by
Ranga Nadig
Doctor of Philosophy
in
Mechanical
Engineering
of a dissertation submitted bv
Ranga Nadig
This dissertation has been read by each member of the following supervisory committee and by
majority vote has been found to be satisfactory.
.
/
JZ
Chairman: H a r o l d R . ^ a c o b S
Robert F. Boehm
2 f, f < jr 4 
Lavar K. Issacson
2/ Sejbt gqGary M y / 5 a n d q u i s t ^ /
Kuan Chen
<
Chairperson, Supervisory Committee
Cl
'X
/ f S r y M. San^quist
Chairman / D ean/
James L. Clayton
//
ABSTRACT
Analytical models
film type
direct
lated processes
contact
include
isothermal vertical
tion the
are
effects
presented
to
condensation
condensation
predict
and
on
related
a thin
of
noncondensible
gases
the
on
condensation
processes.
film
The
flowing
over
on tube bundles.
the
above
in
re
an
In addi
processes
are
examined.
The analysis
any empirical
data.
The
theoretical
models
developed
are
applicable
film of water.
are
presented
which
provide
better
and heat
insight
in de
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
A B S T R A C T ................................................................
iv
NOMENCLATURE ............................................................
vi i
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS .......................................................
Chapter
1
INTRODUCTION .....................................................
11
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
Introduction ..............................................
General Assumptions ......................................
Physical Model and Mathematical Formulation ..........
Results and Discussion ..................................
11
13
15
25
35
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
Introduction ..............................................
General Assumptions ......................................
Physical Model and Mathematical Formulation ..........
Results and Discussion ..................................
35
37
37
49
61
4.1
4.2
4.3
61
62
78
Introduction ..............................................
Physical Model and Mathematical Formulation ..........
Results and Discussion ...................................
Introduction ..............................................
Physical Model and Mathematical Formulation ..........
Results and Discussion ...................................
95
95
96
118
158
6.1
6.2
6.3
REFERENCES
vi
NOMENCLATURE
Cp
Specific heat
Diffusion coefficient
Diameter
Dh
Hydraulic diameter
Gz
Grzetz number
hfg
Heat of varporiztion
Ja
Thermal
Thickness
Molecular weight
Nu
Nusselt number
Pr
Prandtl number
Pressure
Gas constant
Radius
Re
Rep
conductivity
Sc
Schmidt number
Temperature
Greek Letters
9T
3y
Temperature gradient
Nondimensional temperature
Absolute viscosity
Dynamic viscosity
Density
<j>
Subscripts
c
Condensate
Film
Noncondensible gas
Liquid
Vapor
Wall
rscri pt
Nondimensional quantity
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
A special
thanks
is extended to
like
to thank
University of Utah,
the Department
of
Electrical
Engineering,
putations on
their
HP
Walt Howard,
Manager,
3000
HP
computer.
3000
Deep
computer,
gratitude
is
com
expressed
to
extended in use
of the computer.
In this dissertation, Chapters 2 and 3 have been published by ASME
as paper
numbers
presented at
the
Heat
Transfer
respectively.
Conference
They
in
were both
August
1984,
presented
at the
National
Boiling Consensation."
Heat Transfer
Conference
in
CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
Direct contact
condensation
process
have
been
In these
commercially
used
vapor is brought into direct contact with the cooling fluid to condense
all or part
[2].
More
recently
direct
contact
condensers
have
been
condensers
offer
numerous
advantages
exchangers. These
over
advantages
the
include
cooling
fluid
be
the
condensate
are
different
it
is
desirable
that
the
two
2
fluids be immiscible with sufficient difference in density to facilitate
separation without
solubility, no
sizeable
affinity
to
losses
form
in the hot
stable
well.
emulsions,
In
addition,
chemical
low
inertness
and stability are necessary for economical and trouble free operation.
Although direct
contact
condensers
have
been
designed
and
built
named;
the
bubble
type,
the
drop
type,
and
the
film
type.
The bubble type of condensers includes all those systems where the
condensing vapor
is injected
into a continuous
pool
or stream of cold
liquid. This type of device has been of interest in the design of open
feed water heaters and in vapor suppression systems for nuclear reactors
[5].
The drop
in the
type DCC
continuous
or jets.
Typical
includes
media
and
all those
condensers
condensation takes
place
where the
on
vapor
either drops
condenser. Figure 1.1.1 shows a drop type direct contact condenser where
the vapor condenses on the spray or drops of coolant. Here the condensa
tion is
dominated
by
the
transient
conduction
in
the
growing
drops.
Here the coolant flows under the action of gravity in the form of sheets
or jets on which the vapor condenses.
The film type of DCC bears a sizeable
type DCC.
In the
packing material.
film type
of
The coolant
condenser the
coolant
is
sprayed
on a
as illustrated
in Figure
1.1.4
COOLANT IN
VAPOR IN
CONDENSATE AND
COOLANT OUT
Figure 1.1.1.
Counterflow condenser.
 Water ir
jt
yanddoughnut
Plain disk
Solid shelved
Steam
Figure 1.1.2.
Steam
Figure 1.1.3.
Vapor in
I
Cooli ng
water in
Bed
batting 1
Packing
Bed support
7
An alternate
design
is
the
tray
type
of
condenser where
the
coolant
flows over an inclined tray and at the end forms a short curtain as it
moves down to the next tray.
example
is the
changer. In a shell
contact
condensation
in a
shell
vapor
condenses
on the
bare tube
surface.
Subsequently the
condensate drips off the tube in the form of a thin sheet. As the c o n
densate travels the distance between the tubes additional
occurs on the condensate sheet. The condensation
tween the
tubes
is
similar
to
that
in
condensation
process occurring be
a drop
type
DCC.
The
process
continues as the condensate sheet impinges on the second tube and flows
around it in the form of a thin film. The vapor condenses on the thin
film. Subsequently
the
tube in
of
the
form
repeats over
the
condensate
a thin
remaining
and
sheet
tubes
the
and
in
film
thus the
the
row.
drip
off
the
second
condensation process
The
thickness
of
the
film or sheet increases as the condensation proceeds down the tube bank.
It is
observed
that
for
the
second
tube
onward
the
vapor
no
longer
contact
or subsequent tube
film type
In the
in a tube
bank
is
former
the tube
wall
case,
the
isothermal
cooling
at
any
fluid
given
similar to that
is the
flows
cross
occurring
condition
through
section
the
in
at the
wall.
tubes
makes
whereas
in
the
with
direct
processes
so
far
it
was
gas. U s u
as air,
nitrogen
or inert
gases. This
is primarily due to
of these noncondensible
heat transfer.
reported that
For
the
gases
example,
presence
can drastically
in
of
reduce the
condensation
air
equal
to
of
condensation
steam
it
has
been
by mass
of
the
literature
tact condensers
have
little work
analytical
of
reveals
that
built
experimental
although
for
direct
con
over 80 years,
very
nature
has
been
reported.
cesses. Due
influence
to
the
significant
condensation process,
it
was
decided
to
is
of
related pro
noncondensible
establish
gases
analytical
on
models
contact
Jacobs and Bogart [7] in 1980. They defined the problem as condensation
on an immiscible film flowing
integral approach
as a
function
of
they
the
determined
thermal
the
driving
local
and
force,
the
Utilizing an
average
falling
film
Nusselt
Reynolds
9
number, and the
cosities and
Prandtl
immiscible fluid
numbers.
Their
solution
combinations
where
the
conductivities,
is
applicable
surface
tension
to
vis
those
allows
the
of
condensation was
approach was
in the
treated
used
presence
the same
or
to
of
by
the
gases
on
film
author
in
1983
condensation
a noncondensible
liquid
presented
plate
the
analyze
a different
pressions were
length of
noncondensible
for
necessary
flowing
the
for
gas,
on
down
average
complete
type
[8,9].
of
a thin
an
direct
An
laminar
number
utilization
integral
saturated
adiabatic
Nusselt
contact
of
vapor
film
plate.
of
Ex
and
for
the
the
cooling
film
type DCC.
As noted earier the condensation processes occurring on the second
or subsequent
tube
in
shell
exchanger,
in
curtain
tion with and without the presence of nondensible gas for each of the
processes related
to
film
type
direct
contact
condensation
process.
coolant
jets
a shell
and
sheets.
Condensation
was
on
subsequent tube
in
as condensation
second
or
first treated
surface and
10
sheets and jets.
noncondensible is
Condensation
treated
of
deals
tubes. General
with
coolant
Chapter
gases
vertical
condensation
conclusions
3.
sheets
in the presence
Condensation
on
a thin
of a
film
noncondensible
in
on
related
on
condensation
surface
on
to
on a thin film
is examined
vertical
the
family
row
of
in Chapter 5.
of
isothermal
problems treated
CHAPTER 2
2.1
Direct contact
for well
over
densing and
in 1900
80
condensers
years.
Cooling
and
was
Introduction
have
Hausbrand's
that for
later
theory
surface
that How's
translated
for
the
condensers.
(11) article,
book
Ap paratus, appeared
been
in
into
1933.
heat
This
[10],
its
Evaporation,
first
English,
Con
German edition
appearing
in
five
transfer
point
lagged
is
greatly
emphasized
by
behind
the
fact
Condensers," pu b
ing equipment.
The article by How describes a wide
curtain and
1.1.3.
jet
condensers
such
as
range of equipment
those
shown
in
Figures
including
1.1.2
and
series of
jets
or
quiescent vapor.
flow exists.
solid
sheets
which
fall
Typically the
vapor
flows
However,
the
vapor
velocity
down
through
upward
is
relatively
so that
a counter
maintained
sufficiently
curtain
considerable attention
used to
type
direct
contact
condensers
(12).
have
received
They are
being
In
12
1976 0 1 iker
data of
(12)
lack of technical
an
experimental
their
"the
evaluation
even
states that
determination of a heat
densed steam.
heat exchangers
nature
of
dealing
this
apparatus
calculation
of
is not made."
the
with
usually
necessary
heat
and
He
consists
of
flow rates
mass
He then points
design.
of
transfer
in
con
those
which
entered
suddenly changed
vapor induced
the jet
was
to
treatment
(13).
the
essentially
vapor
shear
As
the
resistance
the solutions
were
chamber
on
of
the
applicable
liquid;
These
solution
the
at
the
vapor.
thus
the
velocity
for
of
T0 , was
of
assumptions
The
in
laminar
condensate
only
surface
temperature
temperature
constant.
condensers
saturation
negligible
in 1964,
the
of
was
if the
assumed
Jakob
negligible,
number,
defined
as
(Tsat " ^ o ^ f g ,
was infinitesimally
or if
hfg *
small.
If
(Tsat
This

can
T0 )
occur
equals
if
either
zero
then
(Tsat
no
 T0 ) + 0
condensation
required for
with (Tsat
of the
x>
complete
condensation
 T 0 ) finite,
coolant
tends
to
is
infinite.
the
Graetz
number
for
zero.
It
thus
clear
is
If
hfg
is
complete
that
the
infinite
utilization
theory
of
13
Kutateladze and Hasson et a l . cannot be applied unless a more accurate
solution is
first
obtained
which
would
define
where
their
solutions
out
(7)
and
coworkers
analyses
and
applicable
a sphere
present
velocity was
problem
not
easily adapted
also to a jet.
the
on
University
of
over a
of
packed
bed
vertical
flat
analytical
sheet
methods
condensation
on
in
that
should
laminar
the
thus
be
sheet
and
(8).
the
design
flow
condensation
The
at
the
for
gas present
for
case
to
(16), and
uniform.
to
(7,16,8)
coolant
length
of
or
jet
condensate
necessary
film in
to
utilize
order to
various
2.2.
1.
General Assumptions
assumed uniform.
The
basis
for
this
one
vapor
of
the
on
assumption,
(14,15),
previously
by
a moving liquid
classical
used
be
will
assumptions
of
be
small.
Nusselt
for
This
as
laminar
The
other assumptions
inherent
in the
i .e.,
(a) the temperature
at the
interface
between the
resistance),
vapor
and
con
14
further
assumption
will
be
made
that
the
Jakob
number
Ja  Cp (Tsat  T0 )/hfg.
where the
is as follows:
coolant
average temperature
enters the
is T sat and
if we assume an energy
saturated
set
vapor
it equal
chamber to
to the energy
PZ ^ p^ ^(^sat  Tq ) uR
Uhfg 2ttR6x>00
2.1 .1
U( Tsat  T 0 ) L 
Uhfg 5x+oo
2.2.2
^ x h
Cp (Tsat  T 0 )
____ _ = 1 ___________
=
R
2hf
Ja
2 2 3
2
L
It is
Cp (Tsa^  T 0 )
= i = Ja
hf
9
clear
an assumption
that
if Ja
of a small
0, 6XW R
Jakob
2.2.4
and 5x^oo/L go to
zero.
