‚èˆF™ Þ¼‰¶ Ü´ˆî ð‚èˆFŸ°. â‰îŠ
Meaning 3: Þ¶ ðîMJ¡ õK¬ê¬ò °P‚Aø¶. Üî£õ¶ ܉î ðîM ªð£¼œèÀ‚° ð‚è‹ Þ¼‚Aø«î£ ܬõèÀ‚° across õ¼‹.
Þ‰î ðîM‚° «ñ«ô Þ¼‚Aø¶. â´ˆ¶‚裆´‚° «ó£´, , ªî¼, ÝÁ «ð£¡ø¬õè¬÷ Ãøô£‹.
f.  «ñ«ùü˜ ðîM‚° «ñ«ô
I am above the manager - a. I walk across the road -  «ó£†®¡ °Á‚«è ïì‚A«ø¡.
Þ¼‚A«ø¡. Üî£õ¶, â¡Â¬ìò ðîM «ñ«ùü˜ ðîM‚° b. I see across the valley -  ðœ÷A¡ °Á‚«è
«ñ«ô Þ¼‚Aø¶. 𣘂A«ø¡.
68 Chapter 5: Important Cognitive Words Natural Language Research Center (NLRC) - www.nlrc.in 69

c. There is a crack across the road - «ó£†®¡ °Á‚«è MKê™ e. I go to Salem. After (that) I go to Trichy ( pat: sent1, After (that)
Þ¼‚Aø¶. sent2 ) -  «êô‹ ªê™A«ø¡. Hø°  F¼„C
ªê™A«ø¡.
( °PŠ¹: over â¡ø õ£˜ˆ¬î‚°‹ °Á‚«è â¡Á ªð£¼œ.
over ñŸÁ‹ across Þó‡´‚°‹ â¡ù MˆFò£ê‹ â¡ø£™ Meaning 2: å¼õ˜ ñŸªø£¼õ¬ó «î´õ‹, ñŸÁ‹ å¼õ˜
over ‚° å¼ ð‚èˆF™ Þ¼‰¶ Ü´ˆî ð‚èˆFŸ° ªî£ì£ñ™ ñŸªø£¼õ¬ó H¡ªî£ì˜õ¬î»‹ Þ¶ °P‚Aø¶.
ªê™õ¶ Ý°‹. I jump over the road â¡ø£™,  «ó£†®Ÿ°
°Á‚«è ´A«ø¡ â¡Á ܘˆî‹. Üî£õ¶ «ó£†®¡ å¼ f. The police is after me ( syn: look for / search for ) - «ð£Lv
ð‚èˆF™ Þ¼‰¶ Ü´ˆî ð‚èˆFŸ° ªî£ì£ñ™ ªê™A«ø¡. ) ⡬ù H¡ªî£ì˜‰¶ «î® õ¼Aø¶.
Meaning 2: âF˜ð‚èˆF™ ( syn: on the other side / opposite ) , g. He goes after her / He follows her - Üõ¡ Üõ¬÷
â™ô£ð°FèO½‹ ( syn: throughout / all over / everywhere in ) H¡ªî£ì˜‰¶ ªê™Aø£¡.
d. My friend lives across the road - â¡Â¬ìò ï‡ð¡ «ó£†®¡ Phrase Meaning 1: one after another / one after the other / one by
âF˜ ð‚èˆF™ õC‚Aø£¡. one - å¡ø¡ H¡ å¡ø£è, Ü´ˆî´ˆ¶.
e. We conduct the election across the country - ï£ƒèœ ï£†®¡ h. I drink five glasses of water one after another -  䉶 ì‹÷˜
â™ô£ ð°FèO½‹ õ£‚ªè´Š¹ ï숶A«ø£‹. c¬ó Ü´ˆî´ˆ¶ °®‚A«ø¡.
Phrase Meaning 1: across the board - ♫ô£¼‚°‹,
å¼ ªêò™ å¼ ªêò¬ô ºîL™ cƒèœ
Phrase Meaning 2: after you -
i†®™ Ü™ô¶ ®™ Þ¼‚°‹ ܬùõ¬ó»‹ ð£FŠð¬î ªêŒ»ƒèœ. Hø°  ªêŒA«ø¡. Üî£õ¶, cƒèœ ¬ðŠH™
Þ¶ °P‚Aø¶. î‡a˜ H®‚è ªê™Al˜èœ. Ü«î êñòˆF™ Þ¡ªù£¼õ¼‹
f. Across the board, there is 10% pay increase - ♫ô£¼‚°‹ î‡a˜ H®‚è õ¼Aø£˜. Þ¼õ¼‹ å«ó êñòˆF™ °ìˆ¬î
10 êîMî ê‹ð÷ àò˜¾ Þ¼‚Aø¶. ¬õ‚Al˜èœ. ÜŠ«ð£¶ cƒèœ, “ºîL™ cƒèœ î‡a˜
H®»ƒèœ. Hø°  H®‚A«ø¡” â¡ð¬î after you âù‚
5. After Ãøô£‹.
Meaning 1: Hø°, H¡¹, Ü´ˆîî£è. 6. Again
a. After the dinner, I go to bed - Þó¾ ꣊𣆴‚° Hø°  Meaning 1: e‡´‹, ñÁð®»‹.
