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DESIGN STUDIES FOR DIRECT CONTACT

CONDENSERS WITH AND WITHOUT THE


PRESENCE OF NONCONDENSIBLE GAS

by
Ranga Nadig

A dissertation submitted to the faculty of


The University of Utah
partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree

Doctor of Philosophy
in
Mechanical

Engineering

Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering


University of Utah
December 1984

T H E UNIVERSITY OF UTAH GRADUATE SCHOOL

SUPERVISORY COMMITTEE APPROVAL

of a dissertation submitted bv

Ranga Nadig

This dissertation has been read by each member of the following supervisory committee and by
majority vote has been found to be satisfactory.
.
/

JZ

Chairman: H a r o l d R . ^ a c o b S

Robert F. Boehm

2 f, f < jr 4 -

Lavar K. Issacson

2/ Sejbt gqGary M y / 5 a n d q u i s t ^ /

Kuan Chen

THE UNIVERSITY OF UTAH GRADUATE SCHOOL

FIN A L READING APPROVAL

T o the Graduate Council o f T h e University o f Utah:

I have read the dissertation o f ____Ndd ig --------------------------------------- jn jts


final form and have found that (1) its format, citations, and bibliographic style are
consistent and acceptable; (2) its illustrative materials including figures, tables,
and charts are in place; and (3) the final manuscript is satisfactory to the Supervis
ory Committee and is ready for submission to the Graduate School.

<
Chairperson, Supervisory Committee

Approved for the Major Department

Cl
'X

/ f S r y M. San^quist
Chairman / D ean/

Approved for the Graduate Council

James L. Clayton

//

Dean o f The Graduate School

Copyright Ranga Nadig 1984


All Rights Reserved

ABSTRACT

Analytical models
film type

direct

lated processes

contact
include

isothermal vertical
tion the

are

effects

presented

to

condensation
condensation

predict

and
on

related

a thin

surface and condensation

of

noncondensible

gases

the

on

condensation

processes.

film

The

flowing

over

on tube bundles.
the

above

in
re
an

In addi

processes

are

examined.
The analysis
any empirical

is based on conservation laws alone and does not use

data.

The

theoretical

models

developed

are

applicable

for condensation of a vapor on a thin film which is the same or differ


ent from the condensate. However, the cases studied are those of steam
condensing on a thin
transfer behaviour

film of water.

are

presented

Valuable design criteria

which

provide

better

and heat

insight

in de

signing and understanding the performance of direct contact condensers.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page
A B S T R A C T ................................................................

iv

NOMENCLATURE ............................................................

vi i

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS .......................................................

Chapter
1

INTRODUCTION .....................................................

CONDENSATION ON COOLANT JETS AND SHEETS ......................

11

2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4

Introduction ..............................................
General Assumptions ......................................
Physical Model and Mathematical Formulation ..........
Results and Discussion ..................................

11
13
15
25

CONDENSATION ON COOLANT JETS AND SHEETS IN THE PRESENCE


OF A NONCONDENSIBLE G A S . . .......................................

35

3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4

Introduction ..............................................
General Assumptions ......................................
Physical Model and Mathematical Formulation ..........
Results and Discussion ..................................

35
37
37
49

CONDENSATION ON A THIN FILM FLOWING OVER AN


ISOTHERMAL VERTICAL SURFACE ....................................

61

4.1
4.2
4.3

61
62
78

CONDENSATION ON A THIN FILM FLOWING OVER AN


ISOTHERMAL VERTICAL SURFACE IN THE PRESENCE
OF A NONCONDENSIBLE GAS ........................................
5.1
5.2
5.3

Introduction ..............................................
Physical Model and Mathematical Formulation ..........
Results and Discussion ...................................

Introduction ..............................................
Physical Model and Mathematical Formulation ..........
Results and Discussion ...................................

CONDENSATION ON A FILM FLOWING OVER SINGLE AND


MULTIPLE ISOTHERMAL HORIZONTAL TUBES .........................

95
95
96
118

158

6.1
6.2
6.3
REFERENCES

Introduction .............................................. ... 158


Physical Model and Mathematical Formulation .......... ... 160
Results and Discussion .................................. ...172
............................................................. ... 180

vi

NOMENCLATURE

Cp

Specific heat

Diffusion coefficient

Diameter

Dh

Hydraulic diameter

Acceleration due to gravity

Gz

Grzetz number

hfg

Heat of varporiztion

Heat transfer coefficient

Ja

Jakob number CpAT/hfg

Thermal

Thickness

Molecular weight

Mass flow rate per unit width

Nu

Nusselt number

Pr

Prandtl number

Pressure

Heat flux per unit area

Gas constant

Radius

Re

Reynolds number m/y

Rep

conductivity

Reynolds number based on hydraulic diameter UDH/v

Sc

Schmidt number

Temperature

Velocity in the x direction

Velocity in the y direction

Mass fraction of noncondensible gas

Direction along the surface

Direction perpendicular to the surface

Greek Letters
9T

3y

Temperature gradient

Boundary layer thickness

Nondimensional temperature

Absolute viscosity

Dynamic viscosity

Density

<j>

Angle from upper stagnation point

Subscripts
c

Condensate

At the end of Region I

Film

Noncondensible gas

Interface between film and condensate liquid

Liquid

Velocity layer in gas-vapor mixture

Species layer in gas vapor mixture

Vapor

Wall

Interface between condensate and gas vapor mixture


vi i i

In gas vapor mixture remote from interface

rscri pt
Nondimensional quantity

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

I wish to express my sincere appreciation to my committee chairman,


Dr. H.R. Jacobs, for his suggestions, guidance and encouragement during
the period this work was undertaken.
Dr. R.F. Boehm, Dr. L.K.

A special

thanks

is extended to

Isaacson, Dr. K. Chen and Dr. G.M. Sandquist

for serving on my graduate committee.


I would

like

to thank

University of Utah,

the Department

of

Electrical

Engineering,

for permitting me to carry out the numerical

putations on

their

HP

Walt Howard,

Manager,

3000
HP

computer.

3000

Deep

computer,

gratitude

for the help

is

com

expressed

to

extended in use

of the computer.
In this dissertation, Chapters 2 and 3 have been published by ASME
as paper

numbers

presented at

the

84-HT-29 and 84-HT-28,


National

Heat

Transfer

respectively.
Conference

They
in

were both

August

1984,

Niagara Falls, N.Y.


Chapter 6 has also been published by ASME as paper number 8T-3A,
under the title "Fundamentals of Two Phase Flow:
This paper was

presented

at the

National

December 1984, New Orleans, Louisiana.

Boiling Consensation."

Heat Transfer

Conference

in

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

Direct contact

condensation

in steam power plants


century [1].

process

have

been

and many chemical processes

In these

commercially

used

since the early 18th

condensers a saturated or slightly superheated

vapor is brought into direct contact with the cooling fluid to condense
all or part

of the vapor. Typically these condensers find application

in vacuum pumping of vapor, condensation of steam, pyrolysis gas quench


ing, in petroleum industries,
Power cycle

[2].

More

open feed water heaters,

recently

direct

contact

and the Heller

condensers

have

been

suggested for use in desalination systems and in alternate energy appli


cation such as solar and geothermal power systems [3].
Direct contact
conventional shell

condensers

offer

and tube heat

numerous

advantages

exchangers. These

over

advantages

the

include

simplicity of design, lower capital and maintenance costs, high specific


transfer areas and higher transfer rates. In addition, due to the inti
mate mixing of the two fluids, the direct contact condensers work effec
tively under low temperature driving forces. In a Direct Contact Conden
ser (DCC) the cooling fluid may be the same or different (say, a hydro
carbon condensing on water) than the condensate. In the former case it
is desirable that the

cooling

fluid

be

as pure as possible to ensure

trouble free operation of subsequent equipment. However, if the cooling


fluid and

the

condensate

are

different

it

is

desirable

that

the

two

2
fluids be immiscible with sufficient difference in density to facilitate
separation without
solubility, no

sizeable

affinity

to

losses
form

in the hot

stable

well.

emulsions,

In

addition,

chemical

low

inertness

and stability are necessary for economical and trouble free operation.
Although direct

contact

condensers

have

been

designed

and

built

in numerous ways, they can be classified into three distinct categories.


In a 1977 literature survey published by Jacobs and Fannir [4], the three
categories were

named;

the

bubble

type,

the

drop

type,

and

the

film

type.
The bubble type of condensers includes all those systems where the
condensing vapor

is injected

into a continuous

pool

or stream of cold

liquid. This type of device has been of interest in the design of open
feed water heaters and in vapor suppression systems for nuclear reactors
[5].
The drop
in the

type DCC

continuous

or jets.

Typical

includes

media

and

all those

condensers

condensation takes

place

where the
on

vapor

either drops

of this type of condenser is the standard barometric

condenser. Figure 1.1.1 shows a drop type direct contact condenser where
the vapor condenses on the spray or drops of coolant. Here the condensa
tion is

dominated

Figures 1.1.2 and

by

the

transient

conduction

in

the

growing

drops.

1.1.3 illustrate the design of curtain types of DCC.

Here the coolant flows under the action of gravity in the form of sheets
or jets on which the vapor condenses.
The film type of DCC bears a sizeable
type DCC.

In the

packing material.

film type

of

The coolant

resemblance to the curtain

condenser the

coolant

is

sprayed

on a

flows down the packing in the form of a

thin film on which the vapor condenses

as illustrated

in Figure

1.1.4

COOLANT IN

VAPOR IN

CONDENSATE AND
COOLANT OUT

Figure 1.1.1.

Counterflow condenser.

| Water ir

jt

yand-doughnut
Plain disk-

Solid shelved

Steam

Figure 1.1.2.

Cascade "solid curtain" condenser.

Steam

Figure 1.1.3.

Cascade (sheet) type condenser.

Vapor in
I
Cooli ng
water in

Bed
batting 1

Packing

Bed support

Condensed vapor and cooling water out to


separator
Figure 1.1.4.

Packed bed condenser.

7
An alternate

design

is

the

tray

type

of

condenser where

the

coolant

flows over an inclined tray and at the end forms a short curtain as it
moves down to the next tray.

Here the coolant can be the same or di f

ferent from the condensate as noted earlier.


Occurrences of
The primary

film type direct

example

is the

changer. In a shell

contact

condensation

condensers are numerous.

in a

shell

and tube heat ex

and tube heat exchanger, the vapor condenses on a

vertical or staggard row of tubes. It is observed that for the topmost


tube, the

vapor

condenses

on the

bare tube

surface.

Subsequently the

condensate drips off the tube in the form of a thin sheet. As the c o n
densate travels the distance between the tubes additional
occurs on the condensate sheet. The condensation
tween the

tubes

is

similar

to

that

in

condensation

process occurring be

a drop

type

DCC.

The

process

continues as the condensate sheet impinges on the second tube and flows
around it in the form of a thin film. The vapor condenses on the thin
film. Subsequently

the

tube in

of

the

form

repeats over

the

condensate
a thin

remaining

and

sheet
tubes

the

and
in

film

thus the

the

row.

drip

off

the

second

condensation process
The

thickness

of

the

film or sheet increases as the condensation proceeds down the tube bank.
It is

observed

that

for

the

second

tube

onward

the

vapor

no

longer

condenses on the bare tube surface; instead it condenses on a thin film


of condensate flowing over the tube leading to direct contact condensa
tion. The direct

contact

or subsequent tube
film type
In the

in a tube

bank

is

DCC. The primary difference

former

the tube

condensation process occurring on the second

wall

case,

the

isothermal

cooling
at

any

fluid
given

similar to that
is the
flows
cross

occurring

condition
through
section

the

in

at the

wall.

tubes

makes

whereas

in

the

later case the packing material


In dealing

with

direct

renders the wall adiabatic.


condensation

processes

so

far

assumed that the condensing vapor was free of noncondensible

it

was

gas. U s u

ally the condensing vapor is mixed with varying amount of noncondensible


gases such

as air,

nitrogen

or inert

gases. This

is primarily due to

microscopic leaks in the process equipment and the inability to totally


strip the noncondensible

gases from the condensing

of these noncondensible
heat transfer.
reported that

For
the

gases

example,
presence

can drastically
in

of

reduce the

condensation

air

equal

to

vapor. The presence

of

condensation

steam

it

has

one half percent

been

by mass

can reduce the condensation heat transfer by over 50% [6].


A review

of

the

literature

tact condensers

have

little work

analytical

of

reveals

been designed and


or

that

built

experimental

although

for

direct

con

over 80 years,

very

nature

Thus, it was decided to develop analytical

has

been

reported.

models to predict the heat

transfer performance and design criterion for direct contact condensers.


As the treatment of the entire family of direct contact condensers
well beyond the scope of this dissertation,

it was decided to restrict

the studies to film type direct

contact condensation and

cesses. Due

influence

to

the

significant

condensation process,

it

was

decided

to

is

of

related pro

noncondensible

establish

gases

analytical

on

models

to examine the effects of noncondensible gas.


The film type direct

contact

condensation process was treated by

Jacobs and Bogart [7] in 1980. They defined the problem as condensation
on an immiscible film flowing
integral approach
as a

function

of

they
the

over an adiabatic surface.

determined
thermal

the

driving

local

and

force,

the

Utilizing an

average

falling

film

Nusselt
Reynolds

9
number, and the
cosities and

ratios of the two liquids thermal

Prandtl

immiscible fluid

numbers.

Their

solution

combinations

where

the

conductivities,

is

applicable

surface

tension

to

vis
those

allows

the

condensate to form a continuous layer wetting the film.


The effect

of

condensation was
approach was
in the

treated

used

presence

the same

or

to

of

by

the

gases

on

film

author

in

1983

condensation

a noncondensible
liquid

presented

plate

the

analyze

a different

pressions were
length of

noncondensible

for

necessary

flowing

the

for

gas,

on

down

average

complete

type

[8,9].

of

a thin
an

direct
An

laminar

number

utilization

integral

saturated

adiabatic

Nusselt

contact

of

vapor

film

plate.

of
Ex

and

for

the

the

cooling

capacity of the film as functions of important nondimensional parameters


governing the problem. Thus the basic analytical models were established
to predict the condensation and design criterion

for the standard

film

type DCC.
As noted earier the condensation processes occurring on the second
or subsequent

tube

in

shell

and tube heat

and jet tube condenser are similar to that


it was decided to establish analytical

exchanger,

in

curtain

in the film type DCC. Thus,

models to predict the condensa

tion with and without the presence of nondensible gas for each of the
processes related

to

film

type

direct

contact

condensation

process.

The condensation in curtain and jet type condensers was modeled as co n


densation on

coolant

jets

a shell

and

sheets.

Condensation

and tube heat exchanger

was

on

subsequent tube

in

as condensation

on a thin film flowing over an isothermal

second

or

first treated
surface and

subsequently the analysis was applied to tube bundles.


In this disseratation, Chapter 2 deals with condensation on coolant

10
sheets and jets.
noncondensible is

Condensation
treated

flowing over an isothermal


The influence

of

deals

tubes. General

with

coolant

Chapter

gases

vertical

condensation

conclusions

3.

sheets

in the presence

Condensation

on

a thin

of a
film

vertical surface is dealt with in Chapter 4.

noncondensible

flowing over an isothermal


Chapter 6

in

on

related

on

condensation

surface
on
to

on a thin film

is examined

vertical

the

family

row
of

in these previous chapters are presented in Chapter 7.

in Chapter 5.
of

isothermal

problems treated

CHAPTER 2

CONDENSATION ON COOLANT JETS AND SHEETS

2.1
Direct contact
for well

over

densing and
in 1900

80

condensers
years.

Cooling

and

was

Introduction
have

Hausbrand's

that for

later

theory

surface

that How's

translated

for

the

condensers.

(11) article,

lished in 1956 was

built and used industrially

book

Ap paratus, appeared

English language editions through


development of

been

in

into
1933.

heat
This

[10],
its

Evaporation,

first

English,

Con

German edition

appearing

in

five

Despite this early start the

transfer
point

lagged

is

greatly

emphasized

How to Design Barometric

by

behind

the

fact

Condensers," pu b

simply a description of rules of thumb for design

ing equipment.
The article by How describes a wide
curtain and
1.1.3.

jet

condensers

such

as

range of equipment

those

shown

in

Figures

including
1.1.2

and

As can be seen these condensers have the coolant injected as a

series of

jets

or

quiescent vapor.
flow exists.

solid

sheets

which

fall

Typically the

vapor

flows

However,

the

vapor

velocity

down

through

upward
is

relatively

so that

a counter

maintained

sufficiently

low that no coolant is stripped from the jets or sheets.


Jet and

curtain

considerable attention
used to

type

direct

contact

condensers

in the USSR and England

replace feedwater heaters

(12).

have

received

They are

being

and in the Heller power cycles.

In

12
1976 0 1 iker
data of

(12)

noted that there was a significant

lack of technical

an

experimental

their

"the

evaluation

even

states that

determination of a heat
densed steam.

heat exchangers

nature
of

dealing

this

apparatus

balance and the

calculation

of

is not made."

the

with

usually

necessary

heat

and

He

consists

of

flow rates

mass

He then points

design.

of

transfer

in

con
those

out that precise evalua

tion of direct contact condenser design is desirable.


The earliest theoretical
is that due to Kutateladze
of Hasson et a l . (14,15)
the jet,

which

entered

suddenly changed
vapor induced
the jet

was

to

treatment

(13).

the

essentially

vapor

shear

As

the

resistance

the solutions

were

chamber

on

of

the

applicable

liquid;

These

solution

the

at

the

vapor.

thus

the

velocity

for

of

T0 , was

of

assumptions

The
in

laminar

in terms of the Graetz number.

condensate
only

surface

temperature

temperature

constant.

jet allowed for an analytical

condensers

it was assumed that the

saturation

negligible

curtain and jet

In his work and the subsequent work

in 1964,
the

of

was

if the

assumed

Jakob

negligible,

number,

defined

as

(Tsat " ^ o ^ f g ,
was infinitesimally
or if

hfg -*

small.

If

(Tsat

This
-

can

T0 )

occur

equals

if

either

zero

then

(Tsat
no

- T0 ) + 0

condensation

takes place and the Graetz number

<ReD H|! PrJ V

required for
with (Tsat
of the

x>

complete

condensation

- T 0 ) finite,

coolant

tends

to

is

infinite.

the

Graetz

number

for

zero.

It

thus

clear

is

If

hfg

is

complete
that

the

infinite

utilization
theory

of

13
Kutateladze and Hasson et a l . cannot be applied unless a more accurate
solution is

first

obtained

which

would

define

where

their

solutions

provide approximate results.


Recently Jacobs
Utah carried
flat plate

out

(7)

and

co-workers

analyses

and

applicable

a sphere

plate with a noncondensible


from the

present

velocity was

problem

not

easily adapted
also to a jet.

the

on

University
of

over a

of

packed

bed

vertical

flat

The first paper differs


on

analytical

sheet

methods

condensation

on

in

that

should
laminar

the

thus

be

sheet

and

Thus in this paper we develop a set of integral energy

equations for the


calculate the

(8).

the

design

flow

condensation

The

at

the

for

gas present

for

case

to

(16), and

uniform.

to

(7,16,8)

coolant

length

of

stream and the


sheet

or

jet

condensate
necessary

film in

to

utilize

order to
various

fractions of the coolant's capacity to absorb heat.

