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# Module 1

## DC machines- Principle of operation of dc generator,

constructional details, emf equation, types of generators.
Principle of operation of dc motors. Electrical and mechanical
characteristics of dc series, shunt and compound motors,
applications.
AC motors- Principle of operation, rotating magnetic field,
single phase and three phase induction motors.

DC MACHINES INTRODUCTION
A dc machine can be considered as a 2 port network where
energy conversion from electrical to mechanical domain (or vice versa)
takes place.
If energy is flowing in direction as shown in fig 1 (from electrical
to mechanical domain), i.e., we give an electrical input to the dc
machine and get a mechanical output (in the form of rotation of shaft,
etc), then the machine is a dc motor.
If energy flow is in opposite direction, (from mechanical domain to
electrical domain), i.e., we give a mechanical input in the form of
rotating the shaft or so, and we get an electrical output, we can call
that dc machine as a dc generator.

## On the electrical domain, the variables are E (potential) and i (current).

Mechanical domain variables are T (Torque) and (angular velocity).
CONSTRUCTIONAL FEATURES
[Explain with neat sketches the main parts of a dc machine.
Describe their functions. June 2009, KU]
Constructionally, dc generator and dc motor are same.
A dc machine can be considered to have 4 main parts.
1.
2.
3.
4.

Field system
Armature
Commutator
Brushes

1. FIELD SYSTEM
________________________________________________________________________
____________________
Q. What is its need?
A. The field system creates a uniform magnetic field within which the
armature rotates.
________________________________________________________________________
____________________
Q. What is the need of producing a magnetic field?
A. Consider the case of a simple water pump. It pumps water from a
low elevated area (e.g. well) to a tank situated in an elevated area. The

## pump does not produce water. It just causes a mechanical pressure

which forces the existing water into the elevated tank against its
weight. In the same way, the generator does not produce electricity,
but creates potential difference which causes the electric current to
flow from low potential terminal to high potential terminal in the
machine.
The generator operates on the principle of production of
dynamically induced emf. i.e., whenever flux is cut by the
conductor, dynamically induced emf is produced in it according
to the laws of electromagnetic induction, which will cause a
flow of current if the circuit is closed.
________________________________________________________________________
____________________
Q. What is needed to create this dynamically induced emf?
A. Here we come back to our discussion; we need a magnetic field
(field system), conductor and motion of conductor with respect to the
field to create dynamically induced emf.
________________________________________________________________________
____________________
Electromagnets are preferred in comparison with permanent magnets
on account of their greater magnetic effects and field strength
regulation which can be controlled by regulating the magnetizing
current.
The field system consists of four parts.
1)
2)
3)
4)

Yoke or Frame
Pole Cores
Pole shoes
Magnetizing coils
Yoke provides mechanical supports for poles and acts as a protecting
cover for whole machine. It acts as the frame of the machine and
carries magnetic flux produced by the poles. In small generators yokes
are made of cast iron. But for large machines, cast steel/rolled steel is
employed owing to their weight-less nature.
Pole Cores are made of cast steel and usually of circular cross section.
They are used to carry the coils of insulated wires which carry the field
current (or exciting current).

## [Q. What is the need of exciting current?

A. Its simply to excite the field magnet which is usually
electromagnetic in nature. It behaves as a magnet when it is excited
(when current is passed through a coil round it). Of course, we need
the magnet to produce the field.]

Pole shoe serves two purposes. They spread out flux in air gap and
also being of larger cross-section; reduce the reluctance of magnetic
path. They also support the exciting/field coils. They are always
laminated to avoid heating and eddy current losses caused by
fluctuations in flux distribution on the pole face due to movement of
armature slots and teeth.
Magnetizing/Field coils/windings consists of copper wire/strip, are
former-wound for correct dimension. Then former is removed and
wound-coil is put into place over core. When current (exciting or field
current) is passed through these coils, they electromagnetise the poles
which produce the necessary flux that is cut by revolving armature
conductors.
[Explain the functions of field winding in a DC machine. June 2006,
KU]

## 2. Armature Core:In dc machine, armature is rotating. It houses the armature

conductors/coils and causes them to rotate and hence cut the
magnetic flux of field magnets. In addition to this most important
function is to provide a low reluctance path to flux through armature.
This is done by making the air gap between pole pieces and armature
as small as possible. Larger the air gap, greater magnetizing/exciting
current is needed.
Armature core is cylindrical/drum shaped and is built of usually
circular sheet steel discs/laminations and keyed to shaft.
The slots are either die-cut or punched on outer periphery of disc and
keyway is located on inner diameter. In small machines, armature
stampings are directly keyed to shaft. Usually these laminations are

perforated for air ducts which permit axial flow of air through armature
for cooling purposes.
Armature winding is an arrangement of conductors to develop
desired emfs by relative motion in a heteropolar magnetic field. In
winding, conductor or group of conductors are distributed in different
ways in slots all over the periphery of the armature. The conductors
maybe connected in series and parallel combinations depending upon
the current and voltage rating of the machine.
[Explain the functions of armature winding in a DC machine. June
2006, KU]
Functions of armature:1. Permits rotation for mechanical generator action.
2. Since it houses the conductors, emf is induced in them.
3. Provides low reluctance path for magnetic flux.

## 3. Commutator:It facilitates collection of current from armature conductors. It rectifies

and converts ac current induced in armature conductors into
unidirectional current in the external load circuits. It is of cylindrical
structure and is built up of wedge-shaped segments of high
conductivity hard-drawn or drop forged copper. These segments are
insulated from each other by thin layers of mica.

4. Brushes and bearings:Brushes collect current from commutator. Usually they are made of
carbon or graphite and are rectangular shaped blocks. Brushes are
housed in brush holders mounted on a spindle and brushes can slide in
a box open at both ends. Ball bearings are frequently used. Heavy duty
machines prefer roller bearings.
Copper brushes are used for machines designed for large
currents at low voltages.

## The shaft is used to transfer the mechanical power from or to the

machine.

Principle of DC generator
The dc generator operates on the principle of production of
dynamically induced emf. i.e., whenever flux is cut by the conductor
(armature conductor, carrying current), dynamically induced emf is
produced in it according to the laws of electromagnetic induction,
which will cause a flow of current if the circuit is closed.
As the coil rotates in a magnetic field formed by the poles, a
voltage is induced in the coil. When a coil side moves from one pole
to next pole, the polarity of induced emf changes but polarity at
brushes dont change as the commutator also rotates with the coil.
Thus a unidirectional voltage is available across the brushes.
Armature winding
As we discussed in the beginning, we need a magnetic field (field
system), conductor and motion of conductor with respect to the field to
create dynamically induced emf.
In an armature winding, conductor or group of conductors are
distributed in different ways in slots in the periphery of armature.
Depending on the current and voltage rating of the machine, the
armature windings may be connected in series and parallel.
Below are given certain terms and their descriptions. It will be
meaningful to go through it before dealing with the core topic
of armature windings.
Conductor: - The length of wire that lies in the magnetic field is called
conductor. Hereafter we use the symbol Z to represent the number of
conductors in an armature winding.
Turn: - A conductor induces a certain amount of emf in a magnetic
field. In cases where we need to induce a larger amount of emf, we
have to connect conductors in series. When the two conductors lying in
a magnetic field are connected in series, so that resultant emf induced

## in them is doubled (compared to the emf induced in one conductor), it

is known as a turn.
Coil: - When one or more turns are connected in series and the two
ends of it are connected to adjacent commutator segments (in lap
winding) it is termed as a coil.
Coil Side: - Each coil has two sides called coil sides which are
embedded in two different slots nearly a pole pitch apart.
Pole Pitch [Dec 2008, KU]:- It is defined as the number of
conductors per pole. If there are 48 conductors for 4 poles, then pole
pitch will be 48/4 = 12 conductors per pole.
Front Pitch [Dec 2008, KU]:- It is defined as distance in terms of
number of armature conductors between the second conductor of one
coil and the first conductor of next coil which are connected to the
same commutator segment. It is denoted by Y f .

## Back Pitch [Dec 2008, KU]:- It is defined as distance in terms of

number of armature conductors between the last and first conductors
of the coil. It is denoted by

Yb.

## Resultant Pitch: - It is defined as distance in terms of number of

armature conductors between start of one coil and start of next coil to
which it is connected.
Commutator pitch: - It is distance measured in terms of commutator
segments between the segments to which the two ends of a coil are
connected.
Coil span or coil pitch [Dec 2008, KU]:- Same as Back Pitch.

## Above fig gives the cross-sectional view of a modern d.c. machine

showing the main parts. Armature windings, along with the
commutators, form the heart of the dc machine. The emf is induced
here and its effective use enhances the output of machine.
There are mainly two types of winding Lap and Wave winding
DC generator - e.m.f equation [Nov/Dec 2007, Nov/Dec 2006,
KU]
Let = flux/pole in Weber
Z = total number of armature conductors
P = No of poles
A = No of parallel paths in armature
E = induced emf in any parallel path in armature
Generated emf Eg = emf generated in any 1 of the parallel paths i.e., E
Average emf generated/conductor by Faradays laws of
electromagnetic induction =

d
dt

volt

= P Wb

## No. of revolutions/second = N/60

So time for 1 revolution dt = 60/N second
Emf generated per conductor =
So generated emf, Eg =

d
dt

PN
60 Volt

PZN
60 A V

## A=2 for simplex wave winding

= P for simplex lap winding
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______________________
Q. A 4 pole generator with wave wound armature has 51 slots
each having 24 conductors. The flux/pole is 0.01 Wb. At what
speed must the armature rotate to give an induced emf of
220V. What will be the voltage developed if the winding is lap
connected and armature rotates at the same speed?
[NOV/DEC 2006, KU]
A. Flux/pole, =0.01Wb
No of conductors = No of slots No of conductors per slot
Z = 51 24 = 1224 conductors
No of poles, P = 4;
As its a wave winding, A =2
E=

ZNP
60 A

N=

60 AE
=539 . 21 rpm
ZP

## For the same voltage to be developed if the winding is lap

connected, take A = P=4
E=

ZNP
60 A

E=

## 0.01 1224 539.21 4

=109 . 99 V
60 4

________________________________________________________________________
______________________

## Q. A 4-pole dc shunt generator has 24 slots with 10 conductors

per slot and is rotated at 1000rpm. The flux per pole is
0.03Wb. Calculate the generated emf if the armature is lapwound. [June 2009, KU]
A. No of poles, P =4
For a lap winding, we know that A = P = 4
Flux per pole, = 0.03Wb
N = 1000rpm
No of conductors, Z = No of slots No of conductors per slot = 24 10
= 240
E g=

ZNP
0.03 240 1000 4
Volts=
=120 V
60 A
60 4

________________________________________________________________________
______________________

## EXCITATION OF DC MACHINE AND CLASSIFICATION BASED ON

EXCITATION (June 2006, KU)
In dc machine, the field coils or field winding is excited by the
current in order to produce the magnetic flux. The production of the
useful magnetic flux with the application of electric current to the field

## windings is generally known as excitation. Generally two types of

excitation are possible in a dc machine, they are
(i)
(ii)

## Separately excited dc machine

Self excited dc machine

## 1) SEPARATELY EXCITED DC MACHINE

In this method of excitation, the field winding is energized or
excited by a separate dc source. With the application of separate dc
source, the field coils are energized and produce magnetic flux. This
type of excitation is known as separate excitation.
2) SELF EXCITED DC MACHINE
In this method of excitation, the field coils or windings are excited
by the machine itself. So, the excitation of filed winding by machine
itself is to produce magnetic flux is known as self excitation.
The dc machines are distinguished according to the connection of field
and armature winding. The main types of dc machines classified on
excitation are :1)
2)
3)
4)

## Separately excited generator

Series generator
Shunt generator
Compound generator

1) Separately excited dc generators: As we have discussed earlier that in separate excitation, the
field winding is energized by a separate dc source which
produces magnetic flux. The connection diagram for separately
excited dc generators is shown below.