Éƒè ªê™A«ø¡.
a. I eat again / once again -  ñÁð®»‹ ꣊H´A«ø¡.
b. After leaving the school, he works in the restaurant ( pat: after
doing sth, sent1 ) - ðœO M†ìŠ H¡¹, Üõ¡ àí¾ b. You do it again - cƒèœ ܬî e‡´‹ ªêŒ»ƒèœ.
M´FJ™ «õ¬ô ªêŒAø£¡. Phrase Meaning 1: all over again - e‡´‹ å¼ ªêò¬ô ¹Fî£è
c. After 10 minutes, I go to college - 10 GIìˆFŸ° Hø°  ªî£ì˜õ¶, start again - å¼ ªêò¬ô M†ì ÞìˆF™ Þ¼‰¶
è™ÖK ªê™A«ø¡. e‡´‹ ªî£ì˜õ¶.
cƒèœ ºèõK¬ò
d. You write the address after the name - c. I write the essay all over again (syn: redo / repeat ) - 
ªðò¼‚° Hø° Ü™ô¶ ªðò¼‚° Ü´ˆîî£è â¿î¾‹. 膴¬ó¬ò e‡´‹ ¹Fî£è ⿶A«ø¡.
70 Chapter 5: Important Cognitive Words Natural Language Research Center (NLRC) - www.nlrc.in 71
d. I start again the essay writing ( syn: resume / take up again ) - i. The apple is tasty as against the orange ( pat: as against sth) /
 膴¬ó ⿶õ¬î e‡´‹ M†ì ÞìˆF™ Þ¼‰¶ The apple is tastier than the orange - ÝŠHœ Ýó…¬ê Mì
ªî£ì˜A«ø¡. ²¬õò£è Þ¼‚Aø¶. ( syn: in comparison with / compared to /
Phrase Meaning 2: the same again - e‡´‹ Ü«î ªð£¼œ in contrast to )
Ü™ô¶ ªêò™, again and again / over and over again / often - Phrase Meaning 1: go against - Þ¼ Mêòƒèœ å¡Á‚ªè£¡Á
e‡´‹ e‡´‹, Ü®‚è®. ºó‡ð£ì£è Þ¼Šð¶ Ý°‹.
ÝŠHœ ï™ô
e. The apple is very tasty. I want the same again - j. «ðŠð˜
The newspaper news goes against the TV news -
²¬õò£è Þ¼‚Aø¶.  e‡´‹ Ü«î ÝŠH¬÷ ªêŒF»‹ ®M ªêŒF»‹ å¡Á‚ªè£¡Á ºó‡ð£ì£è
M¼‹¹A«ø¡ Ü™ô¶ ꣊Hì M¼‹¹A«ø¡. Þ¼‚Aø¶.
f.  e‡´‹ e‡´‹ Ü™ô¶
I eat apple again and again - Phrase Meaning 2: have something against - å¼õ˜
ã«î£ ñùF™
Ü®‚è® ÝŠH¬÷ ꣊H´A«ø¡. ¬õˆ¶‚ªè£‡´ àƒè¬÷ ªõÁŠð¶ Ý°‹. Ýù£™ Üõ˜
ã¡ ÜŠð® ªêŒAø£˜ â¡Á àƒèÀ‚° ⶾ‹ ¹Kò£¶.
7. Against
k. He has something against me - Üõ˜ ã«î£ ñùF™
Meaning 1: âFó£è, âFó£ù. ¬õˆ¶‚ªè£‡´ ⡬ù ªõÁ‚Aø£˜.
a. He votes against him - Üõ¡ Üõ‚° âFó£è
Phrase Meaning 3: sb1 turn sb2 against sb3 - sb1-Ýùõ˜ sb2-¬ò
õ£‚èO‚Aø£¡.
sb3-‚° âFó£è ªêò™ðì¬õ‚Aø£˜. Þ¶ ãî£õ¶ ªð£Œè¬÷
b. He fights against her - Üõ¡ ÜõÀ‚° âFó£è ê‡¬ì ªê£™L âFó£è ªêò™ðì¬õŠð¶ Ý°‹.