2.2.
1.

General Assumptions

The velocity profiles

assumed uniform.

The

basis

in the jet or sheet of coolant will

for

this

Kutateladze (13) and Hasson et al.


by a low pressure
sumption is

one

vapor
of

the

on

assumption,

(14,15),

previously

by

is that the shear induced

a moving liquid

classical

used

be

will

assumptions

of

be

small.

Nusselt

for

This

as

laminar

film condensation on a vertical plate.


2.

The

other assumptions

inherent

in the

Nusselt analysis hold,

i .e.,
(a) the temperature

at the

interface

densate is T sat (no interfacial

between the

resistance),

(b) the flow is laminar with no surface waves,

vapor

and

con

14

(c) the properties of the liquid are constant.


3.
small.

further

assumption

will

be

made

that

the

Jakob

number

The Jakob number for this paper is defined as

Ja - Cp (Tsat - T0 )/hfg.

The reason for this assumption


balance from
where its

where the

is as follows:

coolant

average temperature

enters the
is T sat and

if we assume an energy

saturated
set

vapor

it equal

chamber to

to the energy

released by the condensed vapor, then


for a jet

PZ ^ p^ ^(^sat - Tq ) uR

Uhfg 2ttR6x>00

2.1 .1

and for a sheet

U( Tsa-t - T 0 ) L -

Uhfg 5x+oo

2.2.2

Thus for a jet

^ x -h
Cp (Tsa-t - T 0 )
____ _ = 1 ___________
=
R
2hf

Ja
2 2 3
2

and for a sheet

---L

It is

Cp (Tsa^ - T 0 )
= i------------ = Ja
hf
9

clear

an assumption

that

if Ja

of a small

0, 6XW R
Jakob

2.2.4

and 5x^oo/L go to

number means a thin

zero.

Therefore

condensate layer.

is

15
For a

fluid

T sat - T0

condensing

is

of

moderate

of constant properties
of small

mass

on

as

own

liquid

size

and

therefore

should

addition

velocity, axially

its

be

as

the

prior

laterally.

generally

the

reasonable.

supports

well

this

Nusselt

Further,

assumption
If the

low

pressure

systems,

provides

of

mass

for

that

assumption

the assumption
uniform

addition

large it would affect the inertia of the sheet or jet.


number, for

means

A small

negligible

jet
were

Jakob

dynamic

i nfluences.

2.3.

Mathematical Formulation and Physical Models

Condensation on a Sheet
Consider the sheet of coolant shown in Figure 2.3.1. The cold li
quid temperature T 0 , has a thickness 2L and a uniform velocity, U.

It

entered a

at

chamber

filled

temperature T sat
occurs.
I defines

The

until

coolant

quiescent
starts

saturated

to

heat

up

pure
as

vapor

condensation

The problem as shown can be divided into two regions.


a

region

sheet, penetrating
the wall.

with

This
= L,

the condensate

from

region,
can

be

the

thermal

boundary

condensate

which

extends

defined

as

layer

layer-sheet
along

the

thermal

develops
interface

length

of

entrance

in

the

towards

the

sheet

region.

As

layer is thin and vapor shear is small the velocity in

the condensate
Beyond Region

where

Region

layer

will

I lies Region

condensate layer

will

grow

approximately

equal

that

II where the entire sheet


until

TC|_

T sat.

As

in

the

sheet.

is heated.
this

The

increase

will be exponential, calculations will cease when (Tsat - T c l )/Tsat - T0 )


is 0.001.
In Region

an

energy

balance

for

the

coolant

sheet

yields

16

Figure 2.3.1.

Schematic for condensation on a sheet.

17
L

3T,
* CH

T x J

L-6 j

2.3.1

U(T* ' To)cly k * 9y

y=L

For the condensate layer the energy equation is


L+6C
^

P i c p u (T sat " T c ) dy +

d r
hfg ^ J

As the
first term
gible.

L+5,
p l udy = k*

condensate

layer

on the left

side

9y

is
of

2.3.2
y=L

thin

and

Equation

Jakob
2.3.2

number
can

is

be

small,

assumed

the

negli

Thus Equation 2.3.2 reduces to


L+5r

dJ r

'fg t

3TC
= k

wy

2.3.3
y=L.

The assumption
sate layer

implies

of
a

negligible
linear

thermal

temperature

capacitance
profile

of

the

across

it.

capacitance

of

the

condensation:

necessary.

The boundary conditions are

9T
To = T 0 and
= 0

3y

therefore

sheet

induce the

and T = T-j at y = L.

Thus,

2.3.4

T c = Ti + (y - L)

The thermal

conden

at

for

it

is

the

a more

y = L - 5^

These conditions lead to

only

heat

general

sink

to

profile

is

2.3.5

18

t = ji + J - 2 el2 - 2L 6t + 2y (-L + 6t ) + ^ 2]

The compatabi 1 ity

condition

of

the

heat

fluxes

at

2.3.6

the

interface

be

tween the sheet and condensate film


8TC

3T

3y

3y

leads to

y=L
the

T
0
Ti

2.3.7
y=L

following

+1
2

expression

for

the

interfacial

temperature

T
67

1 + I
2

sat

2.3.8

At
5,.

Defining a dimensionless temperature

0 =

2.3.9
Tsat " T q

nondimensionalizing all

lengths

meter of the sheet D^ = 4L,

with

respect

to

the

hydraulic

dia

and substituting the temperature profiles

and expression for Tj into Equations 2.3.1 and 2.3.3 yields

12
d6

Ren

Pr

2 6,
o
1 fit
2 + - =t2 6r

dx

2.3.10

and
d5c2
d7

2Ja
Pr Ren

1
H

1 , I
1 + 2 6C

2.3.11

19
Equations 2.3.10 and 2.3.11 make up a set of two coupled nonlinear
first

order

differential

equations.

The necessary boundary cond

itions, as can be seen from Figure 2.3.1, are 6^(x = 0) = 0 and


0) = 0.

The

the values
be solved

equations

of the

may

first

be

solved

derivatives

assuming a series

numerically

at

solution.

x = 0.

after

Sc (x =

establishing

Conversely

they

can

It may be shown that the solu

tions are satisfied by the expressions

2.3.12
and
2.3.13

Region II
heats up.

begins

Thus

the

when 5^ = L.
integral

From this point the

energy

equation

for

the

entire
sheet

sheet

becomes

9T
2.3.14

U(T - T 0 )dy = k^

Pi

y=L

0
The energy

equation

Equation 2.3.3.

The

temperature profile
entire fluid heats
The boundary

for the

expressions
in

the

sheet

condensate
for

the

change,

layer

remains

interfacial
however.

as

given

temperature

For the

in
and

sheet the

up but the thickness to the center L is a constant.

conditions

governing

the

temperature

profile

include

y = o
2.3.15

y = L
resulting in

T& = Ti

20

2.3.16

Utilizing this

profile

the nondimensional

the

sheet

following

expression

is

centerline temperature,

obtained

relating

condensate and

sheet

thicknesses.
(1 - 0i)
2.3.17

cL = i
8SC

Note that at the end of Region I e CL = 0 and e-j = 1/(1 + 8 Sc ).


5C -> 0, 9-j at the

end

of

Region

goes

to

one.

Utilizing

Thus if
Equations

2.3.14, 2.3.16 and 2.3.17 there results

2.3.18
dx

ReDH Pr (1 + 12 S c )

The condensate energy equation is

dSc 2
2Ja
"7"" = n---- (1 dx
Ren Pr
dH
Equations 2.3.17,

2.3.19

2.3.18 and 2.3.19 define the necessary parameters to

describe the condensation in Region II.

The boundary conditions for 9-j

and S c are defined by their values at the end of Region I.


If we define the heat transfer in terms of the temperature differ
ence (Tsat - T 0 ), the local
to be given by

Nusselt

number

in

Region

I can

be

shown

21

2.3.20

and in Region II by

2.3.21

N u D h (x ) =

The fraction

of

coolant

capacity

utilized

can

be

obtained

by

evaluating 100% x (eavg ).

Condensation on a Jet
The schematic for condensation
As can be seen the basic model
thermal development
jet heats

up,

Region

is in the

fact that

choice of

coordinate

region,
II.
one

must

is shown in Figure 2.3.2.

is the same as for a sheet.

Region
The

system

on a jet

I,

and

primary

region

difference

where

in

consider an axisymmetric
is y

in the

the

There is a
the

entire

formulation

geometry.

jet and y ' in the

The

condensate

film.
The energy equation for the jet in Region I is

2.3.22
0
and for the condensate layer, assuming 6C/R << 1

2.3.23

As for

the

case

of

the

sheet

profile in the condensate layer

one

can

assume

linear

temperature

22

REGION I

REGION II

Figure 2.3.2.

Schematic for condensation on a jet.

23
Tsat - T-j
~
y'
c

Tc = T i +

2.3.24

and for the jet

T o

<T 1

T o >

- y/

2 - 3 - 2 6

The compatabi1ity of heat fluxes yields


1
9,- =
=
1
1 + 2 c/6t

2.3.26

where 9-j = T-j

- T0 / T sat

with

to

respect

the

- T0 and

jet

and 2.3.25 into Equations

d
7L
=*[0i (
dx
1 3

the

diameter.

lengths

are

nondimensional i zed

Substitution of Equations 2.3.24

2.3.22 and 2.3.23 yields

2
)] = ----- -=
6
ReD Pr 6t
H

2.3.27

and

dSc 2
dx

2Ja
Pr Rep

The boundary
0 and S c (0) =

(1 - 9 i )

2.3.28

conditions
0.

The

at

growth

=
of

as
these

with

the

layers

sheet
are,

at

are
x

St(0) =
=

0,

of

the form

5t (x) = axf1/2
x*0

and

6v(x) = bx"1/ 2
x+0

2.3.29

Thus 9i(x = 0) is a constant.


When the thermal boundary layer has penetrated to 5^ = R, i.e., the

24
the centerline of the jet, the entire jet starts to heat up.

Here the

energy equation in the jet is

ai

^ z

> (1 - R )dy - T

(y - 0)

2 -3 -30

with a temperature profile of

T1 -

t cL

* T i - Tc L d

Substituting Equation

-^>2

2.3.13,

into

2 -3 -31
Equation

2.3.30

and

nondimension-

alizing yields

d
32
- = [0ri + 9-; ] = ------ (9-j - 0r , )
dx
cL
1
Reou Pr
1
cL
H
The compatability

of

heat

fluxes

at

2.3.32

the

condensate

jet

interface

yields

(1 - 0i)
e . - 0. = ---cL ' i
46r

2.3.33

and the condensate film energy equation remains

2Ja

d6c 2

dx

Renu Pr
H

The boundary
end of

(1 - 0i)

conditions

Region

I.

at

the

start

of

Region

For 0 C|_ the

value

is

zero.

of Region II, 0-j = 1/(1 + 85c ).


thus clear

that

approaches that

as

2.3.34

Ja > 0

the

II

are

the

start

If 6 C is very small then 0-j ~ 1.

It is

used by Kutateladze

at the

at

at

the

temperature

Thus

those

surface

of the

(13), and Hasson et al . (14,

jet
15).

25
The expressions
Regions I

and

II

6 -j, 5C and <5f


lated in

the

for

are

the

the

local

same

as

Nusselt
given

In addition the percent


same

manner.

The

numbers

for

the

for

the

sheet

jet

in

in terms

of

coolant utilization

primary

difference

is

is

that

calcu
for

the

average coolant temperature, 6 avg in Region II,

0a v g . ,= (ecL + i)/2
jet

2.3.35

and for the sheet

0avq
= 2/3 9(;L ^ 1/3 0 -j
3sheet

2.4.

2.3.36

Results and Discussion

Condensation on a Sheet
Examination of
densation on
on the

sheet

product

values of x/D^

the

of

governing
indicates

RepH

and

a similarity

Pr,

differential
that

the

and

solution

Ja

heat
and

exists,

equations

for

transfer
x/D^.
and

For
6C

is

the

con

dependent

very
and

small
5t can

be expressed as

1/2

and

2.4.1
h

= V

1/2

respectively as

indicated

by

equations

small values of x it can be shown that

2.3.12

and

2.3.14.

Thus

for

, t
(>*eD Pr d h /x >1/2
Nun (x) = --------- D------------------

2.4.2

(3/4 + 2Ja)l/2 + (3/4)1/2

For the limiting case of Ja -> 0 and small x

1/2

2.4.3

which is nearly equal to the results of Kutateladze (13) and Hasson et


a l . (14)

for large

solve differs

only

The difference
sent solution

Graetz number.
in

would
gives

Graetz solution.

the

coefficient

indicate
a

The

that

slightly
two

The analytical

for

faster

solutions

being
large

l//ir
Graetz

heating

yield

Graetz problem they

of

results

instead

of

1//3.

number

the

pre

sheet

than

the

the

within

3%

of

each

other for Jakob number less than 0.05.


Although it
for heat

is

transfer

usual

zation as a function
on

with its

Also

surface

for

correlations

direct

contact

of

Nusselt

condensation

number
it

is

curves showing the percent of coolant utili

of the height of heat exchanger.

shown in Figure 2.4.1


of interest.

present

problems,

more valuable to present

of condensation

to

sheet,

percent

sheet

For our problem

coolant

utilization

is

versus Graetz number for a range of Jakob number

shown
held

on the

at

T sat.

figure are the results


The

curve

shown

for

for the
the

sheet

latter

is

Percent Coolant Utilized =

oo
100% < 1 -

n=0 (2n + l)2

The curve

given

by

tt2

Equation

2.4.4

Gz

appears

2.4.4

to

correspond

closely

to

Utilized
Percent

Graetz Number
Figure 2.4.1.

Percent coolant capacity utilized as a function of Graetz


number for condensation on a sheet.

rv>

28
the curve for Ja = 0.10 over the range of Graetz
Between Graetz
0.05.

This

numbers

follows

of

70

and

from the

by comparison of Equations

130 the

Nusselt

number from 5 to 70.

agreement

number

is

expansion

close to
accuracy

Ja =
shown

2.4.2 and 2.4.3. As can be seen from Figure

2.4.1 for a given degree of utilization an increase in Jakob number re


quires an
number.

increase
For

in

coolant

example the

Jakob number

increase

from 32.3 to 24.2.

sheet

figure

from

length

shows that

0.01

to

0.2

or

a decrease

in

Graetz

for 80% utilization

the

Graetz

number

for a

decreases

This corresponds to a 33% increase in jet length.

At high degrees

of thermal

from the

figure that the

A better

understanding

utilization of the coolant

curves

is

converge;

obtained

from

however,
looking

this
at

it appears

is

not true.

tabulated

data.

Table 2.4.1 presents percent of coolant utilization for the Jakob num
bers shown in Figure 2.4.1

as well

as from the

Graetz

solution,

as a

function of the Graetz number.


Condensation on a Cylindrical Jet
For condensation on a cylindrical

jet as x goes to zero (Gz - )

the heat transfer yields the

same form of

solution as for the

In other

behaviour

of the local

Nusselt number is

arbitrary

Jakob

and

words the

Equation 2.4.2

for

Jakob number - 0.

Kutateladze

(13)

number
and

Hasson

by

Equation

(14)

again

sheet.

given by
2.4.3
show

for
that

2.4.5

which is in excellent agreement with our solution.


The percentage

of

utilization

of

the

coolant

for a

cylindrical

29

TABLE 2.4.1
Percent Coolant Capacity Utilized for Condensation
on a Sheet
............. Percent Coolant Capacity Utilized
Gz
Gz Sol. Ja-0.01 Ja=0.05 Ja=0.10 Ja=0.15 Ja=0.20
78.9
56.6
49.6
44.1
39.7
36.1
33.1
30.6
28.4
26.5
24.9
24.4
22.1
20.9
19.9
18.1
17.3
15.9
13.8
12.1
10.5
8.9
7.9
7.4
6.9
6.4
6.2
5.9
5.6
5.3
5.1
4.8
4.7

50.8
59.7
63.5
66.9
70.0
72.9
75.4
77.7
79.8
81.7
83.4
84.9
86.4
87.7
88.8
90.8
91.7
93.2
95.4
96.9
98.1
99.1
99.4
99.6
99.7
99.8
99.9
99.9
99.9
99.9
99.9
99.9
99.9

53.1
62.9
67.0
70.7
73.9
76.9
79.4
81.7
83.7
85.5
87.1
88.5
89.8
90.9
91.9
93.6
94.3
95.5
97.1
98.2
99.0
99.6
99.8
99.8
99.9

51.7
61.3
65.3
68.9
72.1
74.9
77.5
79.8
81.9
83.7
85.3
86.8
88.1
89.3
90.4
92.2
93.0
94.3
96.3
97.6
98.5
99.3
99.6
99.7
99.8
99.9
99.9

50.2
59.5
63.4
66.9
70.0
72.8
75.4
77.7
79.7
81.6
83.3
84.8
86.2
87.4
88.6
90.5
91.4
92.9
95.1
96.6
97.9
98.9
99.3
99.5
99.7
99.8
99.8
99.9
99.9

48.8
57.8
61.6
65.0
68.1
70.9
73.4
75.7
77.8
79.7
81.4
82.9
84.4
85.7
86.8
88.9
89.8
91.4
93.9
95.6
97.1
98.4
98.9
99.2
99.6
99.6
99.7
99.7
99.8
99.9
99.9

47.5
56.3
60.0
63.4
66.4
69.2
71.7
73.9
75.9
77.9
79.6
81.2
82.7
83.9
85.2
87.4
88.3
90.0
92.7
94.6
96.3
97.8
98.5
98.9
99.2
99.4
99.5
99.6
99.7
99.8
99.8
99.9
99.9

30
jet from the cylindrical Graetz problem is

Percent Coolant Utilized =

100%

1 - I

2.4.6

exp (- 4Xn2 /Gz)

n=1 xn

where A n = the roots of J 0 (An ) = *


Comparison of
of the

present

As can

be

cylindrical

solution

seen

agreement with

the

the

are

Graetz

shown

cylindrical

in

Figure

Graetz

Ja = 0.15 at a Graetz

problem

results

2.4.2

solution

number

and
is

with

Table

in

of 41 and

those
2.4.2.

approximate

with

Ja = .20

at Graetz number less than 10.


Comparison Between Condensation on
a Sheet and a Jet
Comparison between
by comparing
2.4.2 and

values

condensation

of

coolant

by looking at

Ja = 0.05.

Figure

on a jet and a

utilization
2.4.3

sheet

can be made

shown in Tables

which

2.4.1

and

shows the utilization

for

For Gz ->- the heat transfer is the same as already noted;

however, as can be seen from Figure 2.4.3 and the tables a considerable
divergence of percent
percent coolant

coolant

utilization

utilized
of

99.5%

is
the

noted
jet

for

Gz

< 50.

For a

requires

a 41%

longer

coolant stream than the sheet.


Our results
tween 0.01

and

Region I is well
about 5%

further
0.20

of

that

the

that
heat

for

0.01.

the

even

of

of Jakob
the

number

entire

range

be
of

2.4.2. For the jet 9j varies by

I for Jakob number


Thus,

range

transfer

satisfied by Equation

over Region

Jakob number

show

of 0.20 but

for the

jet the

less than
solution

1% for

given

in

Utilized
Percent

Gratez Number
Figure 2.4.2.

