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HomeEpidemiologyQuestionsandAnswers130TOPEpidemiologyMultipleChoiceQuestionsandAnswers

Friday,28November2014

130TOPEpidemiologyMultipleChoiceQuestionsandAnswers
LatestEpidemiologyMultipleChoiceQuestionsandAnswersforpdffreedownload
1.Allofthefollowingaretrueofoddsratioexcept:

A.Itisanestimateofrelativerisk
B.Itistheonlymeasureofriskthatcanbeobtaineddirectlyformacasecontrolstudy
C.Ittendstobebiasedtowards1(neitherriskorprotectionathighratesofdisease
D.Itistheratioofincidenceinexposeddividedbyincidenceinnonexposed
E.Itcanbecalculatedwithoutdataonrates(asinacasecontrolstudy
Ans:D

2.Inawelldesignedclinicaltrialoftreatmentofovariancancer,remissionrateatoneyearissimilarforanewdrugand
usualcare,ThePvalueis0.4.Thismeansthat

A.Bothtreatmentsareeffective
B.Neithertreatmentiseffective
C.Thestatisticalpowerofthisstudyis60%
D.Thebestestimateoftreatmenteffectis0,4
E.Itisnotpossibletodecideonwhetheronetreatmentisbetterthantheotherusingthisinformationalone
Ans:E

3.Astudywasmadeofaclinician'sabilitytodiagnosestreptococcalthroatinfectionsin149patientscomingtothe
emergencydepartmentinacertainhospital.Thedoctor'sclinicalimpressionswerecomparedtoresultsofthroatculturesor
groupAstreptococcus.37patientshadpositivethroatculturesand27ofthesewerediagnosedbydoctorashavingstrep
throat.112patientshadnegativecultures,andthedoctorsdiagnosed35oftheseashavingstrepthroat.Thespecificityof
thedoctors'clinicaljudgmentwas:

A.27/37
B.77/112
C.27/62
D.10/87
E.104/149
Ans:B

4.FromthestudyinQuestion3,thepredictivevalueofthedoctors'clinicaljudgmentforstreptococcalsorethroatwas:

A.27/37
B.77/112
C.27/62
D.10/87
E.104/149
Ans:C

5.Themodeoftransportofaninfectousagentthroughtheenvironmenttoasusceptiblehostiscalleda:

A.carrier
B.reservoir
C.vector
D.vehicle
Ans:D

6.Alongitudinalorprospectivestudyisalsoreferredtoasa(n

A.ecologicalstudy
B.crosssectionalstudy
C.cohortstudy
D.observationalstudy
Ans:C


7.Thefollowingdrugtrialissynonymouswiththeterm"clinicaltrial"?

A.Clinicalpharmacologyandtoxicity
B.FullscaleEvaluationofTreatment
C.InitialClinicalInvestigationforTreatmentEffect
D.PostmarketingSurvelillance
Ans:B

8.Whendesigningastudytodeterminewhetherthereisadirectassociationbetweenaparticularexposureandan
outcome,oneshouldanticipatethatpotentialalternativeexplanation(smayexist.Whichofthefollowingisawaytodeal
withconfounding?

A.Posthocblocking
B.Randomization
C.Screening
D.Validation
Ans:B

9.CedarRiversisacommunityof100,000personsincentralIowa.Duringtheyearofthefloods(2008therewere1,000
deathsfromallcauses.Astudyofallcasesoftuberculosisfoundthenumberofdeathsat300(200malesand100females.
During2007,therewereonly60deathsfromtuberculosis,50ofthemmales.ThecrudemortalityrateforCedarRiversin
2008was:

A.300per100,000
B.60per1,000
C.10per1,000
D.100per11000
Ans:C

10.Whatindexdoestheresearchcenteruseforpatientsusingatartarcontroltoothpastefor6loweranteriorteeth?