«ð£´Aø£¡.
l. He turns my sister against me - Üõ˜ â¡Â¬ìò è¬ò
c. This is against the law - Þ¶ ê†ìˆFŸ° âFó£è Ü™ô¶ âù‚° âFó£è ªêò™ðì¬õ‚Aø£˜.
¹ø‹ð£è Þ¼‚Aø¶.
8. All
d. He marries her against her wish - Üõ¡
Üõ¬÷ ÜõÀ¬ìò
M¼ŠðˆFŸ° âFó£è F¼ñí‹ ªêŒAø£¡. Meaning 1: â™ô£, â™ô£‹. ( syn: every / everyone )

e. India plays against England in cricket - Þ‰Fò£ AK‚ªè†®™ a. I eat all the bread / I eat all of the bread -  â™ô£
ÞƒAô£‰¶‚° âFó£è M¬÷ò£´Aø¶. ªó£†®¬ò»‹ ꣊H´A«ø¡.
Meaning 2: å¼õ˜ å¼ ªð£¼O¡ e¶ ꣌‰¶‚ªè£‡´ Þ¼Šð¶, b. The boys watch the movies all day - ¬ðò¡èœ  º¿õ¶‹
å¡Á âF˜F¬êJ™ ªê™Aø¶, ªêò¬ôè¬÷ Ü™ô¶ ªð£¼¬÷è¬÷ ðì‹ ð£˜‚Aø£˜èœ.
«õÁð´ˆF 裇Hˆî™ Ý°‹. c. All girls stand on the ground - â™ô£ ªð‡èÀ‹ î¬óJ¡ «ñ™
f. He leans against the wall / He is against the wall - Üõ¡ ²õK¡ GŸAø£˜èœ.
e¶ Ü™ô¶ ²õK™ ꣌‰¶ Þ¼‚Aø£¡. Meaning 2: ñ†´‹ ( syn: only )
g. The ladder is against the wall - ãE ²õK™ ꣌‰¶ Þ¼‚Aø¶. d. All I want is pencil and eraser ( pat: All I want / need / like verb sth
h. I go against the wind ( syn: opposite direction of sth ) -  ) / I want only pencil and eraser - âù‚° ªð¡C™ ñŸÁ‹
裟P¡ âF˜ F¬êJ™ ªê™A«ø¡. ÜNŠð£¡ ñ†´‹ «î¬õŠð´Aø¶.
72 Chapter 5: Important Cognitive Words Natural Language Research Center (NLRC) - www.nlrc.in 73

ܶ Üšõ÷¾î£ù£?. Üî£õ¶,
Phrase Meaning 1: is that all? - f. cƒèœ
You put the pencil on the table along with other pencil -
cƒèœ G¬ù‚°‹ ªð£¼œ cƒèœ âF˜ð£˜ˆî¬î Mì âOî£è ªð¡C¬ô «ñ¬üJ¡ «ñ™ ¬õ‚辋, ªð¡C¬ô ¬õ‚°‹
A¬ì‚°‹«ð£¶ Þ¶ õ¼‹. «ð£¶ Þ¬î ñŸø ªð¡C™èÀì¡ «ê˜ˆ¶ ¬õ‚辋.
e. The pen is only Rs 20. Is that all? - «ðù£ ªõÁ‹ 20 Ïð£Œ å¼ ªêò¬ô å¼õ˜
Phrase Meaning 3: along the same lines -
Ý°‹. æ, ܶ Üšõ÷¾î£ù£? ªêŒî ñ£FK Ü™ô¶ ªê£¡ù ñ£FK ªêŒõ‹. ( syn: similarly
Phrase Meaning 2: All along sth - sth-¡ â™ô£ «ïóº‹. ( syn: all / likewise )
the time / during ) g. He handled the situation very well. We should act along the same
f. I work all along the day -   º¿õ¶‹ Ü™ô¶ ï£O¡ lines - Üõ˜ Å›G¬ô¬ò ï¡ø£è êñ£Oˆî£˜. ‹ Ü«î
â™ô£ «ïóº‹ «õ¬ô ªêŒA«ø¡. ñ£FK ªêŒò «õ‡´‹.

9. Along 10. Among


Meaning 1: ñˆFJ™ Ü™ô¶ Þ¬ìJ™. Þ¶ Í¡Á Ü™ô¶ Ü
Meaning 1: õNò£è, Üîõ£¶ å¼ ªð£¼O¡ ð‚èˆF™ Þ¡ªù£¼ «ñŸð†ì ªð£¼œèÀ‚° Þ¬ìJ™ ñŸªø£¼ ªð£¼œ Þ¼Šð¬î‚
ªð£¼œ Ü‰îŠ ð‚èˆ¬î ªî£†´‚ªè£‡´ ªê™õ¶ Ý°‹. °P‚°‹. ( °PŠ¹: between â¡ð¶ Þ¼ ªð£¼œèÀ‚° Þ¬ìJ™
 «ó£´ õNò£è ïì‚A«ø¡. (
a. I walk along the road - ñŸªø£¼ ªð£¼œ Þ¼Šð¬î‚ °P‚°‹ )
°PŠ¹: å¼ ªð£¼œ Üî£õ¶ ð‰¶ ü¡ù™ õNò£è a. I walk among the trees -  ñóƒèO¡ ñˆFJ™ ïì‚A«ø¡.