Percent utilized as a function of Graetz number


for condensation on a cylindrical jet.

CO

32

TABLE 2.4.2
Percent Coolant Capacity Utilized for Condensation
on a Jet

Gz
58.8
45.5
37.0
31.3
27.0
23.8
21.3
19.2
17.5
16.1
14.9
13.9
12.9
12.2
11.5
10.9
10.1
9.3
8.7
8.2
7.4
6.8
6.3
5.8
5.4
5.1
4.7
4.4
4.3
4.1
3.9

Percent Coolant Capacity Utilized


Gz S o l . Ja=0.01 Ja=0.05 Ja=0.10 Ja=0.15 Ja=0.20
51.7
57.5
62.5
66.7
70.5
73.7
76.6
79.2
81.5
83.5
85.3
86.9
88.3
89.6
90.8
91.8
93.1
94.2
95.1
95.9
96.9
97.7
98.3
98.7
99.0
99.3
99.5
99.6
99.7
99.8
99.8

53.6
60.4
66.2
71.1
75.3
78.9
81.9
84.6
86.7
88.8
90.4
91.8
92.9
94.0
94.9
95.6
96.5
97.3
97.8
98.3
98.8
99.2
99.5
99.6
99.8
99.8
99.9

52.6
59.2
64.9
69.8
73.9
77.6
80.7
83.3
85.6
87.6
89.3
90.7
92.0
93.1
94.0
94.8
95.9
96.7
97.3
97.9
98.5
98.9
99.3
99.5
99.7
99.8
99.9
99.9

51.4
57.9
63.5
68.3
72.5
76.p
79.1
81.8
84.2
86.2
87.9
89.5
90.8
91.9
92.9
93.9
94.9
95.9
96.7
97.3
98.0
98.6
98.9
99.3
99.5
99.6
99.8
99.8
99.9

50.3
56.7
62.2
66.9
71.0
74.6
77.7
80.4
82.8
84.8
86.7
88.2
89.6
90.9
91.9
92.9
94.1
95.1
95.9
96.6
97.5
98.2
98.7
99.0
99.3
99.5
99.7
99.8
99.8
99.9

49.3
55.6
61.0
65.7
69.7
73.3
76.4
79.1
81.5
83.6
85.4
87.1
88.5
89.8
90.9
91.9
93.2
94.3
95.2
95.9
96.9
97.7
98.3
98.7
99.0
99.3
99.5
99.7
99.7
99.8
99.9

Utilized
Percent

Graetz Number
Figure 2.4.3.

Comparison of coolant capacity utilized for condensation on


a jet and a sheet for Ja=0.05.

GO

GJ

Ion 2.4.2

should hold.

However,

to design

a jet

et condenser, the entire solution must be obtained.

condenser

or a

CHAPTER 3

CONDENSATION ON COOLANT JETS AND SHEETS IN THE


PRESENCE OF A NONCONDENSIBLE GAS

3.1.
When a small

amount

of

Introduction

noncondensible

gas

is present in a vapor

the rate of condensation can be appreciably reduced.


has been

made

condensers.

for

both

surface

type

condensers

This observation

and

direct

contact

Hasson et a l . (15) in experiments where steam was condens

ing on a fan jet have shown that the average heat transfer coefficient
could be reduced by as much as 50 % for a concentration of one percent
air in

steam

and

could

be

reduced

to

approximately

21%

of

the

pure

vapor value for a concentration of three percent air in the bulk steam.
This type of drastic reduction has been shown by Minkowycz and Sparrow
(6) to be due to a buildup of the noncondensible gas at the liquid-vapor
interface.

Further

it

has

been

shown that

an

interfacial

resistance

is negligible.
Sparrow (17) was the first to formulate a theory to evaluate the
effect of

no ncondensibles.

cerned with
were the

condensation

first

to

sibles for direct

on

contact

study

a solid

theoretically

study neglected the added


the sheet.

His

and

others

surface.

consider

condensation

the

Taitel
effects

on a sheet

resistance due to the

(6,18,19)

of

and
of

were

con

Tamir

(20)

nonconden-

coolant.

Their

condensate forming on

More recently Jacobs and Nadig (8,9) evaluated the effects

36
of noncondensibles
liquid flowing

on

over

the
an

condensation of vapor
the same

fluid

condensation

adiabatic

presence

Theoretical analyses

surface.

on a laminar

in the

of

sheet and

of

vapor
In

on

the

an

immiscible

present

on a cylindrical

a noncondensible

gas

are

analyses assumed that the


was

coolant

solved

flowed

for the

at a fixed temperature below the


The effect

of

the

latter assumption
Graetz problem.
analyses was

added mass

that

is strictly

the

applicable

becomes infinite.
ting the length

treated.

velocity
only

a uniform
assuming

(13).

His

velocity.

The

that

it

entered

saturation temperature of the vapor.

due

difference

at

coolant

to

condensation

reduced the problem to


The

jet of

of the condensation of a pure vapor on jets

or sheets of coolant were first carried out by Kutateladze

energy equation

analyses

between
was

when

ignored.

This

one similar to the so-called


the

uniform.
the

was

heat

Graetz

problem

Kutateladze's
of

and

his

solution

vaporization,

hfg,

In Chapter 2 it has been shown the error in compu


of

coolant

stream

if

Kutateladze's

solution

is used,

was presented. For example, for a Jakob number less than 0.20 the error
can exceed

30%

when

Kutateladze's

results

are

used.

The

error

is

caused by neglecting the effect of the added mass due to condensation


even at these low values of Jakob number.
Since it

is

necessary

to

consider the thermal

condensate for condensation of a pure vapor,

of the

it should also be impor

tant when noncondensibles are present in the vapor.


work was initiated.

resistance

Thus, the present

37
3.2.
1.

The

velocities

constant.

in the

The basis

General Assumption

coolant

for this

stream and the


assumption

condensate

film are

is that the shear induced

by a low pressure vapor on a moving liquid is small.


2.

The

velocity

due to the

in the

gas-vapor phase is

fact that the

velocity

not influenced

in the

coolant

by

gravity

stream is rela

tively high.
3.

The

liquid-vapor

interface

is

impermeable

to

the

noncondensible

gas.
4.

Interfacial

resistance

the interface

is

between the

negligible.

Thus,

the

temperature

at

condensate and the vapor-gas mixture

is

that of the local saturation temperature of the vapor.


5.

Axial conduction is negligible in the coolant stream.

6.

The Jakob number is

small;

thus the

condensate film is thin

pared to the thickness of the coolant stream (6,8,9).

com

Further, the

properties of the fluid can be assumed constant since a small Jakob


number implies

small

temperature

difference

between

the

coolant

and the vapor-gas mixture (6,8,9).

3.3.

Mathematical

The basic models for

on a sheet

or jet in the p r e

sence of a noncondensible

gas are shown in Figures

3.3.1 and 3.3.2. As

can be

jet

seen the

defines a

sheet

or

condensation

Formulation and Physical Models

is divided

region in which a thermal

densate layer-cool ant

interface

gion II starts when the thermal

and

into two

boundary
grows

regions.

layer forms

toward

boundary layer has

the

Region

at the

centerline.

con
Re

reached the coolant

centerline and continues until the condensation ceases. Outside the con-

38

Figure 3.3.1.

Schematic of model for condensation on a sheet


in the presence of a noncondensible gas.

39

Figure 3.3.2.

Schematic of model for condensation on a cylindrical


jet in the presence of a noncondensible gas.

densate layer

of

boundary layer,

thickness <5C , the

<5^, induced

ture is also a species


concentration varies
free stream

value

the temperature

is

the

boundary

from
of

by

W*

At

At

the

T*.

flow

of

mixture

liquid.

layer in which

at

W^.

vapor-gas

Within

thin

the

mi x

the noncondensible

the

liquid-mixture

the

vapor-gas

interface

forms

interface

condensate

between

the

to

gas
the

interface

liquid

coolant

and the condensate layer the temperature is T-j.


Region I Equations
In Region I the energy equation for the coolant is
L

For the
jet it

is

equal

coolant jet

sheet
to

radius

one.
while

is

equal

to

Further,
for

the

zero

and

for

the

the

jet

L =

for

sheet

cylindrical
which

is

L = L, the half thickness

the
of

the sheet as shown in Figures 3.3.1 and 3.3.2.


In the condensate layer the assumption of a small Jakob number
insures that
compared to
is thin.

the
the

These

sensible
heat

of

heat

capacity

vaporization

assumptions

further

and
make

of

the

condensate

that
the

the

small

condensate

layer

effects

small in the condensate layer for the cylindrical


energy balance across the condensate yields

is

jet

of

curvature

(8,9), thus the

41
In the coolant

stream Jacobs

and Nadig

(8,9)

have shown that

for

Region I an assumption of a quadratic temperature profile which satis


fies the conditions

Tt (L - t ) = T0

--- (L - 6t ) = 0

3.3.3

TZ (L) = Ti

provides an excellent agreement


<=.

If

we

define

new

with the analytical

variable

Z, =

L - y,

the

results

for hfg

temperature

profile

in the coolant can be represented as

T* - T0 = ( ^

In the

condensate

- T0 ) (1 - I ) 2 .
6t

layer,

the

3.3.4

assumptions

utilized

in

developing

the

energy equation imply a linear temperature profile

Tc - ^

= (T* - Ti) ( ^ - ^ )
6c

Utilizing the

compatabi1ity

of

heat

3.3.5

fluxes

between

the

condensation

and the coolant

9y

3Tc
9y

one can solve for the temperature Ti

3.3.6

Substituting Equations

3.3.4,

3.3.5

and 3.3.7 into Equations

3.3.1 and

3.3.2 for the case of a sheet results in

12
dSt2

s 2 i \ A + - ^ '

V Pr R e ^

)\

0*
2 +

2 6C /

+ 't 2 d ? c 2
Sc 2 dx

.3.8

2 ^c

and

d<5c 2

2Ja
.3.9

dx

Pr Ren
dH

where lengths

1 + =ytc

have

been

nondimensionalized

with

respect

to

the

hy-

draulic diameter and

T - T0
-------T00 - T10

For a

3 '3.10

cylindrical

jet

the

governing

equations

for 6^ and

Sc are

43

and
d6c2

2Ja
3.3.12

dx"

Ren Pr
H

In order to solve the equations


to determine

the

ture at

condensate

the

value

requires solving

for

in

turn

and species

equations.
small

vapor-gas

the

face, which

number and

of 0*, the

given above it is first


nondimensional

mixture

concentration

requires
The

variation

the

solution

assumption
in

hfg

saturation

interface.
of

of

allows

the

This

vapor

of the
a

at

tempera
of

course

the

inter

vapor-gas

small

for

necessary

momentum

value

of

integration

Jakob
of

the

Clausius Clapeyron equation (8,9) to yield

Sat~ hf g (T00
5* =

"

1 +. sat OO

p
1

In

hfg

- T0 )

P v*
3.3.13

Pw*
r
V

The ratio of partial pressure of the vapor to total pressure

Pv
P

1 - W
1 - W (1 -

-1)
Mg

then allows

for

relating

the

mass

concentration

of

gas

to

the

value

of 0*.
The integral
gas-vapor mixture,

forms for the momentum and


assuming

that

the

species equations

condensate

is impenetrable to the gas, reduce to (8,9)

vapor-gas

in the

interface

As with the energy equations


the cylindrical

for the

coolant and condensate,

for

jet n = 1 and L = R while for the sheet n = 0 and L =

L.
The conditions
interface, zero

of

velocity

no
in

slip
the

at

the

condensate

mixture

as

vaporgas

y + and

the

mixture
condition

of 3u/3y = 0 as y * suggest that in the mixture

3.3.17

For the species equation

y - L + 6C

W = W*
3.3.18

y - L + 6C + 6S

3w
W = Wo, and = 0
3y

results in
y - (L + 6C ) 2
W - Woo = (W* - W J

1 -

3.3.19

Substitution of Equations 3.3.17 and 3.3.19 into Equations 3.3.15


and 3.3.16 and nondimensionalizing results in

45

20

d5m 2

3.3.20

dx

Re

pm 6C dx

H vm

and

d6s2

12

dx

|ReDu Sc
H

25s2

dx

W* -

6Z

^m3

3 V \
1 - 11 +
10 ?rm 2
5r
Vi
for the

sheet.

For

Re

1 6j l +

2 6m

10 5m 2

j '\ dfim 2
1

3 ^

' dx~

^s

pm *c

!i2
dx

3.3.21
1

jet

the

following

equations

are

obtained

3 Pz ^m dsc?'
Pm 6c

H vm

dx

the

12
d5 m 2

1+

dx

3.3.22

1 + "5m

and

1
15
1
(W* - Wo,) ^ ( + 5C ) 5S (1 ----- - +

dx

1
16.
1
6 2 (_ . _ _ i + _
4

5 6m

2 5m

62

10

6 2
~ ) +

10 5m 2

1
_
w* - wm
(- + 5C )
(
")
w*

3.3.23

46
For both the sheet

and the jet the condition of impermeability of the

condensate vapor-gas mixture interface leads to

W.co
W* =
dSc2
ym 5C

Thus, for

Region

3.3.21, and
the presence

I,

3.3.24
of

dx

3.3.24

Equations

3.3.8,

3.3.9,

completely

define

the

governing equations

3.3.14,

condensation

noncondensible

gas.

are

3.3.11,

Equations

3.3.13,

For

on

sheet

cylindrical

3.3.12,

3.3.20,

3.3.13,

at

in
the

3.3.16,

3.3.22, 3.3.23 and 3.3.24.


Region II Equations
Region II begins
stream heats up

when 6^ = L.

From this point the entire coolant

such that the centerline temperature will

ously increasing.

The

energy

equation

for

the

coolant

be continu
stream

in

Region II is

L
3.3.25
0

y=L

The temperature profile in the

coolant must

satisfy the boundary

conditions

y = 0

y = L

- -

T<! * Tc

T = T-j .

These conditions are satisfied by the expression

3.3.26

47

T* - TcL = (Ti - Tc L ) (^-)2

3.3.27

The governing equation and the temperature profile


layer are the
heat fluxes

same as those in Region

at the

interface

I.

between the

for the

Using the
original

condensate

compatabi 1 ity

coolant

of

stream and

the condensate layer yields

1 ( 0 * - 9-j )2n
r. = ---------CL
8
6C

LL.

Substituting Equation

3.3.28

3.3.27

into

Equation

3.3.25,

nondimensio-

nalizing the resulting equations and utilizing Equation 3.3.28 produces


the following equations for the sheet and jet, respectively

48(0* - 0.j) 1 0* - 0n- dSc2


d0i*
for
------------ -------

+
the
d0i
Ren Pr
2
dx
dx
s h e e t --- = ------ ------------ _ ----------------dx
12 Sr + 1

Src

for
the
jet

The energy

3.3.29

32(0* - 0 ^
1 0* - 0n- d6c2
d9*
------------------- _
+
d0i
Rep Pr
2
Sc
dx
dx
= ----- ----------- ------------------dx
8
+ 1
.

3.3.30

Sr

equations

for

the

condensate

films

in the

sheet

and

jet

are expressed in Region II as

for the sheet

d5"c 2
2Ja
---- = --------( 0* - 0i)
Ren Pr
1
H

and for the jet

d6c2
2Ja
(0* - 0i )
r - = ----
---- 3.3.32
dx
R e ^ P r (1 + 26c ) _

dx

3.3.31

48
?
The expressions for S ^ ,
tial conditions

?
W*, 6g
remain as given in Region I.

The ini

for the variables 0^, 6C 2 , 9*, W*, 6m 2 and 6S 2 for R e

gion II are the conditions obtained at the end of Region I.


Calculation of Percent Coolant Utilized
The mean temperature

of the coolant

is calculated

from the e q ua

tion
L
Tm

f pi

CP u^ n

dy = f pi

CP uT* y " dy

3 -3 -33

For Region I for a sheet

4
_
9m = 0 i 6t

3.3.34

and for a jet

9m _ ~ 9i 51 (1 ~ <H)

. . ..

3.3.35

In Region II for a sheet

and for a jet


e cL + e i
3m

3.3.37

Note that the definition of 9 is

T - T0
3.3.10
T

- To

49
thus, the

value

of 6m gives

to absorb the heat

given

contact condensation,
designer rather

than

Nusselt number.

The

only reported

for

it

the

fraction

up

by the

is

this

quantity

heat transfer

3.4.

the

coolants

condensation process.

the heat transfer

comparison

of

that

coefficient

coefficient

with

is

the

For direct

important
or local

or

results

capacity

Nusselt
of

to

the

value

number

prior

of
are

studies.

Results and Discussion

The governing differential

equations

derived herein

indicate that

the problem of condensation of a vapor on a coolant stream of its own


liquid can be defined in terms of the
v/vm , and Woo when a
Due to the large

noncondensible

number

to be presented

Dp

of

DH , Pr, x/DH , Ja, Mv /Mg, p^/p m,

gas

variables,

is

present

we have

in

the

vapor.

restricted the

results

in this chapter to parameters which typify the problem

for a steam-air system.

In this way we are able to more easily compare

our results with those of other investigators (15).


As noted,

the

problem

is

divided

into

I, which defines the zone where a thermal


and moves

to

very small

its

centerline,

values

of "x.

similarity solution
number the

entire

error exists
region.

is

In

fact,

for

the

for

applies.

if the similarity solution

and

and i are of
found by Taitel

dx*/2 .

constant

value

and Tamir

(20),

These
in

Region

is

available

for

problem

of

the

sheet

the

of

the

the

values

cylindrical

jet

Jakob
small

is used to describe the entire

The similarity solution is satisfied by

<5m = cx1/2 ,

For

solution

small

For

regions.

wave penetrates the coolant

similarity

applicable;

region

two

solutions

Region

I.

for condensation

= ax*/2 , <5C = b x ^ 2 ,
indicate
Similar

that
results

W*, e*,
were

in the presence of a

50
noncondensible gas.

The

for 0i - 0* equal to

constants,

diameter of the

extent

of
is

jet and the value

Region
a

I,

function

as

one

only

would

of the

of the Peclet number.

guess

hydraulic

For a

sheet

the extent of Region I is given by

xn

sheet

= 0.083 Ren

This is in agreement

Pr

3.4.1

'

with the

value

obtained by Taitel

and

Tami r who

neglected the influence of the condensate layer.


The governing

equations

linear and

do

not

the extent

of

Region

for Ja

<

0.05,

the changes

yield

for

the

similarity

I is dependent

an

approximate

in 0-j, W*

cylindrical
solution

upon

value

and 0* are

jet

are highly

unless IT -> 0.

other parameters.

of

small.

xD j et
The

can

be

non
Thus,

However,

obtained

approximate

value

as
is

given by

xn

jet

= 0.146 Rep

Equations 2.2.34
ture for Region

I.

mean

the mean

temperature,
of

coolant

give the

0m , goes

to

Jakob number.

utilized,

all

the

it is

fraction

conditions

portion of the coolant capacity,

value

W*, -* 0,

0m . goes to

a noncondensible

of Woo will decrease


necessary, under

3.4.2

2.3.35

temperature,

even for very small


tion of

and

As Ja > 0, and

sheet the

the presence

Pr

2/3

of the

mean tempera

0-j goes to 1.