A.NavyPlaqueIndex
B.VolpeManholdCalculusIndex
C.OHIS
D.TureskyModificationoftheQuigleyHein
Ans:B

11.IntheDMFcariesindexforteethandtoothsurfaces,are3rdmolarsincludediftheyaredecayed,missing,orfilled?

A.Yes
B.No
12.Anepidemicisadiseaseoccurringoverawidegeographicareaandaffectingahighproportionofthepopulation.

A.True
B.False
Ans:B

13.WhatkindofdecayistheDMFT&Ssignifying?

A.Irreversibledecay
B.Reversibledecay
Ans:A

14.Ifyouweredoingaplaqueindexwithdebriforagroupofpreschoolchildren,whichonewouldyouuse?

A.def
B.PlI
C.OHIS
D.PHP
Ans:C

15.Whatisthemostaccuratedescriptionofanagreementoffindingsbytwoormoreexaminers?

A.Intraexaminer
B.Intrarater
C.Interexaminer
D.Interpreter
Ans:C
16.Anendemicisanoccurrenceofdiseaseclealyinexcessofnormalexpectancy.

A.True
B.False
Ans:B

17.The"e"inthedefindexstandsforindicatedforextraction.Ifapatienthasteethindicatedforextractionfor
orthodontics,aretheyincludedinthisindex?

A.Yes
B.No
Ans:B

18.Whichindexwouldyouuseforagroupofelderlypatientsinanursinghome?

A.PlaqueIndex
B.PatientHygienePerformance
C.GingivalIndex
D.RootCariesIndex
Ans:D

19.Inmeasuringthereliabilityofameasurement,anintraexaminerorintraraterreliabilityisconsistencyoffindingsby
oneexaminerwiththosepreviouslyrecordedbythesameexaminer.

A.True
B.False
Ans:A

20.WhichindexusestheWHOprobetocalculatescores?

A.Turesky
B.EastmanInterdentalBleedingIndex
C.SulcusBleedingIndex
D.PeriodontalScreeningandRecordingIndex
Ans:D

21.Recurrentcariesfallunderwhichcategory?

A.Decayed
B.Missing
C.Filled
D.IndicatedforExtraction
Ans:A

22.RootcariescanfallundertheDecayedportionoftheDMFTindex.

A.True
B.False
Ans:B

23.Whatisaproportionthatusesastandarddenominatorandincludesatimeinterval(1,000,10,000,or100,000per
year?

A.Rates
B.Counts
C.Proportions
D.Index
Ans:A

24.Whichindexwouldyouinstructyourpatienttousetocalculateplaquecontrolathomewithdisclosingsolutionor
tablets?

A.PlaqueControlRecord(O'Leary's)
B.PII
C.PatientHygienePerformance
D.PlaqueFreeScore
Ans:A

25.Whatisthenameoftheindexthatmeasuresocclusion?

A.O'Leary's
B.O'Sullivan's
C.Angle's
D.Dean's
Ans:C

26.Youhavea9yearoldpatientwithamixeddentition.Whichindexwouldyouusetocalculatedecay?

A.DMFTanddefcombined
B.def
C.dmft
D.DMFS
Ans:C

27.A2.5scoreontheGingivalIndexindicateswhat?

A.Excellence
B.Good
C.Fair
D.Poor
Ans:D

28.Whichindexusesflosstocalculatescores?

A.PeriodontalScreeningandRecording
B.CommunityPeriodontalIndexofTreatmentNeeds
C.GingivalBleedingIndex
D.EastmanInterdentalBleedingIndex

Ans:C

21.Whichindexismeasuredwithbleedingonprobing?

A.GingivalIndex
B.SulcusBleedingIndex
C.GingivalBleedingIndex
D.EastmanInterdentalBleedingIndex
Ans:B

22.Whichindexusesastimudenttomeasurepapillarybleeding?

A.SulcusBleedingIndex
B.GingivalBleedingIndex
C.EastmanInterdentalBleedingIndex
D.Russel'sPeriodontalIndex
Ans:C

23.Oralepidemiologyisthestudyofdiseaseandhealthinpopulations.