ªê™Aø¶ â¡Á‚Ãø the ball goes through the window Ý°‹ )
b. The house is among the hills - i´ ñ¬ôèO¡ ñˆFJ™
ñ‚èœ Ã†ì‹ «ó£´ õNò£è
b. The crowd is along the road - Þ¼‚Aø¶.
Þ¼‚Aø¶. Üî£õ¶ ñ‚èœ «ó£´ õNò£è Þ¼Šð¶ õK¬ê
Meaning 2: å¼ °¿M™ Þ¼‚°‹ ñ‚èœ ñˆFJ™, ãî£õ¶ å¡P™
«ð£¡Á è£íŠð´‹.
ð£F‚èŠð†ìõ˜èO™ Þõ¼‹ å¼õ˜.
c. Þó£Žõ ió˜èœ ♬ôJ¡
The army is along the border -
c. The problem gives more worries among the people - Hó„ê¬ù
õNò£è Þ¼‚Aø£˜èœ Ü™ô¶ ♬ôJ™ Þ¼‚Aø£˜èœ. ñ‚èœ ñˆFJ™ ÜFè èõ¬ôè¬÷ î¼Aø¶.
Phrase Meaning 1: come / go / get along - å¼õK¡ àì™G¬ô d. I am one among them - 
Üõ˜èO™ å¼õ˜ Ü™ô¶ ï£Â‹
«îPõ¼Aø¶, get along with sb - å¼õ˜ ñŸøõKì‹ ï¡ø£è Üõ˜èO™ å¼õó£è Þ¼‚A«ø¡.
ðö°Aø£˜.
e. The villagers are among the casualities ( syn: include ) -
âù‚° 裌„ê™ Þ¼‰î¶.
d. I had fever. Now, I get along well - Aó£ñõ£CèÀ‹ Þø‰îõ˜èO™ Ü샰õ˜.
ÞŠªð£¿¶ â¡Â¬ìò àì™G¬ô ï¡ø£è «îPõ¼Aø¶.
Phrase Meaning 1: among the other things - º‚Aòñ£è, °PŠð£è.
e. He gets along with me very well - Üõ˜ â¡Qì‹ Iè ï¡ø£è ( syn: specifically / importantly / particularly )
ðö°Aø£˜. f. I discuss about lots of problems in meeting. Among the other things,
å¼ ªð£¼¬÷ ñŸø
Phrase Meaning 2: along with sth - I discuss about poverty -  ÆìˆF™ G¬øò
ªð£¼Àì¡ «ê˜ˆ¶ ¬õ‚辋. Þƒ° sth -Ýù¶ ñŸø Hó„ê¬ùè¬÷Š ðŸP Mõ£F‚A«ø¡. ÜF™ º‚Aòñ£è,
ªð£¼¬÷‚ °P‚°‹.  㛬ñ¬òŠ ðŸP Mõ£F‚A«ø¡.
74 Chapter 5: Important Cognitive Words Natural Language Research Center (NLRC) - www.nlrc.in 75
Phrase Meaning 2: among yourselves / ourselves / themselves - 12. Ahead
àƒèÀ‚°œ / âƒèÀ‚°œ / Üõ˜èÀ‚°œ
Meaning 1: º¡ù£® º¡ù£™, ( syn: in front of, before ) Þ¶ å¼
º¡ù£®, º¡ù£™
g. They fight among themselves ( syn: with each other ) - Üõ˜èœ ªð£¼œ Þ¡ªù£¼ ªð£¼À‚° º¡ù£® Þ¼Šð¬î °P‚Aø¶.
Üõ˜èÀ‚°œ ê‡¬ìŠ «ð£´Aø£˜èœ.
a. The car is ahead of me ( pat: ahead of sth/sb ) - 裘 âù‚°
11. Ago º¡ù£® Þ¼‚Aø¶ ( °PŠ¹: The car is ahead â¡ø£™
裘 ã«î£ å¼ ªð£¼À‚° º¡ù£® Þ¼‚Aø¶ )
Meaning 1: º¡¹
º¡¹, Þ¶ è£ôƒèœ ê‹ð‰îŠð†ì õ£˜ˆ¬îèÀ‚° Meaning 2: õK¬êJ™ å¼ ªð£¼œ Þ¡ªù£¼ ªð£¼À‚° º¡ù£®
Ü´ˆîî£è ñ†´‹ õ¼‹. Ýù£™ before, earlier, previously, back Þ¼Šð¬î °P‚Aø¶
°P‚Aø¶.