In the diagram,

I f =field current

## V t =terminal voltage ( armature )

2) SERIES GENERATOR
In series generator, principal of operation is based on self
excitation method. The circuit for series generators is shown below.

I a=armature current
I se=series field current
Rse =series field winding

V t =Terminal voltage

## In series generators, the field windings are in series with the

armature windings. The operation of series generator is based on the
armature current which flows through the series field winding and then
magnetic flux is produced. Since the armature current is large, series
field winding consist a few turns of wire of large cross sectional area.
3) SHUNT GENERATORS
The shunt generator is also self excited dc machine. In this
type of machine, field winding is connected in parallel to the armature
winding. The connection diagram is as shown.

## The shunt field is made of large number of turns of fine wire as it

receives the full output voltage (since it is connected in parallel) and
small field winding current.
Rsh=Resistance of shunt field winding
I sh =shunt field current
V t =Terminal voltage
I a= Armaturecurrent

4) COMPOUND GENERATOR
This is also a self excited dc machine in which, the machine

## itself excites the field winding. In compound generation, both the

series and parallel field windings are connected across the armature.
Thus, the machine having both series and field winding is known as
compound generators. There are two types of connections possible in
compound generators. They are:a) Short shunt compound generators
b) Long shunt compound generators
The connection diagram is as shown:-

## In short shunt, the shunt field is connected in parallel with the

armature. Whereas, in long shunt compound generator, both series
and shunt fields are parallel with the armature.
I a=armature current
I sh =shunt field current
I se=series field current
Rsh=shunt field winding
Rse =series field winding
V t =terminal voltage

## CHARACTERISTICS OF DIFFERENT GENERATORS

At no load, the generated emf is
EG N
EG =KN

K = constant of proportionality
= magnetic flux
N = Speed of rotation in RPM
EG

## depends directly in the flux which is produced by the ampere

turns of the field coils when speed is constant. Since the number of
turns is constant, the flux depends only on the field current.
When
Eg

I f =0

## appears. This is due to the effect of residual magnetism. When

the field current increases, the generated emf also increases linearly
upto the knee of the magnetization curves. After the knee point is
achieved, increase in

If

## So we can conclude that, a large increase in field current is

required to obtain desired increase in voltage above the knee point or
saturation region. The magnetization curve for a separately excited dc
machine is drawn below.

In the above curve, the curve does not start from the origin, but from a
little above on the y axis due to residual magnetism.
________________________________________________________________________
________________________
Voltage build up process (Nov/Dec 2006, KU)
Before loading a shunt generator, it is allowed to build up its
voltage. Usually, there is always present some residual magnetism in
its poles, hence a small emf is produced initially. This emf circulates a
small current in the field circuit which increases the pole flux (provided
field circuit is properly connected to armature, otherwise this current
may wipe off the residual magnetism). When flux is increased,
generated emf is increased which further increases the flux and so on.
This is known as voltage build up process.
________________________________________________________________________
____________________

a) SEPARATELY EXCITED DC GENERATOR

## Generally the terminal voltage decreases when the armature

winding resistance increases and the expression is given as
V t =EGI a Ra
V t =Terminal Voltage
I a= Armaturecurrent ( load current )

## Another factor for decrease in terminal voltage is armature

reaction (discussed later on). Due to this, the field flux decreases and
gets distorted, which ultimately results in decrease of terminal voltage.

Above figure shows circuit diagram for series generator with load.

## In series generator (remember that the armature and field

winding are connected in series here, so current flows through both
and voltage drop is created in both the windings), when the load is
connected, there is a voltage drop in the field and armature winding.
The voltage drop in series generator with application of load is given
by expression.
V t =EGI a ( R A + R S )
V t =terminal voltage
I a= Armaturecurrent
Ra= Armature resistance
RS =series field resistance

## The load characteristics of dc series generator can be shown as below.

c) DC COMPOUND GENERATOR
In dc compound generator, the shunt field and series field is connected
in parallel with the armature. When the load is connected across the
armature, the voltage drop appears in series, shunt and armature

I R
winding ( A A ) . This voltage drop appears due to weakened flux and

## distortion of flux path from the original.

The load characteristic of dc compound generator is shown
below.

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_______
Q. A short shunt compound generator supplies a load current
of 100A at 250 volts. Generator has following winding
resistances. Shunt field = 130 ohms. Armature = 0.1 ohms and
series field = 0.1 ohms. Find the emf generated if the brush
drop is 1V per brush. [June 2007, KU]
Series drop I a R se=
I sh =

250+ 10 260
=
=2 A
130
130

100(0.1) = 10V
I a=I L + I sh =102 A

## 250 V + 10V +2 V +120 ( 0.1 V )=274 V

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_______
Q. Explain the terms critical resistance and critical speed as
applied to dc shunt generator. [Dec 2008 KU]

________________________________________________________________________
____________
The critical resistance is the slope of critical resistance line.
ie. , RC =

E DE
=
=tan
I f CD

NC

## . We know that E N . As speed decreases, the induced emf decreases

and we get O.C.C. below the O.C.C. at normal speed. If we go on
reducing the speed, at a particular speed we will get O.C.C. just
tangential to normal field resistance line.
Thus the speed at which the machine just excites for the given
critical field resistance is called the critical speed of a shunt
generator denoted as

NC .

## It is known that as speed changes, the OCC also changes,

similarly for different shunt field resistances, the corresponding lines
are also different.
As discussed earlier, the speed for which the given field resistance acts
as critical resistance is called the critical speed, denoted as
Thus if the line is drawn representing given

Rsh

NC

then OCC

drawn for such a speed to which this line is tangential to the initial
portion represents the critical speed

NC

________________________________________________________________________
_______________________
Q. Conditions in which a self excited d.c generator fails to
build up voltage [June 2009, KU]
A.
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)
(v)
(vi)

## Residual magnetism may not be there in the poles.

Direction of rotation may be wrong
Field resistance may be more than critical resistance
There may be disconnection in field winding.
Brush contact may be poor.
The field coils may be connected with the armature to
oppose the EMF due to residual magnetism

________________________________________________________________________
_______________________
APPLICATIONS OF DC GENERATORS
1. SEPARATELY EXCITED GENERATORS:
(i)

## The separately excited generators are usually more

expensive than self excited generators as they require a
separate source of supply. Consequently they are generally
used where self excited generators are relatively
unsatisfactory. These are used in Warn Leonard speed
control systems as self excitation would be unsuitable at
lower voltages.

(ii)

## These generators are also used where quick & requisite

response to control is important (as separate excitation
gives quicker and more precise response to changes in
resistance of field circuit).

2. SHUNT GENERATORS
(i) These generators are used as exciters for supplying current
required to excite fields of AC generators.
ii) Used to charge batteries
iii) In lathes, fans, pumps disc and band saw drive requiring
moderate torques.
SERIES GENERATORS
i)
ii)
iii)
iv)

## Series arc lighting

Series incandescent lighting
As series booster for increasing voltage across feeder carrying
current furnished by some other sources
Supplying field current for regenerative braking of DC
locomotives.

COMPOUND GENERATORS
i)
ii)
iii)

## Used to supply power to railway circuits, motors of electrified

steam rail roads, industrial motors, elevator motors.
As arc welding generators
Rolling mills and other loads requiring large momentary
toques.

## LOSSES IN DC MACHINE (Nov/Dec 2007, KU)

The losses in a d.c. machine (generator or motor) may be divided
into three classes viz (i) copper losses (ii) iron or core losses and (iii)
mechanical losses. All these losses appear as heat and thus raise the
temperature of the machine. They also lower the efficiency of the
machine.

1. Copper losses
These losses occur due to currents in the various windings of the
machine

Note. There is also brush contact loss due to brush contact resistance
(i.e., resistance between the surface of brush and surface of
commutator). This loss is generally included in armature copper loss.
2. Iron or Core losses
These losses occur in the armature of a d.c. machine and are due to
the rotation of armature in the magnetic field of the poles. They are of
two types viz., (i) hysteresis loss (ii) eddy current loss.
(i) Hysteresis loss

Hysteresis loss occurs in the armature of the d.c. machine since any
given part of the armature is subjected to magnetic field reversals as it
passes under successive poles. Fig. shows an armature rotating in twopole machine. Consider a small piece ab of the armature. When the
piece ab is under N-pole, the magnetic lines pass from a to b. Half a
revolution later, the same piece of iron is under S-pole and magnetic
lines pass from b to a so that magnetism in the iron is reversed. In
order to reverse continuously the molecular magnets in the armature
core, some amount of power has to be spent which is called hysteresis
loss. It is given by Steinmetz formula. This formula is

## In order to reduce this loss in a d.c. machine, armature core is made of

such materials which have a low value of Steinmetz hysteresis coefficient e.g., silicon steel.

## (ii) Eddy current loss

In addition to the voltages induced in the armature conductors, there
are also voltages induced in the armature core. These voltages
produce circulating currents in the armature core as shown in Fig1.
These are called eddy currents and power loss due to their flow is
called eddy current loss. The eddy current loss appears as heat which
raises the temperature of the machine and lowers its efficiency.
Core resistance can be greatly increased by constructing the core
of thin, roundIf a continuous solid iron core is used, the resistance to
eddy current path will be small due to large cross-sectional area of the
core. Consequently, the magnitude of eddy current and hence eddy

## current loss will be large. The magnitude of eddy current can be

reduced by making core resistance as high as practical. The iron sheets
called laminations [See Fig. 2]. The laminations are insulated from each
other with a coating of varnish. The insulating coating has a high
resistance, so very little current flows from one lamination to the other.
Also,
because each lamination is very thin, the resistance to current flowing
through the width of a lamination is also quite large. Thus laminating a
core increases the core resistance which decreases the eddy current
and hence the eddy current loss.

2 2

## Eddy current loss , Pe =K e B max f t V Watts

K e =constant depending

## on the electrical resistance of core and system of

unit used
B max= Maximum flux density Wb /m

## f = frequency of magnetic reversal in Hz

t = Thickness of lamination in m
3
V = volume of core in m

It may be noted that eddy current loss depends upon the square
of lamination thickness. For this reason, lamination thickness should be
kept as small as possible.

3. Mechanical losses
These losses are due to friction and windage.
(i) friction loss e.g., bearing friction, brush friction etc.
(ii) windage loss i.e., air friction of rotating armature.
These losses depend upon the speed of the machine. But for a given
speed, they are practically constant.
Note. Iron losses and mechanical losses together are called stray
losses.
Constant and Variable Losses
The losses in a d.c. generator (or d.c. motor) may be sub-divided into
(i)constant losses (ii) variable losses.
(i) Constant losses
Those losses in a d.c. generator which remain constant at all loads are
known as
constant losses. The constant losses in a d.c. generator are:
(a) iron losses
(b) mechanical losses
(c) shunt field losses
(ii) Variable losses
Those losses in a d.c. generator which vary with load are called
variable losses.
The variable losses in a d.c. generator are:
a) Copper loss in armature winding
b) Copper loss in series field winding

( I 2a R a )
( I 2se R se )

## Total losses = Constant losses + Variable losses

Note. Field Cu loss is constant for shunt and compound generators.