A.True(CorrectAnswer
B.False
Ans:A

24.WhichonedoesnotindicateanasteriskonWHOprobingonthePeriodontalScreening&RecordingIndex?

A.indicatedforextraction
B.mobility
C.markedrecession
D.mucogingivalinvolvement
Ans:A

25.Thegingivalindexesarereversible,justlikethediseaseitself.

A.True
B.False
Ans:A

26.Whatistheagentwhenstudyingoralepidemiology?

A.Host
B.Environment
C.Disease
D.Population
Ans:C

27.TheGreekword"edemos"meanswhat?

A.Native
B.Epidemiology
C.People
D.All
Ans:A

28.Morbidityistherateofdiseaseorproportionofdiseasedpersonsinageographicarea.

A.True
B.False
Ans:A

29.Mortalityistheproportionofpeoplewholivefromadiseasetothepopulationofageographicareaforaperiodof
time.

A.True
B.False
Ans:B
30.Acountisapercentagemethodtomeasureoraldisease.

A.True
B.False
Ans:B

31.Diagnosisofcariesincludeswhatcriteriaofmeasurement?

A.Lostofatleast5mmoftoothstructureatenamelsurface
B.0.5mm
C..005mm
D..05mm
Ans:D
32.Morbidityisalsoknownasthedeathrateinapopulation.

A.True
B.False

Ans:B

33.The"S"inDMFSstandsforwhat?

A.Sealants
B.Surfaces
C.SulcusDepth
D.Standard
Ans:B

34.The"M"inDMFTstandsformissingforwhatreason?

A.Congenitallymissingteeth
B.IndicatedforExtractionduetoCaries
C.IndicatedforExtractionforOrtho
D.Deciduousteethexfoliated
Ans:B
35.Deciduousteethindexes(defcanalsobeusedtodetectteethandalsosurfaceswithdecayondeciduousteeth.

A.True
B.False
Ans:B
36.ADMFT&Sindexcancalculatetheindicationofthe#ofteethatriskfordecay.

A.True
B.False
Ans:B

37.WhatistheMOSTCOMMONLYusedindextoscoreplaque?

A.OHISOralHygieneSimplified
B.PIIPlaqueIndex
C.TureskyModificationoftheQuigleyHein
D.PlaqueControlRecord
Ans:B
38.O'Leary'sPlaqueIndexisgoodforcalculatingplaqueaccumulationforagroupofpeople.

A.True
B.False
Ans:B
39.TheOHIS(OralHygieneIndexSimplifiedmeasuressupraandsubgingivalcalculus.

A.True
B.False
Ans:B

40.HowmanysurfacesareusedinmeasuringthePatientHygienePerformance(PHPindex)?

A.4
B.5
C.6
D.7
Ans:C
41.ThePHPandOHISbothusethe6Ramjfordteethtocalculatescores.

A.True
B.False
Ans:B

42.Whichindexdoyouusedisclosingsolutiononthepatient,butdonotrinse?

A.PHP
B.OHIS
C.O'Leary's
D.PlaqueControlRecord
Ans:A

43.Thegingivalindexismeasuredbyinflammationandbleedingonprobing.

A.True
B.False
Ans:A

44.ThePHPmeasuresplaqueanddebriontoothsurfaces.

A.True
B.False
Ans:A

45.TheGIGingivalIndexisalsocalledwhat?


A.LoeandSilness
B.VolpeManhold
C.O'Leary's
D.Eastman's
Ans:A

46.TheOHISSimplifiedOralHygieneIndexmeasureswhat?

A.PlaqueandDebriontoothsurface
B.ThicknessofPlaqueontoothsurface
C.PresenceofPlaqueontoothsurface
D.ExistingPlaqueandCalculusontoothsurface
Ans:D

47.ThePeriodontalIndex(Russel'sisnolongerusedbecausegingivitisandperiodontitisareseparatediseases.