Therefore
condensate layer.
is
15
For a
fluid
T sat  T0
condensing
is
of
moderate
of constant properties
of small
mass
on
as
own
liquid
size
and
therefore
should
addition
velocity, axially
its
be
as
the
prior
laterally.
generally
the
reasonable.
supports
well
this
Nusselt
Further,
assumption
If the
low
pressure
systems,
provides
of
mass
for
that
assumption
the assumption
uniform
addition
means
A small
negligible
jet
were
Jakob
dynamic
i nfluences.
2.3.
Condensation on a Sheet
Consider the sheet of coolant shown in Figure 2.3.1. The cold li
quid temperature T 0 , has a thickness 2L and a uniform velocity, U.
It
entered a
at
chamber
filled
temperature T sat
occurs.
I defines
The
until
coolant
quiescent
starts
saturated
to
heat
up
pure
as
vapor
condensation
region
sheet, penetrating
the wall.
with
This
= L,
the condensate
from
region,
can
be
the
thermal
boundary
condensate
which
extends
defined
as
layer
layersheet
along
the
thermal
develops
interface
length
of
entrance
in
the
towards
the
sheet
region.
As
the condensate
Beyond Region
where
Region
layer
will
I lies Region
condensate layer
will
grow
approximately
equal
that
TC_
T sat.
As
in
the
sheet.
is heated.
this
The
increase
an
energy
balance
for
the
coolant
sheet
yields
16
Figure 2.3.1.
17
L
3T,
* CH
T x J
L6 j
2.3.1
y=L
P i c p u (T sat " T c ) dy +
d r
hfg ^ J
As the
first term
gible.
L+5,
p l udy = k*
condensate
layer
on the left
side
9y
is
of
2.3.2
y=L
thin
and
Equation
Jakob
2.3.2
number
can
is
be
small,
assumed
the
negli
dJ r
'fg t
3TC
= k
wy
2.3.3
y=L.
The assumption
sate layer
implies
of
a
negligible
linear
thermal
temperature
capacitance
profile
of
the
across
it.
capacitance
of
the
condensation:
necessary.
9T
To = T 0 and
= 0
3y
therefore
sheet
induce the
and T = Tj at y = L.
Thus,
2.3.4
T c = Ti + (y  L)
The thermal
conden
at
for
it
is
the
a more
y = L  5^
only
heat
general
sink
to
profile
is
2.3.5
18
t = ji + J  2 el2  2L 6t + 2y (L + 6t ) + ^ 2]
condition
of
the
heat
fluxes
at
2.3.6
the
interface
be
3T
3y
3y
leads to
y=L
the
T
0
Ti
2.3.7
y=L
following
+1
2
expression
for
the
interfacial
temperature
T
67
1 + I
2
sat
2.3.8
At
5,.
0 =
2.3.9
Tsat " T q
nondimensionalizing all
lengths
with
respect
to
the
hydraulic
dia
12
d6
Ren
Pr
2 6,
o
1 fit
2 +  =t2 6r
dx
2.3.10
and
d5c2
d7
2Ja
Pr Ren
1
H
1 , I
1 + 2 6C
2.3.11
19
Equations 2.3.10 and 2.3.11 make up a set of two coupled nonlinear
first
order
differential
equations.
The
the values
be solved
equations
of the
may
first
be
solved
derivatives
assuming a series
numerically
at
solution.
x = 0.
after
Sc (x =
establishing
Conversely
they
can
2.3.12
and
2.3.13
Region II
heats up.
begins
Thus
the
when 5^ = L.
integral
energy
equation
for
the
entire
sheet
sheet
becomes
9T
2.3.14
U(T  T 0 )dy = k^
Pi
y=L
0
The energy
equation
Equation 2.3.3.
The
temperature profile
entire fluid heats
The boundary
for the
expressions
in
the
sheet
condensate
for
the
change,
layer
remains
interfacial
however.
as
given
temperature
For the
in
and
sheet the
conditions
governing
the
temperature
profile
include
y = o
2.3.15
y = L
resulting in
T& = Ti
20
2.3.16
Utilizing this
profile
the nondimensional
the
sheet
following
expression
is
centerline temperature,
obtained
relating
condensate and
sheet
thicknesses.
(1  0i)
2.3.17
cL = i
8SC
end
of
Region
goes
to
one.
Utilizing
Thus if
Equations
2.3.18
dx
ReDH Pr (1 + 12 S c )
dSc 2
2Ja
"7"" = n (1 dx
Ren Pr
dH
Equations 2.3.17,
2.3.19
Nusselt
number
in
Region
I can
be
shown
21
2.3.20
and in Region II by
2.3.21
N u D h (x ) =
The fraction
of
coolant
capacity
utilized
can
be
obtained
by
Condensation on a Jet
The schematic for condensation
As can be seen the basic model
thermal development
jet heats
up,
Region
is in the
fact that
choice of
coordinate
region,
II.
one
must
Region
The
system
on a jet
I,
and
primary
region
difference
where
in
consider an axisymmetric
is y
in the
the
There is a
the
entire
formulation
geometry.
The
condensate
film.
The energy equation for the jet in Region I is
2.3.22
0
and for the condensate layer, assuming 6C/R << 1
2.3.23
As for
the
case
of
the
sheet
one
can
assume
linear
temperature
22
REGION I
REGION II
Figure 2.3.2.
23
Tsat  Tj
~
y'
c
Tc = T i +
2.3.24
T o
<T 1
T o >
 y/
2  3  2 6
2.3.26
 T0 / T sat
with
to
respect
the
 T0 and
jet
d
7L
=*[0i (
dx
1 3
the
diameter.
lengths
are
nondimensional i zed
2
)] =  =
6
ReD Pr 6t
H
2.3.27
and
dSc 2
dx
2Ja
Pr Rep
The boundary
0 and S c (0) =
(1  9 i )
2.3.28
conditions
0.
The
at
growth
=
of
as
these
with
the
layers
sheet
are,
at
are
x
St(0) =
=
0,
of
the form
5t (x) = axf1/2
x*0
and
6v(x) = bx"1/ 2
x+0
2.3.29
24
the centerline of the jet, the entire jet starts to heat up.
Here the
ai
^ z
> (1  R )dy  T
(y  0)
2 3 30
T1 
t cL
* T i  Tc L d
Substituting Equation
^>2
2.3.13,
into
2 3 31
Equation
2.3.30
and
nondimension
alizing yields
d
32
 = [0ri + 9; ] =  (9j  0r , )
dx
cL
1
Reou Pr
1
cL
H
The compatability
of
heat
fluxes
at
2.3.32
the
condensate
jet
interface
yields
(1  0i)
e .  0. = cL ' i
46r
2.3.33
2Ja
d6c 2
dx
Renu Pr
H
The boundary
end of
(1  0i)
conditions
Region
I.
at
the
start
of
Region
value
is
zero.
that
approaches that
as
2.3.34
Ja > 0
the
II
are
the
start
It is
used by Kutateladze
at the
at
at
the
temperature
Thus
those
surface
of the
jet
15).
25
The expressions
Regions I
and
II
the
for
are
the
the
local
same
as
Nusselt
given
manner.
The
numbers
for
the
for
the
sheet
jet
in
in terms
of
coolant utilization
primary
difference
is
is
that
calcu
for
the
0a v g . ,= (ecL + i)/2
jet
2.3.35
0avq
= 2/3 9(;L ^ 1/3 0 j
3sheet
2.4.
2.3.36
Condensation on a Sheet
Examination of
densation on
on the
sheet
product
values of x/D^
the
of
governing
indicates
RepH
and
a similarity
Pr,
differential
that
the
and
solution
Ja
heat
and
exists,
equations
for
transfer
x/D^.
and
For
6C
is
the
con
dependent
very
and
small
5t can
be expressed as
1/2
and
2.4.1
h
= V
1/2
respectively as
indicated
by
equations
2.3.12
and
2.3.14.
Thus
for
, t
(>*eD Pr d h /x >1/2
Nun (x) =  D
2.4.2
1/2
2.4.3
for large
solve differs
only
The difference
sent solution
Graetz number.
in
would
gives
Graetz solution.
the
coefficient
indicate
a
The
that
slightly
two
The analytical
for
faster
solutions
being
large
l//ir
Graetz
heating
yield
of
results
instead
of
1//3.
number
the
pre
sheet
than
the
the
within
3%
of
each
is
transfer
usual
zation as a function
on
with its
Also
surface
for
correlations
direct
contact
of
Nusselt
condensation
number
it
is
present
problems,
of condensation
to
sheet,
percent
sheet
coolant
utilization
is
shown
held
on the
at
T sat.
curve
shown
for
for the
the
sheet
latter
is
oo
100% < 1 
The curve
given
by
tt2
Equation
2.4.4
Gz
appears
2.4.4
to
correspond
closely
to
Utilized
Percent
Graetz Number
Figure 2.4.1.
rv>
28
the curve for Ja = 0.10 over the range of Graetz
Between Graetz
0.05.
This
numbers
follows
of
70
and
from the
by comparison of Equations
130 the
Nusselt
agreement
number
is
expansion
close to
accuracy
Ja =
shown
increase
For
in
coolant
example the
Jakob number
increase
sheet
figure
from
length
shows that
0.01
to
0.2
or
a decrease
in
Graetz
the
Graetz
number
for a
decreases
At high degrees
of thermal
from the
A better
understanding
curves
is
converge;
obtained
from
however,
looking
this
at
it appears
is
not true.
tabulated
data.
Table 2.4.1 presents percent of coolant utilization for the Jakob num
bers shown in Figure 2.4.1
as well
as from the
Graetz
solution,
as a
same form of
In other
behaviour
of the local
Nusselt number is
arbitrary
Jakob
and
words the
Equation 2.4.2
for
Jakob number  0.
Kutateladze
(13)
number
and
Hasson
by
Equation
(14)
again
sheet.
given by
2.4.3
show
for
that
2.4.5
of
utilization
of
the
coolant
for a
cylindrical
29
TABLE 2.4.1
Percent Coolant Capacity Utilized for Condensation
on a Sheet
............. Percent Coolant Capacity Utilized
Gz
Gz Sol. Ja0.01 Ja=0.05 Ja=0.10 Ja=0.15 Ja=0.20
78.9
56.6
49.6
44.1
39.7
36.1
33.1
30.6
28.4
26.5
24.9
24.4
22.1
20.9
19.9
18.1
17.3
15.9
13.8
12.1
10.5
8.9
7.9
7.4
6.9
6.4
6.2
5.9
5.6
5.3
5.1
4.8
4.7
50.8
59.7
63.5
66.9
70.0
72.9
75.4
77.7
79.8
81.7
83.4
84.9
86.4
87.7
88.8
90.8
91.7
93.2
95.4
96.9
98.1
99.1
99.4
99.6
99.7
99.8
99.9
99.9
99.9
99.9
99.9
99.9
99.9
53.1
62.9
67.0
70.7
73.9
76.9
79.4
81.7
83.7
85.5
87.1
88.5
89.8
90.9
91.9
93.6
94.3
95.5
97.1
98.2
99.0
99.6
99.8
99.8
99.9
51.7
61.3
65.3
68.9
72.1
74.9
77.5
79.8
81.9
83.7
85.3
86.8
88.1
89.3
90.4
92.2
93.0
94.3
96.3
97.6
98.5
99.3
99.6
99.7
99.8
99.9
99.9
50.2
59.5
63.4
66.9
70.0
72.8
75.4
77.7
79.7
81.6
83.3
84.8
86.2
87.4
88.6
90.5
91.4
92.9
95.1
96.6
97.9
98.9
99.3
99.5
99.7
99.8
99.8
99.9
99.9
48.8
57.8
61.6
65.0
68.1
70.9
73.4
75.7
77.8
79.7
81.4
82.9
84.4
85.7
86.8
88.9
89.8
91.4
93.9
95.6
97.1
98.4
98.9
99.2
99.6
99.6
99.7
99.7
99.8
99.9
99.9
47.5
56.3
60.0
63.4
66.4
69.2
71.7
73.9
75.9
77.9
79.6
81.2
82.7
83.9
85.2
87.4
88.3
90.0
92.7
94.6
96.3
97.8
98.5
98.9
99.2
99.4
99.5
99.6
99.7
99.8
99.8
99.9
99.9
30
jet from the cylindrical Graetz problem is
100%
1  I
2.4.6
n=1 xn
present
As can
be
cylindrical
solution
seen
agreement with
the
the
are
Graetz
shown
cylindrical
in
Figure
Graetz
Ja = 0.15 at a Graetz
problem
results
2.4.2
solution
number
and
is
with
Table
in
of 41 and
those
2.4.2.
approximate
with
Ja = .20
values
condensation
of
coolant
by looking at
Ja = 0.05.