DC MOTORS
DC motors are seldom used in ordinary applications because all electric
supply companies furnish alternating current However, for special
applications such as in steel mills, mines and electric trains, it is
advantageous to convert alternating current into direct current in order
to use dc motors. The reason is that speed/torque characteristics of dc
motors are much more superior to that of ac motors. Therefore, it is
not surprising to note that for industrial drives, dc motors are as
popular as 3- phase induction motors.
DC Motor Principle:
A machine that converts dc power into mechanical power is known as
a dc motor. Its operation is based on the principle that when a current
carrying conductor is placed in a magnetic field, the conductor
experiences a mechanical force. The direction of this force is given by
Flemings left hand rule and magnitude is given by;
F =BIl newtons
Basically, there is no constructional difference between a dc motor and
a dc generator. The same dc machine can be run as a generator or
motor.
Working of DC Motor:
Consider a part of a multipolar dc motor as shown in Fig. (1).
When the terminals of the motor are connected to an external source
of dc supply:
(i) The field magnets are excited developing alternate N and S poles;
(ii) The armature conductors carry ^currents. All conductors under
Npole carry currents in one direction while all the conductors under Spole carry currents in the opposite direction.
Suppose the conductors under N-pole carry currents into the plane of
the paper and those under S-pole carry currents out of the plane of the
paper as shown in Fig.(1). Since each armature conductor is carrying
current and is placed in the magnetic field, mechanical force acts on it.
Referring to Fig.(1) and applying Flemings left hand rule, it is clear that
force on each conductor is tending to rotate the armature in

## anticlockwise direction. All these forces add together to produce a

driving torque which sets the armature rotating. When the conductor
moves from one side of a brush to the other, the current in that
conductor is reversed and at the same time it comes under the
influence of next pole which is of opposite polarity. Consequently, the
direction of force on the conductor remains the same.

## Significance of Back EMF:

The presence of back emf makes the dc motor a self-regulating
machine i.e., it makes the motor to draw as much armature current as
is just sufficient to develop the torque required by the load. When the
motor is running on no load, small torque is required to overcome the
friction and windage losses. Therefore, the armature current Ia is small
and the back emf is nearly equal to the applied voltage.
If the motor is loaded, the first effect is to cause the armature to
slow down and hence the back emf E falls. The decreased back emf
allows a larger current to flow through the armature and larger current
means increased driving torque. Thus, the driving torque increases as
the motor slows down. The motor will stop slowing
down when the armature current is just sufficient to produce the
increased torque required by the load.
If the load on the motor is decreased, the driving torque is
momentarily in excess of the requirement so that armature is
accelerated. As the armature speed increases, the back emf E also
increases and causes the armature current Ia to decrease. The motor
will stop accelerating when the armature current is just sufficient to
produce the reduced torque required by the load. It follows; therefore,
that back emf in a dc motor regulates the flow of armature current i.e.,
it automatically changes the armature current to meet the load
requirement.

## Voltage and power Equations of DC Motor:

Let in a dc motor,
V = applied voltage
E = back e.m.f.
Ra = armature resistance
Ia = armature current
V=E+IaRa. By multiplying this equation by Ia, we get
2

V =E I a + I a R a

## This is known as power equation of the dc motor.

VIa = electric power supplied to armature (armature input)
EIa = power developed by armature (armature output)
I 2a Ra = electric power wasted in armature (armature Cu loss)

Thus out of the armature input, a small portion (about 5%) is wasted as
a

I a Ra

## power within the armature

Types of DC Motors: Like generators, there are three types of dc
motors
characterized by the connections of field winding in relation to the
armature:
(i) Shunt-wound motor
(ii) Series-wound motor

## (iii) Compound-wound motor

Armature Torque of DC Motor: Consider a pulley of radius r meter
acted upon by a circumferential force of F Newton which causes it to
rotate at N r.p.m.

## Then torque T = F .r Newton-meter (N.m)

Work done by this force in one revolution =Force.distance=F.2 r Joule
Power developed = F .2 r N Joule/second or Watt (N in r.p.s unit)
= (F.r).2N Watt
2 N = Angular velocity in radian/second
Power developed = T. watt or P = T Watt

P=

2 N
.T
60

## Losses in a DC Motor: The losses occurring in a dc motor are the

same
as in a dc generator. These are:
(i) copper losses and Iron losses or magnetic losses
(ii) Mechanical losses
As in a generator, these losses cause (a) an increase of machine
temperature and (b) Reduction in the efficiency of the dc motor.

## The following points may be noted:

(i) Apart from armature Cu loss, field Cu loss and brush contact loss, Cu
losses also occur in interpoles (commutating poles) and compensating
windings. Since these windings carry armature current (Ia),
Loss in interpole winding =

Ia

## x Resistance of interpole winding

2
Loss in compensating winding = I a x Resistance of compensating

winding
(ii) Since dc machines (generators or motors) are generally operated at
constant flux density and constant speed, the iron losses are nearly
constant.
(iii) The mechanical losses (i.e. friction and windage) vary as the cube
of the speed of rotation of the dc machine (generator or motor). Since
dc machines are generally operated at constant speed, mechanical
losses are considered to be constant.
Efficiency of a DC Motor:
Like a dc generator, the efficiency of a dc motor is the ratio of output
power to the input power i.e.
Efficiency , =

output
output
100=
100
input
output +losses

## As for a generator, the efficiency of a dc motor will be maximum when:

Variable losses = Constant losses
Therefore, the efficiency curve of a dc motor is similar in shape to that
of a dc generator.
A - B = Copper losses
B - C = Iron and friction losses
Overall efficiency, c = C/A
Electrical efficiency, e = B/A
Mechanical efficiency, m = C/B

DC Motor Characteristics:

## There are three main types of dc motors:

Shunt motors, series motors and compound motors.
The performance of a dc motor can be judged from its characteristic
curves known as motor characteristics; following are the three
important characteristics of a dc motor:
(i) Torque and Armature current characteristic (Ta/Ia): It is
known as electrical characteristic of the motor.
(ii) Speed and armature current characteristic (N/Ia): It is very
important characteristic as it is often the deciding factor in the
selection of the motor for a particular application.
(iii) Speed and torque characteristic (N/Ta): It is also known as
mechanical characteristic.

## Characteristics of Series Motors

1. Ta/Ia Characteristic:We know that Ta Ia. In this case, as field windings also carry
the armature current, Ia up to the point of magnetic saturation.
Hence, before saturation,
2
Ta Ia and Ta I a

## At light loads, Ia and hence is small. But as Ia increases, Ta

increases as the square of the current. Hence, Ta/Ia curve is a
parabola. After saturation, is almost independent of Ia hence Ta
Ia only. So the characteristic becomes a straight line. The shaft torque
Tsh is less than armature torque due to stray losses. It is shown dotted
in the figure. So we conclude that (prior to magnetic saturation) on
heavy loads, a series motor exerts a torque proportional to the square
of armature current.
Hence, in cases where huge starting torque is required for accelerating
heavy masses quickly as in hoists and electric trains etc., series motors
are used.

N

## Change in E, for various load currents is small and hence may be

neglected for the time being. With increased Ia, also increases.
Hence, speed varies inversely as armature current. When load is
heavy, Ia is large. Hence, speed is low (this decreases E and allows
more armature current to flow). But when load current and hence Ia
falls to a small value, speed becomes dangerously high. Hence, a
series motor should never be started without some mechanical (not
belt-driven) load on it otherwise it may develop excessive speed and
get damaged due to heavy centrifugal forces so produced. It should be
noted that series motor is a variable speed motor.
3. N/Ta or mechanical characteristic:It is found from above that when speed is high, torque is low and viceversa.

## Characteristics of Shunt Motors

1. Ta/Ia Characteristic:Assuming to be practically constant (though at heavy loads,
decreases somewhat due to increased armature reaction) we find that
Ta Ia.

## Hence, the electrical characteristic, is practically a straight line through

the origin. Shaft torque is shown dotted. Since a heavy starting load
will need a heavy starting current, shunt motor should never be started
2. N/Ia Characteristic:
If is assumed constant, then N E. As E is also practically
constant, speed is, for most purposes, constant.

## Both E and decrease with increasing load. However, E

decreases slightly more than so that on the whole, there is some
decrease in speed. The drop varies from 5 to 15% of full-load speed,
being dependent on saturation, armature reaction and brush position.
Hence, the actual speed curve is slightly drooping as shown by the
dotted line in the figure. But, for all practical purposes, shunt motor is
taken as a constant-speed motor. Because there is no appreciable
change in the speed of a shunt motor from no-load to full load, it may
be connected to loads which are totally and suddenly thrown off
without any fear of excessive speed resulting. Due to the constancy of
their speed, shunt motors are suitable for driving shafting, machine
tools, lathes, wood-working machines and for all other purposes where
an approximately constant speed is required.
3. N/Ta Characteristic can be deduced from (1) and (2) above.

Compound Motors:
These motors have both series and shunt windings. If series
excitation helps the shunt excitation i.e. series flux is in the same

## direction; then the motor is said to be cumulatively compounded. If on

the other hand, series field opposes the shunt field, then the motor is
said to be differentially compounded. The characteristics of such
motors lie in between those of shunt and series motors.

## (a) Cumulative-compound Motors: Such machines are used where

likely to be removed totally such as in some types of coal cutting
machines or for driving heavy machine tools which have to take
sudden cuts quite often.
Due to shunt windings, speed will not become excessively high
but due to series windings, it will be able to take heavy loads. In
conjunction with fly-wheel (functioning as load equalizer), it is
employed where there are sudden temporary loads as in rolling mills.
The fly-wheel supplies its stored kinetic energy when motor slows down
due to sudden heavy load. And when due to the removal of load motor
speeds up, it gathers up its kinetic energy. Compound-wound motors
have greatest application with loads that require high starting torques
or pulsating loads (because such motors smooth out the energy
demand required of a pulsating load). They are used to drive electric
shovels, metal-stamping machines, reciprocating pumps, hoists and
compressors etc.

## (b) Differential-compound Motors: Since series field opposes the

shunt field, the flux is decreased as load is applied to the motor. This
results in the motor speed remaining almost constant or even
increasing with increase in load (because,

N Eb /

. Due to this

## reason, there is a decrease in the rate at which the motor torque

increases with load. Such motors are not in common use. But because
they can be designed to give an accurately constant speed under all

## conditions, they find limited application for experimental and research

work. One of the biggest drawback of such a motor is that due to
weakening of flux with increases in load, there is a tendency towards
speed instability and motor running away unless designed properly.

AC Motor
Principles of Operation
The principle of operation for all AC motors relies on the
interaction of a revolving magnetic field created in the stator by AC
current, with an opposing magnetic field either induced on the rotor or
provided by a separate DC current source. The resulting interaction
produces unstable torque, which can be coupled to desired loads
throughout the facility in a convenient manner. Prior to the discussion
of specific types of AC motors, some common terms and principles
must be introduced.

Figure

## Induction Motor : - Circuitry diagram

Slip
It is virtually impossible for the rotor of an AC induction motor to
turn at the same speed as that of the rotating magnetic field. If the
speed of the rotor were the same as that of the stator, no relative
motion between them would exist, and there would be no induced EMF
in the rotor. (Recall from earlier modules that relative motion between
a conductor and a magnetic field is needed to induce a current.)
Without this induced EMF, there would be no interaction of fields to
produce motion. The rotor must, therefore, rotate at some speed less
than that of the stator if relative motion is to exist between the two.
The percentage difference between the speed of the rotor and
the speed of the rotating magnetic field is called slip. The smaller the
percentage, the closer the rotor speed is to the rotating magnetic field
speed. Percent slip can be found by using Equation (1).

N SN R
Slip=
100 (1)
NS

where
NS= synchronous speed (rpm)
NR= rotor speed (rpm)
The speed of the rotating magnetic field or synchronous speed of a
motor can be found by using Equation (2).
NS=

120 f
P

where
N S speed of rotating field ( rpm )
f frequency of rotor current ( Hz )
P total number of poles

Q.
A two pole, 60 Hz AC induction motor has a full load
speed of 3554 rpm. What is the percent slip at full load?
Synchronous speed , N S=

Slip , s=

120 f 120 ( 60 )
=
=3600 rpm
P
2

N SN R
36003554
100 =
100 =1.3
NS
3600

## The torque of an AC induction motor is dependent upon the

strength of the interacting rotor and stator fields and the phase
relationship between them. Torque can be calculated by using Equation
(3).
T =K I R cos R

where
T =torque

K=constant
=stator magnetic flux

I R=rotor current ( A )
cos R= power factor of rotor

## purposes, constant, so that torque is directly proportional to the rotor

current. Rotor current increases in almost direct proportion to slip. The
change in torque with respect to slip (Figure 4) shows that, as slip
increases from zero to -10%, the torque increases linearly. As the load
and slip are increased beyond full-load torque, the torque will reach a
maximum value at about 25% slip. The maximum value of torque is
called the breakdown torque of the motor. If load is increased beyond
this point, the motor will stall and come to a rapid stop. The typical
induction motor breakdown torque varies from 200 to 300% of full load
torque. Starting torque is the value of torque at 100% slip and is
normally 150 to 200% of full-load torque. As the rotor accelerates,
torque will increase to breakdown torque and then decrease to the
value required to carry the load on the motor at a constant speed,
usually between 0-10%.