A.True
B.False
Ans:A

48.WhataretheRamjfordTeeth?

A.3,8,14,19,24,30
B.2,3,14,19,24,30
C.3,9,12,19,25,28
D.3,8,12,15,30,31
Ans:C

49.TheCommunityPeriodontalIndexofTreatmentneedsmeasuresteethinsextants.

A.True
B.False
Ans:A
50.TheCPITNisthemostcommonindexusedforperiodontalscreenings.

A.True
B.False
Ans:B

51.Bleedingindexesindicatea0fornobleedinganda1forbleeding.

A.True
B.False
Ans:A

52.Whatisthemostcommonindexforplaqueinclinicalresearchtrials?

A.VolpeManhold
B.PII
C.O'Leary's
D.TureskyModificationoftheQuigleyHein
Ans:D
53.Indentalfluorosistheenamelisstrong,butdiscolored.

A.True
B.False
Ans:B

54.Lessthan50%ofsurfacescoveredwouldbewhatcategoryofDean'sFluorosis?

A.Questionable
B.VeryMild
C.Mild
D.Moderate
Ans:C

55.CharacteristicsofdentalfluorosisincludesallofthefollowingEXCEPT:

A.opacitiesconcentratedincenteroftooth
B.bilateraloccurrences
C.severityonposteriorteeth
D.usuallynearcusptips
Ans:A

56.TherangeforDean'sFluorosisIndexiswhat?

A.05
B.03
C.04
D.07
Ans:A

57.Ascoreof3onDean'sFluorosisIndexwouldindicatewhat?

A.VeryMild
B.Mild
C.Moderate
D.Severe
Ans:B

58.Whichindexoutofalldiscussedinthemostsensitiveindicatingithasthelongestrangeofscoring?

A.Dean'sFluorosis
B.ThylstrupFejerskov
C.TSIF
D.OHIS
Ans:B
59.Fluorosiscantypicallyoccuronasingletooth.

A.True
B.False
Ans:B

60.BrownstainstartscomingintoplayonwhatlevelofDean'sFluorosis?

A.VeryMild
B.Mild
C.Moderate
D.Severe
Ans:C

61.Pittingoccursonwhatleveloffluorosis?

A.VeryMild
B.Mild
C.Moderate
D.Severe
Ans:D
62.TeetharedriedtodetectfluorosisinThylstrupFejerskovandTSIF.

A.True
B.False
Ans:B

63.IntheNavyPlaqueIndex,aPocketScoreof8meanswhat?

A.depthsof13mm
B.depthsof35mm
C.depthsof8mm+
D.depthsof5mm+
Ans:D

64.AtwhatlevelofTSIF(ToothSurfaceIndexofFluorosisdoespittingstarttooccur?

A.4
B.5
C.6
D.7
Ans:B

65.AtwhatleveldoesstainingoccurontheTSIF?

A.2
B.3
C.4
D.5
Ans:C

66.OralCancercasesaremorecommonlyfoundinAfricanAmericans.

A.True
B.False
Ans:A

67.Agingivalscoreof2ontheNavyPlaqueIndexindicateswhat?

A.GingivalTissuenormalandtight
B.Inflammationcompletelysurroundingtooth
C.Slightenlargementorbluntingofpapilla
D.Inflammatorychangesarepresent,butnotdocompletelyencircletooth.
Ans:B

68.ThePlImeasureswhat?

A.Thicknessofplaque

B.Presenceofplaque
C.Existingplaqueandcalculus
D.Plaqueanddebriontoothsurface
Ans:A
69.TheSimplifiedOralHygieneIndexusesdisclosingsolutionandmeasuresplaqueonly.

A.True
B.False
Ans:B

70.AnexcellentscoreonthePlaqueIndexwouldbewhat?

A.0.5
B.10%
C.100%
D.3
Ans:A

71.PatientHygienePerformanceusestheRamjfordteeth.