Figure
on a jet and a
utilization
2.4.3
sheet
can be made
shown in Tables
which
2.4.1
and
for
however, as can be seen from Figure 2.4.3 and the tables a considerable
divergence of percent
percent coolant
coolant
utilization
utilized
of
99.5%
is
the
noted
jet
for
Gz
< 50.
For a
requires
a 41%
longer
and
Region I is well
about 5%
further
0.20
of
that
the
that
heat
for
0.01.
the
even
of
of Jakob
the
number
entire
range
be
of
range
transfer
satisfied by Equation
over Region
Jakob number
show
of 0.20 but
for the
jet the
less than
solution
1% for
given
in
Utilized
Percent
Gratez Number
Figure 2.4.2.
CO
32
TABLE 2.4.2
Percent Coolant Capacity Utilized for Condensation
on a Jet
Gz
58.8
45.5
37.0
31.3
27.0
23.8
21.3
19.2
17.5
16.1
14.9
13.9
12.9
12.2
11.5
10.9
10.1
9.3
8.7
8.2
7.4
6.8
6.3
5.8
5.4
5.1
4.7
4.4
4.3
4.1
3.9
53.6
60.4
66.2
71.1
75.3
78.9
81.9
84.6
86.7
88.8
90.4
91.8
92.9
94.0
94.9
95.6
96.5
97.3
97.8
98.3
98.8
99.2
99.5
99.6
99.8
99.8
99.9
52.6
59.2
64.9
69.8
73.9
77.6
80.7
83.3
85.6
87.6
89.3
90.7
92.0
93.1
94.0
94.8
95.9
96.7
97.3
97.9
98.5
98.9
99.3
99.5
99.7
99.8
99.9
99.9
51.4
57.9
63.5
68.3
72.5
76.p
79.1
81.8
84.2
86.2
87.9
89.5
90.8
91.9
92.9
93.9
94.9
95.9
96.7
97.3
98.0
98.6
98.9
99.3
99.5
99.6
99.8
99.8
99.9
50.3
56.7
62.2
66.9
71.0
74.6
77.7
80.4
82.8
84.8
86.7
88.2
89.6
90.9
91.9
92.9
94.1
95.1
95.9
96.6
97.5
98.2
98.7
99.0
99.3
99.5
99.7
99.8
99.8
99.9
49.3
55.6
61.0
65.7
69.7
73.3
76.4
79.1
81.5
83.6
85.4
87.1
88.5
89.8
90.9
91.9
93.2
94.3
95.2
95.9
96.9
97.7
98.3
98.7
99.0
99.3
99.5
99.7
99.7
99.8
99.9
Utilized
Percent
Graetz Number
Figure 2.4.3.
GO
GJ
Ion 2.4.2
should hold.
However,
to design
a jet
condenser
or a
CHAPTER 3
3.1.
When a small
amount
of
Introduction
noncondensible
gas
is present in a vapor
made
condensers.
for
both
surface
type
condensers
This observation
and
direct
contact
ing on a fan jet have shown that the average heat transfer coefficient
could be reduced by as much as 50 % for a concentration of one percent
air in
steam
and
could
be
reduced
to
approximately
21%
of
the
pure
vapor value for a concentration of three percent air in the bulk steam.
This type of drastic reduction has been shown by Minkowycz and Sparrow
(6) to be due to a buildup of the noncondensible gas at the liquidvapor
interface.
Further
it
has
been
shown that
an
interfacial
resistance
is negligible.
Sparrow (17) was the first to formulate a theory to evaluate the
effect of
no ncondensibles.
cerned with
were the
condensation
first
to
on
contact
study
a solid
theoretically
His
and
others
surface.
consider
condensation
the
Taitel
effects
on a sheet
(6,18,19)
of
and
of
were
con
Tamir
(20)
nonconden
coolant.
Their
condensate forming on
36
of noncondensibles
liquid flowing
on
over
the
an
condensation of vapor
the same
fluid
condensation
adiabatic
presence
Theoretical analyses
surface.
on a laminar
in the
of
sheet and
of
vapor
In
on
the
an
immiscible
present
on a cylindrical
a noncondensible
gas
are
coolant
solved
flowed
for the
of
the
latter assumption
Graetz problem.
analyses was
added mass
that
is strictly
the
applicable
becomes infinite.
ting the length
treated.
velocity
only
a uniform
assuming
(13).
His
velocity.
The
that
it
entered
due
difference
at
coolant
to
condensation
jet of
energy equation
analyses
between
was
when
ignored.
This
uniform.
the
was
heat
Graetz
problem
Kutateladze's
of
and
his
solution
vaporization,
hfg,
coolant
stream
if
Kutateladze's
solution
is used,
was presented. For example, for a Jakob number less than 0.20 the error
can exceed
30%
when
Kutateladze's
results
are
used.
The
error
is
is
necessary
to
of the
resistance
37
3.2.
1.
The
velocities
constant.
in the
The basis
General Assumption
coolant
for this
condensate
film are
The
velocity
due to the
in the
gasvapor phase is
velocity
not influenced
in the
coolant
by
gravity
stream is rela
tively high.
3.
The
liquidvapor
interface
is
impermeable
to
the
noncondensible
gas.
4.
Interfacial
resistance
the interface
is
between the
negligible.
Thus,
the
temperature
at
is
6.
small;
thus the
com
Further, the
small
temperature
difference
between
the
coolant
3.3.
Mathematical
on a sheet
or jet in the p r e
sence of a noncondensible
can be
jet
seen the
defines a
sheet
or
condensation
is divided
interface
and
into two
boundary
grows
regions.
layer forms
toward
the
Region
at the
centerline.
con
Re
centerline and continues until the condensation ceases. Outside the con
38
Figure 3.3.1.
39
Figure 3.3.2.
densate layer
of
boundary layer,
<5^, induced
value
the temperature
is
the
boundary
from
of
by
W*
At
At
the
T*.
flow
of
mixture
liquid.
layer in which
at
W^.
vaporgas
Within
thin
the
mi x
the noncondensible
the
liquidmixture
the
vaporgas
interface
forms
interface
condensate
between
the
to
gas
the
interface
liquid
coolant
For the
jet it
is
equal
coolant jet
sheet
to
radius
one.
while
is
equal
to
Further,
for
the
zero
and
for
the
the
jet
L =
for
sheet
cylindrical
which
is
the
of
the
the
These
sensible
heat
of
heat
capacity
vaporization
assumptions
further
and
make
of
the
condensate
that
the
the
small
condensate
layer
effects
is
jet
of
curvature
41
In the coolant
stream Jacobs
and Nadig
(8,9)
for
Tt (L  t ) = T0
 (L  6t ) = 0
3.3.3
TZ (L) = Ti
If
we
define
new
variable
Z, =
L  y,
the
results
for hfg
temperature
profile
T*  T0 = ( ^
In the
condensate
 T0 ) (1  I ) 2 .
6t
layer,
the
3.3.4
assumptions
utilized
in
developing
the
Tc  ^
= (T*  Ti) ( ^  ^ )
6c
Utilizing the
compatabi1ity
of
heat
3.3.5
fluxes
between
the
condensation
9y
3Tc
9y
3.3.6
Substituting Equations
3.3.4,
3.3.5
3.3.1 and
12
dSt2
s 2 i \ A +  ^ '
V Pr R e ^
)\
0*
2 +
2 6C /
+ 't 2 d ? c 2
Sc 2 dx
.3.8
2 ^c
and
d<5c 2
2Ja
.3.9
dx
Pr Ren
dH
where lengths
1 + =ytc
have
been
nondimensionalized
with
respect
to
the
hy
T  T0
T00  T10
For a
3 '3.10
cylindrical
jet
the
governing
equations
for 6^ and
Sc are
43
and
d6c2
2Ja
3.3.12
dx"
Ren Pr
H
the
ture at
condensate
the
value
requires solving
for
in
turn
and species
equations.
small
vaporgas
the
face, which
number and
of 0*, the
mixture
concentration
requires
The
variation
the
solution
assumption
in
hfg
saturation
interface.
of
of
allows
the
This
vapor
of the
a
at
tempera
of
course
the
inter
vaporgas
small
for
necessary
momentum
value
of
integration
Jakob
of
the
Sat~ hf g (T00
5* =
"
1 +. sat OO
p
1
In
hfg
 T0 )
P v*
3.3.13
Pw*
r
V
Pv
P
1  W
1  W (1 
1)
Mg
then allows
for
relating
the
mass
concentration
of
gas
to
the
value
of 0*.
The integral
gasvapor mixture,
that
the
species equations
condensate
vaporgas
in the
interface
for the
for
L.
The conditions
interface, zero
of
velocity
no
in
slip
the
at
the
condensate
mixture
as
vaporgas
y + and
the
mixture
condition
3.3.17
y  L + 6C
W = W*
3.3.18
y  L + 6C + 6S
3w
W = Wo, and = 0
3y
results in
y  (L + 6C ) 2
W  Woo = (W*  W J
1 
3.3.19
45
20
d5m 2
3.3.20
dx
Re
pm 6C dx
H vm
and
d6s2
12
dx
ReDu Sc
H
25s2
dx
W* 
6Z
^m3
3 V \
1  11 +
10 ?rm 2
5r
Vi
for the
sheet.
For
Re
1 6j l +
2 6m
10 5m 2
j '\ dfim 2
1
3 ^
' dx~
^s
pm *c
!i2
dx
3.3.21
1
jet
the
following
equations
are
obtained
3 Pz ^m dsc?'
Pm 6c
H vm
dx
the
12
d5 m 2
1+
dx
3.3.22
1 + "5m
and
1
15
1
(W*  Wo,) ^ ( + 5C ) 5S (1   +
dx
1
16.
1
6 2 (_ . _ _ i + _
4
5 6m
2 5m
62
10
6 2
~ ) +
10 5m 2
1
_
w*  wm
( + 5C )
(
")
w*
3.3.23
46
For both the sheet
W.co
W* =
dSc2
ym 5C
Thus, for
Region
3.3.21, and
the presence
I,
3.3.24
of
dx
3.3.24
Equations
3.3.8,
3.3.9,
completely
define
the
governing equations
3.3.14,
condensation
noncondensible
gas.
are
3.3.11,
Equations
3.3.13,
For
on
sheet
cylindrical
3.3.12,
3.3.20,
3.3.13,
at
in
the
3.3.16,
when 6^ = L.
ously increasing.
The
energy
equation
for
the
coolant
be continu
stream
in
Region II is
L
3.3.25
0
y=L
coolant must
conditions
y = 0
y = L
 
T<! * Tc
T = Tj .
3.3.26
47
3.3.27
at the
interface
I.
between the
for the
Using the
original
condensate
compatabi 1 ity
coolant
of
stream and
1 ( 0 *  9j )2n
r. = CL
8
6C
LL.
Substituting Equation
3.3.28
3.3.27
into
Equation
3.3.25,
nondimensio
+
the
d0i
Ren Pr
2
dx
dx
s h e e t  =   _ dx
12 Sr + 1
Src
for
the
jet
The energy
3.3.29
32(0*  0 ^
1 0*  0n d6c2
d9*
 _
+
d0i
Rep Pr
2
Sc
dx
dx
=   dx
8
+ 1
.
3.3.30
Sr
equations
for
the
condensate
films
in the
sheet
and
jet
d5"c 2
2Ja
 = ( 0*  0i)
Ren Pr
1
H
d6c2
2Ja
(0*  0i )
r  = 
 3.3.32
dx
R e ^ P r (1 + 26c ) _
dx
3.3.31
48
?
The expressions for S ^ ,
tial conditions
?
W*, 6g
remain as given in Region I.
The ini
of the coolant
is calculated
from the e q ua
tion
L
Tm
f pi
CP u^ n
dy = f pi
CP uT* y " dy
3 3 33
4
_
9m = 0 i 6t
3.3.34
9m _ ~ 9i 51 (1 ~ <H)
. . ..
3.3.35
3.3.37
T  T0
3.3.10
T
 To
49
thus, the
value
of 6m gives
given
contact condensation,
designer rather
than
Nusselt number.