Figure 4

Torque vs Slip

## Single Phase Induction Motor

The single phase induction motor in its simple form is structurally
the same as a poly phase induction motor having a squirrel cage
rotor, the single phase induction motor has single winding on the stator
which produces stationary mmf in space which is alternating in time.

## Suppose the rotor is at rest and 1 phase supply is given to

stator winding. The current flowing in the stator winding gives rise to
an mmf whose axis is along the winding and it is pulsating in nature. It
varies from positive maximum to zero to negative maximum and this
pulsating mmf induces current in the short circuited rotor of motor

## which results in mmf. The induced current is due to transformer action

and direction of current is such that mmf developed opposes the stator
mmf. Since the torque developed is proportional to sine of angle
between the two mmf, and since the angle is zero, net torque will be
zero and hence rotor remains stationary.

## Consider, the pulsating field being resolved into two revolving

fields of constant magnitude and rotating in opposite directions as in
fig. Each field has a magnitude equal to half the maximum length of
original pulsating phasor.
These component waves rotate in opposite direction at
synchronous speed. The component waves f and b are shown in fig. In
case of 3 phase induction motor, there is only 1 forward magnetic
field and hence torque is developed and so motor is self starting.
But, in single phase induction motor, each of these component
mmf waves produce induction motor action but the corresponding
torques are in opposite direction. When the rotor is at rest, forward and
backward field produce equal and opposite torques and hence no net
torque is developed on the motor. So, the motor remains stationary. If
forward and backward air gap fields remain equal when rotor is
revolving, each of component fields would produce a torque speed
characteristic similar to that of polyphase induction motor with
negligible leakage impedance.
The resultant torque speed characteristic is algebraic sum of
two component curves shows that if motor is started by auxillary
means, it will produce torque in whatever direction it is started.

## When single phase supply is connected to stator, and rotor is

given a push along the forward rotating field, the relative speed
between the rotor and forward rotating field goes on decreasing and
hence magnitude of induced currents also decreases and hence mmf
due to induced current in the rotor decreases and its opposing effect
due to forward rotating field decreases. Thus forward rotating field
becomes stronger as rotor speeds up. For backward rotating field,
relative speed between rotor and backward field increases, as rotor
rotates and so rotor emf increases.
Mathematically ,
T I2
I=I m sin t
2

T =K I m sin t=K I m

( 1cos t )
2

## Starting methods of single phase induction motors

Permanent-split capacitor motor

## One way to solve the single phase problem is to build a 2-phase

motor, deriving 2-phase power from single phase. This requires a
motor with two windings spaced apart 90o electrical, fed with two
phases of current displaced 90o in time. This is called a permanent-split
capacitor motor in Figure below

## This type of motor suffers increased current magnitude and

backward time shift as the motor comes up to speed, with torque
pulsations at full speed. The solution is to keep the capacitor
(impedance) small to minimize losses. The losses are less than for a
shaded pole motor. This motor configuration works well up to 1/4
horsepower (200watt), though, usually applied to smaller motors. The
direction of the motor is easily reversed by switching the capacitor in
series with the other winding. This type of motor can be adapted for
use as a servo motor, described elsewhere is this chapter.
Capacitor-start induction motor
In Figure below a larger capacitor may be used to start a single
phase induction motor via the auxiliary winding if it is switched out by
a centrifugal switch once the motor is up to speed. Moreover, the
auxiliary winding may be many more turns of heavier wire than used in
a resistance split-phase motor to mitigate excessive temperature rise.
The result is that more starting torque is available for heavy loads like
air conditioning compressors. This motor configuration works so well
that it is available in multi-horsepower (multi-kilowatt) sizes.

## Capacitor-run motor induction motor

A variation of the capacitor-start motor (Figure below) is to start
the motor with a relatively large capacitor for high starting torque, but
leave a smaller value capacitor in place after starting to improve
running characteristics while not drawing excessive current. The
additional complexity of the capacitor-run motor is justified for larger
size motors.

## Resistance split-phase motor induction motor

If an auxiliary winding of much fewer turns of smaller wire is
placed at 90o electrical to the main winding, it can start a single phase
induction motor. (Figure below) With lower inductance and higher
resistance, the current will experience less phase shift than the main
winding. About 30o of phase difference may be obtained. This coil
produces a moderate starting torque, which is disconnected by a
centrifugal switch at 3/4 of synchronous speed. This simple (no
capacitor) arrangement serves well for motors up to 1/3 horsepower
(250 watts) driving easily started loads.

This motor has more starting torque than a shaded pole motor
(next section), but not as much as a two phase motor built from the
same parts. The current density in the auxiliary winding is so high
during starting that the consequent rapid temperature rise precludes
frequent restarting or slow starting loads.

Applications
The split phase induction motors are used for fans, blowers,
centrifugal pumps and office equipments. Typical ratings vary from
1/20 to HP; in this range, they are the lowest cost motors available.
The capacitor start motors are used for compressors, pumps,
refrigeration and air conditioning equipments and other hard to start
The capacitor start capacitor run motors are manufactured
in a number of sizes from 1/8 to HP and are used in compressors,
conveyors, pumps and other high torque loads. The permanent split
capacitor motors are manufactured in the range of 1/20 HP to HP
and are used for direct connected fans, blowers, centrifugal pumps and
etc.

The shaded pole motors are used in toys, hair driers, desk fans,

## Three phase induction motor: Working Principle

When three phase supply is given to the three phase stator
winding of the induction motor, a rotating magnetic field is developed
around the stator which rotates at synchronous speed. This rotating
magnetic field passes through the air gap and cuts the rotor
conductors which were stationary. Due to the relative speed between
the stationary rotor conductors and the rotating magnetic field, an emf
is induced in the rotor conductors. As the rotor conductors are short
circuited, current starts flowing through it. And as these current
carrying rotor conductors are placed in the magnetic field produced by
the stator, they experiences a mechanical force i.e. torque which
moves the rotor in the same direction as that of the rotating magnetic
field.
The induction motor can't run at the synchronous speed
because at synchronous speed the induction motor cannot develop any
torque to move the rotor from its stationary position.
The electrical section of the three-phase induction motor consists
of the fixed stator or frame, a three-phase winding supplied from the
three-phase mains and a turning rotor. There is no electrical connection
between the stator and the rotor. The currents in the rotor are induced
via the air gap from the stator side. Stator and rotor are made of highly
magnetizable core sheet providing low eddy current and hysteresis
losses.

Rotating Field
Before discussing how a rotating magnetic field will cause a motor
rotor to turn, we must first find out how a rotating magnetic field is
produced. Figure 1 illustrates a three-phase stator to which a threephase AC current is supplied.
The windings are connected in wye. The two windings in each phase
are wound in the same direction. At any instant in time, the magnetic
field generated by one particular phase will depend on the current
through that phase. If the current through that phase is zero, the
resulting magnetic field is zero. If the current is at a maximum value,

## the resulting field is at a maximum value. Since the currents in the

three windings are 120 out of phase, the magnetic fields produced
will also be 120 out of phase. The three magnetic fields will combine
to produce one field, which will act upon the rotor. In an AC induction
motor, a magnetic field is induced in the rotor opposite in polarity of
the magnetic field in the stator. Therefore, as the magnetic field
rotates in the stator, the rotor also rotates to maintain its alignment
with the stator's magnetic field. The remainder of this chapter's
discussion deals with AC induction motors.

## Figure 1 :- Three-Phase Stator

From one instant to the next, the magnetic fields of each phase
combine to produce a magnetic field whose position shifts through a
certain angle. At the end of one cycle of alternating current, the
magnetic field will have shifted through 360, or one revolution (Figure
2). Since the rotor has an opposing magnetic field induced upon it, it
will also rotate through one revolution.
For purpose of explanation, rotation of the magnetic field is
developed in Figure 2 by "stopping" the field at six selected positions,
or instances. These instances are marked off at 60 intervals on the
sine waves representing the current flowing in the three phases, A, B,
and C. For the following discussion, when the current flow in a phase is
positive, the magnetic field will develop a north pole at the poles
labeled A, B, and C. When the current flow in a phase is negative, the
magnetic field will develop a north pole at the poles labeled A', B', and
C'.

Figure 2

## At point T1, the current in phase C is at its maximum positive

value. At the same instance, the currents in phases A and B are at half
of the maximum negative value. The resulting magnetic field is
established vertically downward, with the maximum field strength
developed across the C phase, between pole C (north) and pole C'
(south). This magnetic field is aided by the weaker fields developed
across phases A and B, with poles A' and B' being north poles and
poles A and B being south poles.

## At Point T2, the current sine waves have rotated through 60

electrical degrees. At this point, the current in phase A has increased
to its maximum negative value. The current in phase B has reversed
direction and is at half of the maximum positive value. Likewise, the
current in phase C has decreased to half of the maximum positive
value. The resulting magnetic field is established downward to the
left, with the maximum field strength developed across the A phase,
between poles A' (north) and A (south). This magnetic field is aided by
the weaker fields developed across phases B and C, with poles B and
C being north poles and poles B' and C' being south poles. Thus, it can
be seen that the magnetic field within the stator of the motor has
physically rotated 60.
At Point T3, the current sine waves have again rotated 60
electrical degrees from the previous point for a total rotation of 120
electrical degrees. At this point, the current in phase B has increased
to its maximum positive value. The current in phase A has decreased
to half of its maximum negative value, while the current in phase C
has reversed direction and is at half of its maximum negative value
also. The resulting magnetic field is established upward to the left,
with the maximum field strength developed across phase B, between
poles B (north) and B' (south). This magnetic field is aided by the
weaker fields developed across phases A and C, with poles A' and C'
being north poles and poles A and C being south poles. Thus, it can be
seen that the magnetic field on the stator has rotated another 60 for
a total rotation of 120.
At Point T4, the current sine waves have rotated 180 electrical
degrees from Point T1 so that the relationship of the phase currents is
identical to Point T1 except that the polarity has reversed. Since
phase C is again at a maximum value, the resulting magnetic field
developed across phase C will be of maximum field strength.
However, with current flow reversed in phase C the magnetic field is
established vertically upward between poles C' (north) and C (south).
As can be seen, the magnetic field has now physically rotated a total
of 180 from the start.
At Point T5, phase A is at its maximum positive value, which
establishes a magnetic field upward to the right. Again, the magnetic
field has physically rotated 60 from the previous point for a total
rotation of 240.
At Point T6, phase B is at its maximum negative value, which will
establish a magnetic field downward to the right. The magnetic field
has again rotated 60 from Point T5 for a total rotation of 300.

## Finally, at Point T7, the current is returned to the same polarity

and values as that of Point T1. Therefore, the magnetic field
established at this instance will be identical to that established at
Point T1. From this discussion it can be seen that for one complete
revolution of the electrical sine wave (360), the magnetic field
developed in the stator of a motor has also rotated one complete
revolution (360). Thus, you can see that by applying three-phase AC
to three windings symmetrically spaced around a stator, a rotating
magnetic field is generated.
When alternating current is applied to the stator windings of an
AC induction motor, a rotating magnetic field is developed. The
rotating magnetic field cuts the bars of the rotor and induces a current
in them due to generator action. The direction of this current flow can
be found using the left-hand rule for generators. This induced current
will produce a magnetic field, opposite in polarity of the stator field,
around the conductors of the rotor, which will try to line up with the
magnetic field of the stator. Since the stator field is rotating
continuously, the rotor cannot line up with, or lock onto, the stator field
and, therefore, must follow behind it.