A.True
B.False
Ans:B

72.Ascoreof2onthePatientHygienePerformanceIndexwouldindicatewhatkindofscore?

A.Excellent
B.Good
C.Fair
D.Poor
Ans:C

73.ACode4ontheLossofAttachmentIndexindicateswhat?

A.5.5mm+LOA
B.4mm+LOA
C.911mmLOA
D.12mm+LOA
Ans:D

74.Whatistheonlyindexthatmeasuresattachmentloss?

A.PeriodontalIndex
B.PeriodontalDiseaseIndex
C.CPI
D.LPA
Ans:D

75.Ascoreof3ontheTureskyModificationindicateswhat?

A.Cervicalplaqueonly
B.Lessthan2/3ofthetoothcovered
C.2/3+
D.Abandofplaque

76.TheIndexofPeriodontalScreeningandRecordingisbestdescribedatmeasuringwhat?

A.AttachmentLoss
B.StateofPerioHealth
C.PerioTreatmentNeeds
D.Pockets,Calculus,andBleeding
Ans:B

77.ACode4ontheCPITNindicateswhat?

A.OralHygieneInstruction
B.Supra/SubgingivalCalculusw/defectiverestorations
C.45mmpockets
D.6mm+pockets
Ans:D

78.HowmanyteethpersextantarecalculatedontheCommunityPeriodontalIndexofTreatmentNeeds(CPITN?

A.1
B.2
C.3
D.4
Ans:B

79.TheTureskyModificationoftheQuigleyHeinhasarangeofscoresofwhat?

A.05
B.07
C.08

D.0%100%
Ans:A

80.ACode4onthePeriodontalScreeningandRecordingIndexindicateswhat?

A.Supragingivalcalculusanddefectivemargins
B.Blackonprobepartlyvisible
C.Blackonprobecompletelydisappears
D.Blackvisibleonprobeandbleedingoccurs
Ans:C

81.Ascoreof1ontheGingivalIndexwouldindicatewhatkindofresults?

A.Excellent
B.Good
C.Fair
D.Poor
Ans:B
82.Describethedisadvantagesofthecasecontrolstudy

A.Acohortisdifferentbecauseanentirecohortofexposedindividualsisexamined.Acasestudymakesuseof
limitednumberofcasesandcontrolswhousuallydonotrepresentanentirecohortofexposedindividuals.
B.themeasurementofexposuremaybeinaccurate.Representativenessofcasesandcontrolsmaybeunknownand
mayprovideindirectestimatesofrisk.Thetemporalrelationshipbetweenexposurefactorandoutcomecannotalwaysbe
determined.
C.Foranobservationaldesignedstudy,theobserverdoesnothavecontrolovertheexposurefactor.Mostly,cannot
assignsubjectsbyrandomtocertainstudyconditions.Foranexperimentallydesignedstudytheobservercancontrolwho
isexposedtocertainfactorsandisabletoassignsubjectsbyrandomtocertainstudygroups.
Ans:B

83.Describetheusesofanalyticstudies

A.Theyhelpleadtothepreventionofdisease,createquantitativeevaluationsofinterventionprogramsaswellas
determinesafeandeffectivenewdrugs,andotherprocedures.
B.Thisissomethingthatdescribesthenegativebecauseyoucannotalwaystakethefindingsfromgroupdataand
applyittoindividuals.
C.theunitsofanalysisaregroups.ThiscanbereferredtoasanEcologicalComparisonStudy.
Ans:A

84.Identifyanexampleofacasecontrolstudy

A.areusedverycommonlyinenvironmentalepidemiologicresearch.Anexamplemaybepossiblehealtheffectsof
exposuretoelectromagneticfields.
B.Allowanceofthedirectobservationofrisk.Theexposurefactoriswelldefinedandcanstudyexposuresthatare
uncommoninthepopulation.Thetemporalrelationshipbetweenfactorandoutcomeisknown.
C.theunitsofanalysisaregroups.ThiscanbereferredtoasanEcologicalComparisonStudy.
Ans:A