«ð£¡ø õ£˜ˆ¬îèÀ‚°‹ º¡¹ â¡Á  ªð£¼œ. ago õ£˜ˆ¬î
îQò£è¾‹ õ¼‹ ñŸÁ‹ è£ôƒèœ ê‹ð‰îŠð†ì õ£˜ˆ¬îèÀì‹
b. Three people are ahead of me ( pat: ahead of sth / sb ) - Í¡Á
õ¼‹. «ð˜ âù‚° º¡ù£® Þ¼‚Aø£˜èœ.
a. I ate food 2 hours ago ( syn: 2 hours before / earlier / back / c. B is ahead of A ( i.e. A, B, C, D ———> ) - H Ýù¶ ã ‚°
previously ) -  Þó‡´ ñE «ïóˆFŸ° º¡¹ àí¾ º¡ù£® Þ¼‚Aø¶.
꣊H†«ì¡. Meaning 3: âF˜è£ôˆF™, ïì‚è«õ‡®ò «ïóˆFŸ° º¡ùî£è«õ
b. I went to Italy a long ago -  ªó£‹ð è£ôˆFŸ° º¡¹ å¼ ªêò™ ïì‚Aø¶.
Þˆî£L «ð£«ù¡. d. There are big problems ahead/ ahead of us - âF˜è£ôˆF™
Phrase Meaning 1: a minute ago / a second ago / a moment ago / a ïñ‚° G¬øò Hó„ê¬ùèœ Þ¼‚Aø¶.
short time ago / not long ago / just now - êŸÁ «ïóˆFŸ° º¡¹ ( e. I think about the exam 4 months ahead ( syn: I think about the
ÞŠð ) exam 4 months before ) -  ° ñ£îƒèÀ‚° º¡ð£è«õ
«î˜¬õŠ ðŸP «ò£C‚A«ø¡.
c.  êŸÁ «ïóˆFŸ° º¡¹
I drank the water a minute ago -
Ü™ô¶ ÞŠð î‡a˜ °®ˆ«î¡. f. I cooked the rice two hours ahead -  «ê£Á Þó‡´ ñE
«ïóˆFŸ° º¡ð£è«õ ê¬ñˆ«î¡.
Phrase Meaning 2: a long ago/ a long time ago - ªó£‹ð «ïóˆFŸ°
Phrase Meaning 1: ahead of schedule / ahead of time / early -
( è£ôˆFŸ° ) º¡¹.
ïì‚è«õ‡®ò «ïóˆFŸ° º¡ùî£è«õ å¼ ªêò™ ïì‚Aø¶.
d. There was a king a long time ago - ªó£‹ð è£ôˆFŸ° º¡¹ g. I completed the work ahead of time -  «õ¬ô¬ò
å¼ Üóê˜ Þ¼‰î£˜. º¡ùî£è«õ º®ˆ«î¡. Üî£õ¶ õö‚èñ£ù «ïóˆFŸ°
Phrase Meaning 3: how long ago? - âšõ÷¾
è£ôˆFŸ° Ü™ô¶ º¡«ð «õ¬ô º®‰¶ M†ì¶.
«ïóˆFŸ° º¡¹ å¼ ªêò™ ïì‰î¶ âù °P‚Aø¶. å¼õ˜ å¼ ªêò¬ô ªêŒò
Phrase Meaning 2: go ahead -
e. How long ago did you buy the computer? - âšõ÷¾ «ïóˆFŸ° àƒèOì‹ ÜÂñF «è†Aø£˜. Ü‰î ªêò¬ô î£ó£÷ñ£è
( ÷‚° ) º¡¹ cƒèœ è‹HÎ†ì˜ õ£ƒAm˜èœ? ªêŒ»ƒèœ â¡Á cƒèœ ªê£™½õ go ahead â¡Á ªð£¼œ.
Ýù£™, when did you buy the computer? â¡ø£™ ⊪𣿶 h. Can I do this work? yes, go ahead -  Þ‰î «õ¬ô¬ò
è‹HÎ†ì˜ õ£ƒAm˜èœ? â¡Á ܘˆî‹. ªêŒòô£ñ£? Ý‹, î£ó£÷ñ£è ªêŒ»ƒèœ.
170 Chapter 5: Important Cognitive Words

172. Yesterday

Meaning 1: «ïŸÁ
a. I come / came to Salem yesterday -  «ïŸÁ «êô‹ õ‰«î¡.