Module 2
Power devices- power BJT, power MOSFET and IGBT steady state and switching characteristics. Drive
requirements. Design of simple drive circuits for power BJT,
power MOSFET and IGBT. Principle of DC motor control.
Principle of PWM switching control. Two quadrant, four
quadrant converter circuit. Controlled rectifiers. Principle of
phase controlled converter operation. Single phase half wave
and full wave controlled rectifiers with R, RL and battery loads.

Power BJT
As the name Power BJT suggests, these are high power versions
of conventional small signal junction transistors with individual current
ratings of several hundred amperes and voltage ratings of several
hundred volts.
Transistors are current controlled devices i.e. the operation of the
switch is specified by the current input at its control terminal. There is a
minimum threshold current to ensure the proper ON state specified by
the parameter,
h fe=

IC
IB

## When a transistor is used as a controlled switch, the control

current input is provided at the base terminal. The control circuit is
connected between the base and emitter. The power terminals of the
switch are the collector and the emitter.
The figure given below shows an NPN Bipolar junction power
transistor.

## The output characteristic is a plot of the current

switch versus the voltage

V CE

IC

through the

## current. It is necessary to ensure a saturated ON state, by providing

adequate base drive current, for the safe and satisfactory operation of

the switch.
Therefore, the minimum base current to ensure the saturated ON state
is given by
I B=

IC
; h is transistor parameter
h FE FE

## Power transistors switch on and off much faster than thyristors.

They may switch on in less than 1s and turnoff in less than
2s.Therefore power transistors can be used in applications where
frequency is as high as 100kHz.These devices are very delicate. They
fail under certain high voltage and high current conditions. They should
be operated within its specified limits, known as safe operating area
(S0A).
The output characteristics of CE configuration is as shown below

## The characteristics depict the relation between collector

current(IC) and collector to emitter voltage (VCE) for different values of
base current. These characteristics are of npn transistor. These
characteristics have three regions i.e., active region, saturation and cut
off region.
The input characteristics depict the relationship between base
current IB and emitter to base voltage for different values of collector to
emitter voltage VCE.
The input characteristics is shown in the figure below

## The V-I characteristics (output characteristics of power npn transistor is

shown in figure below

## As in the case of lower power BJT, this characteristics depict the

relationship between collector current(IC) and collector to emitter
voltage(VCE) for different values of base current IB.
It is seen that these characteristics have some special features very
different from those for lower power BJT. These features are as follows.
1. For substantial values of collector current, there is maximum value
of collector emitter voltage which the device can sustain; it is denoted
as BVsus in above figure. If IB= 0 the maximum voltage which can be
sustained by the device increases to BV CEO . (The voltage (VCE) when the
base is open circuited).The voltage BVCBO is the breakdown
voltage when the emitter is open circuited.

## 2. The primary breakdown is due to the avalanche breakdown of C-B

junction. In this region the current and the power dissipation can be
very high. Therefore this region should be avoided.
3. In the region marked second breakdown, the C-E voltage decreases
substantially and the collector current is high. This region is due
to thermal runaway. A cumulative process occurs in this region and the
device gets destroyed. In this breakdown, power dissipation is not
uniformly spread over the entire volume of the transistor but is rather
restricted to highly localized areas. Therefore the chances of the device
getting destroyed are high.
4. A quasi saturation (between saturation and active region)region
exists. This region is due to the lightly doped drift collector region.

## Q. The transistor in the circuit has the following data:

V CE ( sat )=1.5V ; h FE=50 ; V BE ( sat ) =1.8V

## a) Determine the minimum value of V necessary to ensure a

satisfactory ON state.
b) Determine total ON state power dissipation in switch and its
break up into collector dissipation and base dissipation.

## a) The ON state current is given by

[(

V V CE ( sat ) ) 1001.5
=
=19.7 A
R
5

The minimum

IB

is given by

19.7 19.7
=
=0.394 A
h FE
50
V =0.394 ( 10 ) +1.8=5.74 V

## b) The collector power dissipation

P1=I C V CE (sat )=19..7 (1.5 )=29.55 W

## The base power dissipation

P2=I B V BE ( sat )=1.8 ( 0.394 )=0.71 W
The total internal power dissipation is given by

P1+ P 2=30.26 W

## Constructional Features of a Power BJT

A power BJT has vertically oriented alternating layers of n type
and p type semiconductor materials as shown in fig.

## The vertical structure is preferred for power transistors because it

maximizes the cross sectional area through which the on state
current flows. Thus, on state resistance and power lass is
minimized.
In order to maintain a large current gain (and hence reduce
base drive current) the emitter doping density is made several
orders of magnitude higher than the base region. The thickness
of the base region is also made as small as possible.
In order to block large voltage during OFF state a lightly doped
collector drift region is introduced between the moderately
doped base region and the heavily doped collector region.
Practical Power transistors have their emitters and bases
interleaved as narrow fingers. This is necessary to prevent
current crowding and consequent second break down.
Switching characteristics of a Power Transistor
In a power electronic circuit the power transistor is usually employed
as a switch i.e. it operates in either cut off (switch OFF) or saturation
(switch ON) regions. However, the operating characteristic of a power
transistor differs significantly from an ideal controlled switch in the
following respects.

## It can conduct only finite amount of current in one direction

when ON
It can block only a finite voltage in one direction.
It has a voltage drop during ON condition
It carries a small leakage current during OFF condition
Switching operation is not instantaneous
It requires non zero control power for switching

## Turn On characteristics of a Power Transistor

Before t = 0, the transistor was in the OFF state. To utilize the
increased break down voltage (VCBO) the base-emitter junction of a
Power Transistor is usually reverse biased during OFF state. So, only
negligible leakage current flows through the transistor. Power loss due
to this leakage current is thus limited. The entire load current flows
through the diode and VCE is clamped approximately to VCC .

## To turn the transistor ON at t = 0, the base biasing voltage V BB

changes to a suitable positive value. Charge redistribution starts at the
base-emitter junction which is similar to charging of a capacitor. The
rising base current that flows during this period is analogic to capacitor
charging current. Finally at t = td the BE junction is forward biased. The
junction voltage and the base current settles down to their steady
state values. During this period, called the Turn ON delay time no

## appreciable collector current flows. The values of iO and VCE remains

essentially at their OFF state levels.
At the end of the delay time (t d ON) the minority carrier density
at the base region quickly approaches its steady state distribution and
the collector current starts rising while the diode current (i d) starts
falling. At t = tdON + tri the collector current becomes equal to the
load current (and id becomes zero) IL. At this point D starts blocking
reverse voltage and VCE becomes unclamped. tri is called the current
rise time of the transistor.
At the end of the current rise time the diode D regains reverse
blocking capacity. The collector voltage V CE which has so far been
clamped to VCC because of the conducting diode D starts falling

towards its saturation voltage VCE (sat). The initial fall of VCE is rapid.
During this period the switching trajectory traverses through the active
region of the output characteristics of the transistor. At the end of this
rapid fall (tfv1) the transistor enters quasi saturation region. The fall
of VCE in the quasi saturation region is considerably slower. At the end
of this slow fall (tfv2) the transistor enters hard saturation region and

## the collector voltage settles down to the saturation voltage level V CE

(sat) corresponding to the load current IL. Turn ON process ends here.
The total turn on time is thus, TSW (ON) = td (ON) + tri + tfv1 + tfv2.

## Turn Off Characteristics of a Power Transistor

During Turn OFF a power transistor makes transition from
saturation to cut off region of operation. Just as in the case of Turn ON,
substantial redistribution of minority charge carriers is involved in the
Turn OFF process. The following waveform shows the turn off

characteristics.

The Turn OFF process starts with the base drive voltage going
negative to a value -VBB. The base-emitter voltage however does not
change from its forward bias value of V BE(sat) immediately, (this is

## due to the excess, minority carriers stored in the base region). A

negative base current starts removing this excess carrier at a rate
determined by the negative base drive voltage and the base drive
resistance. After the storage time of the transistor, the remaining
stored charge in the base becomes insufficient to support the
transistor in the hard saturation region. At this point the transistor
enters quasi saturation region and the collector voltage starts rising
with a small slope. After a further time interval t rv1 the transistor
completes traversing through the quasi saturation region and enters
the active region. The stored charge in the base region at this point is
insufficient to support the full negative base current. VBE starts falling
forward VBB and the negative base current starts reducing. In the
active region, VCE increases rapidly towards VCC and at the end of the
time interval trv2 exceeds it to turn on D. VCE remains clamped at
VCC, thereafter by the conducting diode D. At the end of t rv2 the
stored base charge can no longer support the full load current through
the collector and the collector current starts falling. At the end of the
current fall time tfi the collector current becomes zero and the load
current freewheels through the diode D. Turn OFF process of the
transistor ends at this point. The total Turn OFF time is given by Ts
(OFF) = ts + trv1 + trv2 + tfi.
Power MOSFET
A Power MOSFET is a specific type of metal oxide semiconductor
field-effect transistor (MOSFET) designed to handle significant power
levels. Compared to the other power semiconductor
devices (IGBT, Thyristor...), its main advantages are
high commutation speed and good efficiency at low voltages. It shares
with the IGBT an isolated gate that makes it easy to drive.
Power MOSFETs are voltage controlled majority carrier devices
having three terminals, source (S), gate (G) and drain (D) for low power
high frequency switching applications.
As there is no charge storage mechanism, MOSFET operates at
much higher speed than BJT. To maintain MOSFET in the conducting
state, continuous application of gate to source voltage is required.

Under steady state conditions, gate draws very small current of order
of nano amperes. But, during turn ON and turn OFF it could be
higher due to charging and discharging of gate capacitance.

## Structure of Power MOSFET

Power MOSFETs are of 2 types : (i) depletion MOSFETs (D
MOSFETs) and (ii) enhancement MOSFETs (E MOSFETs)
The following figure shows an n channel D MOSFET which is
formed on a p type silicon substrate, with two heavily doped n+
silicon layers for low resistance connections.

## The gate is insulated from channel by a thin layer of silicon

dioxide. The substrate is connected to source. Voltage

V GS

is applied

V GS

is

## made negative, then electrons in n channel will get repelled and a

depletion region will be created below oxide layer near the gate. This
results in narrowing the effective channel and a higher resistance
results between the drain and source. In this case, device works like an
open switch with very small current flowing between source and drain.

If

## almost zero If V GS is made positive, then the channel width increases

resulting in reduction in

R DS

## Steady State model of Power MOSFET

Fig shows a MOSFET working as a switch. Under steady state
conditions, current input to gate is small. Therefore, as seen from input
side, we can visualize an open circuit. As seen across the drain and
source, we can visualize a voltage controlled current source as in fig.

Power IGBT
INSULATED GATE BIPOLAR TRANSISTORS (IGBTs)
Like the power MOSFET
It is a voltage controlled switch,
Its switching control requirements are practically the same as for
a power MOSFET.
The switching speeds of IGBTs are higher than those of BJTs
Like the power BJT
Its ON state voltage drop is typically lower than that of a power
MOSFET
The IGBT has no integral reverse diode.
The IGBT has no significant reverse voltaic blocking capability. The
maximum reverse voltage is typically well below 10 V.

## WORKING & STRUCTURE OF IGBT

Fig (a) shows the structure of power IGBT and fig (b) shows its symbol.
The working and structure are similar to that of Power MOSFET.
+
p

over

drainlayer
of
n

+
p

layer
region

## constitutes the collector of IGBT. Emitter in IGBT is identical to the

source in power MOSFET. The switching control voltage for IGBT is
applied across gate an emitter just as done in power MOSFET.
How IGBT works?
Its operation is quite similar to that of power MOSFET. The
difference is that, due to the injection of holes from top
+ zone into n zone ,

## through device in ON state is reduced.

conductivity modulation of n region.