The
only reported
for
it
the
fraction
up
by the
is
this
quantity
heat transfer
3.4.
the
coolants
condensation process.
comparison
of
that
coefficient
coefficient
with
is
the
For direct
important
or local
or
results
capacity
Nusselt
of
to
the
value
number
prior
of
are
studies.
equations
derived herein
indicate that
noncondensible
number
to be presented
Dp
of
gas
variables,
is
present
we have
in
the
vapor.
restricted the
results
the
problem
is
divided
into
to
very small
its
centerline,
values
of "x.
similarity solution
number the
entire
error exists
region.
is
In
fact,
for
the
for
applies.
and
and i are of
found by Taitel
dx*/2 .
constant
value
and Tamir
(20),
These
in
Region
is
available
for
problem
of
the
sheet
the
of
the
the
values
cylindrical
jet
Jakob
small
<5m = cx1/2 ,
For
solution
small
For
regions.
similarity
applicable;
region
two
solutions
Region
I.
for condensation
= ax*/2 , <5C = b x ^ 2 ,
indicate
Similar
that
results
W*, e*,
were
in the presence of a
50
noncondensible gas.
The
for 0i  0* equal to
constants,
diameter of the
extent
of
is
Region
a
I,
function
as
one
only
would
of the
guess
hydraulic
For a
sheet
xn
sheet
= 0.083 Ren
This is in agreement
Pr
3.4.1
'
with the
value
obtained by Taitel
and
Tami r who
equations
linear and
do
not
the extent
of
Region
for Ja
<
0.05,
the changes
yield
for
the
similarity
I is dependent
an
approximate
in 0j, W*
cylindrical
solution
upon
value
and 0* are
jet
are highly
unless IT > 0.
other parameters.
of
small.
xD j et
The
can
be
non
Thus,
However,
obtained
approximate
value
as
is
given by
xn
jet
= 0.146 Rep
Equations 2.2.34
ture for Region
I.
mean
the mean
temperature,
of
coolant
give the
0m , goes
to
Jakob number.
utilized,
all
the
it is
fraction
conditions
value
W*, * 0,
0m . goes to
a noncondensible
3.4.2
2.3.35
temperature,
and
As Ja > 0, and
sheet the
the presence
Pr
2/3
of the
mean tempera
0j goes to 1.
1/3
at St = L
at 6^ =
is to lower the
Thus for a
and
R.
The
values
for
a jet
effect
of
of 0* and 0^,
coolant
one
utilized.
wishes
to
in the
Thus,
utilize
value
it
is
a major
for Region
51
II.
Typical
behavior
for
ej,
W* are
shown in Fig
by
noted
on a cooled plate.
in Chapter
parameter
by Taitel
Minkowycz
that
pressure.
(6)
(20)
for
for
the
this
As
is
due
pressure
condensation
case
of
to
the
fact
on
condensation
change
decreases
This
the
Tamir
Sparrow
indicate
p/pm with
and extends
and
This
would
condensible gas.
and
3.4.3,
the
in the
value
concentration
of
of
non
length
of
the
coolant
stream
necessary
to
achieve
of condensation
decreases.
The
decrease
in
Thus,
condensation
the rate
rate
brings
increase.
Eventually
W*
decreases
to
the
free
stream
However,
given degree
the
of
length
coolant
for
extremely large.
Jacobs
sation on
value of
an
stream
coolant
stream
utilization
a pure
immiscible
coolant
of
for
necessary
to
condensation
is
achieve
generally
might might
become
film that
length
to
it
occur.
is possible
Further
for
a maximum
increase
in
the
Figure 3.4.1.
Condensation of a sheet.
P = 2.89 psia.
9*,9i,9m,W* as a function of X,
X
Figure 3.4.2.
Condensation on a jet.
p = 2.89 psia.
0*,0i,em,W* as function of X,
cn
co
X
Figure 3.4.3.
Condensation on a sheet.
P = 14.7 psia.
c_n
P*
Figure 3.4.4.
Condensation on a jet.
P = 14.7 psia.
Utilized
Percent
Graetz Number
Figure 3.4.5.
Percent
Utilized
Graetz Number
Figure 3.4.6.
Condensation on a jet.
Percent utilized as a
function of Graetz number.
cn
^>i
58
value of
W, would lead
given degree
did not
of
to
decrease
utilization.
observe this
in
the
Although
behavior,
length
for
examination
the
required
present
for
problem
a
we
case
of
steamair,
Tables
3.4.1
and
3.4.2
indicate
the
sibles present
of
as
function
pressures illustrated
are also
shown
Hasson et
in
a l . (15)
for
a value
75F.
of
At
in
Figures
Figures
for
shown
1.826
the
for
higher
and
3.4.1
3.4.5
and
in Table
number
3.4.4.
The
for
the
These
results
experimental
on
3.4.1.
He
claims
accuracy
two
data
of
out
at
of 35%.
complete
90%
Jakob
through
3.4.6.
condensation
his experiments
effectively
W*,
condensation.
utilization
pressure
at
Table
his AT would
be
2.89
3.4.1
indicates
psia
and AT =
approximately
142F.
These values
are
well
within
his experimental
spread
59
TABLE 3.4.1.
Condensation on a Sheet
Pressure
Psia
Woo
60
70
80
90
14.7
14.7
14.7
14.7
0.005
0.005
0.005
0.005
1.047
1.050
1.060
1.080
1.089
1.091
1.103
1.129
1.107
1.139
1.153
1.173
1.168
1.177
1.198
1.220
60
70
80
90
14.7
14.7
14.7
14.7
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
1.117
1.121
1.131
1.168
1.179
1.191
1.217
1.266
1.235
1.293
1.316
1.368
1.356
1.384
1.428
1.473
60
70
80
90
14.7
14.7
14.7
14.7
0.05
0.05
0.05
0.05
1.632
1.720
1.848
2.042
2.117
2.259
2.470
2.708
2.797
3.008
3.223
3.479
3.702
3.863
4.102
4.334
60
70
80
90
14.7
14.7
14.7
14.7
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
2.567
2.824
3.185
3.749
3.860
4.235
4.479
5.380
5.556
6.079
6.624
7.249
7.764
8.203
8.781
9.316
Uti 1.
60
70
80
90
2.98
2.89
2.98
2.98
0.005
0.005
0.005
0.005
1.185
1.213
1.244
1.291
1.383
1.413
1.472
1.542
1.622
1.686
1.747
1.826
1.956
2.021
2.090
2.150
60
70
80
90
2.89
2.89
2.89
2.89
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
1.397
1.446
1.516
1.615
1.865
1.921
2.035
2.180
2.448
2.573
2.693
2.842
3.274
3.395
3.513
3.597
60
70
80
90
2.89
2.89
2.89
2.89
0.05
0.05
0.05
0.05
3.596
3.962
4.439
5.088
6.698
7.263
7.997
8.818
10.840
11.672
12.357
13.108
16.309
16.838
17.460
17.885
60
70
80
90
2.89
2.89
2.89
2.89
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
7.573
8.582
9.884
11.798
14.944
16.426
18.322
20.507
24.508
26.606
28.444
30.420
36.916
38.387
40.164
41.398
60
TABLE 3.4.2.
Condensation on a Jet
%
Uti 1.
Pressure
Psia
Woo
60
70
80
90
14.7
14.7
14.7
14.7
0.005
0.005
0.005
0.005
2.000
2.042
2.000
1.872
1.698
1.822
1.924
1.883
1.444
1.480
1.713
2.148
1.268
1.282
1.554
2.261
60
70
80
90
14.7
14.7
14.7
14.7
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
2.451
2.620
2.634
2.481
1.981
2.219
2.505
2.620
1.667
1.840
2.324
3.059
1.536
1.744
2.384
3.392
60
70
80
90
14.7
14.7
14.7
14.7
0.05
0.05
0.05
0.05
5.333
6.282
6.911
6.955
5.226
6.603
7.724
8.074
6.019
7.653
9.074
9.728
7.339
8.974
10.357
11.063
60
70
80
90
14.7
14.7
14.7
14.7
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
10.549
12.211
13.178
13.205
11.849
13.877
14.848
14.632
13.704
15.653
16.750
16.550
15.232
16.987
18.080
17.926
60
70
80
90
2.89
2.89
2.89
2.89
0.005
0.005
0.005
0.005
2.393
2.707
3.238
3.613
1.638
1.858
2.583
3.943
1.940
2.892
4.029
5.093
4.657
6.862
8.387
8.387
60
70
80
90
2.89
2.89
2.89
2.89
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
3.120
3.748
4.722
5.510
2.556
3.440
4.757
6.477
4.429
6.034
7.346
8.410
9.989
12.215
13.308
3.156
60
70
80
90
2.89
2.89
2.89
2.89
0.05
0.05
0.05
0.05
12.784
15.070
16.743
17.032
14.208
16.534
18.314
19.577
17.870
19.720
20.917
21.692
23.589
25.090
25.536
24.994
60
70
80
90
2.89
2.89
2.89
2.89
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
26.765
29.014
30.158
29.609
27.057
29.589
30.981
31.319
29.648
31.613
32.685
32.899
34.143
35.590
36.018
35.278
CHAPTER 4
4.1 Introduction
Laminar film
cooling towers,
condensation
packed
and
finds
wetted
applications
wall
towers
in
for
trickling
type
rectification
and
He
assumed
film, neglected
the years
the
numerous
linear
vapor
temperature
shear
and the
investigators
have
profile
interfacial
dealt
with
in
Sparrow and
Greg
1956
[24]
including
used
a
Chen
the
sensible
similarity
in
the
condensate
resistance.
the
same
Over
problem
heat
of
transformation
condensation.
to
solve
the
work
has
been
reported
on direct
contact
condensation
on
vertical sur
face.
A survey of literature reveals that there are two prior works
ported which bear slight resemblence to the present problem.
re
Murty and
62
Sastry [26]
dealt
with
the
problem
of
condensation
is
at
the
same
temperature
present problem,
the
tween the
temperature
vapor.
plate
Another
temperature is
incoming
situation
the
same
temperature
and
the
the
to
is
saturation
incoming
leads
the
plate.
is
saturation
importance
thin
film
However, in
the
assumed to lie
be
temperature
when
the
temperature
film temperature
an
film temperature
of
as
as
on
entirely
is
incoming
of
the
not the
different
of
the
film
vapor.
same as
analysis
than
4.2
Case 1
Figure 4.2.1
rate mf
and
T0
model.
vertical
isothermal
plate.
The
flow
film is
Jakob
ensures that
number
the
condensate
wall
Cp(Tsat
towards
As Tw
the
film
Tw )/hfg
is
is
thin
< T0 , a thermal
edge
of
the
film.
small.
and
does
boundary
As
This
T0
not
layer,
<
condition
measurable
6j, grows
Tsat a
second
63
64
6 2 , growing
thermal boundary
layer,
the wall.
the
length
meet
such
Along
boundary layers
is defined as Region
perature of the
of
the
at
= Xp
I. Beyond Region
region
I lies Region
two
0
thermal
< X
< Xp
being held
at a lower temperature.
Region I
The mass flow rate in the film is
.6f
mf = Pf
f dy
4.2.1
where
Uf =
Sf y 
vf
2 J
4.2.2
which leads to
3m^.v n 1/3
 9Pf I.
The integral
dx
form
4.2.3
layer <$i is
Pf Cpf u f (Ti  T0 ) =  kf I
0
For the boundary layer 62 it is
8y
6f
4.2.4
4.2.6
The boundary
layer
conditions
boundary
are
Ti = Tw at y = 0
Ti = T0 at y =
3Ti
 = 0
3y
at y =
T1  To  ( Tw  To) 0
The boundary
conditions
4.2.8
governing
the
temperature
profile
T2
are
T2 = Tj at y = 6f
aT
 = 0 at y = 6^  62
9y
T = Tq ;
4.2.9
.
66
T2  To * <Ti  To> (l  ^
4.2.10
4.2.11
uc = uf
y = 6f
4.2.12
2vf
3 T2
leads to
the
following
To + ; ^
4.3.13
9y
o
jr y = f
9 7 y = 5f
6r
expression
for
the
interfacial
temperature.
Tsat
4.2.14
1 +
1 2
2 6,
 To
Tsat " Tc
4.1.15
67
1 <5^
2 5C
0 . = 1
_
1 69
1+  =22 6r
Substituting
4.2.16
Equations
4.2.2
and
4.2.8
into
Equation
4.2.4
and
d6l3
dx
36
4.2.17
P r f (6f  (
) ^i)
Substituting Equations 4.2.2 and 4.2.9 into Equation 4.2.5 and nondimensional i zing the length terms by (vf2/g)l/3 yields
d6 2
2 T 2 (72
Prf
T 2x 1 _
( f ' 10
2 ) 9i
dx
42>18
dx
(Sf2  1Q
52 2 )
and 4.2.11
into
Equation 4.2.6
and
d6c 2
dx
3/2/3
Ja
(1 0j) .
4.2.19
Prf R e f2/3
Utilizing the expression for 0j from Equation 4.2.16, Equations 4.2.19
becomes
d6 2
c
dx
32/3
Ja
P r f R e f2/3
l52
1+
2 6r
Jc
4.2.20
68
Equations 4.2.17, 4.2.18 and 4.2.20 define the condensation in Region I.