173. Yet
ð£ì‹ - 6
Meaning 1: Þ¶ å¼ ªêò™ ޡ‹ ïì‰îî£ Þ™¬ôò£ â¡Á Ãø
ðò¡ð´Aø¶. Þ¶ ªð¼‹ð£½‹ «èœM ñŸÁ‹ âF˜ñ¬ø
õ£‚AòƒèO™ ðò¡ð´ˆîŠð´Aø¶.
Üõ˜ õ‰¶ M†ì£ó£? Ü™ô¶ Üõ˜
a. Has he come yet? -
500
ޡ‹ õóM™¬ôò£?
b. Has the bus left (to) the Salem? not yet - ðv «êôˆFŸ° A÷‹H
îI› õ£‚AòƒèO¡
M†ìî£? ޡ‹ Þ™¬ô. ݃Aô õ£‚Aò ܬñŠ¹èœ
c. I haven’t told the news yet / I still haven’t told the news - 
ޡ‹ ªêŒF¬ò ªê£™ôM™¬ô.
Phrase Meaning 1: yet to do sth - do â¡ø ªêò¬ô ÞQ«ñ™î£¡
ªêŒò «õ‡´‹. Üîõ£¶ do â¡ø ªêò¬ô ޡ‹ Chapter - 6
ªêŒòM™¬ô.
d. I am yet to write the letter -  ÞQ«ñ™î£¡ è®î‹ â¿î
«õ‡´‹. 500
Üõ¡ «õ¬ô õ£ŒŠ¹
e. He has yet to receive the offer letter -
è®îˆ¬î ÞQ«ñ™î£¡ ªðø «õ‡´‹. Üî£õ¶ Üõ¡ Tamil Situations
ޡ‹ «õ¬ô õ£ŒŠ¹ è®îˆ¬î ªðøM™¬ô.a.
into
English Sentence Patterns
******
172 Chapter 6: 500 Tamil Situations into English Patterns Natural Language Research Center (NLRC) - www.nlrc.in 173

1. õ£ƒè õ£ƒè / i†®Ÿ° õ£¼ƒèœ - Welcome home


2. «êôˆFŸ° àƒè¬÷ õó«õŸA«ø¡ Ü™ô¶ õó«õŸA«ø£‹ - Welcome
to Salem (Pat: welcome to Place Name)
3. â¡ù ꣊H®Pƒè - What would you like to eat? (Pat: what would
you like to do sth)
4. cƒèœ ðö‹ ꣊Hì M¼‹¹Al˜è÷£?- Would you like to eat fruit?
(Pat: would you like to do sth)
5. cƒèœ ãî£õ¶ ꣊Hì M¼‹¹Al˜è÷£?- Would you like to eat
anything? (Pat: would you like to do anything)
6.  pv °®‚è M¼‹¹A«ø¡ - I would like to drink juice (Pat: I
would like to do sth)
7. âŠð® Þƒè õ‰Fƒè - How did you come here / How you came
here
8.  裘ô õ‰«î¡ - I came by car
9. Üõ¡ 裘ô õó£¡ Ü™ô¶ õ¼Aø£¡ - He comes by car
10. ã¡ Þƒè õ‰Fƒè - Why did you come here / Why you came here
11. cƒè ÞŠð â¡ù ð‡Pƒè - What do you do now / what you do now
12. cƒè âˆî¬ùò£õ¶ õ°Š¹ ð®‚APƒè - How many-ith class do you
study? [NLRC Method] / What class are you in? [For Schools] /
What year are you (in)? [For Colleges]
13. cƒè â‰î õ°Š¹ ð®‚APƒè - Which / What class do you study? /
Which / What class you study?
14. â‰î è¬ìòô ¶E â´ˆFƒè - Which shop did you buy the cloth ?
/ Which shop you bought the cloth?
15. àƒè ªð£‡Ž‚° è™ò£í‹ ÝJ´„ê£ - Is your daughter married?
/ Does your daughter get married? / have your daughter got
married?
16. àƒè ªð£‡Ž‚° è™ò£í‹ ÝA âšõ÷¾ ï£÷£„²? - How long has
your daughter been married? (Pat: How long has sb been married)
17. âšõ÷¾ ï£÷£ Þƒè «õ¬ô ªêŒPƒè? - How long do you work
here?