85.Describetheadvantagesofthecasecontrolstudy

A.Theecologicfallacyandimprecisemeasurementofexposure.
B.itcanbeusedtostudyconditionsoflowprevalence.Theprocedureismostlyquickandeasytocomplete,andis
inexpensive.Lastly,thenumbersubjectsneededaresmaller.
C.Referstothedifferencebetweentheincidencerateofadiseaseintheexposedgroupandtheincidencerateinthe
nonexposedgroup.Attributableriskisthedifferencebetweentwoincidencerates.
Ans:B

86.Explaintheecologicfallacy

A.Thisissomethingthatdescribesthenegativebecauseyoucannotalwaystakethefindingsfromgroupdataand
applyittoindividuals.
B.Conducttheprogramseveraltimesinavarietyofsettingswithavarietyofparticipants.
C.Thisreferstotheadoptionofpolicies,laws,andprogramsthataresupportedbyempiricaldata.Oneofthemost
reliableformsofevidencewillcomefromrandomizedcontrolledtrials.
Ans:A

87.Contrastthe2categoriesofanalyticstudies

A.Foranobservationaldesignedstudy,theobserverdoesnothavecontrolovertheexposurefactor.Mostly,cannot
assignsubjectsbyrandomtocertainstudyconditions.Foranexperimentallydesignedstudytheobservercancontrolwho
isexposedtocertainfactorsandisabletoassignsubjectsbyrandomtocertainstudygroups.
B.Thistestcanbeusedtotestbetweentwomedicalteststhemselves.SuchasHIVbloodtestvstheHIVswabtest.
Whichoneismostefficientandyieldsthebestresults.
C.Thisistheassociationbetweentwovariables,theexposureandtheoutcome,andaremeasuredatthegrouplevel.
Ans:A

88.Describetheecologiccorrelation

A.Itisthebestbecauseifthesensitivitytestcorrectlyidentifiesallpotentialcasesaseithernegativeorpositive.
B.Aclinicaltrialreferstoaresearchactivitythatinvolvestheadministrationofatestregimentohumanstoevaluate
itsefficacyandsafety.
C.Thisistheassociationbetweentwovariables,theexposureandtheoutcome,andaremeasuredatthegrouplevel.
Ans:C

89.Explaintheecologicstudy

A.Theyhelpleadtothepreventionofdisease,createquantitativeevaluationsofinterventionprogramsaswellas
determinesafeandeffectivenewdrugs,andotherprocedures.
B.theunitsofanalysisaregroups.ThiscanbereferredtoasanEcologicalComparisonStudy.
C.Thisisbeneficialbecauseanassociationcanbefoundbetweenexposureratesanddiseaseratesduringthesame
timeperiod.
Ans:B

90.Describethedrawbacksoftheecologicstudy

A.areusedverycommonlyinenvironmentalepidemiologicresearch.Anexamplemaybepossiblehealtheffectsof
exposuretoelectromagneticfields.
B.Massscreeningisdefinedasthestandardsofcare,anyonethatcouldatrisksshouldbescreenedforexposure.
C.Theecologicfallacyandimprecisemeasurementofexposure.
Ans:C

91.Describethebenefitsoftheecologicstudy

A.themeasurementofexposuremaybeinaccurate.Representativenessofcasesandcontrolsmaybeunknownand
mayprovideindirectestimatesofrisk.Thetemporalrelationshipbetweenexposurefactorandoutcomecannotalwaysbe
determined.
B.Thisisbeneficialbecauseanassociationcanbefoundbetweenexposureratesanddiseaseratesduringthesame
timeperiod.
C.Thepredictivevalueistheproportionofpeoplescreenedpositivebyatestandactuallyhavethedisease,thisis
the+value.
Ans:B
92.Explainthepopulationriskdifference