1/3

at St = L

at 6^ =

is to lower the

Thus for a

and

R.

The

values

for

a jet

effect

of

of 0* and 0^,

Since the value of 0m is the frac


clear that an increase
of
where

coolant
one

utilized.

wishes

to

in the
Thus,

utilize

to carry out the analyses

value
it

is

a major

for Region

51

II.
Typical

behavior

for

e-j,

0* and e^, and

ures 3.4.1 through 3.4.4 as a function of x.

W* are

shown in Fig

Figures 3.4.1 and 3.4.2 are

shown for a vapor-gas mixture pressure of 2.86 psia and Figures


3.4.5 and 3.4.6 for 14.7 psia.

It is clear that the effects of the non

condensible gas are more pronounced at the lower pressure.


was previously
sheet and

by

noted

on a cooled plate.
in Chapter

parameter

by Taitel

Minkowycz

P/Pm increases thus

that

pressure.

(6)

(20)

for

for

the

this
As

is

due

pressure

condensation

case

of

to

the

fact
on

condensation

change

decreases

increasing the interfacial

This

the

Tamir

Sparrow

indicate

p/pm with

and extends

and

This

An examination of the governing equations developed

would

condensible gas.

and

3.4.3,

the

in the

value

concentration

of

of

non

in turn leads to a lower value of heat transfer

length

of

the

coolant

stream

necessary

to

achieve

given coolant utilization.


In Region

II the entire coolant stream heats up.

of condensation

decreases.

The

decrease

in

Thus,

condensation

the rate

rate

brings

less noncondensibles to the condensate-vapor gas interface which allows


e* and 9-j to

increase.

Eventually

W*

decreases

to

the

free

stream

value W. The decrease in W* leads to a "recovery of the heat transfer


coefficient" above that for a pure vapor at large values of x in Region
II.

However,

given degree

the
of

length
coolant

larger than that

for

extremely large.

Jacobs

sation on
value of

an

stream

coolant

stream

utilization

a pure

immiscible

coolant

of

for

necessary

to

condensation

is

vapor even though

achieve

generally

might might

become

and Nadig (8) have indicated that for conden


thin

film that

length

to

it

occur.

is possible
Further

for

a maximum

increase

in

the

Figure 3.4.1.

Condensation of a sheet.
P = 2.89 psia.

9*,9i,9m,W* as a function of X,

X
Figure 3.4.2.

Condensation on a jet.
p = 2.89 psia.

0*,0i,em,W* as function of X,
cn
co

X
Figure 3.4.3.

Condensation on a sheet.
P = 14.7 psia.

9*,9-j,9m ,W* as a function of X,

c_n

-P*

Figure 3.4.4.

Condensation on a jet.
P = 14.7 psia.

G*,e-j,em ,W* as a function of X,

Utilized
Percent

Graetz Number
Figure 3.4.5.

Condensation on a sheet. Percent utilized as


a function of Graetz number.

STEAM AIR SYSTEM

Percent

Utilized

P = 2 .89 Psia; A t =50F

Graetz Number
Figure 3.4.6.

Condensation on a jet.
Percent utilized as a
function of Graetz number.

cn

^>i

58
value of

W, would lead

given degree
did not

of

to

decrease

utilization.

observe this

in

the

Although

behavior,

length

for

examination

the

required

present

for

problem

a
we

of the governing equations

would indicate the possibility as Pv/P tends to zero.


For the

case

of

steam-air,

Tables

3.4.1

and

3.4.2

indicate

the

ratio of Graetz number without

noncondensibles to that with nonconden-

sibles present

of

as

function

pressures illustrated
are also

shown

Hasson et

in

a l . (15)

the two pressures


For Woo = 0.01
of 1.8

for

a value
75F.

of
At

in

Figures

Figures
for
shown

1.826
the

for

higher

and

3.4.1

3.4.5

and

in Table

number
3.4.4.

The

for

the

These

results

experimental

on

sheet were carried

3.4.1.

He

claims

accuracy

two

data

of

out

at

of 35%.

would indicate a ratio of Graetz number

complete
90%

Jakob

through

3.4.6.

condensation

his experiments

effectively

W*,

condensation.

utilization

pressure

at

Table

his AT would

be

2.89

3.4.1

indicates

psia

and AT =

approximately

142F.

Extrapolation of the data in Table 3.4.1 would yield at ratio of Graetz


number of 1.65.

These values

and indicate good agreement.

are

well

within

his experimental

spread

59

TABLE 3.4.1.
Condensation on a Sheet

Pressure
Psia

Woo

60
70
80
90

14.7
14.7
14.7
14.7

0.005
0.005
0.005
0.005

1.047
1.050
1.060
1.080

1.089
1.091
1.103
1.129

1.107
1.139
1.153
1.173

1.168
1.177
1.198
1.220

60
70
80
90

14.7
14.7
14.7
14.7

0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01

1.117
1.121
1.131
1.168

1.179
1.191
1.217
1.266

1.235
1.293
1.316
1.368

1.356
1.384
1.428
1.473

60
70
80
90

14.7
14.7
14.7
14.7

0.05
0.05
0.05
0.05

1.632
1.720
1.848
2.042

2.117
2.259
2.470
2.708

2.797
3.008
3.223
3.479

3.702
3.863
4.102
4.334

60
70
80
90

14.7
14.7
14.7
14.7

0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1

2.567
2.824
3.185
3.749

3.860
4.235
4.479
5.380

5.556
6.079
6.624
7.249

7.764
8.203
8.781
9.316

Uti 1.

Ratio of Graetz Number


AT=25F AT=50F a T=75F AT=100F

60
70
80
90

2.98
2.89
2.98
2.98

0.005
0.005
0.005
0.005

1.185
1.213
1.244
1.291

1.383
1.413
1.472
1.542

1.622
1.686
1.747
1.826

1.956
2.021
2.090
2.150

60
70
80
90

2.89
2.89
2.89
2.89

0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01

1.397
1.446
1.516
1.615

1.865
1.921
2.035
2.180

2.448
2.573
2.693
2.842

3.274
3.395
3.513
3.597

60
70
80
90

2.89
2.89
2.89
2.89

0.05
0.05
0.05
0.05

3.596
3.962
4.439
5.088

6.698
7.263
7.997
8.818

10.840
11.672
12.357
13.108

16.309
16.838
17.460
17.885

60
70
80
90

2.89
2.89
2.89
2.89

0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1

7.573
8.582
9.884
11.798

14.944
16.426
18.322
20.507

24.508
26.606
28.444
30.420

36.916
38.387
40.164
41.398

60

TABLE 3.4.2.
Condensation on a Jet

%
Uti 1.

Pressure
Psia

Woo

60
70
80
90

14.7
14.7
14.7
14.7

0.005
0.005
0.005
0.005

2.000
2.042
2.000
1.872

1.698
1.822
1.924
1.883

1.444
1.480
1.713
2.148

1.268
1.282
1.554
2.261

60
70
80
90

14.7
14.7
14.7
14.7

0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01

2.451
2.620
2.634
2.481

1.981
2.219
2.505
2.620

1.667
1.840
2.324
3.059

1.536
1.744
2.384
3.392

60
70
80
90

14.7
14.7
14.7
14.7

0.05
0.05
0.05
0.05

5.333
6.282
6.911
6.955

5.226
6.603
7.724
8.074

6.019
7.653
9.074
9.728

7.339
8.974
10.357
11.063

60
70
80
90

14.7
14.7
14.7
14.7

0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1

10.549
12.211
13.178
13.205

11.849
13.877
14.848
14.632

13.704
15.653
16.750
16.550

15.232
16.987
18.080
17.926

Ratio of Graetz Number


AT=25F AT=50F a T=75F AT=100F

60
70
80
90

2.89
2.89
2.89
2.89

0.005
0.005
0.005
0.005

2.393
2.707
3.238
3.613

1.638
1.858
2.583
3.943

1.940
2.892
4.029
5.093

4.657
6.862
8.387
8.387

60
70
80
90

2.89
2.89
2.89
2.89

0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01

3.120
3.748
4.722
5.510

2.556
3.440
4.757
6.477

4.429
6.034
7.346
8.410

9.989
12.215
13.308
3.156

60
70
80
90

2.89
2.89
2.89
2.89

0.05
0.05
0.05
0.05

12.784
15.070
16.743
17.032

14.208
16.534
18.314
19.577

17.870
19.720
20.917
21.692

23.589
25.090
25.536
24.994

60
70
80
90

2.89
2.89
2.89
2.89

0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1

26.765
29.014
30.158
29.609

27.057
29.589
30.981
31.319

29.648
31.613
32.685
32.899

34.143
35.590
36.018
35.278

CHAPTER 4

CONDENSATION OF A PURE VAPOR ON AN


ISOTHERMAL VERTICAL PLATE

4.1 Introduction
Laminar film
cooling towers,

condensation

packed

and

finds

wetted

applications

wall

towers

in

for

trickling

type

rectification

and

gas absorption and in various types of coolers and evaporators. Nusselt


[22] was the first to analyze the problem of laminar film condensation
in 1916.

He

assumed

film, neglected
the years

the

numerous

linear

vapor

temperature

shear

and the

investigators

have

profile

interfacial
dealt

with

examining each of the assumptions made by Nusselt.


the problem

in

Sparrow and

Greg

1956
[24]

including
used

boundary layer equations.

a
Chen

the

sensible

similarity

in

the

condensate

resistance.
the

same

Over

problem

Roshnow [23] treated

heat

of

transformation

condensation.
to

solve

the

[25] considered the effect of drag due

to an initially stagnant vapor.


Although sizeable work has been done on laminar film condensation,
very little

work

thin film. Thus,

has

been

reported

on direct

contact

condensation

on

it was decided to analyze the problem of condensation

of a pure vapor on a thin film flowing over an isothermal

vertical sur

face.
A survey of literature reveals that there are two prior works
ported which bear slight resemblence to the present problem.

re

Murty and

62
Sastry [26]

dealt

with

the

problem

of

condensation

flowing over an inclined isothermal plate.


ing film

is

at

the

same

temperature

present problem,

the

tween the

temperature

vapor.

plate

Another

temperature is

incoming

situation
the

same

The assumption that the


the plate

temperature

and

the

the

to

is

saturation

incoming
leads

the

plate.
is

saturation

importance

thin

film

However, in

the

assumed to lie

be

temperature

when

the

temperature

film temperature
an

They assume that the incom

film temperature

of

as

as

on

entirely

is

incoming
of

the

not the

different

of

the
film

vapor.
same as

analysis

than

that of Reference 26.


Jacobs and Bogart [7] treated the problem of condensation on a thin
film flowing over an adiabatic vertical plate. Their work is related to
the heat transfer behavior in packed bed condensers used in geothermal
applications. The present problem is different as the vertical plate is
isothermal

instead of being adiabatic.

In the present problem the iso

thermal surface acts as the heat sink

instead of the cooling capacity

of the film leading to an altogether different analysis.

4.2
Case 1

Physical Model and Mathematical Formulation

Tw < Tn < T<;a^

Figure 4.2.1
rate mf

and

T0

shows the physical

flows down the

model.

vertical

The film with a mass

isothermal

plate.

The

flow

film is

subjected to a pure saturated vapor at a temperature Tsa. It is assumed


that the

Jakob

ensures that

number

the

condensate

accelerate the film.


from the

wall

Cp(Tsat

towards

As Tw
the

film

Tw )/hfg
is

is

thin

< T0 , a thermal
edge

of

the

film.

small.

and

does

boundary
As

This

T0

not
layer,
<

condition
measurable
6j, grows

Tsat a

second

63

Figure 4.2.1. Physical model for condensation of a pure vapor


on an isothermal plate when T <T <T
r
w o
sat

64

6 2 , growing

thermal boundary

layer,

the wall.

the

length

meet

such

Along

boundary layers

is defined as Region
perature of the

of

the

from the edge


plate

at

= Xp

that 6} + 62 = 6f. The

I. Beyond Region

of the film towards


the

region

I lies Region

film decreases as a whole due to the

two
0

thermal

< X

< Xp

II. Here the tem


wall

being held

at a lower temperature.
Region I
The mass flow rate in the film is

.6f

mf = Pf

f dy
4.2.1

where

Uf =

Sf y -

vf

2 J

4.2.2

which leads to

3m^.v n 1/3
- 9Pf -I.

The integral

dx

form

4.2.3

of the energy equation for the boundary

layer <$i is

Pf Cpf u f (Ti - T0 ) = - kf -I

0
For the boundary layer 62 it is

8y

6f

4.2.4

For the condensate boundary layer the energy equation is

4.2.6

The boundary
layer

conditions

governing the temperature profile in

boundary

are

Ti = Tw at y = 0
Ti = T0 at y =
3Ti
--- = 0
3y

at y =

These conditions lead to

T1 - To - ( Tw - To) 0

The boundary

conditions

4.2.8

governing

the

temperature

profile

T2

are

T2 = Tj at y = 6f

aT
--- = 0 at y = 6^ - 62

9y

T = Tq ;

These conditions lead to

4.2.9
.

66

T2 - To * <Ti - To> (l - ^

The negligible thermal

4.2.10

capacitance of the condensate layer indicates a

linear temperature profile


y - f

4.2.11

Tc * T1 + < Tsat - Ti)

The velocity in the condensate layer is assumed to be constant and equal


to the edge velocity of the film.

uc = uf
y = 6f

4.2.12

2vf

The compatibility of heat fluxes at the interface 6f

3 T2

leads to

the

following

To + ; ^

4.3.13

9y
o
jr y = f

9 7 y = 5f

6r

expression

for

the

interfacial

temperature.

Tsat
4.2.14

1 +

1 2

2 6,

Defining a nondimensional temperature

- To

Tsat " Tc

the nondimensional interfacial temperature becomes

4.1.15

67
1 <5^
2 5C
0 . = --------1
_
1 69
1+ - =22 6r

Substituting

4.2.16

Equations

4.2.2

and

4.2.8

into

Equation

4.2.4

and

nondimensionalizing the length term by (vf2/g)l/3 leads to

d6l3
dx

36

4.2.17

P r f (6f - (

) ^i)

Substituting Equations 4.2.2 and 4.2.9 into Equation 4.2.5 and nondimensional i zing the length terms by (vf2/g)l/3 yields

d6 2

2 T 2 (72

-Prf

T 2x 1 _

( f ' 10

2 ) 9i

dx

4-2>18

dx
(Sf2 - 1Q

Substituting Equations 4.2.12

52 2 )

and 4.2.11

into

Equation 4.2.6

and

and nondimensionalizing leads to

d6c 2

dx

3/2/3

Ja
(1 0-j) .

4.2.19

Prf R e f2/3

Utilizing the expression for 0-j from Equation 4.2.16, Equations 4.2.19
becomes

d6 2
c

dx

32/3

Ja

P r f R e f2/3

l52

1+

2 6r
Jc

4.2.20

68
Equations 4.2.17, 4.2.18 and 4.2.20 define the condensation in Region I.
The boundary

conditions as

can

be

= 0; 6"c ( ^ = 0 )

= 0; S2(x = 0)

seen

=0.

from the figure are 6^(7 = 0)

The differential

equations

can

be

solved numerically after establishing the value of the first derivatives


at 7

0.

For

extremely

small

values

of

it

can

be

shown

that

$1 = a-^
4.2.21

62 = a 2 x ^ 2

Tc = a3 ^ 1/2

The Region I ends when 5]+ 62 = 6f.


Region II
Region II begins when S]+
thermal plate at temperature

6 2

6f. From this point onwards the iso

Tw acts as the heat sinks

cooling capacity of film. As a result the temperature

instead of the
in the film de

creases .
At the end of Region I let

6 1 = Li; ^ 2 = ^ 2
and

c,

Li
6f

; Co

Lo

4.2.22

^ 6 2

such that c^ + C 2 = 1 .
In the beginning of Region
9T
where the slope = 0.

II an inflexion point occurs at y = 6^

Therefore it is necessary to analyze the heat

transfer in two zones 0 < y <

and

l\<

The energy equation for the film is

y < Sf.

69

uf T i *

Pf

kf

r 9Ti

C,

L 9y

Pf

3Ti
y =

J1 for 0 < y < Lj_

9y y = 0

Li

4.2.23

and

6f
ff

d
dx

J Uf

kf

To dy =

Pf

CP

Pf
for Lj < y < 5f

9T2

9T2

9y

4.2.24

The boundary conditions governing the temperature profile in 0 < y <

l\

are

Tl = Tw at y = 0

Ti = Tb;

9T1

6 (x) at y = Lj

4.2.25

9y

These conditions lead to

Ti = T W * 2

Tw +
(Tb - Tw

) TI^\
'

<T b - T + 6Li)-j^r

4 .2.26

The boundary condition governing the temperature profile in Lj < y < 5f


are

T 2 = T b (x) ;
9y

4.2.27

T 2 = Ti at y = 6 f .

These conditions lead to

T2 = T b
'

- e (y - Li) + (Ti - T b + bL2 )

f y - Lf
----L2
J

'

4.2.28

70
The condensate layer temperature profile remains as

t~

4.2.29

The compatibility of heat fluxes

at the interface 5f leads to the f o l

Tc - Ti + (T sat ' T i )

lowing expression for the nondimensional

interfacial temperature

1-2 - 0 1-2 Sc + 20b 6c

4.2.30

2 6C + I 2

Substituting Equations 4.2.2 and 4.2.26 into Equation 4.2.23 and nondimensionalizing the length terms by (v^ 2 / g ) ^ 3 leads to

b ew ^ P^l ^f

Ci
<%
dx

El

+ Cl 5f

4.3.31

dx

10

Prf C1

5f

\3

10

Substituting Equations 4.2.28 and 4.2.2 into Equation 4.2.24 and n o n d v


mensionalizing leads to

d0L
"

de
h?

5f

do,
+ M3

dx

0i

Prf

where

2 lc2

(l -

JC 1l)
2

m2

c ic2
6

Ci
^-3
( 1 . fi) +
(i - )
2
12

15

- c i)

c
_z_

20

6b + e L2

(l-q)

sf 4

4.3.32

The condensate

layer

energy

equation

remains

the

same

as

Equation

4.2.19.
Equations 4.2.31,
in Region

II.

beginning of

4.2.32,

The

initial

Region

II.

and

4.2.19

conditions
The

describe

are e =
of 6C is

value

the

condensation

and 613 =

that

at

the

obtained

at

the

end of region I.
Case B Tw < Tn = Tqat
Figure 4.2.2
thermal vertical

shows the physical


plate

when

the

model

incoming

for condensation

on an iso

film

is

temperature

at

the

saturation temperature. The film with a mass flow rate, mf, enters cham
ber containing
greater than
grows from
Tsat no

the

the

pure

saturated

temperature

wall

layer grows

is

called

= Sf. From this

point

as a result

of

outwards

condensation

vapor.
the

towards

occurs.
Region

The
I.

onwards

condensation occurs.

As

plate
the

the
This

film

a thermal

edge

region
Region

the

of

the

temperature
boundary
film.

As

where the thermal


I

comes

film-edge

to

an

layer
T0 =

boundary

end

temperature

is

when

decreases

region where the film edge tem

perature decreases is defined as Region II.