## This effect is called

Fig above, shows the current flow paths in IGBT when positive gate to
emitter control voltage (above threshold value) is applied. When this
voltage is applied, it creates an n channel as in fig (a). This channel
connects the

+
n emitter zone of IGBT to middle n region.

+
p

zone, middle n
+
p

region or the

## collector functions as emitter of this pnp transistor. The middle n

region constitutes the base of the pnp transistor. The circuit model on
this theory is shown in fig (b).

## Fig a shows the steady state output characteristics of an IGBT

near the saturation region showing BJT like characteristics. Modern
IGBTs use trench gate technology to reduce ON state drop further
inorder to reduce their ON state power loss. The device doesnt show
any second breakdown characteristics like a BJT. It has a square SOA
which is limited thermally like a MOSFET due to its positive
temperature co efficient. So, an IGBT converter can be designed with
or without a snubber. Fig b shows steady state transfer
characteristics which is plot of

IC

SWITCHING CHARACTERISTICS

v/s V .

## Switching chara of IGBT for a typically highly inductive load is

shown in fig above. This is similar to that of MOSFET. Turn ON delay
time t d is time required for gate emitter capacitance to charge to
threshold level

VT

## time V CE drops from steady state value

collector current

iC

V CE
IC

## to 0.9 V CE and the

where

IC

is the

steady state value. Rise time t r is the time required for i C to rise
from 0.1

IC

from 0.9 V CE
t ON =t d +t r

IC

v CE

drops

state value

VVT

## capacitance . During this time interval,

required for iC to fall from 0.9 I C
0.2

IC

IC

to 0.1

t OFF =t S +t f 1 +t f 2

, it is

tf 2

iC

falls from

to 0.2 I C

i C 0.9 i C .

Time

## Principle of PWM switching

PWM Modulation
PWM, or Pulse Width Modulation is a powerful way of controlling
analog circuits and systems, using the digital outputs of
microprocessors. Defining the term, we can say that PWM is the way
we control a digital signal simulating an analog one, by means of
altering its state and frequency of this.
The PWM signal
This is how a PWM signal would look like:

## The square wave

The PWM is actually a square wave modulated. This modulation
infects on the frequency (clock cycle) and the duty cycle of the signal.

## Both of those parameters will be explained in details later but keep in

mind that a PWM signal is characterized from the duty clock and the
duty cycle. The amplitude of the signal remains stable during time
(except of course from the rising and falling ramps). The clock cycle is
measured in Hz and the duty cycle is measured in hundred percent
(%).
Clock cycle and Duty cycle parameters
These are the basic parameters that characterize a PWM signal.
The first parameter, the clock cycle, is easy to understand. It is the
frequency of the signal measured in Hz.
The other parameter has to do with the switching time of the
signal. Take a look in the following three signals:

## All three signals shown above are square wave oscillations

modulated as per their oscillation width, so called "duty cycle". They
have the same frequency (t1), but they differ on the width of the
positive state (t2). The duty cycle is the percentage of the positive
state compared to the period of the signal. So:
Period (T) =

1
Frequency (F)

A 10% duty cycle means that the positive stated remains positive
for 10% of the period of the signal.
Example:

## Suppose that the above signals have a frequency of 1000Hz. This

means that their period is 1/1000 =>
T = 0.001 Sec => T = 1mSec
The first signal has 10% duty cycle. This means that during one
full period, it remains positive for 10% of the total period:

t2 =

10 x T
100

## And this comes to t2 = 0.1mSec. In the first example, the

positive state will remain for 0.1 mSec.
With the same way we can calculate the t2 (positive state) of the
other two signals:

Signal 2, 40%:
t2 = 40 x 1mSec / 100 = 0.4 mSec
Signal 3, 90%:
t2 = 90 x 1mSec / 100 = 0.9 mSec
Usage of the PWM
Voltage and power control
One of the most popular usages of PWM is the control of voltage
delivered to loads. Those loads could be for example an LED which
would utilize a LED dimmer, or a motor that could be a simple DC
motor and would be converted into a controlled speed DC motor, as
used for example in the modern PC motherboard fans. But how can
PWM control the voltage?

The idea is simple. A PWM signal with 100% duty cycle would
deliver 100% of the voltage. It would be like a DC power supply. But by
altering the duty cycle, the result is to reduce the area of the power
delivered to the load as shown below:

The total power delivered to the connected load each time, is the
area under the positive state of the PWM (the drawn area shown on the
above drawing). It is clearly seen that by altering the duty cycle, we
can alter the power delivered by the supply. And because the wave
form is a square wave, the power supplied each time is calculated by:
PDELIVERED = PSUPPLIED x Duty Cycle
Suppose now that the frequency is high, and at the output of the
PWM generator a capacitor is connected like the following schematic:

Following, you can see the resulting output voltage, when the
above circuits operates with duty cycle 10% (left waveforms) and with
90% (right waveforms)

## The above example is the principal of the operation for the

switching power supplies.

## Two quadrant Operation of Phase Controlled Converter

An operation with particular value of dc voltage and dc current
can be located on the graph using respective axes for these two
quantities. The horizontal axis for +ve dc current and vertical axis for
+ve dc voltage are used. On basis of reference polarity for voltage and
reference direction of current, all operating points in rectification mode
will be located in first quadrant quadrant for positive voltage and +ve
current as shown below.

For inversion mode, all operating points will be in the 4th quadrant
the quadrant for +ve current, but negative voltage. The control
circuit for a phase controlled converter can be designed to operate in
both modes, and to facilitate changeover from 1 mode to other. Such a
converter is known as two quadrant converter.
An example of 2 quadrant phase controlled converter is in the
area of bulk power HVDC transmission. It is more economical to use dc
at high voltage to interconnect 2 ac power systems and transmit power
from 1 system to other.
Fig shows block diagram of main features of HVDC link between 2
ac power networks, labeled British and French power grid. The 3
terminals labeled

R1 ,Y 1B1

R2 ,Y 2 B2

## of ac network of French power grid. The inductance L outside the

converter block absorbs the ripple.
The block labeled converter at British power grid and
converter at French power grid consist of transformers and SCR
bridges. When the power flow is to be from the British power grid
network to the French power grid network, the converter on British side
will be working in rectification mode, i.e., in quadrant 1 and converter
on French side will be working in inversion mode, i.e., in quadrant 4.

## The operating modes of the two converter stations will be reversed

when power flow from the network in France to network in Britain is
reversed.

## Four quadrant Operation of Phase Controlled Converter

A single converter needs the addition of either a change over
contact to reverse the armature connections, or a means of reversing
the field current in order to change the relationship between i)
converter voltage and ii) direction of rotation of motor. It is the
connection of two fully controlled converters back to back across
the load circuit. Such as system is known as dual converter. Both
voltage and current of either polarity are obtained with a dual
converter. In full converters, the direction of current cannot be
reversed because of unidirectional property of the thyristor, but
polarity of the output voltage can be reversed. Thus the full converter
can be operated in first quadrant if firing angle < 90

( both E dc1 , I dc1 positive ) . If firing angle > 90, it can be operated in 4th

Edc 1

is positive and

I dc1

## quadrant, power flows from ac source to dc source and in 4th quadrant,

power flows from dc source to ac source.

## The basic principle of a DC motor is the production of a torque as

a result of the flux interaction between a field produced on the
STATOR (either produced by a permanent magnet, or a field winding)
and the current circulating in the armature windings on the ROTOR.
In order to produce a torque of constant sign, the armature winding
loops are connected to a set of brushes which commutates the
current appropriately in each loop according to their geometric
position. The commutator is a MECHANICAL RECTIFIER. Note that
reversal of either the field current or the armature current results in a
torque in the opposite direction. However, reversal of both fields does
not change the torque direction, hence it can be used as a universal
motor with DC or AC feed if both windings are in series.

## Basic Equations of a DC Machine

Under steady state conditions (assumes all time varying
quantities have a constant average value).
V f =I f R f ( field winding )
E=K V I f ( counter emf Back EMF )
V a=R a I a + E=R a I a + K V I f ( armature voltage )
T e=K t I f I a= A +B+T load ( electrical torque )
Pd =T e ( developed power )

Speed Control
=

V aRa I a
KV I f

## The different speed control methods.

1)

V a ( VoltageControl )

2)

I f ( Field control )

3)

with I f
I a ( ) Demand Torque

For speeds, less than the base/rated speed, the armature current and
field currents are maintained at fixed values (hence constant torque
operation), and the armature voltage controls the speed. For speeds,
higher than the base speed, the armature voltage is maintained at
rated value, and field current is varied to control the speed.

Drive requirements
1) Limits of Speed Range : The range over which the speed
control is necessary for the load, similarly how hard is it to control
the speed and the speed regulator also affects the choice of
motor.
2) The efficiency: The motor efficiency varies as load varies so the
efficiency consideration under variable speed operation affects
the choice of the motor.
3) Braking: The braking requirements from the load point of view.
Easy and effective braking are requirements of a good drive.
4) Starting requirements: The starting torque necessary for the
load, the corresponding starting current drawn by the motor also
affects the selection of drive.
5) Power factor: It is well known that running of motors with low
power factor values is not at all economical. While the pf varies
with the load conditions in same motors. Hence type of load and
running pf of motor are essential considerations while selecting a
drive.

## DRIVE CIRCUITS FOR MOSFET

Low power digital circuits (TTL or CMOS) can be easily used to
directly drive the gate of a power MOSFET. A CMOS based driver
circuit and an open collector TTL based driver circuit are shown in fig.

## There are pulse transformer based driver circuits where the

pulse transformer provides the isolation needed to drive different
MOSFETs and different voltage levels. The size of the transformer
significantly reduces when the operating frequency is high.

## DRIVE CIRCUITS FOR IGBT

Basically, an IGBT is a MOSFET driven power BJT. Thus, the
driver circuits used for MOSFET are applicable for IGBT, too. It includes
fabrictated driver circuits as well as custom built driver circuits.

## DRIVE CIRCUITS FOR BJT

A properly designed base drive circuit improves reliability by
minimizing switching time and switching losses and allows device to
operate in efficient modes. Ideal base current and voltage waveforms
are shown in fig below.

## Initially a high current pulse should superimpose over the normal

turn on base current supplied from a current source. It brings the BJT
rapidly into conduction. Thus it reduces turn on switching time and
switching losses. Instead of simply stopping the input drive base
current, the turn off switching/ transition time can be reduced by
applying a negative base current. Normally, the base drive circuits are
placed as near as possible to the device. So, additional base and
emitter terminals are provided for base drive circuits. It reduces the
length and inductance of connecting wires, minimizes effect of
noise/stray signals and clamps the oscillation in the base drive signal.

Since a high current and high power source is required for driving
base of a power BJT, it is difficult when the emitter is not at ground
potential. When BJTs are connected in bridge configuration, or load is
connected between emitter and ground, then emitter has a floating
potential. Its potential changes from zero to supply voltage and from
supply voltage to zero, when BJT is switched off and switched ON
respectively. Following figure shows a simple base drive circuit for
power BJT.

IC

## ultimately drives main power BJT.

In fig b, a transistor totem pole arrangement is shown which
reduces power dissipation in the base drive circuit. Although this
circuit operates even with unipolar dc power supply, negative voltage
rail speeds up the turn off transition (turn off time reduces).
In fig c, a p channel MOSFET based driver circuit is shown.
BJTs are drived by both unipolar as well as bipolar dc supply voltage.

## The emitter to base breakdown voltage rating specifies the

maximum negative rail voltage. Normally 8 to 6 V is used.

## The principle of phase control operation involves a control of on

off switching which connects an ac supply to a load for controlled
fraction of each cycle. In phase control, power semi conductor
devices like thyristors are turned on by governing the phase angle of
ac wave signal. The thyristor is turned on by applying a short pulse to
its gate and turned off easily by commutation.