The boundary
conditions as
can
be
= 0; 6"c ( ^ = 0 )
= 0; S2(x = 0)
seen
=0.
The differential
equations
can
be
0.
For
extremely
small
values
of
it
can
be
shown
that
$1 = a^
4.2.21
62 = a 2 x ^ 2
Tc = a3 ^ 1/2
6 2
instead of the
in the film de
creases .
At the end of Region I let
6 1 = Li; ^ 2 = ^ 2
and
c,
Li
6f
; Co
Lo
4.2.22
^ 6 2
such that c^ + C 2 = 1 .
In the beginning of Region
9T
where the slope = 0.
and
l\<
y < Sf.
69
uf T i *
Pf
kf
r 9Ti
C,
L 9y
Pf
3Ti
y =
9y y = 0
Li
4.2.23
and
6f
ff
d
dx
J Uf
kf
To dy =
Pf
CP
Pf
for Lj < y < 5f
9T2
9T2
9y
4.2.24
l\
are
Tl = Tw at y = 0
Ti = Tb;
9T1
6 (x) at y = Lj
4.2.25
9y
Ti = T W * 2
Tw +
(Tb  Tw
) TI^\
'
<T b  T + 6Li)j^r
4 .2.26
T 2 = T b (x) ;
9y
4.2.27
T 2 = Ti at y = 6 f .
T2 = T b
'
f y  Lf
L2
J
'
4.2.28
70
The condensate layer temperature profile remains as
t~
4.2.29
Tc  Ti + (T sat ' T i )
interfacial temperature
4.2.30
2 6C + I 2
Substituting Equations 4.2.2 and 4.2.26 into Equation 4.2.23 and nondimensionalizing the length terms by (v^ 2 / g ) ^ 3 leads to
b ew ^ P^l ^f
Ci
<%
dx
El
+ Cl 5f
4.3.31
dx
10
Prf C1
5f
\3
10
d0L
"
de
h?
5f
do,
+ M3
dx
0i
Prf
where
2 lc2
(l 
JC 1l)
2
m2
c ic2
6
Ci
^3
( 1 . fi) +
(i  )
2
12
15
 c i)
c
_z_
20
6b + e L2
(lq)
sf 4
4.3.32
The condensate
layer
energy
equation
remains
the
same
as
Equation
4.2.19.
Equations 4.2.31,
in Region
II.
beginning of
4.2.32,
The
initial
Region
II.
and
4.2.19
conditions
The
describe
are e =
of 6C is
value
the
condensation
and 613 =
that
at
the
obtained
at
the
end of region I.
Case B Tw < Tn = Tqat
Figure 4.2.2
thermal vertical
when
the
model
incoming
for condensation
on an iso
film
is
temperature
at
the
saturation temperature. The film with a mass flow rate, mf, enters cham
ber containing
greater than
grows from
Tsat no
the
the
pure
saturated
temperature
wall
layer grows
is
called
point
as a result
of
outwards
condensation
vapor.
the
towards
occurs.
Region
The
I.
onwards
condensation occurs.
As
plate
the
the
This
film
a thermal
edge
region
Region
the
of
the
temperature
boundary
film.
As
comes
filmedge
to
an
layer
T0 =
boundary
end
temperature
is
when
decreases
equation
and
The
and the
4.2.2,
velocity profile
respectively.
boundary
conditions
remain the
same
as
However,
the
temperature
governing
the
temperature
72
Figure 4.2.2.
73
Tl = Tw at y = 0
4.2.34
Tl  Tsat = (Tw  Ts a t ) (1 
)
61
Substituting Equations
4.2.2
and
4.2.34
4.2.35
into
Equation 4.2.5
and
non
36
4.2.36
dx
establishing
x = 0. The initial
the
value
of
the
first
derivative
is
at
(x=0)
be shown that
= 6f.
Region II
Region II begins as the film edge temperature at y = Sf drops b e
low the
begins and
thin
layer, 6C , develops
on
the
edge
of
the
film.
in the
74
Tf = Tw at y = 0
9Tf
i
3y
Tf = Ti and
q
 =  3
at y = 6f4.2.38
1
Tf = T w + { 2(Tj  Tw ) + 3 5
f}
7   f (Ti  Tw ) + 6
sf
Sf1 ^
( sf
4.2.39
The temperature
4.2.11.
profile
in
the
condensate
layer
remains
as
Equation
Ti _ Tsat + g6c
4.2.40
Defining a nondimensional temperature
T  Tw
0 = Tsat ~ T w
4.2.41
0j = 1 + 3 Sc
4.2.42
where
(vf2 /g)1/3
= (Tsat ' Tw ) *
4.4.43
equation
for the
condensate layer
re
75
dSc
Ja
32/3
dx
(l9i)
4.2.44
^ 7 7 3
d~6C
Ja
dx
4.2.45
Jf SfUff Tff
dy  i l _
p Tf
Pf c L
T Lpf
3Tf
<<
II
07
h
5dx
1
ay
4.2.46
y=0
4.2.39, 4.4.42
30 (l+ 8(6C + 6f ))
d3_
Prf 5f4
dx
8 Ja B2
+
(4 Sc +
(3Ref)2/3 Prf
g6f)
and 4.2.47
describe the
4.2.47
condensation
in
8T
h(x) =
ay
y=o
(Tsat " Tw )
4.2.48
76
M
h(x) (vf 2 / g ) 1 / 3
N u ( x ) =  1K
Case A
4.2.49
3Ti
b
___
K
2(TW  T0 )k
y = 0
8y
(^sat
4.2.50
(Tsat V 1
' Tw )
Nuj
OQ
(7) = w
(1  0W ) 6i
4.2.51
4.2.21, Equation
4.2.48 becomes
29
Nu> w
4.2.52
.
NUl
Nusselt
number in
Region
I can be evaulated as
3ew
(1  0w )a
Region I comes to
the expressions for
4.2.53
x 1/3
an
end
at X = Xq
al
+ a2 XD ^
= 5f
4.2.54
Nu j i
Jf
(x) dx
Nu j j
4.2.56
*D
(x 
The average
xq)
Nusselt
+ Nu j j
Nu = Nuj
number
over
Regions
and
II
is
gi ven
by
(x  xD )
4.2.57
x
Case B
Tw < Tn = Tsa^
The local
heat
transfer
coefficient
in
Region
is
2k
h(x) =
61
gi ven
by
4.2.58
Nuj
(x) =
'
4.2.59
61
Utilizing the
expression
for 6^ from
Equation
4.2.37,
Equati on
4.2.59 becomes
4.2.60
from which an average Nusselt number over the length of Region I can be
expressed as
78
NiJj =
_1/3
al x
Region I
comes
4.2.61
to
an
end
4.2.37
when
the
= 6f. Utilizing
following
equation
the
is
expression
obtained
to
6f 3
~X[) = (
) .
al
4.2.62
20j + 3 6f
Nu11
( x ) = 
4.2.63
6f
The average
Nuji
JP
Nusselt
number
Region
II
be
evaluated
as
*D
The average
Nusselt
number
_
Nui x D + N u n (x " XD)
Nu =  
4.3
4 2 64
in
Regions
and
II
is
given
by
4.2.65
in Region
expressions
could
equation
indicates that
can
Nu jj (x) dx
(x  xD )
Case A
in
be
In Region
obtained
for
number,
I for small
the
the
values of
coefficients
of 6^,
79
'
36
They are
~ 1/3
(SRe^r)1/3 PrjJ
I"
~l/ 2
24
4.3.1
L ( 3 R e f ) 2//3 Pr^H
if
a3 ~ 2 I 2 32 +
4.3.2
6 i + 62 = 6f
The extent
of
Region
I, Xq,
governing differential
equations.
utilizing the
indicated
profiles
the profiles
can
be determined after
Alternately
in
Equation
it
Equation
4.2.21
can
be
4.2.21.
and
the
solving the
evaluated
Substituting
values
of
a^
36
77T~
1/2
~jl/3_ 1/3
1/2
4.3.3
XD
I is given by
3 0W
4.3.4
80
In addition to the Reynold, Prandtl, Jakob numbers, condensation in
Region II
is dependent
plate. In Region
II,
on
a fourth parameter:
simple expressions
the temperature
of the
for the
important
the average
[27] that
Nusselt
for
efficient on
be
of the plate
calculated.
It has
over which
been
reported
with
diameter,
d,
has the
same
magnitude
as the
2.5
d.
corresponds to
an
equivalent
average
of
interest
lie
nondimensional
Nusselt
number
was
below
height
one
of
calculated
inch
the
which
plate
of
the
distance
along
the
interfacial
plate
for
temperature,
different
te m
leads to a sharp
er decrease in 9 i .
Figure 4.3.2 presents the nondimensional
plate for different temperatures
of the
wall.
interfacial
temperature,
In Region
I, 9j remains
the same for each of the wall temperatures. This is due to the fact that
condensation in Region
the film
and
independent
of the
wall
temperature.
However
in
Region
X
Figure 4.3.1.
00
X
Figure 4.3.2.
83
II the plate wall
As a
maintained
there is
sharper
noticed that
in
expected
in 0j in
beginning
of
of
decreasing.
As
decrease
the
increases instead
Region
This
of the Region
lower
II
can
II.
wall
Furthermore
for a
be
temperatures
short
distance
attributed
it
to
the
of the
is
0j
fact
wall
is
This distance
of the film.
For
sharper
(>100) there
decrease
in 0^.
is
little
temperature wall
seems
However,
decrease
to have
are
larger
in 0j in Region
very little
II.
effect
Reynolds
In
fact
on the
number
the
low
interfacial
temperature.
Figures 4.3.4 through 4.3.6 present the integrated average Nusselt
number as a function of x for different incoming film temperatures, wall
temperatures and Reynolds numbers. The results agree with the expected
trends. For example, a lower wall temperature leads to a larger temper
ature difference across the film leading to a higher heat transfer at
the wall.
It is to
wall
does not necessarily mean a higher condensation rate. For example consi
der the case of a high Reynolds numbers.
interfacial temperature
nificantly in Region
remains
II.
This
to
X
Figure 4.3.3.
00
200
400
600
800
X
Figure 4.3.4.
1000
Figure 4.3.5.
CO
cr>
200
400
600
800
1000
Figure 4.3.6.
00
88
across the film leading to a high heat transfer at the wall. However, a
large interfacial temperature leads to a low temperature driving force
for condensation leading to reduced condensation rate. The heat trans
fer at the wall
Tw < Tn = Tq
in Region
I is dependent
indi
on the Prandtl
Equation 4.2.36
can be expressed as
<$1
= a^ x * / 3
On evaluating
a^ =
*
the
4.3.5
value
of
aj
at
x : 0
36
1/3
.
[  ]
Prf Sf
it
was
found
to
be
4.3.6
lf =
(3 Re f ) 1 / 3
4.3.7
4.3.8
89
5^
3_
(3Ref )4/3Prf
4.3.9
36
for aj
and Xq
the average
Nus
4.3.10
No simple expressions
Nusselt number in Region II. Thus, they had to be evaluated using num
erical techniques.
Figure 4.3.7
shows
the variation
numbers
creases. However,
there
is a
interfa
of the nondimensional
numbers,
interfacial
decrease
which
in 0j as x in
lead to high
film
temperature decreases
very
insignificant
effect
on the interfacial
temperature i. The
integrated
Nusselt
numbers
over
Regions
and
II
4.3.11
x
The above expression does not contain the Jakob number indicating
that at higher Reynold numbers the integrated average Nusselt number is
independent of the wall temperature.
Figure 4.3.7.
91
Figure 4.3.8 presents the variation of the nondimensional interfa
cial temperature with the distance along the plate for different temper
atures of the wall. The results follow the expected trends. A lower wall
temperature results in a faster removal
presents
the
integrated
interfacial
average
Nusselt
number
as
temperature
drops
faster
along the
length
of
the plate. As a result the heat flux at the wall decreases leading to
a lower average Nusselt
number
in Region
II. However,
in Region
I a
Figure 4.3.8.
Nu
Figure 4.3.9.
CO
Figure 4.3.10.
CHAPTER 5
CONDENSATION ON A THIN FILM FLOWING OVER A
VERTICAL ISOTHERMAL PLATE IN PRESENCE
OF A NONCONDENSIBLE GAS
5.1 Introduction
It is well known that the presence of a small amount of nonconden
sible gas in the condensing vapor can drastically reduce the condensa
tion heat transfer. To understand the above phenomenon several investi
gators have dealt with the problem of laminar film condensation on an
isothermal vertical
surface.