Region I
The energy
Equations 4.2.5
profile changes.

equation
and
The

and the

4.2.2,

velocity profile

respectively.

boundary

profile in boundary layr 5]_ are

conditions

remain the

same

as

However,

the

temperature

governing

the

temperature

72

Figure 4.2.2.

Physical model for condensation of a pure vapor


on an isothermal plate when T w <T 0 =T saf

73
Tl = Tw at y = 0
4.2.34

These conditions lead to

Tl - Tsat = (Tw - Ts a t ) (1 -
)
61

Substituting Equations

4.2.2

and

4.2.34

4.2.35

into

Equation 4.2.5

and

non-

dimensionalizing the length terms by (vf2 / g ) ^ 3 leads to

36
4.2.36

dx

Equation 4.2.37 defines the heat transfer in Region I. It can be solved


numerically after

establishing

x = 0. The initial

the

value

of

the

first

derivative

value as can be seen from Figure 4.2.2

= 0. For extremely small values of x it can

Region I comes to an end when

is

at

(x=0)

be shown that

= 6f.

Region II
Region II begins as the film edge temperature at y = Sf drops b e
low the

saturation temperature of the vapor. As a result condensation

begins and

thin

layer, 6C , develops

The boundary conditions


film are

on

the

edge

of

the

film.

governing the temeperature profile

in the

74
Tf = Tw at y = 0
9Tf
i

3y

Tf = Ti and

q
------- = - 3

at y = 6f-4.2.38
1

The conditions lead to

Tf = T w + { 2(T-j - Tw ) + 3 5

f}

7 - - f (Ti - Tw ) + 6

sf

Sf1 ^
( sf
4.2.39

The temperature
4.2.11.

profile

in

the

condensate

layer

remains

as

Equation

The compatibility of heat fluxes at the interface y = 5f leads

to the following expression for the interfacial temperature

Ti _ Tsat + g6c
4.2.40
Defining a nondimensional temperature

T - Tw
0 = --------Tsat ~ T w

4.2.41

the nondimensional interfacial temperature can be expressed as

0-j = 1 + 3 Sc

4.2.42

where

(vf2 /g)1/3
= -------------(Tsat ' Tw ) *

The governing differential

4.4.43

equation

mains the same as Equation 4.2.19.

for the

condensate layer

re

75
dSc

Ja

32/3

dx

(l-9i)
4.2.44

^ 7 7 3

Substituting Equation 4.2.42 into Equation 4.2.44 yields

d~6C

Ja

dx

4.2.45

The energy equation for the film is

Jf SfUff Tff

dy - i l _

p Tf

Pf c L
T Lpf

3Tf
<<
II
07
h

5dx

Substituting Equations 4.2.1,

-1

ay

4.2.46

y=0-

4.2.39, 4.4.42

into Equation 4.2.46

and nondimensionalizing yields

30 (l+ 8(6C + 6f ))
d3_

Prf 5f4

dx

8 Ja B2
+

(4 Sc +

Equations 4.2.42, 4.2.45

(3Ref)2/3 Prf
g6f)

and 4.2.47

describe the

4.2.47

condensation

in

Region II. The initial conditions are e = 0 and 5C = 0 at the beginning


of Region I I .
Heat Transfer Expressions
A heat transfer coefficient can be defined as

8T
h(x) =

ay

y=o

(Tsat " Tw )

from which the local Nusselt number can be defined as

4.2.48

76
M
h(x) (vf 2 / g ) 1 / 3
N u ( x ) = --------- 1---------K
Case A

4.2.49

Tw < Tn < Tc;at

The heat transfer coefficient for Region I is

3Ti
b
___
K

-2(TW - T0 )k
y = 0

8y
(^sat

4.2.50

(Tsat V 1

' Tw )

The local Nusselt number in Region I is

Nuj

OQ
(7) = w
(1 - 0W ) 6i

4.2.51

for 6 i from Equation

Substituting the expression

4-.2.21, Equation

4.2.48 becomes

29

Nu> w

4.2.52

from which an average

.
NUl

Nusselt

number in

Region

I can be evaulated as

3ew
(1 - 0w )a

Region I comes to
the expressions for

4.2.53
x 1/3

an

end

at X = Xq

when 6]_ + 62 = Sf. Utilizing

and 62 from Equation 4.2.21, the following equa-

tion is obtained which defines the extent of Region I.

al

+ a2 XD ^

= 5f

The local Nusselt number in Region II is given by

4.2.54

The average Nusselt in Region II is expressed as

Nu j i

Jf

(x) dx

Nu j j

4.2.56

*D
(x -

The average

xq)

Nusselt

+ Nu j j

Nu = Nuj

number

over

Regions

and

II

is

gi ven

by

(x - xD )
4.2.57

x
Case B

Tw < Tn = Tsa^

The local

heat

transfer

coefficient

in

Region

is

2k
h(x) =
61

gi ven

by

4.2.58

The local Nusselt number in Region I is expressed as

Nuj

(x) =

'

4.2.59

61

Utilizing the

expression

for 6^ from

Equation

4.2.37,

Equati on

4.2.59 becomes

4.2.60

from which an average Nusselt number over the length of Region I can be
expressed as

78

NiJj =

_1/3
al x

Region I

comes

for <5i from Equation

4.2.61

to

an

end

4.2.37

when

the

= 6f. Utilizing

following

equation

the
is

expression

obtained

to

define, Xp, the extent of Region I:

6f 3
~X[) = (
) .
al

4.2.62

The local Nusselt number in Region II is given by

20-j + 3 6f

Nu11

( x ) = --------------------

4.2.63

6f

The average

Nuji

-JP

Nusselt

number

Region

II

be

evaluated

as

*D

The average

Nusselt

number

_
Nui x D + N u n (x " XD)
Nu = ---------- -------------

4.3

4 -2 -64
in

Regions

and

II

is

given

by

4.2.65

Results and Discussion

Tw < Tn < Tqat

Examination of the governing differential


the condensation

in Region

expressions

could

equation

indicates that

I is dependent on the Reynolds

Prandtl number and the Jakob number.


x simple

can

Nu jj (x) dx
(x - xD )-----

Case A

in

be

In Region

obtained

for

number,

I for small

the

the

values of

coefficients

of 6^,

79

62 and 6 C indicated in Equation 4.2.21

'

36

They are

~| 1/3

(SRe^r)1/3 PrjJ

I"

~|l/ 2

24

4.3.1

L ( 3 R e f ) 2//3 Pr^H

if

a3 ~ 2 I 2 32 +

Region I comes to an end when

4.3.2

6 i + 62 = 6f

The extent

of

Region

I, Xq,

governing differential

equations.

utilizing the

indicated

profiles

for fij, 62 from

the profiles

can

be determined after

Alternately
in

Equation

it

Equation
4.2.21

can

be

4.2.21.
and

the

solving the
evaluated

Substituting
values

of

a^

and a 2 from Equation 4.3.1 into Equation 4.3.2 yields

36

77T~

1/2

~jl/3_ 1/3

1/2
4.3.3

XD

The above equation has to be solved numerically to obtain the value


of X[). Moreover it is clear that the extent of Region is only a function
of the Reynolds number and the Prandtl number of the film.
The average Nusselt number in Region

I is given by

-3 0W
4.3.4

80
In addition to the Reynold, Prandtl, Jakob numbers, condensation in
Region II

is dependent

plate. In Region

II,

on

a fourth parameter:

simple expressions

the temperature

of the

could not be obtained

for the

local or average Nusselt number; thus they had to be evaluated numeri


cal ly.
It is

important

the average
[27] that

Nusselt

for

efficient on

to determine the length


number is to

be

of the plate

calculated.

It has

over which

been

reported

surface condensation the average film heat transfer c o


a tube

with

diameter,

d,

has the

same

magnitude

as the

average film heat transfer coefficient on a vertical plate with height


x =

2.5

d.

The tube diameters

corresponds to

an

equivalent

1000. Thus the

average

of

interest

lie

nondimensional

Nusselt

number

was

below

height

one

of

calculated

inch

the

which

plate

of

over the height

of the plate to a maximum of x = 1000.


Figure 4.3.1
9-j, as function

presents the nondimensional


of

the

distance

along

the

interfacial
plate

for

temperature,

different

te m

peratures of the incoming film. As expected in Region I, as T0 increases


T-j increases. However, in Region II, for a given Tw , a larger T0 results
in a sharper decrease in 9-j. This
flux at the wall

is primarily due to the larger heat

resulting from a larger temperature difference across

the film. The faster depletion of the heat at the wall

leads to a sharp

er decrease in 9 i .
Figure 4.3.2 presents the nondimensional
plate for different temperatures

of the

wall.

interfacial

temperature,

In Region

I, 9-j remains

the same for each of the wall temperatures. This is due to the fact that
condensation in Region
the film

and

I is dependent only on the cooling capacity of

independent

of the

wall

temperature.

However

in

Region

X
Figure 4.3.1.

Interfacial temperature as a function of X for different


Ja. T sat=600R, Tw =500R.

00

X
Figure 4.3.2.

Nondimensional interfacial temperature as a function of X for


different Ja*. T sat=600R, T o =570R.

83
II the plate wall
As a

maintained

result 0-j decreases.

there is

sharper

noticed that

in

expected
in 0-j in

beginning

of

of

decreasing.

that in the beginning


not felt

As

decrease

the

increases instead

at low temperature acts as the heat sink.


for
Region

Region
This

of the Region

lower

II

can

II.

wall

Furthermore

for a

be

temperatures

short

distance

attributed

II, the influence

it

to

the

of the

is
0-j

fact

wall

is

immediately by the interface. The distance between the points

A and B is the distance


of the plate wall.

required for the interface to feel the effect

This distance

is strictly a function of the hydro

dynamics of the film.


Figure 4.3.3
nolds numbers

shows the variation

of the film.

For

of 0-j with X for different R e y

low film velocities the interfaces

significantly affected by the low wall


is a

sharper

(>100) there

decrease

in 0^.

is

little

temperature wall

seems

However,

decrease
to have

are

temperature. As a result there


for

larger

in 0-j in Region
very little

II.

effect

Reynolds
In

fact

on the

number
the

low

interfacial

temperature.
Figures 4.3.4 through 4.3.6 present the integrated average Nusselt
number as a function of x for different incoming film temperatures, wall
temperatures and Reynolds numbers. The results agree with the expected
trends. For example, a lower wall temperature leads to a larger temper
ature difference across the film leading to a higher heat transfer at
the wall.

It is to

be noted that a higher heat transfer at the

wall

does not necessarily mean a higher condensation rate. For example consi
der the case of a high Reynolds numbers.
interfacial temperature
nificantly in Region

remains

II.

This

For a high Reynolds number the

fairly high and does not decrease si g


leads

to

a high temperature difference

X
Figure 4.3.3.

Nondimensional interfacial temperature as a function of X for


different Reynolds numbers.
T sat=600R, To =570R, Tw =500R.

00

200

400

600

800

X
Figure 4.3.4.

Integrated average Nusselt number as a function of X for


different Ja.
T sat=600R, Tw =500R.

1000

Figure 4.3.5.

Integrated average Nusselt number as function of X for


different Ja*. T $at=600R, To =570R.

CO

cr>

200

400

600

800

1000

Figure 4.3.6.

Integrated average Nusselt number as a function of X for


different Reynolds numbers. T .=600R, T =570R,
T =500R.
sa
0
w

00

88
across the film leading to a high heat transfer at the wall. However, a
large interfacial temperature leads to a low temperature driving force
for condensation leading to reduced condensation rate. The heat trans
fer at the wall

is being treated as it is this quantity that has been

reported in other theoretical and experimental works.


Case B

Tw < Tn = Tq

Examination of the governing differenetial


cates that the heat transfer

in Region

number and the thickness of the film.

I is dependent

indi

on the Prandtl

Equation 4.2.3 states that the

thickness of the film is strictly a function


It has

Equation 4.2.36

of the Reynolds number.

been shown that in Region I the thermal boundary layer growth

can be expressed as

<$1

= a^ x * / 3

On evaluating

a^ =
*

the

4.3.5
value

of

aj

at

x : 0

36
1/3
.
[ ------- ]
Prf Sf

it

was

found

to

be

4.3.6

From Equation 4.2.3 an expression

can be obtained for the nondi

mensional thickness of the flm.

lf =

(3 Re f ) 1 / 3

4.3.7

Substituting Equation 4.3.7 into 4.3.6 yields


a x = 2.922 Prf " ! / 3 Ref "I / 9

The extent of Region I is determined as

4.3.8

89
5^

3_

(3Ref )4/3Prf
4.3.9

36

Utilizing the above expressions

for aj

and Xq

the average

Nus

selt number in Region I can be obtained as

4.3.10

No simple expressions

could be obtained for the local or average

Nusselt number in Region II. Thus, they had to be evaluated using num
erical techniques.
Figure 4.3.7

shows

the variation

cial temperature with the distance


low Reynolds

numbers

creases. However,

there

is a

interfa

along the plate in Region II. For


significant

for high Reynold

velocities, the nondimensional

of the nondimensional

numbers,

interfacial

slowly with x. Thus, the conditions

decrease
which

in 0-j as x in

lead to high

film

temperature decreases

very

in Region II are almost the same

as in Region I. It appears that the wall maintained at a low tempera


ture has

insignificant

effect

on the interfacial

temperature i. The

present problem was analyzed utilizing a linear temperature profile in


the film.
tained for
=

For a large Reynolds number the following expression was ob


the

integrated

Nusselt

numbers

over

0.028 Ref Prf + 0.693 Re f " 1 / 3 (x - xD )

Regions

and

II

4.3.11

x
The above expression does not contain the Jakob number indicating
that at higher Reynold numbers the integrated average Nusselt number is
independent of the wall temperature.

Figure 4.3.7.

Nondimensional interfacial temperature as a function of X


for different Reynolds numbers.

91
Figure 4.3.8 presents the variation of the nondimensional interfa
cial temperature with the distance along the plate for different temper
atures of the wall. The results follow the expected trends. A lower wall
temperature results in a faster removal

of heat at the wall leading to

a faster decrease in e-j.


Figure 4.3.9

presents

the

integrated

function of x for different Ref.


number the

interfacial

average

Nusselt

number

as

As noted earlier for a lower Reynolds

temperature

drops

faster

along the

length

of

the plate. As a result the heat flux at the wall decreases leading to
a lower average Nusselt

number

in Region

II. However,

in Region

I a

higher Reynolds number leads to a lower Nusselt number.


Figure 4.3.10 presents the integrated average Nusselt number as a
function of x for different wall temperatures. It is observed that at
higher Reynolds number (=100) the curves for (Tsa^ - Tw ) = 25, 50, 75F
fall on the same curve. This is in agreement with Equation 4.3.11 which
states that at higher Reynolds numbers the average Nusselt number is in
dependent of the wall temperature.

Figure 4.3.8.

Nondimensional interfacial temperature as a function of X


for different Ja*. T sa=600R.

Nu

Figure 4.3.9.

Integrated average Nusselt number as a function of X for


different Reynolds numbers. T sa^.=600R.

CO

Figure 4.3.10.

Integrated average Nusselt number as a function of of X for


different Ja*. T .=600R.
sat

CHAPTER 5
CONDENSATION ON A THIN FILM FLOWING OVER A
VERTICAL ISOTHERMAL PLATE IN PRESENCE
OF A NONCONDENSIBLE GAS
5.1 Introduction
It is well known that the presence of a small amount of nonconden
sible gas in the condensing vapor can drastically reduce the condensa
tion heat transfer. To understand the above phenomenon several investi
gators have dealt with the problem of laminar film condensation on an
isothermal vertical

surface.

Sparrow and Lin

formulate a theory to predict the effects


laminar film condensation.

They

have

fraction of air equal


heat transfer
same problem

by

over

in 1969.

facial resistance,

shown

that

equations
for

of noncondensible

Minkowycz

However,

of heat,

condensation

to half a percent
50%.

the first to
gases

on

Utilizing a similarity transformation they

solved the coupled conservation


transfer.

[17] were

can
and

mass
of

and momentum
steam,

a mass

reduce the condensation


Sparrow

[6 ] studied

they examined the effects

free convection due to temperature

the

of inter

gradients, mass

and thermal diffusion and variable properties. They concluded that the
effects of interfacial resistance and thermal diffusion were negligible.
They further

point

out that the effects

of noncondensible

gases

are

accentuated at lower pressures.

Rose [19] dealt with the same problem

utilizing an integral approach.

Al-Diwany [28] performed experimental

96
studies on laminar film condensation in the presence of a noncondensible
gas.

In all

of the above

studies it was

concluded that the presence

of a small amount of noncondensible gas drastically reduced the conden


sation heat transfer.
Although sizeable work
been reported
on bare

on the effects

surfaces,

little

of noncondensible
Thus, it

was

of experimental

gases

decided

on condensation

on

of noncondensible

attention
on

and analytical

has

direct

been

contact

to analyze the effects

a thin

film

flowing

over

gases
focused

nature has

on condensation
on the

condensation

effects

processes.

of noncondensible
an

isothermal

gases

vertical

surface.
The only work reported that is close to the problem is condensation
on an immiscible

film flowing

which was treated

over an adiabatic

by the author

vertical

surface

[9]

in 1983. The present problem is dif

ferent as the vertical surface is isothermal instead of being adiabatic.


In the present problem the isothermal wall acts as the heat sink, lead
ing to an entirely

different

heat transfer performance.

However, the

basic method of approach to the problem remains the same.


5.2
Case A

Physical Model and Mathematical Formulation

Tw < Tn < T<;at

The basic model


isothermal vertical

for condensation
plate

on a thin

in the presence

film flowing over an

of a noncondensible

gas

is

shown in Figure 5.2.1. The film with a mass flow rate mf and a tempera
ture T0 flows down a vertical isothermal flat plate. It enters a chamber
filled with a vapor containing a small fraction of noncondensible gas.
It is

assumed that

the pressure

in the

chamber

is

sufficiently

low

97

Region I

Region II

Figure 5.2.1.

Physical model for condensation on a thin film


flowing over an isothermal plate in the presence
of a noncondensible gas when T <T <T
3
w o
sat

98
and the Jakob number, Cp (T - T0 )/hfg, is small. This assures that the
condensate layer is thin. It is assumed that the effects of superheat
ing, thermal diffusion and diffusion thermo are negligible [6 ].
property variations are retained

Fluid

only in those places where they play

an essential role in establishing the transport processes.


This problem as shown in Figure 5.2.1 can be divided into two re
gions.

Region

are developing.

I defines
As

region

where

T0 > Tw , a thermal

the thermal

boundary

layers

boundary layer, 6 j, grows

from

the wall towards the edge of the film. As T > T0 , the vapor condenses
on the edge of the film.

As a result a second thermal

boundary layer

grows from the edge of the film towards the wall. At a point along the
length of

the

0 < X < Xq

plate,

is defined

condensate layer,
which are

brought

that

the

two

as Region

boundary
I.

are

momentum

about

the

by presence

when

cools down. The isothermal

and

of the

this

point

meet.