A.Thisisthedifferencebetweentherateofdiseaseinthenonexposedsegmentofthepopulationandtheoverallrate
inthepopulation.
B.isdesignedtotestpreventivemeasures
C.Theseareaformofinterventionstudies,twotypesarerandomizedcontrolledtrialsandquasiexperiments
Ans:A

93.Explainexperimentalstudies

A.Thisisthedifferencebetweentherateofdiseaseinthenonexposedsegmentofthepopulationandtheoverallrate
inthepopulation.
B.Theseareaformofinterventionstudies,twotypesarerandomizedcontrolledtrialsandquasiexperiments
C.isdesignedtotestpreventivemeasures
Ans:B

94.DefineProphylactictrials

A.evaluatesnewtreatmentmethods
B.involvestheadministrationofatestregimentohumanstoevaluateitsefficacyandsafety.
C.isdesignedtotestpreventivemeasures
Ans:C

95.DefineTherapeutictrials

A.isdesignedtotestpreventivemeasures
B.evaluatesnewtreatmentmethods
C.involvestheadministrationofatestregimentohumanstoevaluateitsefficacyandsafety.
Ans:B

96.DefineClinicaltrials

A.involvestheadministrationofatestregimentohumanstoevaluateitsefficacyandsafety.(CorrectAnswer
B.isdesignedtotestpreventivemeasures
C.evaluatesnewtreatmentmethods
Ans:A

97.Whatarerandomizedcontroltrials

A.evaluatesnewtreatmentmethods
B.areanexperimentinwhichsubjectsinapopulationarerandomlyallocatedintogroups,usuallycalledstudyand
controlgroups.
C.involvestheadministrationofatestregimentohumanstoevaluateitsefficacyandsafety.
Ans:B

98.Whatarequasiexperimentaldesigns

A.Whensensitivitytestscorrectlyidentifyallpotentialcasesaseithernegativeorpositive
B.Describeswhenadefinitivediagnosisthathasbeendeterminedbybiopsy,surgery,autopsyorothermethodand
hasbeenacceptedasthestandard.
C.Wheretheinvestigatormanipulatesthestudyfactorbutdoesnotassignindividualsubjectsrandomlytothe
exposedandnonexposedgroups.
Ans:C

99.Whatisthegoldstandardforresearchdesigns

A.Describeswhenadefinitivediagnosisthathasbeendeterminedbybiopsy,surgery,autopsyorothermethodand

hasbeenacceptedasthestandard.
B.Wheretheinvestigatormanipulatesthestudyfactorbutdoesnotassignindividualsubjectsrandomlytothe
exposedandnonexposedgroups.
C.Whensensitivitytestscorrectlyidentifyallpotentialcasesaseithernegativeorpositive
Ans:A

100.Whyisthegoldstandardconsideredthebest

A.Ithelpstogeneralizethestudytothepopulation
B.Thestandardwillhelptoconcludethattheresultsweretrue
C.Whensensitivitytestscorrectlyidentifyallpotentialcasesaseithernegativeorpositive
Ans:C

110.Whatisexternalvalidity

A.Thisisthegeneralizingofthestudytothepopulation
B.Wastheconclusiontrue?Itistheextenttowhichyoucanbelieveyourresults
C.Itisthethirdvariablethatrelatestotheexposureandtheoutcome
Ans:A

111.Whatisinternalvalidity

A.Wastheconclusiontrue?Itistheextenttowhichyoucanbelieveyourresults
B.Thisisthegeneralizingofthestudytothepopulation
C.Itisthethirdvariablethatrelatestotheexposureandtheoutcome
Ans:A

112.Environmentalepidemiologyisthestudyofdiseaseandtheconditionslinkedtoindoorfactors

A.True
B.False(CorrectAnswer
Ans:B

113.Astheyrelatetoenvironmentalcharacteristics,whatisthephysical

A.plantsandanimalsthatcanactasreservoirs
B.theenvironmentthathousestheagent
C.overcrowdingusuallyduetoeconomicissues
114.PhysicalDatingEpidemiologyis