## SINGLE PHASE HALF WAVE WITH R LOAD

Conduction angle=-
Performance of Single-phase, half-wave controlled rectifiers
For the positive half cycle of input voltage, the thyristor T1 is forward
biased and when the thyristor is fired at t = , it conducts and the
input voltage appears across the load. When the input voltage goes
negative at t = , the thyristor is reversed biased and it is turned off.
The delay angle , is defined as the time the input voltage starts to go
positive to the time the thyristor is fired.

## SINGLE PHASE FULL WAVE CONVERTER WITH R LOAD

Fig a shows the circuit for a single phase full wave converter with
Thyristors T 1 T 2 are fired simultaneously at angle in positive
half cycle and

T 3 T 4

## Since load is purely resistive, currents goes to 0 at , 2. . Voltage and

current waveform are shown in fig b. Current flow is discontinuous. The
average value of output voltage is simply twice the output voltage of
half wave rectifier with resistance load.

Vm
(1+ cos )

V0
R

## Q. Explain what will happen if a free-wheeling diode is

connected across the load in single phase half wave controlled
rectifier.
The free wheeling diode will remain off till t = since the
However, beyond this point as the load voltage tends to become
negative the free wheeling diode comes into conduction. The load
voltage is clamped to zero there after. As a result

## i) Average load voltage increases

ii) RMS load voltage reduces and hence the load voltage form factor
reduces.
iii) Conduction angle of load current increases as does its average
value. The load current ripple factor reduces.

## SINGLE PHASE HALF WAVE WITH RL LOAD

Thyristor is turned on by gating signal at t = . The load voltage
V0

## at that time becomes equal to source voltage

VS

as in diagram.

But, due to load inductance, current rises from zero gradually at time
of triggering. After some time

I0

## begins to decrease. Though load voltage is sinusoidal, load current is

non sinusoidal. At t = ,

I0

I0

## reduces to 0 and SCR is

turned off and so, it is reverse biased by supply voltage. During period
between t = and t= , magnetic energy stored in inductor is
delivered back to supply. After t= ,
when SCR is triggered again,

V0

V 0=0I 0=0

. At t=2 + ,

current flow.
=

## From graph it is seen that load current is zero at t = , firing

angle and t = , the extinction angle. Instantaneous value of load
current is given by
I0 =

)]

VM
R
sin ( t ) sin ( ) exp
( t ) ; for <t <
Z
L

where Z= R2 + ( L )2=tan 1

( LR )

V 0=

1
V sin t dt
2 m

V 0=

Vm
( cos cos )
2

Average
I0 =

V 0 Vm
=
( cos cos )
R 2 R

## With Free wheeling diode

With highly inductive loads, thyristor tends to conduct
continuously bringing in the need for triggering. This means that the
trigger circuit has lost control over the thyristor since it is conducting.
This situation is overcome if thyristor is forcibly turned off at instants
when t = , 2, 3, . . . This is achieved by connecting a proper diode
of proper rating across load as shown in fig.
At t = , source voltage

VS

## is zero and just after that instant,

it tends to reverse, forward biasing the free wheeling diode. Thus, the
diode begins to conduct at t = and permits the application of a
reverse voltage across the conducting thyristor. Simultaneously,
current carried by thyristor is transferred to diode thus, reducing SCR
current to zero. This ensures turn off of thyristor. The diode
connected across the load is referred to as free wheeling diode (FD).
The load current decays during free wheeling period, but it is
assumed that the current does not become zero at 2 + , the next
instant of triggering. The voltage across load is the supply voltage
when thyristor is conducting and it is almost zero when free wheeling
diode is ON. This means that load voltage does not reverse at any
instant of time during the operation.
Average val ue of load voltage=V 0 =

Vm
( 1+cos )
2

## Two modes of operation are specified in this circuit.

One mode, is the conduction mode when the thyristor is ON and power
flow is from supply to load. There is another mode, called freewheeling
mode, in which energy stored in inductor is delivered to load resistance
through the circulating free wheeling diode current. This in contrast
to the stored energy in the inductor returning to the source as
observed in single phase half wave circuit feeding simple RL load.
Therefore, it may be concluded that the power delivered to the RL load
with a free wheeling diode is more for a given firing angle.
1) The load current waveform is improved
2) The input pf is increased as the energy stored in inductor is
3) The gate is permitted to have control over thyristor

## The output waveforms depends on value of inductance L and firing

angle . If inductance value is large, output current will be continuous.
SCRs T 1

and T 2

and T 4 are

reverse biases

T1

and

T2

## shifts from pair T 1 T 2 pair T 3T 4 . If value of inductance is very large,

then output current will be constant and ripple free.
Thyristor

T 1 T 2

## from + to 2 + and so on.

The waveforms are as shown below.

T3

and

T4

V 0=

2
2

V m sin t dt=

V0

is given by

2V m
cos

shown below.

Vm
cos

## SINGLE PHASE HALF WAVE WITH RLE LOAD

Figure shows half wave controlled rectifier with RLE load.

## The emf E may be battery source or back emf of dc motor. Presence of

a voltage source in the load tends to reverse bias the non conducting
SCR during period t = 0 to t = C . Here C is the critical angle
which is the minimum angle of delay for thyristor turn on.
C =sin1

E
Vm

Vm

## Load current becomes pulsating during presence of emf E. The

load voltage is equal to supply voltage when thyristor is in conducting
state and it is equal to E when thyristor is OFF. Following figure shows
waveforms.

## SINGLE PHASE FULL WAVE WITH RLE LOAD

The following figure shows the circuit.

Thyristor pair
T3 , T 4

T1 , T2

I0

continuous. When

T1 , T2

supply voltage

V ba=V ab

## Average value of output voltage = V 0 .

V 0=

2V m
cos

Module 3
Basic configurations of switched mode inverter-principle
of PWM switching schemes for square wave and sine wave
output. Single phase inverters-half Bridge, full bridge and push
pull inverter, voltage source inverter. Block diagram of UPS
Induction motor drives Speed control by varying stator
frequency and voltage. Principle of vector control. Comparison
of vector control and scalar control. Voltage source inverter
driven induction motor, application of PWM for induction motor
drive.

## PULSE WIDTH MODULATION

A popular drive configuration consists of a VSI operating on the
PWM concept inorder to economize on power semiconductor switching
stages. The operating principle consists of chopping the basic inverter
square wave output voltage in fig below inorder to control fundamental
frequency voltages.

## In simplest form, a saw tooth wave is used to modulate the

chops as in fig. The saw tooth has a frequency which is a multiple of
three times the sine wave frequency, allowing symmetrical three
phase voltages to be generated from a three phase sine wave set
and one saw tooth waveform. This method controls line to line
voltage from zero to full voltage by increasing magnitude of saw tooth
or sine wave signal, with little notice to harmonics being generated.
The most important areas of voltage in spectrum, apart from
fundamental occur at carrier or saw tooth frequency and its two
sidebands, and to a significant extent at each multiple of these
frequencies in the spectrum. When carrier frequency is at six times the
fundamental frequencies, the triple harmonics cancel in the system;
however, phase waveforms of fig shown dont have half wave
symmetry, hence even harmonics are present.

## Single phase half bridge

INVERTERS

The inverter provides a.c. load voltage from a d.c. voltage source.
The semiconductor switches can be BJTs, thyristors, Mosfets, IGBTs
etc. The choice of power switch will depend on rating
requirements and ease with which the device can be turned on
and off.
A single-phase inverter will contain two or four power
switches arranged in half-bridge or full-bridge topologies. Halfbridges have the maximum a.c. voltage limited to half the value
of the full d.c. source voltage and may need a centre tapped
source. Full-bridges have the full d.c. source voltage as the
maximum a.c. voltage. Where the d.c. source voltage is low, e.g.
12V or 24V, the voltage drop across the conducting power
switches is significant and should be taken into account both in
calculation and in selection of the switch.
The a.c. load voltage of the inverter is essentially a square
wave, but pulse- width-modulation methods can be used to
reduce the harmonics and produce a quasi-sine wave. If higher a.c.
voltages than the d.c. source voltage are required, then the inverter
will require a step-up transformer. The output frequency of the
inverter is controlled by the rate at which the switches are
turned on and off, in other words by the pulse repetition frequency
of the base, or gate, driver circuit. Thyristors would only be used
in very high power inverters, since on the source side there is no
voltage zero, and a forced commutation circuit would be required
to turn the thyristor off.
The main objective of static power converters is to produce an ac
output waveform from a dc power supply. These are the types of
waveforms required in adjustable speed drives (ASDs), uninterruptible
power supplies (UPS), static var compensators, active filters, flexible ac
transmission systems (FACTS), and voltage compensators, which are
only a few applications. For sinusoidal ac outputs, the magnitude,
frequency, and phase should be controllable. According to the type of
ac output waveform, these topologies can be considered as voltage
source inverters (VSIs), where the independently controlled ac output
is a voltage waveform. These structures are the most widely used

## because they naturally behave as voltage sources as required by many

industrial applications, such as adjustable speed drives (ASDs), which
are the most popular application of inverters. Similarly, these
topologies can be found as current source inverters (CSIs), where the
independently controlled ac output is a current waveform. These
structures are still widely used in medium-voltage industrial
applications, where high-quality voltage waveforms are required.

## Single-Phase Voltage Source

Inverters
Single-phase voltage source inverters (VSIs) can be found as halfbridge and full-bridge topologies. Although the power range they cover
is the low one, they are widely used in power supplies, single-phase
UPSs, and currently to form elaborate high-power static power
topologies.

Half-Bridge VSI
Figure shows the power topology of a half-bridge VSI,where two large
capacitors are required to provide a neutralpoint N, such that each
capacitor maintains a constant voltage

Vi

/2.

## Because the current harmonics injected by the operation of the

inverter are low-order harmonics, a set of large capacitors (C+ and C-)
is required. It is clear that both switches S+ and S- cannot be on
simultaneously because a short circuit across the dc link voltage
source V i would be produced. There are two defined switch states
(states 1 and 2) and one undefined (state 3) switch state as shown in
Table below.

In order to avoid the short circuit across the dc bus and the
undefined ac output voltage condition, the modulating technique
should always ensure that at any instant either the top or the bottom
switch of the inverter leg is on.

## Figure shows the ideal waveforms associated with the half-bridge

inverter shown in Fig. . The states for the switches S+ and S- are
defined by the modulating technique, which in this case is a carrierbased PWM.

Full-Bridge VSI
Figure shows the power topology of a full-bridge VSI.

## This inverter is similar to the half-bridge inverter; however, a second

leg provides the neutral point to the load. As expected, both switches
S1+ and S1- (or S2+ and S2-) cannot be on simultaneously because a
short circuit across the dc link voltage source

Vi

would be produced.

There are four defined switch states (states 1, 2, 3, and 4) and one
undefined (state 5) switch states as shown in Table .

## The undefined condition should be avoided so as to be always capable

of defining the ac output voltage. In order to avoid the short circuit
across the dc bus and the undefined ac output voltage condition, the
modulating technique should ensure that either the top or the bottom
switch of each leg is on at any instant. It can be observed that the ac
output voltage can take values up to the dc link value
twice that obtained with half-bridge VSI topologies.

Vi

,which is

## Several modulating techniques have been developed that are

applicable to full-bridge VSIs. Among them are the PWM (bipolar and
unipolar) techniques.

## Fig shows a push pull inverter circuit. It requires a transformer with a

centre tapped primary. Initially we assume that output current of
flows continuously in the circuit. When the switch
is OFF,

T1

i0

T1

i0

is ON and T 2

and

D1

will

## conduct for a negative value of i 0 . So, irrespective of direction of

i 0 , v 0=V d /n ,

## half and secondary windings, as in fig above.

Similarly when T 2

is ON and T 1

is OFF, v 0 =V d /n .