They
have
by
over
in 1969.
facial resistance,
shown
that
equations
for
of noncondensible
Minkowycz
However,
of heat,
condensation
to half a percent
50%.
the first to
gases
on
[17] were
can
and
mass
of
and momentum
steam,
a mass
[6 ] studied
the
of inter
gradients, mass
and thermal diffusion and variable properties. They concluded that the
effects of interfacial resistance and thermal diffusion were negligible.
They further
point
of noncondensible
gases
are
96
studies on laminar film condensation in the presence of a noncondensible
gas.
In all
of the above
studies it was
on the effects
surfaces,
little
of noncondensible
Thus, it
was
of experimental
gases
decided
on condensation
on
of noncondensible
attention
on
and analytical
has
direct
been
contact
a thin
film
flowing
over
gases
focused
nature has
on condensation
on the
condensation
effects
processes.
of noncondensible
an
isothermal
gases
vertical
surface.
The only work reported that is close to the problem is condensation
on an immiscible
film flowing
over an adiabatic
by the author
vertical
surface
[9]
different
However, the
for condensation
plate
on a thin
in the presence
of a noncondensible
gas
is
shown in Figure 5.2.1. The film with a mass flow rate mf and a tempera
ture T0 flows down a vertical isothermal flat plate. It enters a chamber
filled with a vapor containing a small fraction of noncondensible gas.
It is
assumed that
the pressure
in the
chamber
is
sufficiently
low
97
Region I
Region II
Figure 5.2.1.
98
and the Jakob number, Cp (T  T0 )/hfg, is small. This assures that the
condensate layer is thin. It is assumed that the effects of superheat
ing, thermal diffusion and diffusion thermo are negligible [6 ].
property variations are retained
Fluid
Region
are developing.
I defines
As
region
where
T0 > Tw , a thermal
the thermal
boundary
layers
from
the wall towards the edge of the film. As T > T0 , the vapor condenses
on the edge of the film.
boundary layer
grows from the edge of the film towards the wall. At a point along the
length of
the
0 < X < Xq
plate,
is defined
condensate layer,
which are
brought
that
the
two
as Region
boundary
I.
are
momentum
about
the
by presence
when
and
of the
this
point
meet.
The
region
I in addition to the
species
+ 62 = 5f. From
layers
In Region
there
Region II begins
meet such
Xq,
boundary
layers,
noncondensible
boundary
onwards
layers
S\
gas.
and 62
the entire
film
Pf Uf dy
0
where
5.2.1
99
9 r ,
y i
[ 6f y  ]
Vf
2
uf =
5.2.2
6f
1/3
"3mf
 Uf
v 2 1/3
( L )
g
5.2.3
dx
Pf uf Cpf
Jf
(Tl  T0 )dy
=  kf
is
9Ti
9y
5.2.4
y = o
O f
Pf uf Cpf (T2  T0 ) dy = kf
6f
62
8T 2
9y
y =
6 f.
for the
5.2.5
condensate
layer is
5f + 5c
dx
The boundary
Jf
y = 5f .
conditions
5.2.6
layer 6 ^ are
Ti = Tw at y = 0
Tl = T ;
1
u
9T
i = 0 at y = Si
3y
5.2.7
100
Tl  T 0 = (Tw  T 0 ) (1  7  )
5.2.8
The boundary
62
conditions
are
3T
0
at y = 5f  62
^7
5.2.9
T 2 = Ti at y = 5f .
These conditions lead to
5f  y
t2
As the condensate
'
layer is thin
it is
5.2.10
reasonable to assume
a linear
are
T c = Tj at y = Sf
5.2.11
Tc = T* at y = 6 C + <5f
These conditions lead to
y ~ ^f
Tc = Ti + (T
 T i> <  T  f )
5.2.12
Hi
ay
leads to
dTr
y = sf
the
= kf &
f ay
following
5.2.13
sf
expression
for
the
interfacial
temperature
101
1
2
5.2.14
Ti =
1
T  T
=  QTcc . Tr
5.2.15
1 5
5.2.16
Substituting Equations
5.2.8
and
5.2.2
into
Equation
5.2 .4 and
_ __________ 36______
dx
Prf (f  TO
5.2.17
^l)
Substituting Equations
5.2.2 and
5.2.10
into Equation
5.2 .5 and
dF"
Prf
 25
_ o
(Sf 
~f~2
^_2 _) I.
10 ' T T
H l
dx
5.2.18
 10 2 2 )
Substituting Equations
5.2.19
and 5.2.12
into Equation
and
non
d^ 2
dx
5.2.20
dS 2
__ c
9 *
4
Ja
= _____ _____
5.2.21
c
is
very
small
relative to that
liberated
as
latent
concentration
of gas
and
vapor
is expressed
in terms
5.2.22
p = p v + Pg ; W v + Wg = 1
103
script is dropped. The partial pressure of the vapor and the total pres
sure are related by the expression
PV
1  W
1  W (1  M v/M g )
5.2.23
As the Jakob number is small and the pressure across the boundary
layer is assumed to be constant, the variation in hf is small. Under
9
the above assumptions the Clausius Clapreyon Equation can be integrated
rPv
Prv *
where T
rs
J*
dP
and Ts^
hfQ
dT
5.2.24
T1
indicated
integration
in Equation 5.2.24, an
,.
1+
^ V 7
g
P\/OQ
5.2.25
Pv*
1  w,
~ ] l
 W* (1  M v/Mg )
5.2.26
1 1
 wM (l   v)
Mg
l  w*
104
R
IQ
nT
hf (Too  Tq )
Tgoo R
1
P yoo
b *
rV
Py 00
P *
5.2.27
3u
 
3x
3V

3u
u + V
3x
3y
3w
3u
ay
+ V
3x
3w
ay
form
The integral
= v
32 u
5.2.28
ay
= D
32W
3y
of equations
species are
sf +
6c + sm 9
p dSC
3n
u^dy + u_  ur V* =  v
dx Jf
J
c dx
c
3y y = Sf + 6C
f + 6 C
5.2.29
d_
dx
6f + sc
+ 6m
u(W  W J dy + uc (W*  W J
5f
+ sc
urV
C
3W
(W
 Wa>/
J =  D gy
'
y = Sf + S(
5.2.30
105
3u
u  0;
3y
= 0 at y = 6 f + 6 r + 6m
W = Woo
3W
= 0 a t y = 6f + 6r + 6c
3y
5.2.31
.
These conditions lead to the following profiles for velocity and concentrati on
uc
2
u = ~ 2 [ 6 f + 6 C + 6m  y]
W*  Woo
w  Wro = (  ) [ 6f + 6
5.2.32
+ 6
 y]2
.
5.2.33
6S2
ddx
Sf
Jf
+ 6r
P f
uc ady = r[ ou
d6  pv]i
6f
5.2.34
6f + 6C
'
The interface between the condensate and the gas vapor mixture is
impermeable to the noncondensible gas. Therefore,
d6
p gu
77
dx
,
pgv ) + D
Combining equations
Pc
d 6r
u_
pi C dx
5.2.34
3w
^
^
y =
6f
+ 6C
and 5.2.35
and eliminating
2 ZP W*  W
W*
6S
5.2.35
v*
results
in
5.2.36
106
Pc
2D
d5c
dx
7T
W
)
5.2.37
of the noncondensible
W* =
1 
vf
5s
Re / 2/3
73 Prf I sr =
Voo
5C
5.2.38
d 5c 2
=
dx
for v
from Equation
40
5
(3 R e f ) 2 / 3 Z I
f
Poo
d<sc 2
d*
5.2.39
Voo
from Equa
dS 2
dx
(3 Re f ) 2 / 3 sr
J 2
s
1
1 ___
Woo
W*
10
*s2l ^ dw*
V J
d)T 1
6m
dx
5C
3
+ 
(i ~
m
5 2
r?)
10 V
5.2.40
Equations 5.2.17, 5.2.18, 5.2.21, 5.2.39 and 5.2.40 defind the condensa
tion in Region I.
5 2 (x=0
)=0 ;
6 c (x= 0 )=0
; 6m (x= 0 )=0 ;
107
and Ss (x=0)=0. Alternately, they
may
be
solved
assuming a
series
of
51
= aj x l / 3 +
62
= a2 1 ( 1 / 2 +
= a3 x l / 2 +
5.2.41
= a4
T l/2
= a5
x l/2
6 f.
Region II
Region II
begins
point
onwards
the
6i
and
62
=T*i ;
C1 =
= L2
., to
r 
Sf
_C
5.4.42
6f
f 1
t
uf
kf
T 9T1
Ti dy = p f Cpf L 9y y = L
3Ti
3y
5.2.43
,]
108
for 0 < y <
l\
and
i f ' uf T2 d y . ^ f ^ l
 > Jl
dx J
T 2
p>f_ rcPf
n . L3y y = 6f
y =
5.2.44
L\
are
Ti = Tw at y = 0
T1
= Tb
9T1
5.2.45
ay
T1
iL l ) y
T + 2 <Tb  Tw +
^2
Lj
<Tb  Tw +
5.2.46
The boundary conditions governing the temperature profile in Lj < y < <5f
are
T2 = Tb (x);
12 =
l i
ay
= 
1
k
=  p (x ) at y = Li
1
5.2.47
Tj at y = 6 f = Li + L 2
y  Ll'
(  )
L2 2
5.2.48
109
(y  <5f)
TC = Tj + (T*  Ti)  _
c
The compatibility
of
following expression
heat
for
4.2.49
fluxes
the
at
the
interface 6 f leads
nondimensional
interfacial
to
the
temperature
0 * L 2 + 20b 6 C  e L 2 6 c
01
=
5.2.50
5c + L 2
Substituting Equations
5.2.2
8 jet  0W + ec]_ Sf J
I  1 c,
3
5 ]
+ ci Sf
31 * 10l , J
dx
5.2.51
dx
Substituting Equations
5.2.2
'I3
(5  u
d0 i
1 dx
d0.
dB
dx
5f
+ M3 dx
c1%
c22
 _i) + L
2
4
[< 
Prf
0b
+ 0 L2
(1_ Ci) ^ 4
5.2.52
where
2 CiCo
1 2
(1
(1
 cx )
1
c 23
15
5.2.53
m2
clc22 (i . fl) +
6
M3 =
C 1 C0
H A
2
.
(1
ci
 li
2
c
j?_
(1 " Cl)
12
Cg
^2
20
(1
cx)
c2'
10
110
The condensate
layer
energy
equation,
the
momentum
and
species
equation in the gas vapor region remain the same as Equations 5.2.20,
5.2.39 and 5.2.40, respectively.
Thus Equations
5.2.51,
5.2.52,
Region
II.
the condensation
in
= 0. The
values
initial
5.2.20,
The initial
5.2.39
and
conditions
5.2.40
define
are p
and 65
at the end
of Region I.
Case B
Tw < Tn = Tc;gf
towards
= Sf.
region
drops
leading to
Ill
Figure 5.2.2.
112
Tl = Tw at y = 0
= 0 at y = l_i
5.2.54
Tl 
(1   )
5.2.55
61
Substituting Equations
5.2.54
and 5.2.2
into Equation
5.2.4
and
36
5.2.56
dx
Equation 5.2.55
in Region
I.
It can
small
begins
as the
film
edge temperature
at y
= 6 f drops
species
equations
are
established
in the
gas
vapor
region.
The boundary conditions for the temperature profile in the film are
113
Tl = Tw at y = 0
Tx = ^
3 Ti
; !
q
=   = "
at y = 5f
5.2.58
T1  Tw+ C2<Ti
+ %
] f f td,
 T) + M f ] ^
5.2.59
kf
pf c
Substituting Equation
Pf
riii
 !Ii
L 9yy=Sf 9y
5.2.2
and 5.2.58
5.2.60
y=o
into Equation
5.2, 59 and
leads to
d
dx 46 i + o ^ f
5.2.61
where
T  T,w
Too  Tu
5.2.62
3 (vf 2 /g ) 1 / 3
( Too  Ty^J
114
Tc = T, + (T*  T i )
The compatibility
y  6f
( ?) .
c
of heat
5.2.63
fluxes
at the
interface y
= 6 f leads
interfacial temper
ature 0 j.
0 j = 0* + g <5C .
5.6.64
_
dB
__
_ 30
n  '4
Prf6f
_
_
d0*
_ dSr
[0* + 0 (5f + 6C )]  4  4 6 S
i t
,jx
(jx
dx
_
7 _
4 ^C + Q 5f
8
5.2.65
dSc
_2__
Ja
dx
32/3
Ref2/3Prf
0*
~ 0 .j
6C
'
5.2.66
d5r
~
dx
2
9 /t
32/ j
The nondimensional
as
Ja
?/"3
Ref ' P r f
_
3
'
5.2.67
115
^Vs
Pv
 T0 hf
Pv*
___________________9________
i?T
Pv
__ n
1 +
Pv*
hf
5.2.68
where
Pv
00
_ "
PV*
1  W
Ll 
(1
I
00
 M v/Mg )J
pi  W* (1  M v /Mq )
1
1  w
5.2.69
Woo
W*
1
3 2/3
2/3 v f
 Ref
_ L 6c
4
v_
d 6,
6S
dx
_1
.