174 Chapter 6: 500 Tamil Situations into English Patterns Natural Language Research Center (NLRC) - www.nlrc.in 175

18. âƒè ªð£‡Ž‚° è™ò£í‹ ÝA 䉶 õ¼ìƒèœ ÝAM†ì¶ - Our 32. Þ‰î ͆¬ì¬ò É‚A†´ «ð£ - You carry the luggage.
daughter has been married for 5 years / It is 5 years since our 33. ͆¬ì¬ò «ñ«ô É‚° - Lift the luggage up / above.
daughter got married. 34. «ñ«ô «ð£ - Go above / up
19. Üõ¡ ñô¬ó è™ò£í‹ ªêŒ¶‚A†ì£¡ - He married (to) Malar / He 35. ü¡ùL¡ ð‚èˆF™ Ü™ô¶ ð‚èõ£†®™ G™ - Stand by the window
is married (to) Malar / He got married (to) Malar 36. ü¡ùL™ ꣌‰¶ G™ - Stand against the window
20. Üõ‚° C¡ù õòC«ô è™ò£í‹ ÝJ´„² - He married young / 37. «ð¡ «ñ¬ü‚° «ñ«ô Þ¼‚Aø¶ - The fan is above the table ( Pat:
He got married young sth1 is above sth2; st1= àòóˆF™ Þ¼‚°‹ ªð£¼œ)
21.  è™ò£í‹ ªêŒ¶‚莋 - I have to marry / I have to get married 38. Üõ¬ù Þƒè Þ¿ˆ¶‚A†´ õ£ - You bring / pull him here
22. Þ‰î «ðù£¬õ âšõ÷¾‚° õ£ƒAQƒè - How much is this pen?/ 39. âšõ÷¾ ï£À‚° º¡ù£® cƒè «êô‹ «ð£mƒè - How long ago did
How much you pay for the pen? you go to salem?
23. àƒèA†ì âˆî¬ù «ðù£ Þ¼‚°¶ - How many pens (do) you 40. Üõƒè 弈° å¼ˆî˜ ªõ†®A†ì£ƒè - They hit / kill each other
have? / They hit / kill among themselves
24. âˆî¬ù º¬ø Ü™ô¶ îì¬õ ᆮ «ð£J¼‚APƒè - How many 41. ù Üšõ÷¾ Éó‹ ïì‰«î¡ Ü™ô¶ ù îQò£ Üšõ÷¾ Éó‹
times did you go to Ooty? / How many times have you been Ooty? ïì‰«î¡ - I myself walk that much distance.
25.  «è£J½‚° «ð£øŠð™ô£‹  ܉î ñ󈶂° î‡a˜ áŸÁ«õ¡ 42. Þ¬î â¡A†ì ªê£™ô£«î - Don’t tell this
- 1) Everytime / Whenever I go to temple, I pour water to that tree: 43. ⶂè£è c Üõ¬ù Ü®„ê - Why (What for) did you hit him?
2) I go to temple. At that time, I pour water to that tree.
44. c ⡬ù Ü®‚è àù‚° âšõ÷¾ ¬îKò‹ - How dare you (to) hit
26.  «ïˆ¶î£¡ CƒèŠÌKL¼‰¶ õ‰«î¡ - I came from Singapore me?
yesterday only.
45. ͆¬ìJ™ 膮J¼‚Aø èJˆ¬î ܾˆ¶M´ - You untie the robe
27.  ÞóJ™«õ v«ìê‚° «ð£Œ «ê˜‰«î¡ - I reached the railway that ties in the luggage / You untie the tying robe in the luggage.
station.
46. ñ£†¬ì H®„C è‹HJô 膴 - Tie the cow in the bar
28. ÞóJ™ v«ìê‚° Þó¾ 10 ñE‚° õ‰¶ «ê˜‰î¶ - The train arrived 47. ñóˆF™ 膮J¼‚Aø ݆¬ì H®„C†´ õ£ - You bring the goat that
at the station at 10 PM.
ties in the tree / You bring the tying goat in the tree.
29. ÞóJ™ v«ìê‚° Þó¾ 10 ñE‚° õ‰î¶ - The train came to the 48. Üõ¬ù ÝvðˆFK‚° Æ®A†´ «ð£ƒè - You take him to hospital.
station at 10 PM.
49. Üõ‚° ªó£‹ð Ü®ð†®¼‚° - He got injured (hurt) seriously / He
30.  ï™ô «ê£Á ꣊H†´ 10 ï£œèœ ÝAø¶ - It is ten days since I was seriously injured (hurt)
eat good food (Pat: It is Time since Sent1) / It is ten days since I
50. Y‚Aó‹ 𴂬èJL¼‰¶ â¿ - Get up quickly from the bed.
have eaten my fill.
51. è¬ì‚° «ð£øŠð Üõ¬ù 𣘈¶†´ «ð£ - You go to shop. At that
31. àƒèÀ‚° ãî£õ¶ àîM «õ‡´ñ£? - Can I help you? / What can
time, you see him / When you go to shop, you see him
I do for you?