## A push pull inverter can be operated in a PWM or a square

wave mode and waveforms are identical to those for half bridge and
full bridge inverters. The output voltage for figure equals,

(1)
V
V 01=ma . d ( ma 1 )
n

(2)
Vd
4 Vd
, < V 01 <
( ma >1 )
n
n

## In a push pull inverter, peak switch voltage and current ratings

are
V T =2V d ; I T =i 0. peak

________________________________________________________________________
______________________
What is advantage of push pull circuit?
The main advantage is that no more than one switch in series
conducts at any instant of time. This is important, if the dc input to
converter is from a low voltage source like battery, where voltage
drops across more than 1 switch in series will result in significant
energy efficiency reduction. Also, the control drives for the two
switches have a common ground. It is, however difficult to avoid dc
saturation of transformer in push pull inverter.
________________________________________________________________________
______________________
The output current, which is secondary current of transformer, is
slowly varying current at fundamental output frequency. During
switching interval, it can be assumed as a constant. When switching
occurs, current shifts from one half to other half of the primary
winding. This requires very good magnetic coupling between those two
half windings in order to reduce the energy associated with leakage
inductance of the two primary windings. This energy will be dissipated
in the switches or in snubber circuits that are used to protect the
switches. This is a general phenomenon with all inverters with isolation

## where current in one of windings is forced to go to zero with every

switching.
In pulse width modulated push pull inverter, for producing
sinusoidal output, transformer must be designed for fundamental
output frequency. The number of turns will therefore be high compared
to a transformer designed to operate at the switching frequency in a
switch mode dc power supply. This will result in a high transformer
leakage inductance, which is proportional to square of number of turns,
provided all other dimensions are kept constant. This makes it difficult
to operate a sine wave modulated PWM push pull inverter at
switching frequencies higher than approximately 1kHz.

UPS
Basic Concept
The UPS is designed so that there is one source of power, used
under normal conditions, known as primary power source (ac mains)
and secondary source (battery) that comes into action if primary
source is disrupted. It changes from primary source to secondary
source when it detects that the primary source has failed. It
automatically switches back from the secondary power source to
primary when it is detected that primary source has returned to
normal.

The power available from mains is ac. But all batteries provide dc.
So, in an UPS, there should be a circuit to convert ac to dc for battery
charging called converter. Similarly, there is a device converting dc
from battery to ac as required by load. This is called an inverter. These
are the main components of UPS.

Types of UPS
1) ON Line (inverter preferred) UPS
2) OFF Line (Line preferred) UPS
3) Line Interactive UPS

On Line/True UPS

In this type of UPS, there are two power sources and a transfer
switch that selects between them. This type of UPS uses battery as its
primary power source and ac mains power as its secondary power
source.
Under normal operation, the UPS is running out off the battery
while line power runs the battery charger. Rectifier converts ac mains
to dc and inverter converts dc to ac and is given to load. Thus there
are two conversions in this type of UPS and hence its called double
conversion ON line UPS. An inverter is always working in normal
conditions and it is hence called inverter preferred. In fig above, the
dark line shows the normal operation.

If the power goes out, the inverter and load continues to work on
the battery. Only the battery charger fails in such a case. This path is
shown in fig above. The time required by UPS to transfer on battery is
called transfer time which is important characteristics of UPS. But in
ON line UPS, there is no transfer time and UPS instantly switches over
to the battery when mains fail. The load keeps running without any
kind of interruption. Only battery starts run down as there is no line
power to charge it.
The main advantage to the on-line UPS is its ability to provide an
electrical firewall between the incoming utility power and sensitive
electronic equipment. While the standby and line-interactive UPS
merely filter the input utility power, the double-conversion UPS
provides a layer of insulation from power quality problems. It allows
control of output voltage and frequency regardless of input voltage and
frequency.

## Offline/Standby UPS (SPS)

The offline / standby UPS (SPS) offers only the most basic
features, providing surge protection and battery backup. The protected
equipment is normally connected directly to incoming utility power.
When the incoming voltage falls below a predetermined level the SPS
turns on its internal DC-AC inverter circuitry, which is powered from an
internal storage battery. The SPS then mechanically switches the
connected equipment on to its DC-AC inverter output. The switchover
time can be as long as 25 milliseconds depending on the amount of
time it takes the standby UPS to detect the lost utility voltage. The UPS
will be designed to power certain equipment, such as a personal
computer, without any objectionable dip or brownout to that device.

## The line-interactive UPS is similar in operation to a standby UPS,

but with the addition of a multi-tap variable-voltage autotransformer.
This is a special type of transformer that can add or subtract powered
coils of wire, thereby increasing or decreasing the magnetic field and
the output voltage of the transformer.

This type of UPS is able to tolerate continuous undervoltage brownouts and overvoltage surges without consuming the
limited reserve battery power. It instead compensates by automatically
selecting different power taps on the autotransformer. Depending on
the design, changing the autotransformer tap can cause a very brief
output power disruption, which may cause UPSs equipped with a
power-loss alarm to "chirp" for a moment.
This has become popular even in the cheapest UPSs because it
transformer used to convert between line voltage and battery voltage
needs to provide two slightly different turns ratios: one to convert the
battery output voltage (typically a multiple of 12 V) to line voltage, and
a second one to convert the line voltage to a slightly higher battery
charging voltage (such as a multiple of 14 V). Further, it is easier to do
the switching on the line-voltage side of the transformer because of
the lower currents on that side.
To gain the buck/boost feature, all that is required is two separate
switches so that the AC input can be connected to one of the two
primary taps, while the load is connected to the other, thus using the
main transformer's primary windings as an autotransformer. The
battery can still be charged while "bucking" an overvoltage, but while
"boosting" an under-voltage, the transformer output is too low to
charge the batteries.
Autotransformers can be engineered to cover a wide range of
varying input voltages, but this requires more taps and increases
complexity, and expense of the UPS. It is common for the
autotransformer to cover a range only from about 90 V to 140 V for
120 V power, and then switch to battery if the voltage goes much
higher or lower than that range.
In low-voltage conditions the UPS will use more current than
normal so it may need a higher current circuit than a normal device.
For example to power a 1000-watt device at 120 volts, the UPS will

draw 8.32 amperes. If a brownout occurs and the voltage drops to 100
volts, the UPS will draw 10 amperes to compensate. This also works in
reverse, so that in an overvoltage condition, the UPS will need less
current.

## Induction motor drives Speed control by varying stator

frequency
Synchronous speed , N S=

120 f
P

## The expression for the synchronous speed indicates that by

changing the stator frequency also, speed can be changed. This can be
achieved by using power electronic circuits - inverters. Depending on
the type of control scheme of the inverter, the ac generated may be
variable-frequency- fixed -amplitude or variable-frequency - variableamplitude type. Power electronic control achieves smooth variation of
voltage and frequency of the ac output. This when fed to the machine
is capable of running at a controlled speed. However, consider the
equation for the induced emf in the induction machine.
V =4.44 N m f

is the

## peak flux in the air gap and f is the frequency.

Inorder to reduce the speed, frequency has to be reduced. If the
frequency is reduced while the voltage is kept constant, thereby
requiring the amplitude of induced emf to remain the same, flux has to
increase. This is not advisable since the machine likely to enter deep
saturation. If this is to be avoided, then flux level must be maintained
constant which implies that voltage must be reduced along with
frequency. The ratio is held constant in order to maintain the flux level
for maximum torque capability. Actually, it is the voltage across the
magnetizing branch of the exact equivalent circuit that must be
maintained constant, for it is that which determines the induced emf.
Under conditions where the stator voltage drop is negligible compared
the applied voltage, eqn. V =4.44 f m N is valid.
In this mode of operation, the voltage across the magnetizing
inductance in the exact equivalent circuit reduces in amplitude with

## reduction in frequency and so does the inductive reactance. This

implies that the current through the inductance and the flux in the
machine remains constant. The speed torque characteristics at any
frequency may be estimated as before. There is one curve for every
excitation frequency considered corresponding to every value of
synchronous speed. The curves are shown below. It may be seen that
the maximum torque remains constant.

## Stator Voltage Control for controlling speed

Stator Voltage Control of an Induction Motor is used generally for
three purposes (a) to control the speed of the motor (b) to control the
starting and braking behaviour of the motor (c) to maintain optimum
efficiency in the motor when the motor load varies over a large range.
It is simple in hardware and reliable compared to the more complex
Variable Frequency Drives as far as speed control application is
concerned. However, it turns out to be a somewhat dissipative method
of speed control and results in lowered efficiency and rotor over
heating.

## Assume that we have a fixed frequency variable magnitude pure

sine wave source available. Torque at any particular slip is proportional
to (Voltage)2 in an Induction Motor. Fig. 1 below shows the TorqueSpeed curves of an Induction Motor at various voltages assuming
sinusoidal voltage. Also included is the torque-speed curve of a typical
fan load. Note that the torque-speed curves of the Induction Motor
clearly indicates that it is a motor designed for a large running slip.
Otherwise the curves would have been steeper than this around full
load rated speed. It can be clearly seen that the speed of the fan can
be varied more or less uniformly in the range of 80% to 30% of
synchronous speed of the motor by varying the voltage between 100%
to 30%.

## Had the torque-speed curves of the Induction Motor been steep

around synchronous speed (as it is in the case of a well designed
Squirrel cage Motor with a running slip in the range of 2% to 5%) the
possible speed range in the case of a fan load with voltage control
would have been lower than this. The motor will pull out at around 55%
voltage or so. Moreover, even the available speed variation will be
highly non-uniform with the voltage variation. Hence it is necessary
that an Induction Motor intended for speed control applications using
stator voltage control has to be designed with a higher running slip and
higher rotor resistance). Such motors are usually designed with a full

load slip value of 12%. Obviously their rotor must be of special design
in order to withstand the higher rotor losses developed in the rotor.
The range of speed control available by voltage control is a
strong function of nature of load torque variation with load. With a
constant torque load, the available speed range is more limited than in
the case of a fan load and the motor pulls out at voltage levels closer
to 100%. Thus fan loads which have low starting torque demand, pump
loads with little or no static head component in the system curve,
suitable for speed control by voltage variation.

## Principle of vector control. Comparison of vector control

and scalar control
Vector Control (field oriented control) offers more precise
control of ac motors compared to scalar control. So, they are used in
high performance drives where oscillations in air gap flux linkages are
intolerable. eg., robotic actuators, servos, etc. In scalar control, there is
an inbuilt coupling effect because both torque and flux are functions of
voltage or current and frequency. This results in sluggish response and
is prone to instability due to 5th order harmonics. Vector control
decouples these effects.
Scalar Control of ac drives produces good steady state
performance but poor dynamic response. This makes it clear in the
deviation of air gap flux linkages from their set values. This variation
occurs in both magnitude and phase.

## Principle of Vector Control

The induction motor is a singly fed machine, receiving electrical
input from the stator side only. The input current into the stator is
ultimately responsible for creating both the flux in machine and

## current, which together produce the torque. The objective in vector

control of induction motor is to separate out the stator current
component responsible for creating flux and the one responsible for
creating the torque, and control the two independently, in a decoupled
manner, as in a separately excited DC motor.
There are different ways of implementing vector control strategy.
A typcial choice is the reference frame fixed to stator flux linkage spac
vector and oriented in direction of this space vector as reference
direction. Alternatively, it could be a reference frame fixed to rotor flux
linkage space vector and oriented in its direction.

## Voltage source inverter driven induction motor

The variable frequency ac supply can be given to induction motor
for its speed control using voltage source inverter. The VSI has stiff dc
voltage at its input terminals. Due to low internal impedance, terminal
voltage of VSI fairly remains constant with variations in load. If there is
short circuit across its terminals, then it causes current to rise very
fast. This is due to low time constant of its internal impedance. This
fault must be cleared by fast acting fuse links.
There are many VSI circuits which can be used to obtain variable
frequency, variable voltage supply. The speed of induction motor has
to be controlled from ac or dc source. Different configurations are:-

## Voltage source inverter is a type of dc link converter which is a

two stage conversion device. Firstly three phase supply is rectified
using a rectifier on the supply side. This rectified dc is converted to ac
of desired frequency with help of inverter on load side. The
smoothening is achieved with help of inductance in dc link.
The instantaneous voltage at machine terminals is always directly