5.2.70
for conservation
of momentum and
40
d6 m 2 _
1 0
dx
(3 R e f ) 273 v f
6Poo
5.2.71
S
dx
24 Wo
d s 2
dx
A
(3 R e f )2 / 3 Sr
w*
* 7
I ^s_ \ d 5m^
" 5 *m
d*
Vo,
2 622
(w*  Woo)
6C 1
S 2 dw*
 9'
6m 10 6m
dx
(I ^
2
^m
3
10
4 4 )
^m
5.2.72
116
Heat Transfer Expressions
A heat transfer coefficient can be defined as
, 9T
k
h(x)=
5.2.73
y=o
(T.  T w)
(T) =
Nu
h(x)(vf 2 /g ) 1 / 3
 1 k
5.2.74
Nusselt
number
in Region
I be
comes
29,.
N.. (x) =   W
(1  ew) 6i
5.2.75
pa
N
5.2.76
(x) =  t t t
(1  9w )a i x 1 / 3
Nut = 1
(1
^  rn .
 0 w )ai x 1 / 3
5.2.77
117
5.2.78
NU II
'
=J_
NuII
dx
5.2.79
XD
(x  xD )
where
X q is the extent of Region
The average Nusselt
I.
length
of Regions
I and
II
is given by
Nu = Nuj xD + N u n
(x  XD)
5.2.80
Case B Tw < Tn  Ts
The local Nusselt number in Region I is given by
2.0
Nu (x)
61
5.2.81
.
Nu (x) =
from which
Nusselt
5.2.82
_1 / 3
ai x
an average
Nusselt
number
in
Region
I can be
calculated
118
as
3
5.2.83
2 0 j
+ 3 5f
Niijj (x) =
5.2.84
Nun
rx
J
^un (x) dx
5.2.85
Nur xD + Nujj (x  xD )
Nu =  x
5.2.86
present
analysis
the
overall
average
Nusselt
number
is
119
5.3.1
Although the equations derived are valid for all fluid systems of
interest, it was decided to restrict the
densing on a thin
study to that
reason
for this
of steam con
restriction
is
indicated
in
Equation
5.2.41.
They
are
5.3.2
No simple
expressions
could
had
be
to
precision
obtained
be
for
evaluated
the
coefficients
numerically.
They
of 6C ,
were
subroutine, Hybrdl
Chicago, Illinois
by a modification
The user
1/2
1/2
5.3.3
120
tent of Region
I.
of Region I is de
pendent on the Prandtl number and the Reynolds number of the film. The
average Nusselt number in Region I is given by
3ew
5.3.4
II is dependent
plate.
local or average
on the nondimensional
No simple expressions
Nusselt
evaluated numerically.
numbers
As
noted
in
could be obtained
Region
in the previous
length
temperature
chapter
of
for the
had to be
in
section
over
of the
its effect
interfacial
concentration
of the
Nusselt number.
Figure 5.3.1 presents the concentration of the noncondensible gas
at the
interface Sf + Sc as
function
of
the
to a high
W* in
Region
I.
This
distance
along
the
It is observed that a
can
be explained
as
result
more
vapor
and
noncondensible
gas
are drawn
Figure 5.3.1.
ro
122
in a higher
W*.
In Region
This is
due
to
is
the
small
I. However,
This
difference
of the
in Region
between
T0
noncondensible
II there
and
gas,
Tw .
For
W*, is small
is a considerable
W*.
increase
presents
It is observed that
W*
as a
function
of x
for different
Tw .
the thermal
driving
force
increases, lead
ing to a higher W*. This phenomenon has been observed in several studies
on surface condensers [6,17,18,19].
in
the
interfacial
interface y
5.3.4 which
presents
concentration
in
turn
= <5f. This
the
leads
to
phenomenon
nondimensional
of
of the
noncondensible
vapor, T*, at
smaller
is
observed
interfacial
temperature
in
Figure
temperature 9j
as a function
which in turn
drastically
phenomenon
is further
ob
0.7
0.6
W* 0.5
200
600
400
800
1000
Figure 5.3.2.
ro
co
200
400
600
800
1000
Figure 5.3.3.
200
400
600
800
1000
Figure 5.3.4.
c_n
126
observed in
Figures
5.3.5
and
5.3.6
which
present 0 j as
function
of noncondensible gas
out noncondensible
gas
Tw
Region II,
the
numbers
with
other
numbers
520R.
ratio
It is
is
parameters.
as a function
than
5.3.7
of x for
observed that
greater
Figure
for a
one.
In
presents
= 0.01, T0 =
short
all
and with
of
distance
the
in
previous
analytical studies on bare surface, it has been reported that the ratio
of Nusselt
numbers
sual behavior
is less than
temperature profile
in the
film.
it
Figure
present the
temperature profiles in the film for condensation with and without the
presence of
noncondensible
gas
respectively, a
function
of
x.
For
II
A convex pro
< y < Sf with
the slope being zero at Y = Lj. This is in agreement with the boundary
conditions in Equations 5.2.45 and 5.2.46. Moreover, it is noticed that
the convex
of noncondensible
gas).
After
into Region
II the concavity
decreases.
The temperature
Figure 5.3.5.
Figure 5.3.6.
Figure 5.3.7.
y
Figure 5.3.8.
CO
y
Figure 5.3.9.
132
gion II the slope at y = 0 first decreases and then increases. The same
behaviour is noted in Figure 5.3.9 for noncondensible gas being present,
with one
exception.
The
value
of 9j is
much
lower. This
is due to
of
presence of
Nusselt
numbers
noncondensible
temperature, wall
gas
temperatures,
for
condensation
with
Reynolds
for
with
and
different
without the
incoming
film
stream con
centration of noncondensibles.
Case B Tw < T n < T sat
When the incoming film temperature is the same as the saturation
temperature of
the
vapor,
no
condensation takes
place
in
Region
I.
1.00
Figure 5.3.10.
y
Figure 5.3.11.
y
Figure 5.3.12.
cn
y
Figure 5.3.13.
Co
cn
200
600
400
800
1000
Figure 5.3.14.
I
CO
Figure 5.3.15.
Nu
Nu,
200
Figure 5.3.16.
400
600
800
1000
1.10
1.05
Nu
Nu,
1.00
0.95
0.90
200
Figure 5.3.17.
400
600
800
1000
141
ment of the thermal boundary layer is described by
fil = al
For small
5.3.5
as
36
1/3
1/3
81 ' [6fPrf]
The extent
C (3Ref)2/3 nf] .
of Region
I is evaluated
5 3 '6
5 3 7
5 3 7
al
Thus the average Nusselt
NuI =
A / 3
I D
be expressed as
36
1/3
4/3
1/3
C ,
i/o
1 tf3Rp ^ p r 3
(3Ref)^/ Prf
^ Ref'36 Frf
.
5.3.8
As Region II begins the film edge temperature drops below the sat
uration temperature of the vapor. As a result condensation begins. This
leads to a build up of noncondensible gas at the interface y = 6f + 6C .
Figure 5.3.18 presents the interfacial
concentration of noncondensible
interface at y = 6f + 5C . This
driving
force
(Tsato6  T*)
for
X
Figure 5.3.18.
t*
ro
143
increase
in the
function
number indicates
of
lower
for
film
different
velo
city.
Reynolds.
Thus
the
low
walls
Reynolds
cools
It is obvious that a
the
lead to
bers and free stream concentration of noncondensible gas. For all cases
0 j is equal
to
one in Region
I, but
it decreases
in Region
II. For
can
be
effect
concluded at high
Reynolds
numbers that
neither the
5.3.25,
5.3.26
present the
numbers for condensation with and without the presence of the noncon
densible gas as a function of x for different wall temperatures, Rey
nolds numbers and the free stream concentration of noncondensible gas
respectively.
Figure 5.3.19.
200
400
600
800
1000
Figure 5.3.20.
tn
1.0
0.8
9.
0 .7 ~
0.6
0 .5 1
0
200
Figure 5. 3.21.
400
600
800
1000
Figure 5.3.22.
Figure 5.3.23.
200
Figure 5.3.24.
400
600
800
1000
1 .2
1.0
Nu
Nu,
0.8
0.6
_L
0.4
200
Figure 5.3.25.
400
600
800
1000
~
oi n
Figure 5.3.26.
152
In all
gion I the
into Region
of Nusselt
II the
to understand this
ture profile
in
numbers
is
greater than
the
film.
less than
one.
Far away
one.
In order
Figure
5.3.27
presents
in Region
the
temperature
II.
In the be
a linear profile.
However,
such
behavior
noncondensible
remains quadratic,
is
not
observed
gas. At different
in the
values
of
This is
slope
of the profile at y = 0
for the
non
condensible gas is greater than that for the pure vapor case. Figures
5.3.30 and 5.3.31 present
noncondensible
gas.
temperature.
This
is due to the
rapid
1.0
Figure 5.3.27.
Figure 5.3.28.
cn
P*
Figure 5.3.29.
Figure 5.3.30.
Y
Figure 5.3.31.
U1
CHAPTER 6
CONDENSATION ON A THIN FILM FLOWING OVER SINGLE AND
MULTILE HORIZONTAL ISOTHERMAL TUBES
6.1
Introduction
In Nusselt's
quiescent,
original
saturated,
analytical
and
free
work the
of
capacitance
assumed
noncondensibles.
Further,
of the condensate
film was
negligible, the shear induced by the vapor was vanishingly small and
that the interfacial
Roshenow (23)
a time.
the assumptions
made by Nusselt
(6,24,30)
Beginning with
were examined
reported the
one at
influence
Their
of
results
of Nusselt (22)
studies
in
(30) was obtained by utilizing the boundary layer equation and casting
the problem in terms of similarity variables.
vity driven
Chen (31)
not exist
used an integral
159
boundary layer approach in which the governing equations were used to
evaluate the temperature
cast in
terms
of
two
and
velocity
parameters
profiles.
which
Chen's
were
solution was
essentially
the
becoming
results to those
fact
vanishingly
small
obtained
his
solution
by Nusselt
For these
resulted
(22).
He
had
been
previously
indicated
by
Jakob
in
showed
However,
Roshenow
(23),
Koh
case
of
condensation
on a vertical
row
of tubes,
Chen
(31) has been the only one to offer an improvement to Nusselt's theory,
although experimental
The experimental
results
heat transfer
rates
phenomenon has
been
both of
are
which
vapor velocity
have
than predicted
attributed to
difficult
to
generally
by
either
Nusselt
splashing and
predict.
shown
These
much
or
Chen.
nonuniform
effects
higher
as
The
spilling,
well
as
of waves
on
the condensate film could all attribute to the difference between the
experimental results and the theory for a quiescent vapor.
Chen, in
developing
laminar film
small and
the
at a temperature
it
theoretical
condensation, assumed
that
the time
his
condensate
only slightly
reached
the
second
that
leaving
film of
not
fluid
start
that
until
had
the
Ja/Pr
was
vanishingly
By
Thus,
from
upper
assumed that
condensation
boundary
the
or
tube
first
multiple
was
a thermal
dripped
the
for
tube
model
upper
it would have
on the second
His
results
160
indicate that
the
for
n tubes
is higher than
condensate
In the present
when
it
analysis
reaches the
second
and
subsequent tubes.
sheet between the subsequent tubes as well as that for each tube and
thus are free
as it falls
of
Chen's
onto the
assumption
lower tubes.
Our analysis
reduces
to that
of
be realistic.
is
Tsat .
at
Two
possible
cases
large
distance
above
grow outward
are
the
encountered.
tube
being
until
the
considered
If
boundary
it is of thickness
Tj will
and
drop
below
T sat,
distance
wall
it
analyzed
would
was
take
condensation
will
commence.
It
is
negligible.
the
thermal
A more
boundary
general
layer
situation
to
would
161
/
Region II
Figure 6.2.1.
162
apply when
the
tube
pitch
(distance
between
tubes)
is
small.
For
be initiated
(at <j>0 ).
will grow
immediately
into
the
film
from
the
thermal
interface
at
boundary
the
layer, 63,
same time
as
Until
the two boundary layers meet the only condensation will be that which
occurs due to the heat capacitance of the film.
the tube at which the two boundary layers meet,
<j>l and the
region
where
only
the
is
film
called
capacitance
Region
I.
influences
From
In this
is
at
the
the
end
of
referred to
temperature
occur along
fect mixing
when
it impinges
we consider
the
condensation
T0 ,
below
However,
being held at Tw .