The

region

I in addition to the

species

the two thermal

+ 62 = 5f. From

layers

In Region

there

Region II begins
meet such

Xq,

boundary

layers,

noncondensible

boundary
onwards

layers

S\

gas.

and 62

the entire

film

plate acts as the heat sink instead of the

coolant capacity of the film.


Region I
The mass flow rate per unit width for the film is

Pf Uf dy
0

where

5.2.1

99
9 r ,
y -i
[ 6f y - ]
Vf
2

uf =

5.2.2

Utilizing Equations 5.2.1 and 5.2.2, there are obtained

6f

1/3

"3mf

- Uf

v 2 1/3
( L )
g

5.2.3

The integral form of energy equation for boundary layer

-dx

Pf uf Cpf

Jf

(Tl - T0 )dy

= - kf

is

9Ti
9y

5.2.4

y = o

and for the boundary layer S2 , the energy equation is

O f

Pf uf Cpf (T2 - T0 ) dy = kf

6f

62

8T 2

9y

y =

As the Jakob number is small, the energy equation

6 f.

for the

5.2.5

condensate

layer is
5f + 5c
dx

The boundary

Jf

y = 5f .

conditions

5.2.6

governing the temperature profile in boundary

layer 6 ^ are
Ti = Tw at y = 0
Tl = T ;
1
u

9T
i = 0 at y = Si
3y

These conditions lead to

5.2.7

100
Tl - T 0 = (Tw - T 0 ) (1 - 7 - )

5.2.8

The boundary
62

conditions

for the temperature profile in boundary layer

are

3T
0

at y = 5f - 62

^7
5.2.9

T 2 = Ti at y = 5f .
These conditions lead to

5f - y
t2

- To ' <T1 - To> I 1 -

As the condensate

'

layer is thin

it is

5.2.10
reasonable to assume

temperature profile. The boundary conditions

a linear

are

T c = T-j at y = Sf
5.2.11

Tc = T* at y = 6 C + <5f
These conditions lead to

y ~ ^f

Tc = Ti + (T

- T i> < - T - f )

5.2.12

The compatibility of heat fluxes at the interface 6 f

Hi
ay

leads to

dTr

y = sf

the

= kf &
f ay

following

5.2.13

sf

expression

for

the

interfacial

temperature

101
1
2
5.2.14

Ti =
1

Defining a nondimensional temperature

T - T
= ----- QTcc . Tr

5.2.15

the nondimensional interfacial temperature can be expressed as

1 5-

5.2.16

Substituting Equations

5.2.8

and

5.2.2

into

Equation

5.2 .4 and

nondimensional izing the length term by (vf 2 / g ) ^ 3 leads to


_ 3
d6 i

_ __________ 36______

dx

Prf (f - TO

5.2.17

^l)

Substituting Equations

5.2.2 and

5.2.10

into Equation

5.2 .5 and

nondimensionalizing the length term by (v^^/g ) ^ 3 yields


24
d62 2

dF"

Prf

- 25

_ o
(Sf -

~f~2

^_2 _) I.
10 ' T T

H l
dx

5.2.18

- 10 2 2 )

The velocity in the condensate layer is equal to the edge velocity


of the film

Substituting Equations

5.2.19

and 5.2.12

into Equation

and

non-

dimensionalizing the length terms by (v^^/g ) ^ 3 results in

d^ 2
dx

5.2.20

Utilizing Equation 5.2.16, Equation 5.2.20 becomes

dS 2
__ c

9 *

4
Ja
= _____ _____

5.2.21
c

The conservation equations to be satisfied in the gas vapor bound


ary layer are the conservation of mass for the mixture, conservation of
species of one of the components and the conservation of energy and m o
mentum. As the energy transferred due to conduction and convection in the
gas-vapor region

is

very

small

relative to that

liberated

as

latent

heat, the vapor energy equation will not be considered.


The local

concentration

of gas

and

vapor

is expressed

in terms

of their respective mass fractions Wg and Wv

5.2.22
p = p v + Pg ; W v + Wg = 1

As Wv and Wg are dependent on each other, one of them can be elim


inated from the problem. In this analysis Wg is retained and its sub

103
script is dropped. The partial pressure of the vapor and the total pres
sure are related by the expression

PV

1 - W

1 - W (1 - M v/M g )

5.2.23

As the Jakob number is small and the pressure across the boundary
layer is assumed to be constant, the variation in hf is small. Under
9
the above assumptions the Clausius Clapreyon Equation can be integrated

rPv

Prv *

where T

rs

J*

dP

and Ts^

hfQ

dT

5.2.24

T1

are the saturation temperatures of the vapor corres

ponding to the partial pressure Pv* and Pv^, respectively.


Upon performing the

indicated

integration

in Equation 5.2.24, an

expression is obtained for the interfacial temperature between the con


densate and the gas vapor boundary layers.
Tsc
T* =

,.

1+

^ V 7
g

P\/OQ
5.2.25

where utlizing Equation 5.2.23


P1 v

Pv*

1 - w,

~| ] l

- W* (1 - M v/Mg )
5.2.26

1 1

- wM (l - - v)
Mg

l - w*

In terms of the nondimensional temperature Equation 5.2.25 is given as

104
R
IQ
nT
hf (Too - Tq )

Tgoo R
1

P yoo

b *
rV

Py 00

P *

5.2.27

The conservation equations for mass, momentum and species are

3u

----------- -

3x

3V
-

3u
u + V
3x

3y

3w

3u

ay

+ V

3x

3w

ay

form

The integral

= v

32 u

5.2.28

ay

= D

32W
3y

of equations

species are

sf +

6c + sm 9
p dSC
3n
u^dy + u_ - ur V* = - v
-dx Jf
J
c dx
c
3y y = Sf + 6C
f + 6 C
5.2.29
d_
dx

6f + sc

+ 6m
u(W - W J dy + uc (W* - W J

5f

+ sc

urV
C

3W
(W
- Wa>/
J = - D gy
'

y = Sf + S(

5.2.30

As quadratic profiles for velocity and concentration have been re


ported to yield good results it is necessary to satisfy the following
boundary conditions:
u = uc ; W = W* at y = Sf + Sc

105
3u
u - 0;
3y

= 0 at y = 6 f + 6 r + 6m

W = Woo

3W
= 0 a t y = 6f + 6r + 6c
3y

5.2.31
.

These conditions lead to the following profiles for velocity and concentrati on
uc
2
u = ~ 2 [ 6 f + 6 C + 6m - y]

W* - Woo
w - Wro = ( ----- ) [ 6f + 6

5.2.32

+ 6

- y]2

.
5.2.33

6S2

The conservation of mass at the interface 6 f + 6 C leads to

ddx

Sf
Jf

+ 6r
P f

uc ady = r[ ou

-d6 - pv]i

6f

5.2.34
6f + 6C

'

The interface between the condensate and the gas vapor mixture is
impermeable to the noncondensible gas. Therefore,

d6

p gu

77
dx

,
pgv ) + D

Combining equations

Pc

d 6r
u_
pi C dx

5.2.34

3w
^

^
y =

6f

+ 6C

and 5.2.35

and eliminating

2 ZP W* - W
-----------W*
6S

5.2.35
v*

results

in

5.2.36

As the Jakob number is small the thermal driving for is relatively


small. Therefore equation 5.2.36 can be reduced to

106
Pc

2D

d5c
dx

7T

W
)

5.2.37

This yields an expression for the concentration

of the noncondensible

gas at the interface Sf + 6 C . Nondimensionalizing Equation 5.2.37 yields

W* =
1 -

vf
5s
Re / 2/3
7-3 Prf -I sr =
Voo
5C

5.2.38

d 5c 2
-=
dx

Substituting Equations 5.2.32 and the expression

for v

from Equation

5.2.34 into Equation 5.2.29 yields


dSr m 2
dx"

40
5
(3 R e f ) 2 / 3 Z I

f
Poo

d<sc 2
d*

5.2.39

Voo

Substituting Equation 5.2.33 and the expression for v

from Equa

tion 5.2.35 into Equation 5.2.30 and nondimensionalizing yields


24 W
(0 . 5 - 0 . 2 I s ) d6m

dS 2
dx

(3 Re f ) 2 / 3 sr

J 2
s

1
1 ___
Woo

W*

10

*s2l ^ dw*
V J

d)T -1

6m

dx

5C

3
+ -

(i ~
m

5 2
r?)
10 V
5.2.40

Equations 5.2.17, 5.2.18, 5.2.21, 5.2.39 and 5.2.40 defind the condensa
tion in Region I.

They can be solved numerically after establishing the

values of the first derivatives at x = 0. As can be seen from the figure


the initial conditions are 6 i(x= 0 )=0 ;

5 2 (x=0

)=0 ;

6 c (x= 0 )=0

; 6m (x= 0 )=0 ;

107
and Ss (x=0)=0. Alternately, they

may

be

solved

assuming a

series

of

solution. It may be shown that the solutions are satisfied by the ex


pressions

51

= aj x l / 3 +

62

= a2 1 ( 1 / 2 +

= a3 x l / 2 +

5.2.41
= a4

T l/2

= a5

x l/2

The solutions for Region I ends when 61 + 62 =

6 f.

Region II
Region II

begins

when 5]_ + 62 = <Sf- From this

point

onwards

the

isothermal plate acts as the heat sink.


At the end of Region I let

6i
and

62

=T*i ;

C1 =

= L2

., to
r --

Sf

_C

5.4.42

6f

such that cj+ C2 = 1 .


In the beginning of Region II an inflexion point occurs at y = L], ;
8T
where the slope = 0. Therefore the heat transfer in Region II is
9y
analyzed in two zones; 0 < y <
and
< y < 6 f.
The energy equation for the film is

f 1

t
uf

kf

T 9T1

Ti dy = p f Cpf L 9y |y = L

3Ti

3y

5.2.43

,]

108
for 0 < y <

l\

and

i f ' uf T2 d y . ^ f ^ l
- > Jl
dx J
T 2
p>f_ rcPf
n . L3y |y = 6f
y =

5.2.44

for Li < y < 6 f

The boundary conditions for the temperature profile in 0 < y <

L\

are
Ti = Tw at y = 0

T1

= Tb

9T1

5.2.45

ay

These conditions lead to

T1

iL l ) y

T + 2 <Tb - Tw +

^2

Lj

<Tb - Tw +

5.2.46

The boundary conditions governing the temperature profile in Lj < y < <5f
are

T2 = Tb (x);

12 =

l i
ay

= -

1
k

= - p (x ) at y = Li
1

5.2.47

T-j at y = 6 f = Li + L 2

These conditions lead to

T 2 = Tb - p (y - Li) + (Ti - Tb + gL2 )

y - Ll'

( --- )
L2 2

The condensate layer temperature profile remains as

5.2.48

109

(y - <5f)
TC = T-j + (T* - Ti) ----- _
c
The compatibility

of

following expression

heat
for

4.2.49

fluxes
the

at

the

interface 6 f leads

nondimensional

interfacial

to

the

temperature

0 * L 2 + 20b 6 C - e L 2 6 c
01

=
5.2.50

5c + L 2

Substituting Equations

5.2.2

and 5.2.46 into Equation 5.2.43 and

nondimensionalizing the length terms by (vf2/g)l/3 leads to

-8 jet - 0W + ec]_ Sf J

I - 1 c,
3
5 ]

+ ci Sf

3-1 * 10l , J

dx

5.2.51

dx

Substituting Equations

5.2.2

'I3

(5 - u

and 5.2.48 into Equation 5.2.44 and

nondimensionalizing the length terms by (vf^/g ) ^ 3 leads to

d0 i
1 dx

d0.

dB
dx

5f

+ M3 dx

c1%
c22
- _i) + L
2
4

[< -

Prf

0b

+ 0 L2

(1_ Ci) ^ 4

5.2.52

where

2 CiCo
1 2

(1

(1

- cx )
1

c 23
15
5.2.53

m2

clc22 (i . fl) +
6

M3 =

C 1 C0

H A

2
.

(1

ci

- li
2

c
j?_

(1 " Cl)

12
Cg

^2

20
(1

cx)

c2'

10

110
The condensate

layer

energy

equation,

the

momentum

and

species

equation in the gas vapor region remain the same as Equations 5.2.20,
5.2.39 and 5.2.40, respectively.
Thus Equations

5.2.51,

5.2.52,

Region

II.

the condensation

in

= 0. The

values

initial

5.2.20,

The initial

5.2.39

and

conditions

5.2.40

define

are p

and 65

for Sc , 6 m , <5S are those obtained

at the end

of Region I.
Case B

Tw < Tn = Tc;gf

Figure 5.2.2 shows the physical model for condensation on a verti


cal isothermal plate in the presence of a noncondensible gas when incom
ing film is at the same temperature as the saturation temperature of the
vapr. As the film temperature is the same as the saturation temperature,
no condensation takes place. However, as the film temperature is greater
than the temperature of the plate, a thermal
the wall

towards

the edge of the film.

boundary layer grows from

The region where the thermal

boundary layer develops is called as Region I. Region I comes to end when


61

= Sf.

From this point onward the film edge temperature decreases.

As the film edge temperature is less than the saturation temperature,


condensation takes place. Due to the presence of the noncondensible gas,
in the gas vapor zone, a momentum and species boundary layer are estab
lished. The

region

where the film edge temperature

drops

leading to

condensation is termed as Region II.


Region I
The integral form of the energy equation for the boundary layer 6 ^
and the velocity profile remain the same as Equations 5.2.2 and 5.2.4.
However, the boundary conditions for the temperature profile change to

Ill

Figure 5.2.2.

Physical model for condensation on a thin film


flowing over an isothermal vertical plate in
the presence of a noncondensible gas when
"*w<"*'o-"'"sat.

112
Tl = Tw at y = 0
= 0 at y = l_i

5.2.54

These conditions lead to

Tl -

Tsat = (Tw - Tsat)

(1 - - )

5.2.55

61

Substituting Equations

5.2.54

and 5.2.2

into Equation

5.2.4

and

nondimensionalizing the length terms by (vf 2 / g ) ^ 3 leads to

36

5.2.56

dx

Equation 5.2.55

describes the heat transfer

in Region

I.

It can

be solved numerically after establishing the value of the first deriva


tive at x = 0. For extremely

small

values of x it can be shown that


5.2.57

Region I comes to an end when 6 } = 6 f.


Region II
Region II

begins

as the

film

edge temperature

at y

= 6 f drops

below the saturation temperature of the vapor. As a result, condensation


begins. A condensate layer, Sc , forms on the edge of the film. Due to the
presence of noncondensible gas in the condensing vapor a separate momen
tum and

species

equations

are

established

in the

gas

vapor

region.

The boundary conditions for the temperature profile in the film are

113
Tl = Tw at y = 0
Tx = ^

3 Ti
; !

q
= - - = "

at y = 5f

5.2.58

These conditions lead to

T1 - Tw+ C2<Ti

+ %

] f f -td,

- T) + M f ] ^

5.2.59

The energy equation for the film is

kf
pf c

Substituting Equation

Pf

riii
- !Ii
L 9y|y=Sf 9y

5.2.2

and 5.2.58

5.2.60
y=o-

into Equation

nondimensionalizing the length terms by ( v ^ / g ) 1^

5.2, 59 and

leads to

d
dx 46 i + o ^ f

5.2.61

where

T - T,w

Too - Tu
5.2.62
3 (vf 2 /g ) 1 / 3
( Too - Ty^J

The temperature in the condensate layer remains as

114

Tc = T, + (T* - T i )

The compatibility

y - 6f

( ?) .
c

of heat

5.2.63

fluxes

at the

interface y

to the following expression for the nondimensional

= 6 f leads

interfacial temper

ature 0 -j.
0 -j = 0* + g <5C .

5.6.64

Substituting Equation 5.2.64 into Equation 5.2.61 yields

_
dB
__

_ 30
n - '4
Prf6f

_
_
d0*
_ dSr
[0* + 0 (5f + 6C )] - 4 - 4 6 S
i t
,jx
(jx

dx

_
7 _
4 ^C + Q 5f
8

5.2.65

The condensate energy equation remains as

dSc

_2__

Ja

dx

32/3

Ref2/3Prf

0*

~ 0 .j
6C

'

5.2.66

Substituting Equation 5.2.64 into Equation 5.2.66 yields

d5r
~
dx

2
9 /t
32/ j

The nondimensional
as

Ja
?/"3
Ref ' P r f

_
3

'

5.2.67

interfacial temperature, 0 *, at y = 5f + 5C remains

115
^Vs-

Pv

- T0 hf
Pv*
___________________9________
i?T
Pv
__ n

1 +
Pv*
hf

5.2.68

where

Pv

00

_ "

PV*

1 - W

Ll -

(1

-I

00

- M v/Mg )J

pi - W* (1 - M v /Mq )-|

1
1 - w

5.2.69

The interfacial concentration of noncondensible gas remains as

Woo

W*
1

3 2/3
2/3 v f
--- Ref
_ L 6c
4
v_

d 6,
6S
dx

_1
.

The governing differential equations

5.2.70

for conservation

of momentum and

species in the gas vapor mixture remain as

40
d6 m 2 _
-1 0
dx
(3 R e f ) 273 v f

6Poo

5.2.71

S
dx

24 Wo
d s 2
dx

A
(3 R e f )2 / 3 Sr

w*

* 7

I ^s_ \ d 5m^
" 5 *m

d*

Vo,

2 622

(w* - Woo)

6C 1

S 2 dw*
- 9'
6m 10 6m
dx

(I- ^
2

^m

3
10

4 4 )
^m

5.2.72

116
Heat Transfer Expressions
A heat transfer coefficient can be defined as
, 9T
k

h(x)=

5.2.73

y=o
(T. - T w)

The local Nusselt number can be defined as

(T) =

Nu

h(x)(vf 2 /g ) 1 / 3
------- 1 ------k

5.2.74

Case A Tw < Tn < Tqa^


Substituting for h(x), the local

Nusselt

number

in Region

I be

comes
29,.
N.. (x) = - ---- W---
(1 - ew) 6i

Substituting the expression for

5.2.75

from Equation 5.2.41 the local

Nusselt number becomes

pa
N

5.2.76

(x) = -------------- t t t
(1 - 9w )a i x 1 / 3

from which an average Nusselt number in Region I can be calculated as

Nut = 1

(1

^ ------- rn- .
- 0 w )ai x 1 / 3

The local Nusselt number in Region II is given by

5.2.77

117

5.2.78

The average Nusselt number in Region II is expressed as

NU II
'

=J_

NuII

dx

5.2.79

XD

(x - xD )
where
X q is the extent of Region
The average Nusselt

I.

over the entire

length

of Regions

I and

II

is given by

Nu = Nuj xD + N u n

(x - XD)
5.2.80

Case B Tw < Tn - Ts
The local Nusselt number in Region I is given by

2.0
Nu (x)
61

5.2.81
.

Substituting for 6 ^ the local

Nu (x) =

from which

Nusselt

number can be expressed as

5.2.82

_1 / 3
ai x

an average

Nusselt

number

in

Region

I can be

calculated

118
as

3
5.2.83

The local Nusselt number in Region II is given by

2 0 -j

+ 3 5f

Niijj (x) =

5.2.84

The average Nusselt number in Region II is calculated as

Nun

rx

-J-

^un (x) dx

5.2.85

The overall average Nusselt number over Regions I and II is given

Nur xD + Nujj (x - xD )
Nu = --------- x

5.2.86

where x q is the extent of Region I.