A.themeasurementofmediauseandvideogames
B.performedbymonitoringlevelsofexcreteddrugstogetameasureofdruguse
C.howoftenandunderwhatcircumstancesarepeoplebeingabused
D.investigatepublichealthproblemscausedbyintentionalacts
Ans:C

115.Describesensitivity

A.theabilityofatesttocorrectlyidentifyallindividualswhohavebeenscreenedandactuallyhavethedisease
B.Thisistheabilityofatesttoidentifyonlythosenondiseasedindividualswhoactuallydonothavethedisease
C.theproportionofpeoplescreenedpositivebyatestandactuallyhavethedisease,thisisthe+value
Ans:A

116.ThehumangenomeprojectwasperformedbytheNIH,anddiscoveredallthegenesofDNA

A.True
B.False
Ans:A

117.In2002whatpercentageofhighschoolerswerefoundtobesmokers

A.28%
B.22%
C.18%
Ans:B

118.Asitrelatestoenvironmentalcharacteristics,whatisclimatologic

A.anenvironmentwherediseasespreadsthequickest
B.overcrowdingusuallyduetoeconomicissues
C.plantsandanimalsthatcanactasreservoirs
Ans:A

119.Contributingfactortoanillnessisdefinedas

A.theoccurenceofmentaldisorders
B.Acomorbidityintheformofapsychiatricdisease
C.thecontributingfactorsofsexualdisease
Ans:B

120.Anindirectmeanoftransmissionmaybeanythingotherthan

A.PersontoAnimal
B.PersontoPerson

C.ObjecttoPerson
Ans:B

121.Defineactiveimmunity

A.Immunitygainedfromapersontopersontransaction
B.Thedevelopmentofimmunityfrompreviousexposuretoanagentbeforeavaccineornaturalinfection
C.Resistanceoftheentirecommunitybecauseofthepeopleimmunitywithinthecommunity
Ans:B

122.Herdimmunityis...

A.Immunitygainedfromapersontopersontransaction
B.Acquiredimmunityfrompreviousexposuretoanagentbeforeavaccineornaturalinfection
C.Resistanceoftheentirecommunitybecauseofthepeopleimmunitywithinthecommunity
Ans:C

123.Screenbasedepidemiologyis

A.howoftenandunderwhatcircumstancesarepeoplebeingabused
B.themeasurementofmediauseandvideogames
C.investigatepublichealthproblemscausedbyintentionalacts
D.performedbymonitoringlevelsofexcreteddrugstogetameasureofdruguse
Ans:B

124.Theattackrateiscalculatedby#Ill/(Ill+Wellmultipliedby100

A.True
B.False
Ans:A

125.TheequationforSensitivityisthis:A/(A+C

A.True
B.False
Ans:A

126.Epidemiologistshavefoundthataccidentscanbeavoidedandarepredictable

A.True
B.False
Ans:A

127.TheequationforSpecificityis

A.C/(B+D
B.D/(B+C
C.A/(B+D
Ans:A

128.Definepassiveimmunity

A.Acquiredimmunityfrompreviousexposuretoanagentbeforeavaccineornaturalinfection
B.Resistanceoftheentirecommunitybecauseofthepeopleimmunitywithinthecommunity
C.Immunitygainedfromapersontopersontransaction
Ans:C

129.Thefifthmostfrequentcauseofmortalityandleadingcausesofinjuryrelateddeathsare

A.Smoking
B.Motorvehiclerelated,firearm,orpoisoning
C.Flying
Ans:B

130.Thetraditionalblackboxepidemiologyisdefinedas

A.themeasurementofmediauseandvideogames
B.howmuchaplanecangoforwithoutcrashing
C.anuncoveredassociationbetweenriskanddiseasewithoutknowingwhy
Ans:C

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