196 Chapter 6: 500 Tamil Situations into English Patterns Natural Language Research Center (NLRC) - www.nlrc.in 197

459.  ݈ɘ õNò£è ªê™A«ø¡ - I go through (via) attur / I pass 480. ò£¼‚° 憴 «ð£ìø¶? - Who to vote?
Attur on the way. 481. «èœM¬ò ò£˜A†ì «è†ð¶ - Who to ask the question?
460.  Üõ¡ Íôñ£è ªêŒF¬ò «è†«ì¡ - I heard the news through 482. Þ¶ ò£¼¬ìò¶? - Whose is this?
/ by him. 483. Þ¶ ò£¼¬ìò ¹ˆîè‹? - Whose book is this?
461. áªó™ô£‹ å«ó ðóðóŠð£ Þ¼‚Aø¶ - There is a tension all over / 484. Þ‰î ¹ˆîè‹ ò£¼¬ìò¶? - Whose is this book?
through out the town. 485. ã¡ Üõ¡ «è£ðñ£è Þ¼‚Aø£¡ - Why he is angry?
462. è¬ì 9 ñE õ¬ó Fø‰F¼‚°‹ - The shop opens till 9 o’clock / the 486. ã¡ Üõ¡ ޡ‹ A÷‹¹ô - Why doesn’t he leave yet? / Why he
shop is opened till 9 o’clock. doesn’t leave yet?
463. ܉î ܬøJ™ 10 «ð˜ õ¬ó Üñóô£‹ - Upto 10 people can sit in the 487. ã¡ Üõ¡ A÷‹¹ø£¡? - Why he leaves?
room. 488.  à¡Âì¡ õ«ó¡ - I come with you.
464.  è£H °®‚è ðöA ªè£‡«ì¡ - I am used to drink coffee.(pat: 489.  Üõ¬ó ñ£íõ˜ î¬ôõó£è ܃AèK‚A«ø¡- I acknowledge
be used to do sth) him as the student leader.
465.  º¡¹ è£H °®„CA†´¼‰«î¡, (Ýù£™ ÞŠ«ð£¶ è£H °®Šð¶ 490. â¡e¶ °Ÿø‹ ²ñˆî£«î - Don’t accuse me.
Þ™¬ô) - I used to drink coffee (pat: use to do sth) 491. ð£ˆFóˆF™ î‡a¬ó áŸÁ - Pour the water in the utensil.
466. Þ‰î õNJ™ «ð£ƒèœ - Go this way. 492. ð£ˆFóˆF™ ñ£¬õ ªè£†´ - Put / pour the flour in the utensil.
467. â‰î F¬ê õì‚° - Which way is north? 493. ªïŒ áŸP M÷‚° «ð£´ - Light up the Vilakku using ghee.
468. Üõ˜ õNJ™ õ‰¶‚ªè£‡®¼‚Aø£˜ - He is on the way. 494. î¬ó¬ò «îŒ‚裫î - Don’t rub the floor.
469. â¡ù ¹ˆîè‹ àù‚° «õ‡´‹ - What book you want? 495. î‡E¬ò áŸP î¬ó¬ò 迾 - Clean the floor with water / Pour
470. â¡ù ªêòø¶¡Â ªîKòô - Don’t know what to do. the water on the floor and clean it.
471. Üõù Þƒè õóªê£™½ - Ask him to come here. 496. ⡬ù cƒèœ ñô˜ â¡Á ÊH´ƒèœ - Call me Malar.
472. cƒè ªêòø¶  - What are you doing is wrong. 497. Üõ¬ó Üõ¼¬ìò ñ£ñ£ õ÷˜ˆî£˜ - His uncle brought up him.
473. ÞŠð â¡ù ꣊Hìô£‹ - What to eat now? 498. ꣊Hìø¶‚° ªõOJô «ð£ô£ñ£? - Can we go out to eat?
474. Þ‰î 裟ø£® âîŸè£è? - What for this fan? 499. âù‚° ¹ˆF ⶾ‹ ªê£™ô£«î - Don’t advise me on anything.
475. Þ¡Q‚° ñ¬ö ªðŒ…ê£ â¡ù ð‡ŽMƒè - What if it rains today. 500. îI› õ£›è - TAMIL VALGA.
476. ⊪𣿶 «êô‹ «ð£èô£‹ - When shall we go to salem?
477. âŠð™ô£‹ àù‚° «î£Â«î£ ÜŠð Þƒè õ£ - Whenever possible / ******
felt, you come here.
478. âƒè «ð£õ¶ â¡Á ªê£™½ƒèœ - Please tell me where to go.
479. âƒè Þ¼‚Al˜è«÷£ ܃è Þ¼ƒèœ - Stay where you are / Don’t
move.
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