In the

present

analysis

the

overall

average

Nusselt

number

is

the quantity of prime importance.


5.3.

Results and Discussion

Case A Tw < Tn < T<;at


Examination of the governing differential equations indicates that
condensation in Region I is dependent on eight nondimension parameters.
They are

119
5.3.1

Although the equations derived are valid for all fluid systems of
interest, it was decided to restrict the
densing on a thin

film of water. The

study to that

reason

for this

of steam con
restriction

is

the availability of other literatures for steam-air systems.


It was observed that simple expressions could be obtained for the
coefficients of 6 ^ and 62 as

indicated

in

Equation

5.2.41.

They

are

5.3.2
No simple

expressions

Sm and 5S . Thus they


determined to a high
[29], developed

could
had

be

to

precision

obtained
be

for

evaluated

the

coefficients

numerically.

using the Meinback

They

of 6C ,
were

subroutine, Hybrdl

at the Argonne National Laboratory,

Chicago, Illinois

The subroutine finds the zeros of a system of N nonlinear functions in


n variables

by a modification

of the Powell hybrid method.

The user

must provide a subroutine which calculates the functions. The Jacobian


is then calculated by a forward difference approximation.
Utilizing the expressions for 61 and 62 from Equations 5.2.41 and
the values of the constants a^ and a 2 from Equation 5.3.2, the following

expression is obtained for Xp the extent of Region I.

1/2

1/2
5.3.3

The above equation has to be solved numerically to obtain the ex-

120
tent of Region

I.

It is observed that the extent

of Region I is de

pendent on the Prandtl number and the Reynolds number of the film. The
average Nusselt number in Region I is given by
-3ew
5.3.4

In addition to eight parameters noted in Equation 5.3.1, condensa


tion in Region
the vertical

II is dependent

plate.

local or average

on the nondimensional

No simple expressions

Nusselt

evaluated numerically.

numbers

As

noted

4.3, the maximum nondimensional

in

could be obtained

Region

II; thus they

in the previous
length

temperature

chapter

of

for the

had to be
in

section

of the plate of interest

over

which condensation heat transfer is examined is 1 0 0 0 .


The presence of noncondensible gases in the condensing vapor leads
to complex transport processes. Thus to understand these processes one
has to examine the behavior
noncondensible gas,

of the

its effect

interfacial

concentration

of the

on the interfacial temperature and the

Nusselt number.
Figure 5.3.1 presents the concentration of the noncondensible gas
at the

interface Sf + Sc as

function

of

the

plate for different incoming film temperatures.


lower T0 leads

to a high

W* in

Region

I.

This

distance

along

the

It is observed that a
can

be explained

as

follows. A lower T0 provides a higher temperature driving force for con


densation. As

result

more

vapor

and

noncondensible

gas

are drawn

towards the interface Sf + Sc . To counterbalance this increased inflow


of the noncondensible

gas, a higher outflow is required which results

Figure 5.3.1.

Inter concentration of noncondensible qas as a function


of X for different Ja. T ,=600R, T =500R.
sat
w

ro

122
in a higher

W*.

In Region

This is

due

to

is

the

II there is only a slight increase in

small

larger T0 , the concentration


in Region
in W*.

I. However,

This

difference
of the

in Region

between

T0

noncondensible

II there

and

gas,

Tw .

For

W*, is small

is a considerable

is due to the larger difference

W*.

increase

between T0 and Tw which

leads to significantly higher cooling of the interface.


Figure 5.3.2

presents

It is observed that

W*

as a

function

of x

for different

Tw .

W* is independent of Tw in Region I. This is due

to that fact that the condensation in Region I is dependent only on the


cooling capacity of the film.

But in Region II as the wall temperature

decreases, W* increases. A lower Tw leads to a faster cooling of the


interface at 6 f + 6 C . Thus

the thermal

driving

force

increases, lead

ing to a higher W*. This phenomenon has been observed in several studies
on surface condensers [6,17,18,19].

As noted in the pure vapor case,

for a short-distance in Region II, W* decreases instead of increasing.


This phenomenon can be attributed to the delayed influence of the cold
wall on the interface.
Figure 5.3.3 shows the variation of W* with x for a different R e y
nolds number. It is observed that for a larger Reynolds number there is
a lesser build up of noncondensible gases.
An increase

in

gases, W*, decreases

the

interfacial

the saturation temperature

the interface Sf + 6 C . This


T-j, at the

interface y

5.3.4 which

presents

concentration

in

turn

= <5f. This

the

leads

to

phenomenon

nondimensional

of

of the

noncondensible
vapor, T*, at

smaller

is

observed

interfacial

temperature
in

Figure

temperature 9j

as a function

of x for different T0 . A lower T0 leads to a higher W*

which in turn

drastically

reduces 0 -j. This

phenomenon

is further

ob-

0.7

0.6

W* 0.5

200

600

400

800

1000

Figure 5.3.2.

Interfacial concentration of noncondensible gas a function


of X for different Ja*. T sat=600R, To=570R.

ro
co

200

400

600

800

1000

Figure 5.3.3.

Interfacial concentration of noncondensible gas as a function


of X for different Reynolds numbers. T .=600R, T =570R,
T =500R.
sat
0
w
ro
-p*

200

400

600

800

1000

Figure 5.3.4.

Nondimensional interfacial temperature as a function of X for


different Ja. T sat=600R, Tw =500R.
rv>

c_n

126
observed in

Figures

5.3.5

and

5.3.6

which

present 0 -j as

function

of x for different wall temperatures and Reynolds numbers,respectively.


In order to understand

clearly the effects

of noncondensible gas

on condensation heat transfer it is important to examine the variation


of the

ratio of the Nusselt

out noncondensible

gas

the ratio of Nusselt


570R and

Tw

Region II,

the

numbers

with

other

numbers

520R.
ratio

It is
is

for condensation with

parameters.

as a function

than

5.3.7

of x for

observed that

greater

Figure

for a

one.

In

presents

= 0.01, T0 =

short

all

and with

of

distance
the

in

previous

analytical studies on bare surface, it has been reported that the ratio
of Nusselt

numbers

sual behavior

is less than

one. In order to understand the unu

in the present problem,

temperature profile

in the

film.

it

Figure

is necessary to examine the


5.3.8 and 5.3.9

present the

temperature profiles in the film for condensation with and without the
presence of

noncondensible

gas

respectively, a

function

of

x.

For

the pure vapor case it is observed that in the beginning of Region


the temperature profile exists

in two separate shapes.

file is 0 < y < Li and a concave quadratic profile is

II

A convex pro
< y < Sf with

the slope being zero at Y = Lj. This is in agreement with the boundary
conditions in Equations 5.2.45 and 5.2.46. Moreover, it is noticed that
the convex

profile has more height. This

large 0 -j (resulting from the absence


short distance into Region II

is due to the comparatively

of noncondensible

gas).

After

the entire profile in 0 < y < Sf becomes

concave. Further the slope of the profile at y = 0 decreases. As we pro


ceed farther

into Region

II the concavity

decreases.

The temperature

profile gradually tends to a linear shape. Moreover, the slope at y =


0 starts to increase. Thus, it is observed that as we proceed into Re-

Figure 5.3.5.

Nondimensional interfacial temperature as a function of X for


different Ja*. T sat=600R, To =570R.

Figure 5.3.6.

Nondimensional interfacial temperature as a function of X


for different Reynolds numbers. T .=600R, T =570R,
T =500R.
sat
0
w

Figure 5.3.7.

Ratio of Nusselt numbers for condensation with and without


the presence of noncondensible gas as a function of X.

y
Figure 5.3.8.

Temperature profile in the film at different values of X.


Pure vapor case.

CO

y
Figure 5.3.9.

Temperature profile in the film at different values of X


in the presence of noncondensible gas.

132

gion II the slope at y = 0 first decreases and then increases. The same
behaviour is noted in Figure 5.3.9 for noncondensible gas being present,
with one

exception.

The

value

of 9-j is

much

lower. This

is due to

presence of the noncondensible gas in the condensing vapor.


Figure 5.3.10 presents the temperature profile in the beginning of
Region II for condensation with and without the presence of the noncon
densible gas.
is the same

It is observed that the slope of the profile at y = 0


for both cases.

Figure 5.3.10 presents

the two profiles

at x = 122. It is observed that the slope of the profile with noncon


densible gases at x = 0 is greater than that for the pure vapor case.
This is due to the larger convexity of the later curve. Figures 5.3.11,
5.3.12, and

5.3.13 present the two profiles at x = 272, 472 and 672

respectively. It is observed that at x = 272 the two slopes are almost


the same. However, for x > 272, the slope at y = 0 for the pure vapor
case exceeds that for the noncondensible gas case. This behaviour of the
temperature profile leads to the ratio of Nusselt numbers in Figure 5.3.7
greater than 1 .
Figures 5.3.14, 5.3.15, 5.3.16, and 5.3.17
the ratio

of

presence of

Nusselt

numbers

noncondensible

temperature, wall

gas

temperatures,

for

show the variation of

condensation

with

Reynolds

for

with

and

different

without the

incoming

number and free

film

stream con

centration of noncondensibles.
Case B Tw < T n < T sat
When the incoming film temperature is the same as the saturation
temperature of

the

vapor,

no

condensation takes

place

in

Region

I.

Equation 5.2.56 describes the heat transfer in Region I. The develop-

1.00

Figure 5.3.10.

Comparison of temperature profile in the film for condensation


with and without the presence of noncondensible gas at
X=72.64, at the beginning of Region II.

y
Figure 5.3.11.

Comparison of temperature profile in the film for condensation


with and without the presence of noncondensible gas at
X=122.

y
Figure 5.3.12.

Comparison of temperature profile in the film for condensation


with and without the presence of noncondensible gas at X=272.
CO

cn

y
Figure 5.3.13.

Comparison of the temperature profile in the film for condensation


with and without the presence of noncondensible gas at X=472.

Co

cn

200

600

400

800

1000

Figure 5.3.14.

Ratio of average Nusselt numbers for condensation with and


without the presence of noncondensible gas as a function
of X for different Ja. T ,=600R, T =500R, W =0.01,
Ref=100.
sat
"
"

I-

CO

Figure 5.3.15.

Ratio of average Nusselt number for condensation with and


without the presence of noncondensible gas as a function
of X for different Ja*. T t=600R, T =570R, W =0.01,
Ref=100.

Nu
Nu,

200

Figure 5.3.16.

400

600

800

1000

Ratio of average Nusselt numbers for condensation with and


without the presence of noncondensible gas as a function
of X for different Reynolds numbers.
T s a r 6 00R
TW =500R, To =570R.
CO
lO

1.10

1.05

Nu
Nu,

1.00

0.95

0.90
200

Figure 5.3.17.

400

600

800

Ratio of Nusselt numbers for condensation with and without


the presence of noncondensible gas as a function of X for
different W^. T sat=600R, To =570R, Ref=100.

1000

141
ment of the thermal boundary layer is described by

fil = al

For small

5.3.5

values of x, a^ can be calculated from Equation 5.2.56

as

36

1/3

1/3

81 ' [6fPrf]

The extent

C (3Ref)2/3 nf] .

of Region

I is evaluated

5 -3 '6

by solving Equation 5.2.55.

Alternately it can be defined as


/<Sf\ 1/3
XD -(-1 )

5 3 7
5 -3 -7

al
Thus the average Nusselt

NuI =

A / 3
I D

number in Region I can

be expressed as

36
1/3
4/3
1/3
C ,
-i/o
1 t-f3Rp ^ p r 3
(3Ref)^/ Prf
^ Ref'36 Frf
.

5.3.8

As Region II begins the film edge temperature drops below the sat
uration temperature of the vapor. As a result condensation begins. This
leads to a build up of noncondensible gas at the interface y = 6f + 6C .
Figure 5.3.18 presents the interfacial

concentration of noncondensible

gas, W*, as a function of x for different wall temperatures. It is seen


that as the wall temperature decreases there is a sharper decrease in
k*. This phenomenon can be explained as follows. A lower wall tempera
ture leads to a faster cooling of the
leads to an increase in the thermal

interface at y = 6f + 5C . This

driving

force

(Tsato6 - T*)

for

X
Figure 5.3.18.

Interfacial concentration of noncondensible gas as a function


of X for different ja*. T sat=600R, ^ = 0 . 0 1 .

t*
ro

143

condensation. As a result more vapor and noncondensible


towards the interface <5f + 5 C. To counterbalance this

gas are drawn

increase

in the

inflow of the noncondensible gases, a higher outflow is required which


results in an increase in the concentration of the noncondensible gas,
W*, at the interface 6 f + <SC .
Figure 5.3.19 presents the interfacial concentration of nonconden
sible gas

function

number indicates

of

lower

for

film

different
velo

city.

Reynolds.
Thus

interface faster leading to an increase in W*.

the

low

walls

Reynolds
cools

It is obvious that a

higher free stream concentration of noncondensible gas would


a higher interfacial concentration W*.

the

lead to

This is readily seen in Figure

5.3.20 which prsents W* as a function of x for different Wo,.


Figures 5.3.21 through 5.3.23 present the interfacial temperature
9 -j as a function

of x for different wall temperatures, Reynolds num

bers and free stream concentration of noncondensible gas. For all cases
0 -j is equal

to

one in Region

I, but

it decreases

in Region

II. For

high Reynolds numbers as seen in Figure 5.3.22 there is no appreciable


decrease in 0 -j. It was observed that at high Reynolds numbers the cold
wall did not have significant
Thus it

can

be

effect

concluded at high

on the interfacial temperature.

Reynolds

numbers that

neither the

wall temperature nor the condensible gases have a significant effect on


the interfacial temperature.
Figures 5.3.24,

5.3.25,

5.3.26

present the

ratio of the Nusselt

numbers for condensation with and without the presence of the noncon
densible gas as a function of x for different wall temperatures, Rey
nolds numbers and the free stream concentration of noncondensible gas
respectively.

Figure 5.3.19.

Jnterfacial concentration of noncondensible gas a function of


X for different Reynolds numbers. T ,=600R, T =550R,
W =.0.01.
sat
w
-fs

200

400

600

800

1000

Figure 5.3.20.

Interfacial concentration of noncondensible gas a function


of X for different W^. T sa.j.=600oR,

tn

1.0

0.8

9.

0 .7 ~

0.6

0 .5 --------------1
0

200

Figure 5. 3.21.

400

600

800

1000

Nondimensional interfacial temperature as a function of X


for different Ja*. T sat
= .=600R, U oo-0.01, Re*=100.
f
4*
CT1

Figure 5.3.22.

Nondimensional interfacial temperature as a function of X for


different Reynolds numbers. T .=600R, T =550R, W =0.01.
sat
w
oo
4a.
'vl

Figure 5.3.23.

Nondimensional interfacial temperature as a function of X


for different W . T ,=600R, T =550R, Re,=100.
00
sat
w
T

200
Figure 5.3.24.

400

600

800

Ratio of Nusselt numbers for condensation with and without


noncondensible gas a function of X for different Ja*.
T .=600R, U =0.01.
sat

1000

1 .2

1.0

Nu

Nu,

0.8

0.6

_L

0.4
200

Figure 5.3.25.

400

600

800

Ratio of Nusselt numbers for condensation with and without


noncondensible gas a function of
for different Reynolds
numbers. T +=600R, T =550R, W =0.01.
sat
W
00

1000

~
oi n

Figure 5.3.26.

Ratio of Nusselt numbers for condensation with and without


noncondensible gas as a function of J for different W .
T a+=600R, T =550R, Re-=100.
*
Sat

152
In all
gion I the
into Region

of the cases it is observed that in the beginning of Re


ratio

of Nusselt

II the

to understand this
ture profile

in

numbers

is

greater than

ratio drops to a value


behavior it is

the

film.

less than

one.

Far away

one.

In order

necessary to examine the tempera

Figure

5.3.27

profile in the film at different locations

presents
in Region

the

temperature

II.

In the be

ginning of Region II at x = 55 the temperature profile is in the form


of a quadratic.

However, as x increases the profile, it tends to assume

a linear profile.

However,

case of condensation with


x, the profile

such

behavior

noncondensible

remains quadratic,

is

not

observed

gas. At different

as seen in Figure 5.3.28.

in the

values

of

This is

due to the rapid decrease in e-j due to the presence of noncondensible


gas.

It is observed that the profiles for condensation with and with

out the noncondensible gases will be same at the beginning of Region I.


Figure 5.3.29 presents the two profiles at x = 155. It is observed that
due to a lower 0 j, the

slope

of the profile at y = 0

for the

non

condensible gas is greater than that for the pure vapor case. Figures
5.3.30 and 5.3.31 present

the two profiles at x = 255 and 755 respec

tively. At x = 255 the two slopes at y = 0 are almost equal. However,


at x = 755, the slope at y = 0 for the pure vapor case is higher than
that for the case with

noncondensible

suppression of the interfacial

gas.

temperature.

This

is due to the

rapid

In the latter case, this

results from the presence of the noncondensible gas.

1.0

Figure 5.3.27.

Nondimensional^ temperature in the film as a function of Y


at different X location. T sa^.=600R, RW =550R.

Figure 5.3.28.

NondimensionaJ_ temperature in the film as a function of Y


at different X locations. T .=600R, T =550R, W =0.01,
Ref=50.
sat
w

cn
-P*

Figure 5.3.29.

Nondimensional temperature in the film as a function of Y


at x=155. T sat=600R, TW =550R, Ref=50, W^O.Ol.
155

Figure 5.3.30.

Nondimensional temperature in the film as a function of Y


at x=255. Tsat=600R, Tw =550R, Ref=50, W^O.Ol.
CJ1
cn

Y
Figure 5.3.31.

Nondimensional temperature in the film as a function of Y


at x=455. T sat=600R, Tw =550R, Ref =50, 1^=0.01.

U1

CHAPTER 6
CONDENSATION ON A THIN FILM FLOWING OVER SINGLE AND
MULTILE HORIZONTAL ISOTHERMAL TUBES
6.1

Introduction

Since the pioneering work


been made
tubes.
to be

of Nusselt (22) numerous studies have

of the problem of film condensation

In Nusselt's
quiescent,

original

saturated,

he assumed that the thermal

analytical
and

free

work the

of

capacitance

on flat plates and on


vapor was

assumed

noncondensibles.

Further,

of the condensate

film was

negligible, the shear induced by the vapor was vanishingly small and
that the interfacial
Roshenow (23)
a time.

resistance was also negligible.

the assumptions

made by Nusselt

Sparrow and co-workers

all of these assumptions


indicated that

(6,24,30)

Beginning with

were examined

reported the

for flow over a flat plate.

for a pure saturated

one at

influence
Their

of

results

vapor at low pressure, excluding

liquid metals, the model of Nusselt was sufficient.


For a horizontal
addition to that

circular tube, the only analytical

of Nusselt (22)

studies

in

for laminar film condensation were

due to Sparrow and Gregg (30) and Chen (31).

The solution of Reference

(30) was obtained by utilizing the boundary layer equation and casting
the problem in terms of similarity variables.
vity driven

flow of condensate a similarity

except near the upper stagnation point.