When
T sat,
will
condensation
in our model
we assume per
initiate
at ^0 .
In
our
thus,
analyses
we assume that the film and condensate layer are laminar and free of
surface waves.
Further,
used by Nusselt,
vapor, etc.
we employ the
of the assumptions
These
assumptions
limit
remainder
the
above
assumptions
the
analysis
to
low
pressure
being smal1 .
the
following analyses
can
g sin*
y ,
uf =  [6f y  ]
6 .2.2
,
3mf 1/3 .vf ,1/3 . 1/3
( )
sin
6 f = [ 1
uf
9
6.2.3
vf
thus
The integral
form
of
the
energy
equation
for
the
thermal
boundary
3Ti
R
d<t> /
boundary
dy ~ " kf 3y
layer
growing
6 f
iij
6 f 52
The energy
uf cpf <t2  To
equation
for
the
6.2.4
y~o
from the
interface
il2
kf ay
condensate
it is
6.2.5
yfif
layer
assuming
negligible
hfg
R d<>
In the
two
6f+6c
Pc
uc dy =
ly=5f
thermal
quadratic temperature
tions at
6 .2.6
kf
the
edges
boundary
profiles
and
the
layers
which
growing
in
satisfy
temperature
the
the
we
assume
temperature
condi
gradient
film
at 6^ or <S2 . The
164
resulting profiles are
Tl  T0 = (Tw  T0 ) (1 
y )2
6.2.7
and
6 .2.8
The assumption
of
negligible
thermal
capacitance
of
the
condensate
6.2.9
In the
above
equations
Tj
is
the
condensate layer.
interfacial
temperature
Compatibility of heat
between
fluxes
at
6 .2.10
1 + 1/2 62/ 6C
In Region
I the condensate
to 6 f ; thus we
that obtained
will
layer will
from Equation
6.2.2 evaluated
in this
layer
will
at y = 6f. This
be
in fact
have previously
^ p f (Tsat
 Tw )/hfg
1.
<
<
and
165
e
T  To
6 .2.11
Tsat ~ T0
the interfacial temperature becomes
1/2 52/Sc
6 . 2.12
0i =
1 + 1 / 2 J 2/c >
(vf2/g)l/3 .
velocity profiles
Substituting
into Equations
the
appropriate
6.2.4,
tempera
72
LPry sin<t>
3Sf3
8,1
tan*
tancj)
3 6f ' 5
J '
6.2.13
v (2 6 f  7 l)
b
d6:
dcf>
 2622 (6f2  )
LPrf sin<j>
c T
10
6j d(f>
2 S2
10
3 tan<j>
6o 2 )] * (Sf2
10
So2 )
6.2.14
and
Ja
dcf>
R sin1/3*
2 5,
3 tan*
6.2.15
The
166
necessary boundary
SlU
= <t>o) =
conditions
fi2 U
as
can
= <f>o) = 0 and
be
seen
from
Figure
are
that
s1 = a j U  4>0 )1/3 +
= a2 (<j> 
Sc =
4>q )^ 2
 <t>0 )
6.2.16
boundary
layers
have merged,
6^+62=
Sf,
at y / S f = S j / S f . For
<j> =
+ <t>i this
inflection
point
easily deal
for the
film
Sf = Cj and
is
with this
best
solved
situation the
in
two
parts,
In order
integral
energy equation
i.e.,
6.2.17
1 d
6f
k.p
3To
9To
6.2.18
167
The temperature profile to be used in Equation 6.2.17 must satisfy
the conditions:
y = 0
Ti = Tw
y = C i Sf
8Tj
9T2
Tl = Tb = t 2 ,  = =  e(<J>)
ay
3y
6.2.19
 ( Tb  Tw + BCi 6f ) ( : )2
Ci Sf
*
6.2.20
y = Cl Sf
y = Sf
These lead us to
Ci ) ) [ ( T T 7 7 n 7 ]
6  2 ' 21
profile
g sin*
y2
uf =   [(Sf + Sc ) y vf
2
condensate
becomes
6 .2.22
168
6.2.196.2.21, and
Equations
6.2.17
and
6.2.18
yield
the
following
_
Sf
dg
dct>
6.2.24
[0b
Prf q 3 Sf4
 9W +
B C 1 5 f]
and
d9b
M2 d(j>
M 3 d9j
1 BSf
dg
M 2 d<j>
3 tan<j>
d<(>
Prf
Sf4 (l  Cj)
where
M i = (Cl   ^ )
(1  Cj)
M 2 = (C 1 
c/
M 3 = (Cl 
ir)
2 (1  C!) + (1  C i ) 3
+ (1  Ci)
1
(1  Cn1 )1
+ (1 3
The compatabi1ity
of
heat
Ci)
120
fluxes
6.2.26
20
at
the
condensate
layerfilm
interface leads to
sf(i  q )
(1  gsc ) + 29b sc
2 SC + (1  Cl) Sf
6.2.27
The solution
in Region
of
II.
Equations
6.2.26.2.28
will
define the
for this
region
condensation
are those
at
3 = 0,
Sc
, 9_ = 9_
()> = (j>o + * 1
(j) 
<f>o + <>1
of
needed
a
to
heat
transfer
provide
coefficient
given
amount
is
of
to
define
condensation
the
or
6.2.30
y=o
which yields
2k
h j (c}>) =
51
(T0  Tw )
 in Region I
Tsat _ Tw
6.2.31
and
2k(Tb  Tw + pCi <5f/2)
h tt (<{>) =  in Region II
Ci f(Tsat  Tw )
6.2.32
_
J
o+'t
l
<l>o+<t,l+ <f>2
h = [J h j (<j)) d<f> + J
hjj (()>) d<}> ] / (<j)i + <j>2 ) .
+A
6.2.33
170
Condensation on a Vertical Row of Tubes
Condensation on the upper most tube, as shown in Figure 6.2.2, in
a vertical
row of horizontal
Nusselt (22)
or Chen (31).
tubes
can be analyzed
by the theory
of
is
as a continuous
sheet until
it impinges
condensation
occurs
on the sheet.
If the condensate
and
impinges
heat transfer
falls
as
can be analyzed
by repeatedly using
the model of Jacobs and Nadig for condensation on a falling sheet and
the present model.
impinging
on the
next
is successively
changed
in
absorbed
by
of
must
ultimately
be
on
the
surface
by the total
of
each
successive
tube,
add
vertical
the
present
is
used
for
the
for the
successive
them
row
for that
first tube's
tubes.
The
model of Jacobs and Nadig (21) is only used to determine the value of
T0 for
each
tube.
This
value
will
depend
on
the
tube
spacing
as
171
Figure 6.2.2.
172
well as the
Jakob
number and
Reynolds
number
of
Examination of
the
differential
equations
tained for
coefficients
6.2.16.
the
of
indicates
could be
S2 and 6C indicated
in
ob
Equation
They are:
36R
ai [
1/3
Prf sin<>0 Sf
r
24R
,
ap [
.
p]
d P r f sin<t>0 Sf^
1/2
6.3.1
1
1/1
16
a3 [. _ a 2 + _
_ . a2 + _
Ja
_
R_______
^
<$2 ~ a2(<t) $o ^
6.3.2
53 = a^C*  <t>0 )
numerically
using a
then
determined
as
standard
RungaKutta
algorithm
on a
indicated
in
Equations
6.2.316.2.33.
were applied
in this
paper
correspond to the
experimental
work
173
of Young
(33).
In
these
experiments
the
wall
0.375
inches,  9 5
shows the
ratio
of
the
mm.
was
kept
For these
presently
temperature
conditions
determined
average
Figure
heat
6.3.1
transfer
coefficient to that reported by Nusselt (22) for 0.04 < Ja < 0.20.
It
Ja
with the
row increases.
error increasing as
Ja
increases.
The
results
6.3.3
^nun
Figures 6 .3.26.3.5 show the comparison of the present model with
the experimental
Chen's (31)
analysis
shows a definite
are generally
spacing can
by Fujii
results
are
than
to
high
et a l . (35).
unlikely that
degree that
also
improvement
higher
lead
of Young (33).
the
considerable
some investigators.
Although
over that
we
vapor
For
falling
shown.
predict.
The
velocities
condensate
results
the present
relatively
as
has
been
splashing will
will
tube
pointed
out
accelerate
occur as has
surface waves
data
close
it
to
been argued
and partially
of
analysis
close tube
However,
In addition, the
is
the
by
"dropwise"
would
be predicted
by a model
is large the
between
1.2
nun
VI
t*
1.25
Young et a l .(33)
Chen (31)
Present theory
1.00
nun
0.75
0.0
0.05
0 .1 0
0.15
0.20
Ja
Figure 6.3.2.
0.05
Figure 6.3.3.
0.10
0.15
Figure 6.3.4.
Figure 6.3.5.
179
tubes will accelerate to a high velocity and the condensate sheet will
become thinner.
Chen's solution
should
become applicable.
However,
Chen
neglects
the
and
established temperature
make his
profile
reduces
it.
at a faster
applied to a pitch
coefficient, yet
These
effects
rate than
ratio of two.
ours
the
together
as Jakob
However,
at
values of hn .
REFERENCES
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
the Production
Department of
of Electricity from
Energy Publication,
181
12. Oliker, I., "On Calculation of Heat and Mass Transfer in Jet Type
Direct Contact Heaters," Paper No. 76HT21, ASME National
Heat Transfer Conference, St. Louis, Missouri, August 1976.
13. Kutateladze, S.S., Heat Transfer in Condensing and Boiling, Chap
ter 7, Moscow, 1952. English Translation by U.S. Atomic Energy
Commission, AECTR3770, 2nd Edition.
14. Hasson, D., Luss, D. and Peck, R., "Theoretical Analyses of Vapor
Condensation on Laminar Jets," International Journal of Heat
and Mass Transfer, Vol. 7, pp. 969981, 1964.
15. Hasson, D., Luss, D., and Navon, V., "An Experimental Study of
Steam Condensing on a Laminar Water Sheet," International
Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol. 7, pp. 9831001, 1964.
16. Jacobs, H.R., and Bogart, J.A., and Pensel, R.W., "Condensation on
a Thin Film Flowing Over an Adiabatic Sphere," Proceedings of
the Seventh International Heat Transfer Conference, Vol. 5,
pp. 8994, Munich, 1982.
17. Sparrow, E.M. and Lin, S.H., "Condensation Heat Transfer in the Pre
sence of a Noncondensible Gas," ASME Journal of Heat Transfer,
August 1964, pp. 430436.
18. Sparrow, E.M., Minkowycz, W.J. and Saddy, M., "Forced Convection
Condensation in the Presence of a Noncondensibles and Inter
facial Resistance," International Journal of Heat and Mass
Transfer, Vol. 10, 1967, pp. 18291845.
19. Rose, J . W . , "Condensation of a Vapor in the Presence of a Nonconden
sing Gas," International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer,
Vol. 12, 1969, pp. 233237.
20. Taitel, Y. and Tamir, A., "Condensation in the Presence of a Noncon
densible Gas in Direct Contact," International Journal of Heat
and Mass Transfer, Vol. 12, 1969, pp. 11571169.
21. Jacobs, H.R. and Nadig, R . ,"Condensation on Coolant Jets and Sheet,"
ASME Paper 84HT28, National Heat Transfer Summer Conference
Niagara Falls, New York, August 1984.
22. Nusselt, W., "Die Oberflachen Kondensation des Wasserdaujes," Zeitschrijt des Vereines Deutscher Ingenieure, Vol. 60, 1916, pp.
541569.
23. Roshnow, W.M., "Heat Transfer and Temperature Distribution in Lam
inar Film Condensation," Transactions of ASME, Vol. 78, 1956,
pp. 16451648.
24. Sparrow, E.M. and Gregg, J.L., "A BoundaryLayer Treatment of Lam
inar Film Condensation," Journal of Heat Transfer, Transac
tions of ASME, Series C, Vol. 81, 1959, pp. 1318.
182
25. Chen,
J.J., Garbow, B.S. and Hillstrom, K.E., User Guide for Minpack  1 , Argonne National Laboratory, Illinois, August 1980.
30. Sparrow, E.M. and Gregg, J.L., "Laminar Condensation Heat Transfer
on a Horizontal Cylinder," Journal of Heat Transfer, Trans
actions of ASME, Series C, Vol. 81, 1959, pp. 291296.
31. Chen,
32. Koh,
Bien plus que des documents.
Découvrez tout ce que Scribd a à offrir, dont les livres et les livres audio des principaux éditeurs.
Annulez à tout moment.