Of course, for a gra


solution does

Chen (31)

not exist

used an integral

159
boundary layer approach in which the governing equations were used to
evaluate the temperature
cast in

terms

of

two

and

velocity

parameters

profiles.

which

Chen's

were

solution was

essentially

the

number and the Jakob number divided by the Prandtl number.


"two" parameters
the identical

becoming

results to those

that the Nusselt's


this

fact

vanishingly

small

obtained

his

solution

by Nusselt

For these
resulted

(22).

He

solution did not hold for liquid metals.

had

been

previously

indicated

by

Jakob

in

showed

However,

Roshenow

(23),

Koh

(32) and Sparrow and co-workers (6 ) for flat plate studies.


For the

case

of

condensation

on a vertical

row

of tubes,

Chen

(31) has been the only one to offer an improvement to Nusselt's theory,
although experimental
The experimental

results

heat transfer

rates

phenomenon has

been

both of

are

which

vapor velocity

studies have been made by several investigators.


(33,34)

have

than predicted
attributed to
difficult

to

over the tubes

generally

by

either

Nusselt

splashing and
predict.

shown

These

much
or

Chen.

nonuniform
effects

and the possible effects

higher

as

The

spilling,
well

as

of waves

on

the condensate film could all attribute to the difference between the
experimental results and the theory for a quiescent vapor.
Chen, in

developing

laminar film
small and

the

at a temperature
it

theoretical

condensation, assumed

that

the time

his

condensate

only slightly

reached

the

second

that

leaving

film of

not

fluid

start
that

until
had

the

Ja/Pr

was

vanishingly

By

Thus,

from

upper

assumed that
condensation

boundary
the

or

tube

below the saturation temperature.


tube he

first

multiple

was

a thermal

dripped

the

for

tube

reached the saturation temperature.


tube would

model

upper

it would have
on the second

layer penetrated the


tube.

His

results

160
indicate that

the

average heat transfer

for

n tubes

is higher than

that of Nusselt and is dependent on the Jakob number, but is indepen


dent of the tube spacing due to his assumptions about the temperature
of the

condensate

In the present

when

it

analysis

reaches the

second

and

subsequent tubes.

we evaluate the heat transfer to the falling

sheet between the subsequent tubes as well as that for each tube and
thus are free
as it falls

of

Chen's

onto the

assumption

as to the condensate temperature

lower tubes.

Our analysis

reduces

Chen's for large tube pitch where his assumption would


6.2

to that

of

be realistic.

Physical Model and Mathematical Formulation

Model for the Second or a Subsequent Tube


The physical model

for the second or a subsequent tube is shown

in Figure 6.2.1. A liquid sheet at temperature T 0 and mass flux mf im


pinges without splashing on top of the horizontal tube and flows over it
due to gravity.

The Reynolds number for the sheet is such that the re

sulting film remains thin and laminar.

The tube wall is held at a tem

perature Tw and the film is surrounded by a quiescent saturated vapor


at temperature
tube above

is

Tsat .
at

Two

possible

cases

large

distance

above

it is possible that T0 = T sat.


layer will

grow outward

are
the

encountered.
tube

being

until

the

considered

Since Tw < T sat a thermal

from the tube wall

If

boundary

it is of thickness

equal to that of the film.

At this point the film surface temperature

Tj will

and

drop

below

T sat,

this situation that was


that the

distance

grow from the

wall

it

analyzed

would

was

take

condensation

will

commence.

It

is

by Chen (31) except that he assumed


for

negligible.

the

thermal

A more

boundary

general

layer

situation

to

would

161

/
Region II

Figure 6.2.1.

Physical model for condensation on second


or subsequent tube.

162
apply when

the

tube

pitch

(distance

between

tubes)

is

small.

For

this case T sat > T 0 > Tw .

As shown in Figure 6.2.1 condensation will

be initiated

(at <j>0 ).

will grow

immediately

into

the

film

from

the

thermal boundary layer, 5j, grows

thermal

interface

at

boundary
the

layer, 63,

same time

outward from the tube wall.

as

Until

the two boundary layers meet the only condensation will be that which
occurs due to the heat capacitance of the film.
the tube at which the two boundary layers meet,
<j>l and the

region

where

only

condensate layer, Sc , growth

the

is

film

called

The distance along


+ <$2 = <Sf, is called

capacitance

Region

I.

influences

From

Region I until the film and condensate leave the tube is


as Region II.

In this

densation is the heat


the sheet

is

at

the

the

end

of

referred to

region the primary driving force for the con


sink due to the wall

temperature

occur along

its entire length.

fect mixing

when

it impinges

we consider

the

condensation

T0 ,

below

However,

being held at Tw .

When

T sat,

will

condensation

in our model

we assume per

on the tube under consideration;


to

initiate

at ^0 .

In

our

thus,

analyses

we assume that the film and condensate layer are laminar and free of
surface waves.

Further,

used by Nusselt,
vapor, etc.

we employ the

of the assumptions

constant properties, negligible shear induced by the

These

assumptions

limit

and to the Jakob number ^Pf(Tsat Utilizing

remainder

the

above

assumptions

the

analysis

to

low

pressure

being smal1 .
the

following analyses

can

be made for Regions I and II.


Region I
For the film which is due to the impinging sheet conservation of
mass gives

The momentum equation, using Nusselt's assumptions, yields

g sin*
y ,
uf = ------ [6f y - ]

6 .2.2

,
3mf 1/3 .vf ,1/3 . -1/3
( )
sin
6 f = [--- 1
uf
9

6.2.3

vf

thus

The integral

form

of

the

energy

equation

for

the

thermal

boundary

layer growing from the wall is

3Ti
R

d<t> /

Pf Uf CPf ^T1 ' V

and for the thermal

boundary

dy ~ " kf 3y

layer

growing

-6 f

iij

6 f 52

The energy

uf cpf <t2 - To

equation

for

the

6.2.4

y~o

from the

interface

il2

kf ay

condensate

it is

6.2.5
y-fif

layer

assuming

negligible

thermal capacitance for this newly growing layer is

hfg
R d<|>

In the

two

6f+6c
Pc

uc dy =

ly=5f
thermal

quadratic temperature
tions at

6 .2.6

kf

the

edges

boundary
profiles
and

the

layers
which

growing

in

satisfy

temperature

the

the

we

assume

temperature

condi

gradient

film

at 6^ or <S2 . The

164
resulting profiles are
Tl - T0 = (Tw - T0 ) (1 -

y )2

6.2.7

and

6 .2.8
The assumption

of

negligible

thermal

capacitance

of

the

condensate

layer implies a linear temperature profile

6.2.9

In the

above

equations

the film and the

Tj

is

the

condensate layer.

interfacial

temperature

Compatibility of heat

between

fluxes

at

the condensate layer-film interface leads to

T0 + 1/2 62/ 6c Tgat

6 .2.10

1 + 1/2 62/ 6C
In Region

I the condensate

to 6 f ; thus we
that obtained

will

layer will

assume that the

from Equation

be extremely thin as compared


velocity

6.2.2 evaluated

in this

layer

will

at y = 6f. This

be

in fact

assumes that the film is negligibly accelerated or decelerated due to


the increased mass.
as we

have previously

This assumption is reasonable for Tsat > T0 > Tw


assumed that

^ p f (Tsat

- Tw )/hfg

thus, Cp f (Tsat - T0 )/hfg < Cp f (Tsat - Tw )/ h fg < <


Defining a dimensionless temperature

1.

<

<

and

165
e

T - To

6 .2.11

Tsat ~ T0
the interfacial temperature becomes

1/2 52/Sc

6 . 2.12

0i =
1 + 1 / 2 J 2/c >

where the bar indicates nondimensionalizing with respect to the char


acteristic length
ture and

(vf2/g)l/3 .

velocity profiles

Substituting

into Equations

the

appropriate

6.2.4,

tempera

6.2.5 and 6.2.6 and

nondimensionalizing the terms yields, respectively,


d6
dcf)

72

L-Pry sin<t>

3Sf3

8,-1

tan*
tancj)

3 6f ' 5

J '

6.2.13

v (2 6 f - 7 l)
b

d6:
dcf>


- 2622 (6f2 - )
LPrf sin<j>
c T
10
6-j d(f>

2 S2

10

3 tan<j>

6o 2 )] * (Sf2

10

So2 )

6.2.14

and
Ja
dcf>

R sin-1/3*

3 2/3 Ref2/3 Prf (1 + 1/2 62/ 6c)

2 5,
3 tan*

6.2.15

Equations 6.2.12-6.2.15 describe the condensation in Region I.

The

166
necessary boundary
SlU

= <t>o) =

conditions

fi2 U

as

can

= <f>o) = 0 and

be

seen

from

Figure

are

6c(')> = <t>o) = * The equations may

be solved numerically after first establishing the values of the first


derivatives of <f> = <|>0 .

For very small values of

- 4>0 it can be shown

that

s1 = a j U - 4>0 )1/3 +

= a2 (<j> -

Sc =

4>q )^ 2

- <t>0 )

6.2.16

The solution for Region I ends when i + 62 = Sf.


Region II
After the two thermal
the entire film heats up.
ture profile

boundary

layers

have merged,

6^+62=

Sf,

An inflection point occurs in the tempera

at y / S f = S j / S f . For

<j> =

+ <t>i this

inflection

point

results in 9T/3y at y / 6 f = 6]_/6f equal to zero. The inflection persists


at larger values of <|> although the slope is no longer zero.
to most

easily deal

for the

film

Sf = Cj and

is

with this

best

solved

situation the
in

two

parts,

In order

integral

energy equation

i.e.,

y / 6 f < 61 (<j0 + 4i)/

< y/Sf < 1.

The energy equation for the film can be written as

6.2.17

1 d

6f

k.p

3To

9To

6.2.18

167
The temperature profile to be used in Equation 6.2.17 must satisfy
the conditions:
y = 0

Ti = Tw

y = C i Sf

8Tj
9T2
Tl = Tb = t 2 , --- = = - e(<J>)
ay
3y

6.2.19

These conditions lead to


PCI Sf
y
Tl = Tw + 2(Tb - Tw + )
2
Ci Sf

- ( Tb - Tw + BCi 6f ) ( : )2
Ci Sf
*

6.2.20

For T2 the boundary conditions in y are:


3T2
T2 = Tb - - = 3 .
9y
T2 = Ti

y = Cl Sf
y = Sf
These lead us to

T2 = Tb - B(y - Ci Sf) + (T-j - Tb + 3Sf (1


(y - Ci Sf) 2
-

Ci ) ) [ ( T T 7 7 n 7 ]

In addition the velocity

6 - 2 ' 21

profile

g sin*
y2
uf = - ---- -[(Sf + Sc ) y vf
2

in the film and

condensate

becomes

6 .2.22

for 0 < y < Sf + Sc .


Utilizing the temperature and velocity profiles given in Equations

168
6.2.19-6.2.21, and

Equations

6.2.17

and

6.2.18

yield

the

following

nondimensional equations respectively


[5/3 - 3/5 C X] db
1 Ci Sf 0
------------- - ------------ + d
[1/3 - Cj/10] dtj>
3 tan<j>

_
Sf

dg
dct>
6.2.24

[0b

Prf q 3 Sf4

- 9W +

B C 1 5 f]

sin<|>( 1/3 - C1/10)

and
d9b
M2 d(j>

M 3 d9-j

1 BSf

dg

M 2 d<j>

3 tan<j>

d<(>

i-j - 9b + p Sf(l - Cj)


6.2.25

Prf

Sf4 (l - Cj)

where

M i = (Cl - - ^ )

(1 - Cj)

M 2 = (C 1 ---

c/
M 3 = (Cl -

-ir-)

2 (1 - C!) + (1 - C i ) 3

+ (1 - Ci)
1

(1 - Cn1 )1

+ (1 3

The compatabi1ity

of

heat

Ci)

--120

fluxes

6.2.26

20

at

the

condensate

layer-film

interface leads to

sf(i - q )

(1 - gsc ) + 29b sc

2 SC + (1 - Cl) Sf

The condensate energy equation is

6.2.27

The solution
in Region

of

II.

Equations

6.2.2-6.2.28

The boundary conditions

will

define the

for this

region

condensation
are those

at

the end of Region I; i.e.,


0b * 0 ,
6C =

3 = 0,

Sc

, 9|_ = 9|_

()> = (j>o + * 1

(j) -

<f>o + <|>1

Heat Transfer Coefficient


The purpose
surface area

of

needed

a
to

heat

transfer

provide

temperature rise in the coolant.

coefficient

given

amount

is
of

to

define

condensation

the
or

Thus, for the current problem it is

necessary to define the heat per unit area as:


3T

q " - h(<}>) (Tsat - Tw ) - + kc ^

6.2.30

y=o
which yields
2k
h j (c}>) =
51

(T0 - Tw )
---------- in Region I
Tsat _ Tw

6.2.31

and
2k(Tb - Tw + pCi <5f/2)
h tt (<{>) = ----------------------- in Region II
Ci f(Tsat - Tw )

6.2.32

_
J
o+'t
l
<l>o+<t,l+ <f>2
h = [J h j (<j)) d<f> + J
hjj (()>) d<}> ] / (<j)i + <j>2 ) .
+A

6.2.33

The average heat transfer coefficient is

170
Condensation on a Vertical Row of Tubes
Condensation on the upper most tube, as shown in Figure 6.2.2, in
a vertical

row of horizontal

Nusselt (22)

or Chen (31).

hypothesized here as falling


on the second tube.
second tube

tubes

can be analyzed

by the theory

of

The condensate leaving the upper tube

is

as a continuous

sheet until

it impinges

While the condensate traverses the distance to the

condensation

occurs

on the sheet.

Jacobs and Nadig (21)

have recently solved the problem of condensation on such a sheet. If we


assume that the fluid in the sheet becomes well mixed as it impinges on
the second tube the model developed earlier in this paper is applicable
for the analysis of the heat transfer as the fluid layer flows around
the tube.
a sheet

If the condensate

and

impinges

heat transfer

leaving the second tube again

falls

as

on the third tube and so on, we find that the

for multiple tubes

can be analyzed

by repeatedly using

the model of Jacobs and Nadig for condensation on a falling sheet and
the present model.

In the analysis the mean temperature of the fluid

leaving a tube and

impinging

on the

next

is successively

changed

in

absorbed

by

the models as one works downward through the row of tubes.


Since all

of

the heat transfer

must

ultimately

be

the coolant, it is only necessary to evaluate the average heat trans


fer coefficient

on

together and divide

the

surface

by the total

of

each

successive

tube,

number of tubes in the

add

vertical

in order to determine the average heat transfer coefficient


number of tubes.
h and

the

present

The theory of Nusselt is used


analysis

is

used

for

the

for the

successive

them
row

for that

first tube's
tubes.

The

model of Jacobs and Nadig (21) is only used to determine the value of
T0 for

each

tube.

This

value

will

depend

on

the

tube

spacing

as

171

Figure 6.2.2.

Physical model for condensation on multiple tubes.

172
well as the

Jakob

number and Prandtl

number and

Reynolds

number

of

the condensate sheet.


6.3.
.

Examination of

the

Results and Discussion


governing

differential

equations

that for values

of <f> approaching <j>0 , simple expressions

tained for

coefficients

6.2.16.

the

of

indicates

could be

S2 and 6C indicated

in

ob

Equation

They are:

36R
ai [

1/3

Prf sin<|>0 Sf

r
24R
,
ap [
.
p]
d P r f sin<t>0 Sf^

1/2
6.3.1

1
1/1
16
a3 [. _ a 2 + _
_ . a2 + _

Ja
_

R_______
^

Thus for small values of <t - <j>0

= ax (<j) - <}>0 )1/3 + ...

<$2 ~ a2(<t) $o ^

6.3.2

53 = a^C* - <t>0 )

Using these functions for starting values the governing equations


were solved

numerically

using a

Hewlett-Packard 3000 minicomputer.


cient was

then

determined

as

standard

Runga-Kutta

algorithm

on a

The average heat transfer coeffi

indicated

in

Equations

6.2.31-6.2.33.

After solving the governing equations the solutions

were applied

to the solution of the multiple tube problem as indicated previously.


Calculations made

in this

paper

correspond to the

experimental

work

173
of Young

(33).

In

these

experiments

the

wall

constant, the tube pitch was two diameters


meter was

0.375

inches, - 9 5

shows the

ratio

of

the

mm.

was

kept

and the outside tube d i a

For these

presently

temperature

conditions

determined

average

Figure
heat

6.3.1

transfer

coefficient to that reported by Nusselt (22) for 0.04 < Ja < 0.20.

It

is clear that Nusselt's solution is in increasing error as the number


of tubes in a vertical
ence on

Ja

with the

row increases.

Further there is a weak depend

error increasing as

Ja

increases.

The

results

shown in Figure 6.3.1 are well correlated by the expression,

[1 + 0.103 Ja>2 1 2 (n - l)1/2 ] .

6.3.3

^nun
Figures 6 .3.2-6.3.5 show the comparison of the present model with
the experimental
Chen's (31)

analysis

shows a definite
are generally
spacing can
by Fujii

results
are

than

to

high

et a l . (35).

unlikely that
degree that

also

improvement

higher
lead

of Young (33).

the

considerable

some investigators.

Although

over that
we

vapor

For

falling

shown.

predict.

The

velocities

condensate

results

the present

relatively

as

has

been

splashing will

will

tube

pointed

out

accelerate

occur as has

surface waves

data

close

spacing they note that


sheets

it
to

been argued

and partially

of

analysis

of Chen the experimental

close tube

However,

In addition, the

is
the
by

"drop-wise"

condensation as well as appreciable vapor velocity could induce higher


heat transfer rates.
why the heat transfer

They argue that the latter is the primary reason


is higher than

would

be predicted

by a model

such as developed herein.


If the tube pitch

is large the

falling condensate sheet

between

1.2

nun

VI

t*

1.25
Young et a l .(33)
Chen (31)
Present theory

1.00
nun

0.75

0.0

0.05

0 .1 0

0.15

0.20

Ja
Figure 6.3.2.

Ratio of average heat transfer coefficient over two tubes to


that obtained from Nusse lt 1s analysis as a function of Jakob
number.

0.05

Figure 6.3.3.

0.10

0.15

Ratio of average heat transfer coefficient over three tubes


to that obtained from Nusselt's analysis as a function of
Jakob number.
cn

Figure 6.3.4.

Ratio of average heat transfer coefficient over four tubes


to that obtained from Nusselt's analysis as a function of
Jakob number.

Figure 6.3.5.

Ratio of average heat transfer coefficient over five tubes to


that obtained from Nusselt's analysis as a function of Jakob
number.

179
tubes will accelerate to a high velocity and the condensate sheet will
become thinner.

Both of these effects will make T0 approach Tsat- Thus,

Chen's solution

should

become applicable.

However,

Chen

neglects

the

distance needed to establish the thermal boundary layer moving outward


from the wall. He requires the same temperature profile as for conden
sation on a single tube.
make it thinner

and

increase the heat transfer

established temperature
make his

A high velocity in the film will, of course,

profile

heat transfer increase

number increases when


low values

reduces

it.

at a faster

applied to a pitch

coefficient, yet

These

effects

rate than

ratio of two.

ours

the

together
as Jakob

However,

at

of Jakob number Chen's analysis yields significantly lower

values of hn .

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